WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite-based communication lower-cost

  1. Digital, Satellite-Based Aeronautical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite system relays communication between aircraft and stations on ground. System offers better coverage with direct communication between air and ground, costs less and makes possible new communication services. Carries both voice and data. Because many data exchanged between aircraft and ground contain safety-related information, probability of bit errors essential.

  2. Trellis-coded CPM for satellite-based mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamkar, Farrokh; Biglieri, Ezio

    1988-01-01

    Digital transmission for satellite-based land mobile communications is discussed. To satisfy the power and bandwidth limitations imposed on such systems, a combination of trellis coding and continuous-phase modulated signals are considered. Some schemes based on this idea are presented, and their performance is analyzed by computer simulation. The results obtained show that a scheme based on directional detection and Viterbi decoding appears promising for practical applications.

  3. Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, MARC M.; YONEK JR., GEORGE A.

    2001-01-01

    Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access

  4. Potential markets for a satellite-based mobile communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Peet, C. S.; Bengston, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the market needs for improved land mobile communications systems. Within the context of this objective, the following goals were set: (1) characterize the present mobile communications industry; (2) determine the market for an improved system for mobile communications; and (3) define the system requirements as seen from the potential customer's viewpoint. The scope of the study was defined by the following parameters: (1) markets were confined to U.S. and Canada; (2) range of operation generally exceeded 20 miles, but this was not restrictive; (3) the classes of potential users considered included all private sector users, and non-military public sector users; (4) the time span examined was 1975 to 1985; and (5) highly localized users were generally excluded - e.g., taxicabs, and local paging.

  5. Network design consideration of a satellite-based mobile communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.-Y.

    1986-01-01

    Technical considerations for the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X), the ground segment testbed for the low-cost spectral efficient satellite-based mobile communications technologies being developed for the 1990's, are discussed. The Network Management Center contains a flexible resource sharing algorithm, the Demand Assigned Multiple Access scheme, which partitions the satellite transponder bandwidth among voice, data, and request channels. Satellite use of multiple UHF beams permits frequency reuse. The backhaul communications and the Telemetry, Tracking and Control traffic are provided through a single full-coverage SHF beam. Mobile Terminals communicate with the satellite using UHF. All communications including SHF-SHF between Base Stations and/or Gateways, are routed through the satellite. Because MSAT-X is an experimental network, higher level network protocols (which are service-specific) will be developed only to test the operation of the lowest three levels, the physical, data link, and network layers.

  6. Trellis coding with Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) for satellite-based land-mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the final report summarizes the results of our studies on the satellite-based mobile communications project. It includes: a detailed analysis, design, and simulations of trellis coded, full/partial response CPM signals with/without interleaving over various Rician fading channels; analysis and simulation of computational cutoff rates for coherent, noncoherent, and differential detection of CPM signals; optimization of the complete transmission system; analysis and simulation of power spectrum of the CPM signals; design and development of a class of Doppler frequency shift estimators; design and development of a symbol timing recovery circuit; and breadboard implementation of the transmission system. Studies prove the suitability of the CPM system for mobile communications.

  7. Air traffic management system design using satellite based geo-positioning and communications assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkin, Phil

    1995-01-01

    The current FAA and ICAO FANS vision of Air Traffic Management will transition the functions of Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance to satellite based assets in the 21st century. Fundamental to widespread acceptance of this vision is a geo-positioning system that can provide worldwide access with best case differential GPS performance, but without the associated problems. A robust communications capability linking-up aircraft and towers to meet the voice and data requirements is also essential. The current GPS constellation does not provide continuous global coverage with a sufficient number of satellites to meet the precision landing requirements as set by the world community. Periodic loss of the minimum number of satellites in view creates an integrity problem, which prevents GPS from becoming the primary system for navigation. Furthermore, there is reluctance on the part of many countries to depend on assets like GPS and GLONASS which are controlled by military communities. This paper addresses these concerns and provides a system solving the key issues associated with navigation, automatic dependent surveillance, and flexible communications. It contains an independent GPS-like navigation system with 27 satellites providing global coverage with a minimum of six in view at all times. Robust communications is provided by a network of TDMA/FDMA communications payloads contained on these satellites. This network can support simultaneous communications for up to 30,000 links, nearly enough to simultaneously support three times the current global fleet of jumbo air passenger aircraft. All of the required hardware is directly traceable to existing designs.

  8. Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennigbauer, Martin; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Leeb, Walter R.; Baister, Guy; Dreischer, Thomas; Jennewein, Thomas; Neckamm, Gregor; Perdigues, Josep M.; Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton

    2005-09-01

    Feature Issue on Optical Wireless Communications (OWC) We investigate the design and the accommodation of a quantum communication transceiver in an existing classical optical communication terminal on board a satellite. Operation from a low earth orbit (LEO) platform (e.g., the International Space Station) would allow transmission of single photons and pairs of entangled photons to ground stations and hence permit quantum communication applications such as quantum cryptography on a global scale. Integration of a source generating entangled photon pairs and single-photon detection into existing optical terminal designs is feasible. Even more, major subunits of the classical terminals such as those for pointing, acquisition, and tracking as well as those providing the required electronic, thermal, and structural backbone can be adapted so as to meet the quantum communication terminal needs.

  9. Detection of Convective Initiation Using Meteorological Imager Onboard Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite Based on Machine Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangsun Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As convective clouds in Northeast Asia are accompanied by various hazards related with heavy rainfall and thunderstorms, it is very important to detect convective initiation (CI in the region in order to mitigate damage by such hazards. In this study, a novel approach for CI detection using images from Meteorological Imager (MI, a payload of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS, was developed by improving the criteria of the interest fields of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Areas (RDCA derivation algorithm, an official CI detection algorithm for Multi-functional Transport SATellite-2 (MTSAT-2, based on three machine learning approaches—decision trees (DT, random forest (RF, and support vector machines (SVM. CI was defined as clouds within a 16 × 16 km window with the first detection of lightning occurrence at the center. A total of nine interest fields derived from visible, water vapor, and two thermal infrared images of MI obtained 15–75 min before the lightning occurrence were used as input variables for CI detection. RF produced slightly higher performance (probability of detection (POD of 75.5% and false alarm rate (FAR of 46.2% than DT (POD of 70.7% and FAR of 46.6% for detection of CI caused by migrating frontal cyclones and unstable atmosphere. SVM resulted in relatively poor performance with very high FAR ~83.3%. The averaged lead times of CI detection based on the DT and RF models were 36.8 and 37.7 min, respectively. This implies that CI over Northeast Asia can be forecasted ~30–45 min in advance using COMS MI data.

  10. Telehealth and Autism: Treating Challenging Behavior at Lower Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Scott; Wacker, David; Suess, Alyssa; Schieltz, Kelly; Pelzel, Kelly; Kopelman, Todd; Lee, John; Romani, Patrick; Waldron, Debra

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether challenging behavior in young children with autism and other developmental disabilities can be treated successfully at lower cost by using telehealth to train parents to implement applied behavior analysis (ABA). We compared data on the outcomes and costs for implementing evidence-based ABA procedures to reduce problem behavior by using 3 service delivery models: in-home therapy, clinic-based telehealth, and home-based telehealth. Participants were 107 young children diagnosed with autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders, and data analysis focused on the 94 children who completed treatment. All 3 service delivery models demonstrated successful reduction of problem behavior by training parents to conduct functional analysis and functional communication training. The mean percentage reduction in problem behavior was >90% in all 3 groups after treatment, and treatment acceptability based on parent ratings was high for all groups. Total costs for implementing treatment were lowest for home telehealth, but both telehealth models were significantly less costly than in-home therapy. This research demonstrated that parents can use ABA procedures to successfully treat behavior problems associated with autism spectrum disorders regardless of whether treatment is directed by behavior consultants in person or via remote video coaching. Because ABA telehealth can achieve similar outcomes at lower cost compared with in-home therapy, geographic barriers to providing access to ABA for treating problem behavior can be minimized. These findings support the potential for using telehealth to provide research-based behavioral treatment to any family that has access to the Internet. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Utilizing big data to provide better health at lower cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laney K; Pulk, Rebecca; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Evans, Michael A; Parry, Dean

    2018-04-01

    The efficient use of big data in order to provide better health at a lower cost is described. As data become more usable and accessible in healthcare, organizations need to be prepared to use this information to positively impact patient care. In order to be successful, organizations need teams with expertise in informatics and data management that can build new infrastructure and restructure existing infrastructure to support quality and process improvements in real time, such as creating discrete data fields that can be easily retrieved and used to analyze and monitor care delivery. Organizations should use data to monitor performance (e.g., process metrics) as well as the health of their populations (e.g., clinical parameters and health outcomes). Data can be used to prevent hospitalizations, combat opioid abuse and misuse, improve antimicrobial stewardship, and reduce pharmaceutical spending. These examples also serve to highlight lessons learned to better use data to improve health. For example, data can inform and create efficiencies in care and engage and communicate with stakeholders early and often, and collaboration is necessary to have complete data. To truly transform care so that it is delivered in a way that is sustainable, responsible, and patient-centered, health systems need to act on these opportunities, invest in big data, and routinely use big data in the delivery of care. Using data efficiently has the potential to improve the care of our patients and lower cost. Despite early successes, barriers to implementation remain including data acquisition, integration, and usability. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lower cost air measurement technology – what is on the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology. This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology.

  13. Lower Costs, Better Care- Reforming Our Health Care Delivery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act includes tools to improve the quality of health care that can also lower costs for taxpayers and patients. This means avoiding costly...

  14. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor is...

  15. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project''s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies

  16. Lower-Cost ∈-Private Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo Raphael R.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private Information Retrieval (PIR, despite being well studied, is computationally costly and arduous to scale. We explore lower-cost relaxations of information-theoretic PIR, based on dummy queries, sparse vectors, and compositions with an anonymity system. We prove the security of each scheme using a flexible differentially private definition for private queries that can capture notions of imperfect privacy. We show that basic schemes are weak, but some of them can be made arbitrarily safe by composing them with large anonymity systems.

  17. Stochastic Industrial Source Detection Using Lower Cost Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, E.; George, I. J.; Brantley, H.; Deshmukh, P.; Cansler, J.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) can be emitted from a variety of sources in industrial facilities, energy production, and commercial operations. Stochastic industrial sources (SISs) represent a subcategory of emissions from fugitive leaks, variable area sources, malfunctioning processes, and improperly controlled operations. From the shared perspective of industries and communities, cost-effective detection of mitigable SIS emissions can yield benefits such as safer working environments, cost saving through reduced product loss, lower air shed pollutant impacts, and improved transparency and community relations. Methods for SIS detection can be categorized by their spatial regime of operation, ranging from component-level inspection to high-sensitivity kilometer scale surveys. Methods can be temporally intensive (providing snap-shot measures) or sustained in both time-integrated and continuous forms. Each method category has demonstrated utility, however, broad adoption (or routine use) has thus far been limited by cost and implementation viability. Described here are a subset of SIS methods explored by the U.S EPA's next generation emission measurement (NGEM) program that focus on lower cost methods and models. An emerging systems approach that combines multiple forms to help compensate for reduced performance factors of lower cost systems is discussed. A case study of a multi-day HAP emission event observed by a combination of low cost sensors, open-path spectroscopy, and passive samplers is detailed. Early field results of a novel field gas chromatograph coupled with a fast HAP concentration sensor is described. Progress toward near real-time inverse source triangulation assisted by pre-modeled facility profiles using the Los Alamos Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model is discussed.

  18. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs

  19. Leo satellite-based telecommunication network concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, John G.; Swan, Peter A.; Leopold, Ray J.

    1991-01-01

    Design considerations are discussed for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite based telecommunications networks. The satellites are assumed to be connected to each other via intersatellite links. They are connected to the end user either directly or through gateways to other networks. Frequency reuse, circuit switching, packet switching, call handoff, and routing for these systems are discussed by analogy with terrestrial cellular (mobile radio) telecommunication systems.

  20. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  1. Challenges of communication system during emergency disaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... 3.2.3.Satellite-Based Communication. Satellite-based communication is another alternative for communication in the event of disaster. Japan, United States of America and Russia are the countries that have utilised the system to disseminate emergency messages during previous disasters. Satellite-based.

  2. Using satellite-based measurements to explore ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently spatially averaged) measurements of atmospheric conditions to diagnose the occurrence of NPF and NPF characteristics. We demonstrate the potential for using satellite-measurements of insolation (UV), trace gas concentrations (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3)), aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE)), and a proxy of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (leaf area index (LAI), temperature (T)) as predictors for NPF characteristics: formation rates, growth rates, survival probabilities, and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations at five locations across North America. NPF at all sites is most frequent in spring, exhibits a one-day autocorrelation, and is associated with low condensational sink (AOD×AE) and HCHO concentrations, and high UV. However, there are important site-to-site variations in NPF frequency and characteristics, and in which of the predictor variables (particularly gas concentrations) significantly contribute to the explanatory power of regression models built to predict those characteristics. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the reported spatia

  3. Satellite Based Cropland Carbon Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, V.; Jones, C. D.; Sedano, F.; Sahajpal, R.; Jin, H.; Skakun, S.; Pnvr, K.; Kommareddy, A.; Reddy, A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural croplands act as both sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); absorbing CO2 through photosynthesis, releasing CO2 through autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, and sequestering CO2 in vegetation and soils. Part of the carbon captured in vegetation can be transported and utilized elsewhere through the activities of food, fiber, and energy production. As well, a portion of carbon in soils can be exported somewhere else by wind, water, and tillage erosion. Thus, it is important to quantify how land use and land management practices affect the net carbon balance of croplands. To monitor the impacts of various agricultural activities on carbon balance and to develop management strategies to make croplands to behave as net carbon sinks, it is of paramount importance to develop consistent and high resolution cropland carbon flux estimates. Croplands are typically characterized by fine scale heterogeneity; therefore, for accurate carbon flux estimates, it is necessary to account for the contribution of each crop type and their spatial distribution. As part of NASA CMS funded project, a satellite based Cropland Carbon Monitoring System (CCMS) was developed to estimate spatially resolved crop specific carbon fluxes over large regions. This modeling framework uses remote sensing version of Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model and satellite derived crop parameters (e.g. leaf area index (LAI)) to determine vertical and lateral carbon fluxes. The crop type LAI product was developed based on the inversion of PRO-SAIL radiative transfer model and downscaled MODIS reflectance. The crop emergence and harvesting dates were estimated based on MODIS NDVI and crop growing degree days. To evaluate the performance of CCMS framework, it was implemented over croplands of Nebraska, and estimated carbon fluxes for major crops (i.e. corn, soybean, winter wheat, grain sorghum, alfalfa) grown in 2015. Key findings of the CCMS framework will be presented

  4. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed

  5. Validation of an Innovative Satellite-Based UV Dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Marco; Masini, Andrea; Simeone, Emilio; Khazova, Marina

    2016-08-01

    We present an innovative satellite-based UV (ultraviolet) radiation dosimeter with a mobile app interface that has been validated by exploiting both ground-based measurements and an in-vivo assessment of the erythemal effects on some volunteers having a controlled exposure to solar radiation.Both validations showed that the satellite-based UV dosimeter has a good accuracy and reliability needed for health-related applications.The app with this satellite-based UV dosimeter also includes other related functionalities such as the provision of safe sun exposure time updated in real-time and end exposure visual/sound alert. This app will be launched on the global market by siHealth Ltd in May 2016 under the name of "HappySun" and available both for Android and for iOS devices (more info on http://www.happysun.co.uk).Extensive R&D activities are on-going for further improvement of the satellite-based UV dosimeter's accuracy.

  6. Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan; Giulio-Tonolo, Fabio; Lyons, Josh; Kučera, Jan; Jones, Brenda; Schneiderhan, Tobias; Platzeck, Gabriel; Kaku, Kazuya; Hazarika, Manzul Kumar; Czaran, Lorant; Li, Suju; Pedersen, Wendi; James, Godstime Kadiri; Proy, Catherine; Muthike, Denis Macharia; Bequignon, Jerome; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective.

  7. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    variations are clearly visible across the domain; for instance sheltering effects caused by the land masses. The satellite based wind resource maps have two shortcomings. One is the lack of information at the higher vertical levels where wind turbines operate. The other is the limited number of overlapping...... years of WRF data – specifically the parameters heat flux, air temperature, and friction velocity – are used to calculate a long-term correction for atmospheric stability effects. The stability correction is applied to the satellite based wind resource maps together with a vertical wind profile...... from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly suitable for offshore wind energy applications because they offer a spatial resolution up to 500 m and include coastal seas. In this presentation, satellite wind maps are used in combination with mast observations and numerical...

  8. e-Calibrations: using the Internet to deliver calibration services in real time at lower cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, Marc; Nagy, Vitaly; Puhl, James; Glenn, Robert; Densock, Robert; Stieren, David; Lang, Brian; Kamlowski, Andreas; Maier, Diether; Heiss, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is expanding into a new frontier in the delivery of measurement services. The Internet will be employed to provide industry with electronic traceability to national standards. This is a radical departure from the traditional modes of traceability and presents many new challenges. The traditional mail-based calibration service relies on sending artifacts to the user, who then mails them back to NIST for evaluation. The new service will deliver calibration results to the industry customer on-demand, in real-time, at a lower cost. The calibration results can be incorporated rapidly into the production process to ensure the highest quality manufacturing. The service would provide the US radiation processing industry with a direct link to the NIST calibration facilities and its expertise, and provide an interactive feedback process between industrial processing and the national measurement standard. Moreover, an Internet calibration system should contribute to the removal of measurement-related trade barriers

  9. Initial investigation into lower-cost CT for resource limited regions of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, James T., III; Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul; Li, Christina M.; Kigongo, Christopher J. N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an initial investigation into means for producing lower-cost CT scanners for resource limited regions of the world. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, intermediate level medical facilities serving millions have no CT machines, and lack the imaging resources necessary to determine whether certain patients would benefit from being transferred to a hospital in a larger city for further diagnostic workup or treatment. Low-cost CT scanners would potentially be of immense help to the healthcare system in such regions. Such scanners would not produce state-of-theart image quality, but rather would be intended primarily for triaging purposes to determine the patients who would benefit from transfer to larger hospitals. The lower-cost scanner investigated here consists of a fixed digital radiography system and a rotating patient stage. This paper describes initial experiments to determine if such a configuration is feasible. Experiments were conducted using (1) x-ray image acquisition, a physical anthropomorphic chest phantom, and a flat-panel detector system, and (2) a computer-simulated XCAT chest phantom. Both the physical phantom and simulated phantom produced excellent image quality reconstructions when the phantom was perfectly aligned during acquisition, but artifacts were noted when the phantom was displaced to simulate patient motion. An algorithm was developed to correct for motion of the phantom and demonstrated success in correcting for 5-mm motion during 360-degree acquisition of images. These experiments demonstrated feasibility for this approach, but additional work is required to determine the exact limitations produced by patient motion.

  10. Towards triple-A policies. More renewable energy at lower cost. D16 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, M.; De Jager, D.; De Lovinfosse, I. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Breitschopf, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burgers, J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Weoeres, B. [EnergoBanking, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-11-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches.

  11. Detecting adulterants in milk with lower cost mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwon; Wang, Wenbo; Wilson, Benjamin K.; Connett, Marie; Keller, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Adulteration of milk for economic gains is a widespread issue throughout the developing world that can have far-reaching health and nutritional impacts. Milk analysis technologies, such as infrared spectroscopy, can screen for adulteration, but the cost of these technologies has prohibited their use in low resource settings. Recent developments in infrared and Raman spectroscopy hardware have led to commercially available low-cost devices. In this work, we evaluated the performance of two such spectrometers in detecting and quantifying the presence of milk adulterants. Five common adulterants - ammonium sulfate, melamine, sodium bicarbonate, sucrose, and urea, were spiked into five different raw cow and goat milk samples at different concentrations. Collected MIR and Raman spectra were analyzed using partial least squares regression. The limit of detection (LOD) for each adulterant was determined to be in the range of 0.04 to 0.28% (400 to 2800 ppm) using MIR spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed similar LOD's for some of the adulterants, notably those with strong amine group signals, and slightly higher LOD's (up to 1.0%) for other molecules. Overall, the LODs were comparable to other spectroscopic milk analyzers on the market, and they were within the economically relevant concentration range of 100 to 4000 ppm. These lower cost spectroscopic devices therefore appear to hold promise for use in low resource settings.

  12. Assessment of satellite-based precipitation estimates over Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreggioni Weiberlen, Fiorella; Báez Benítez, Julián

    2018-04-01

    Satellite-based precipitation estimates represent a potential alternative source of input data in a plethora of meteorological and hydrological applications, especially in regions characterized by a low density of rain gauge stations. Paraguay provides a good example of a case where the use of satellite-based precipitation could be advantageous. This study aims to evaluate the version 7 of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA V7; 3B42 V7) and the version 1.0 of the purely satellite-based product of the Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH RAW) through their comparison with daily in situ precipitation measurements from 1998 to 2012 over Paraguay. The statistical assessment is conducted with several commonly used indexes. Specifically, to evaluate the accuracy of daily precipitation amounts, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), BIAS, and coefficient of determination (R 2) are used, and to analyze the capability to correctly detect different precipitation intensities, false alarm ratio (FAR), frequency bias index (FBI), and probability of detection (POD) are applied to various rainfall rates (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mm/day). Results indicate that TMPA V7 has a better performance than CMORPH RAW over Paraguay. TMPA V7 has higher accuracy in the estimation of daily rainfall volumes and greater precision in the detection of wet days (> 0 mm/day). However, both satellite products show a lower ability to appropriately detect high intensity precipitation events.

  13. [Surveying a zoological facility through satellite-based geodesy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böer, M; Thien, W; Tölke, D

    2000-06-01

    In the course of a thesis submitted for a diploma degree within the Fachhochschule Oldenburg the Serengeti Safaripark was surveyed in autumn and winter 1996/97 laying in the planning foundations for the application for licences from the controlling authorities. Taking into consideration the special way of keeping animals in the Serengeti Safaripark (game ranching, spacious walk-through-facilities) the intention was to employ the outstanding satellite based geodesy. This technology relies on special aerials receiving signals from 24 satellites which circle around the globe. These data are being gathered and examined. This examination produces the exact position of this aerial in a system of coordinates which allows depicting this point on a map. This procedure was used stationary (from a strictly defined point) as well as in the movement (in a moving car). Additionally conventional procedures were used when the satellite based geodesy came to its limits. Finally a detailed map of the Serengeti Safaripark was created which shows the position and size of stables and enclosures as well as wood and water areas and the sectors of the leisure park. Furthermore the established areas of the enclosures together with an already existing animal databank have flown into an information system with the help of which the stock of animals can be managed enclosure-orientated.

  14. New technologies for lower-cost design and construction of new nuclear power plants. Annex 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Bryan, R.E.; Harmon, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute studies indicate that in order to be competitive with gas-fired electric power plant capital costs, new nuclear plant capital cost in the USA must be decreased by at least 35% to 40% relative to costs of some Advanced Light Water Reactors designed in the early 1990s. To address this need, the U. S. Department of Energy is sponsoring three separate projects under its Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These projects are the Risk-Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants, the Smart Equipment Nuclear Power Plant Program, and the Design, Procure, Construct, Install and Test Program. The goal of the Design-Construction program is reduction of the complete nuclear plant design-procure-construct-install-test cycle schedule and cost. A 3D plant model was combined with a construction schedule to produce a 4D visualization of plant construction, which was then used to analyze plant construction methods. Insights include the need for concurrent engineering, a plant-wide central database, and use of the World-Wide WEB. The goal of Smart Equipment program is to design, develop, and evaluate the methods for implementing smart equipment and predictive maintenance technology. 'Smart' equipment means components and systems that are instrumented and monitored to detect incipient failures in order to improve their reliability. The resulting smart equipment methods will be combined with a more risk-informed regulatory approach to allow plant designers to (1) simplify designs without compromising overall reliability and safety and (2) maintain more reliable plants at lower cost. Initial results show that rotating equipment such as charging pumps would benefit most from smart instrumentation and that the technique of Bayesian Belief Networks would be most appropriate for providing input to a health monitoring system. (author)

  15. A Systems Approach to Lower Cost Missions: Following the Rideshare Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrell, L.

    2009-01-01

    Small-satellite rideshare capabilities and opportunities for low-cost access to space have been evolving over the past 10 years. Small space launch vehicle technology is rapidly being developed and demonstrated, including the Minotaur series and the Space X Falcon, among others, along with the lower cost launch facilities at Alaska's Kodiak Launch Complex, NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, and the Reagan Test Site in the Pacific. Demonstrated capabilities for the launch of multiple payloads have increased (and continue to increase) significantly. This will allow more efficient and cost-effective use of the various launch opportunities, including utilizing the excess capacity of the emerging Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)-based missions. The definition of standardized interfaces and processes, along with various user guides and payload implementation plans, has been developed and continues to be refined. Top-level agency policies for the support of low-cost access to space for small experimental payloads, such as the DoD policy structure on auxiliary payloads, have been defined and provide the basis for the continued refinement and implementation of these evolving technologies. Most importantly, the coordination and cooperative interfaces between the various stakeholders continues to evolve. The degree of this coordination and technical interchange is demonstrated by the wide stakeholder participation at the recent 2008 Small Payload Rideshare Workshop, held at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. This annual workshop has been the major platform for coordination and technical interchange within the rideshare community and with the various sponsoring agencies. These developments have provided the foundation for a robust low-cost small payload rideshare capability. However, the continued evolution, sustainment, and utilization of these capabilities will require continued stakeholder recognition, support, and nourishing. Ongoing, coordinated effort, partnering, and

  16. Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio Satellite Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Sims, Herb

    2015-01-01

    With the explosion of the CubeSat, small sat, and nanosat markets, the need for a robust, highly capable, yet affordable satellite base station, capable of telemetry capture and relay, is significant. The Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) is NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) software-defined digital radio, developed with previous Technology Investment Programs and Technology Transfer Office resources. The current PULSAR will have achieved a Technology Readiness Level-6 by the end of FY 2014. The extensibility of the PULSAR will allow it to be adapted to perform the tasks of a mobile base station capable of commanding, receiving, and processing satellite, rover, or planetary probe data streams with an appropriate antenna.

  17. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  18. Calculation of phase equilibria in Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system for developing lower cost titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.G.; Li, C.H.; Chen, L.Y.; Qiu, A.T.; Ding, W.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper is about the concept of designing the lower cost titanium alloy. → The thermodynamic database of Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system is built up by Calphad method. → The pseudobinary sections with Cr: Mn = 3:1 and Al = 3, 4.5 and 6.0 wt% are calculated. → This may provide the theoretical support for designing the lower cost titanium alloy. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system is a potentially useful system for lower cost titanium alloy development; however, there are few reports about the experimental phase diagrams and the thermodynamical assessment for this system. In this study, the previous investigations for the thermodynamic descriptions of the sub-systems in the Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system are reviewed, our previous assessment for the related sub-systems in this quaternary system is summarized, the thermodynamical database of this quaternary system is built up by directly extrapolating from all sub-systems assessed by means of the Calphad method, then the pseudobinary sections with Cr:Mn = 3:1 and Al = 0.0, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt% are calculated, respectively. These pseudobinary phase diagrams may provide the theoretical support for designing the lower cost titanium alloys with different microstructures (α, α + β, and β titanium alloy).

  19. Industrializing Offshore Wind Power with Serial Assembly and Lower-cost Deployment - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-12-11

    A team of engineers and contractors has developed a method to move offshore wind installation toward lower cost, faster deployment, and lower environmental impact. A combination of methods, some incremental and some breaks from past practice, interact to yield multiple improvements. Three designs were evaluated based on detailed engineering: 1) a 5 MW turbine on a jacket with pin piles (base case), 2) a 10 MW turbine on a conventional jacket with pin piles, assembled at sea, and 3) a 10 MW turbine on tripod jacket with suction buckets (caissons) and with complete turbine assembly on-shore. The larger turbine, assembly ashore, and the use of suction buckets together substantially reduce capital cost of offshore wind projects. Notable capital cost reductions are: changing from 5 MW to 10 MW turbine, a 31% capital cost reduction, and assembly on land then single-piece install at sea an additional 9% capital cost reduction. An estimated Design 4) estimates further cost reduction when equipment and processes of Design 3) are optimized, rather than adapted to existing equipment and process. Cost of energy for each of the four Designs are also calculated, yielding approximately the same percentage reductions. The methods of Design 3) analyzed here include accepted structures such as suction buckets used in new ways, innovations conceived but previously without engineering and economic validation, combined with new methods not previously proposed. Analysis of Designs 2) and 3) are based on extensive engineering calculations and detailed cost estimates. All design methods can be done with existing equipment, including lift equipment, ports and ships (except that design 4 assumes a more optimized ship). The design team consists of experienced offshore structure designers, heavy lift engineers, wind turbine designers, vessel operators, and marine construction contractors. Comparing the methods based on criteria of cost and deployment speed, the study selected the third design

  20. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  1. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  2. Fine-tuning satellite-based rainfall estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsa, Hastuadi; Buono, Agus; Hidayat, Rahmat; Achyar, Jaumil; Noviati, Sri; Kurniawan, Roni; Praja, Alfan S.

    2018-05-01

    Rainfall datasets are available from various sources, including satellite estimates and ground observation. The locations of ground observation scatter sparsely. Therefore, the use of satellite estimates is advantageous, because satellite estimates can provide data on places where the ground observations do not present. However, in general, the satellite estimates data contain bias, since they are product of algorithms that transform the sensors response into rainfall values. Another cause may come from the number of ground observations used by the algorithms as the reference in determining the rainfall values. This paper describe the application of bias correction method to modify the satellite-based dataset by adding a number of ground observation locations that have not been used before by the algorithm. The bias correction was performed by utilizing Quantile Mapping procedure between ground observation data and satellite estimates data. Since Quantile Mapping required mean and standard deviation of both the reference and the being-corrected data, thus the Inverse Distance Weighting scheme was applied beforehand to the mean and standard deviation of the observation data in order to provide a spatial composition of them, which were originally scattered. Therefore, it was possible to provide a reference data point at the same location with that of the satellite estimates. The results show that the new dataset have statistically better representation of the rainfall values recorded by the ground observation than the previous dataset.

  3. Satellite-based Drought Reporting on the Navajo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Ly, V.; Green, R.; McClellan, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Navajo Nation (NN) is the largest reservation in the US, and faces challenges related to water management during long-term and widespread drought episodes. The Navajo Nation is a federally recognized tribe, which has boundaries within Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. The Navajo Nation has a land area of over 70,000 square kilometers. The Navajo Nation Department of Water Resources (NNDWR) reports on drought and climatic conditions through the use of regional Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values and a network of in-situ rainfall, streamflow, and climate data. However, these data sources lack the spatial detail and consistent measurements needed to provide a coherent understanding of the drought regime within the Nation's regional boundaries. This project, as part of NASA's Western Water Applications Office (WWAO), improves upon the recently developed Drought Severity Assessment Tool (DSAT) to ingest satellite-based precipitation data to generate SPI values for specific administrative boundaries within the reservation. The tool aims to: (1) generate SPI values and summary statistics for regions of interest on various timescales, (2) to visualize SPI values within a web-map application, and (3) produce maps and comparative statistical outputs in the format required for annual drought reporting. The co-development of the DSAT with NN partners is integral to increasing the sustained use of Earth Observations for water management applications. This tool will provide data to support the NN in allocation of drought contingency dollars to the regions most adversely impacted by declines in water availability.

  4. Development and validation of satellite based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2015-10-01

    A satellite based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5% for classifying Clear (V ≥ 30 km), Moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  5. Satellite -Based Networks for U-Health & U-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graschew, G.; Roelofs, T. A.; Rakowsky, S.; Schlag, P. M.

    2008-08-01

    The use of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as enabling tools for healthcare services (eHealth) introduces new ways of creating ubiquitous access to high-level medical care for all, anytime and anywhere (uHealth). Satellite communication constitutes one of the most flexible methods of broadband communication offering high reliability and cost-effectiveness of connections meeting telemedicine communication requirements. Global networks and the use of computers for educational purposes stimulate and support the development of virtual universities for e-learning. Especially real-time interactive applications can play an important role in tailored and personalised services.

  6. Dissemination of satellite-based river discharge and flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.; van Praag, E.; de Groeve, T.; Slayback, D. A.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    In collaboration with NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center and the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) daily measures and distributes: 1) river discharges, and 2) near real-time flood extents with a global coverage. Satellite-based passive microwave sensors and hydrological modeling are utilized to establish 'remote-sensing based discharge stations', and observed time series cover 1998 to the present. The advantages over in-situ gauged discharges are: a) easy access to remote or due to political reasons isolated locations, b) relatively low maintenance costs to maintain a continuous observational record, and c) the capability to obtain measurements during floods, hazardous conditions that often impair or destroy in-situ stations. Two MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites provide global flood extent coverage at a spatial resolution of 250m. Cloud cover hampers flood extent detection; therefore we ingest 6 images (the Terra and Aqua images of each day, for three days), in combination with a cloud shadow filter, to provide daily global flood extent updates. The Flood Observatory has always made it a high priority to visualize and share its data and products through its website. Recent collaborative efforts with e.g. GeoSUR have enhanced accessibility of DFO data. A web map service has been implemented to automatically disseminate geo-referenced flood extent products into client-side GIS software. For example, for Latin America and the Caribbean region, the GeoSUR portal now displays current flood extent maps, which can be integrated and visualized with other relevant geographical data. Furthermore, the flood state of satellite-observed river discharge sites are displayed through the portal as well. Additional efforts include implementing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to incorporate Water Markup Language (WaterML) data exchange mechanisms to further facilitate the distribution of the satellite

  7. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as

  8. Groundwater Modelling For Recharge Estimation Using Satellite Based Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mahmoud; (Tom) Rientjes, T. H. M.; (Christiaan) van der Tol, C.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater movement is influenced by several factors and processes in the hydrological cycle, from which, recharge is of high relevance. Since the amount of aquifer extractable water directly relates to the recharge amount, estimation of recharge is a perquisite of groundwater resources management. Recharge is highly affected by water loss mechanisms the major of which is actual evapotranspiration (ETa). It is, therefore, essential to have detailed assessment of ETa impact on groundwater recharge. The objective of this study was to evaluate how recharge was affected when satellite-based evapotranspiration was used instead of in-situ based ETa in the Salland area, the Netherlands. The Methodology for Interactive Planning for Water Management (MIPWA) model setup which includes a groundwater model for the northern part of the Netherlands was used for recharge estimation. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) based actual evapotranspiration maps from Waterschap Groot Salland were also used. Comparison of SEBAL based ETa estimates with in-situ abased estimates in the Netherlands showed that these SEBAL estimates were not reliable. As such results could not serve for calibrating root zone parameters in the CAPSIM model. The annual cumulative ETa map produced by the model showed that the maximum amount of evapotranspiration occurs in mixed forest areas in the northeast and a portion of central parts. Estimates ranged from 579 mm to a minimum of 0 mm in the highest elevated areas with woody vegetation in the southeast of the region. Variations in mean seasonal hydraulic head and groundwater level for each layer showed that the hydraulic gradient follows elevation in the Salland area from southeast (maximum) to northwest (minimum) of the region which depicts the groundwater flow direction. The mean seasonal water balance in CAPSIM part was evaluated to represent recharge estimation in the first layer. The highest recharge estimated flux was for autumn

  9. Highlights of satellite-based forest change recognition and tracking using the ForWarn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven P. Norman; William W. Hargrove; Joseph P. Spruce; William M. Christie; Sean W. Schroeder

    2013-01-01

    For a higher resolution version of this file, please use the following link: www.geobabble.orgSatellite-based remote sensing can assist forest managers with their need to recognize disturbances and track recovery. Despite the long...

  10. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Yearly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  11. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Seasonal Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  12. Integration between terrestrial-based and satellite-based land mobile communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiancono, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    A survey is given of several approaches to improving the performance and marketability of mobile satellite systems (MSS). The provision of voice/data services in the future regional European Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS), network integration between the Digital Cellular Mobile System (GSM) and LMSS, the identification of critical areas for the implementation of integrated GSM/LMSS areas, space segment scenarios, LMSS for digital trunked private mobile radio (PMR) services, and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques for a terrestrial/satellite system are covered.

  13. A Methodology For Measuring Resilience in a Satellite-Based Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Accessed 15 March 2013) Eremenko, P. & C. Roberts & O. Brown. “Cost Benefit Analysis of a Notional Fractionated SATCOM Architecture.” AIAA...http://www.dhs.gov/blog/2010/12/22/enhancing-critical-infrastructure- resilience (Accessed 15 March 2013) Keohane , Jonathan & Gail Rohrbach. “Ask an...rand/pubs/research_memoranda/2008/RM2778.pdf. (Accessed 5 August 2013) Miller, Robert D. “Computing the Area of a Spherical Polygon.” Graphic

  14. A proposed architecture for a satellite-based mobile communications network - The lowest three layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T. Y.; Naderi, F. M.

    1986-01-01

    Architecture for a commercial mobile satellite network is proposed. The mobile satellite system (MSS) is composed of a network management center, mobile terminals, base stations, and gateways; the functions of each component are described. The satellite is a 'bent pipe' that performs frequency translations, and it has multiple UHF beams. The development of the MSS design based on the seven-layer open system interconnection model is examined. Consideration is given to the functions of the physical, data link, and network layers and the integrated adaptive mobile access protocol.

  15. Implementing earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders for water resource and climate modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E.; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses preliminary remote sensing (MODIS) based hydrological modelling results for the Danish island Sjælland (7330 km2) in relation to project objectives and methodologies of a new research project “Implementing Earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders....... For this purpose, a) internal catchment processes will be studied using a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system, b) Earth observations will be used to upscale from field to regional scales, and c) at the largest scale, satellite based atmospheric sounders and meso-scale climate modelling will be used...

  16. Net Shape Spin Formed Cryogenic Aluminum Lithium Cryogenic Tank Domes for Lower Cost Higher Performance Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Hoffman, Eric; Domack, Marcia; Brewster, Jeb; Russell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of lower cost (simplified manufacturing and lower part count) and higher performance (higher strength to weight alloys) the NASA Technical Maturation Program in 2006 funded a proposal to investigate spin forming of space launch vehicle cryogenic tank domes. The project funding continued under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program through completion in FY12. The first phase of the project involved spin forming of eight, 1 meter diameter "path finder" domes. Half of these were processed using a concave spin form process (MT Aerospace, Augsburg Germany) and the other half using a convex process (Spincraft, Boston MA). The convex process has been used to produce the Ares Common Bulkhead and the concave process has been used to produce dome caps for the Space Shuttle light weight external tank and domes for the NASDA H2. Aluminum Lithium material was chosen because of its higher strength to weight ratio than the Aluminum 2219 baseline. Aluminum lithium, in order to obtain the desired temper (T8), requires a cold stretch after the solution heat treatment and quench. This requirement favors the concave spin form process which was selected for scale up. This paper describes the results of processing four, 5.5 meter diameter (upper stage scale) net shaped spin formed Aluminum Lithium domes. In order to allow scalability beyond the limits of foundry and rolling mills (about 12 foot width) the circular blank contained one friction stir weld (heavy lifter scales require a flat blank containing two welds). Mechanical properties data (tensile, fracture toughness, stress corrosion, and simulated service testing) for the parent metal and weld will also be discussed.

  17. Refinement of motion correction strategies for lower-cost CT for under-resourced regions of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul; Kigongo, Christopher J. N.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a recently developed post-acquisition motion correction strategy for application to lower-cost computed tomography (LCCT) for under-resourced regions of the world. Increased awareness regarding global health and its challenges has encouraged the development of more affordable healthcare options for underserved people worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, intermediate level medical facilities may serve millions with inadequate or antiquated equipment due to financial limitations. In response, the authors have proposed a LCCT design which utilizes a standard chest x-ray examination room with a digital flat panel detector (FPD). The patient rotates on a motorized stage between the fixed cone-beam source and FPD, and images are reconstructed using a Feldkamp algorithm for cone-beam scanning. One of the most important proofs-of-concept in determining the feasibility of this system is the successful correction of undesirable motion. A 3D motion correction algorithm was developed in order to correct for potential patient motion, stage instabilities and detector misalignments which can all lead to motion artifacts in reconstructed images. Motion will be monitored by the radiographic position of fiducial markers to correct for rigid body motion in three dimensions. Based on simulation studies, projection images corrupted by motion were re-registered with average errors of 0.080 mm, 0.32 mm and 0.050 mm in the horizontal, vertical and depth dimensions, respectively. The overall absence of motion artifacts in motion-corrected reconstructions indicates that reasonable amounts of motion may be corrected using this novel technique without significant loss of image quality.

  18. Satellite-Based actual evapotranspiration over drying semiarid terrain in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttemeyer, D.; Schillings, Ch.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple satellite-based algorithm for estimating actual evaporation based on Makkink¿s equation is applied to a seasonal cycle in 2002 at three test sites in Ghana, West Africa: at a location in the humid tropical southern region and two in the drier northern region. The required input for the

  19. Assessing satellite-based start-of-season trends in the US High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X; Sassenrath, G F; Hubbard, K G; Mahmood, R

    2014-01-01

    To adequately assess the effects of global warming it is necessary to address trends and impacts at the local level. This study examines phenological changes in the start-of-season (SOS) derived from satellite observations from 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. The surface climate-based SOS was also evaluated. The averaged profiles of SOS from 37° to 49°N latitude by satellite- and climate-based methods were in reasonable agreement, especially for areas where croplands were masked out and an additional frost date threshold was adopted. The statistically significant trends of satellite-based SOS show a later spring arrival ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 days decade −1 over nine Level III ecoregions. We found the croplands generally exhibited larger trends (later arrival) than the non-croplands. The area-averaged satellite-based SOS for non-croplands (i.e. mostly grasslands) showed no significant trends. We examined the trends of temperatures, precipitation, and standardized precipitation index (SPI), as well as the strength of correlation between the satellite-based SOS and these climatic drivers. Our results indicate that satellite-based SOS trends are spatially and primarily related to annual maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, mostly in summertime) and/or annual minimum NDVI (mostly in wintertime) and these trends showed the best correlation with six-month SPI over the period 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. (letter)

  20. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area andvolume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L−1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and ...

  1. Sequential optimization of a terrestrial biosphere model constrained by multiple satellite based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Various satellite-based spatial products such as evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are now produced by integration of ground and satellite observations. Effective use of these multiple satellite-based products in terrestrial biosphere models is an important step toward better understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles. However, due to the complexity of terrestrial biosphere models with large number of model parameters, the application of these spatial data sets in terrestrial biosphere models is difficult. In this study, we established an effective but simple framework to refine a terrestrial biosphere model, Biome-BGC, using multiple satellite-based products as constraints. We tested the framework in the monsoon Asia region covered by AsiaFlux observations. The framework is based on the hierarchical analysis (Wang et al. 2009) with model parameter optimization constrained by satellite-based spatial data. The Biome-BGC model is separated into several tiers to minimize the freedom of model parameter selections and maximize the independency from the whole model. For example, the snow sub-model is first optimized using MODIS snow cover product, followed by soil water sub-model optimized by satellite-based ET (estimated by an empirical upscaling method; Support Vector Regression (SVR) method; Yang et al. 2007), photosynthesis model optimized by satellite-based GPP (based on SVR method), and respiration and residual carbon cycle models optimized by biomass data. As a result of initial assessment, we found that most of default sub-models (e.g. snow, water cycle and carbon cycle) showed large deviations from remote sensing observations. However, these biases were removed by applying the proposed framework. For example, gross primary productivities were initially underestimated in boreal and temperate forest and overestimated in tropical forests. However, the parameter optimization scheme successfully reduced these biases. Our analysis

  2. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  3. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  4. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    . Collaboration with GCOM-W is not only limited to its participation to GPM constellation but also coordination in areas of algorithm development and validation in Japan. Generation of high-temporal and high-accurate global rainfall map is one of targets of the GPM mission. As a proto-type for GPM era, JAXA has developed and operates the Global Precipitation Map algorithm in near-real-time since October 2008, and hourly and 0.1-degree resolution binary data and images available at http://sharaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GSMaP/ four hours after observation. The algorithms are based on outcomes from the Global Satellite Mapping for Precipitation (GSMaP) project, which was sponsored by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) under the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) framework between 2002 and 2007 (Okamoto et al., 2005; Aonashi et al., 2009; Ushio et al., 2009). Target of GSMaP project is to produce global rainfall maps that are highly accurate and in high temporal and spatial resolution through the development of rain rate retrieval algorithms based on reliable precipitation physical models by using several microwave radiometer data, and comprehensive use of precipitation radar and geostationary infrared imager data. Near-real-time GSMaP data is distributed via internet and utilized by end users. Purpose of data utilization by each user covers broad areas and in world wide; Science researches (model validation, data assimilation, typhoon study, etc.), weather forecast/service, flood warning and rain analysis over river basin, oceanographic condition forecast, agriculture, and education. Toward the GPM era, operational application should be further emphasized as well as science application. JAXA continues collaboration with hydrological communities to utilize satellite-based precipitation data as inputs to future flood prediction and warning system, as well as with meteorological agencies to proceed further data utilization in numerical weather prediction

  5. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  6. Using satellite-based measurements to explore spatiotemporal scales and variability of drivers of new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently ...

  7. Improving satellite-based post-fire evapotranspiration estimates in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, P.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic factors contribute to the increased frequency, duration, and size of wildfires, which can alter ecosystem and hydrological processes. The loss of vegetation canopy and ground cover reduces interception and alters evapotranspiration (ET) dynamics in riparian areas, which can impact rainfall-runoff partitioning. Previous research evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of ET based on burn severity and observed an annual decrease of 120 mm on average for three years after fire. Building upon these results, this research focuses on the Coyote Fire in San Diego, California (USA), which burned a total of 76 km2 in 2003 to calibrate and improve satellite-based ET estimates in semi-arid regions affected by wildfire. The current work utilizes satellite-based products and techniques such as the Google Earth Engine Application programming interface (API). Various ET models (ie. Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance Model (SSEBop)) are compared to the latent heat flux from two AmeriFlux eddy covariance towers, Sky Oaks Young (US-SO3), and Old Stand (US-SO2), from 2000 - 2015. The Old Stand tower has a low burn severity and the Young Stand tower has a moderate to high burn severity. Both towers are used to validate spatial ET estimates. Furthermore, variables and indices, such as Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) are utilized to evaluate satellite-based ET through a multivariate statistical analysis at both sites. This point-scale study will able to improve ET estimates in spatially diverse regions. Results from this research will contribute to the development of a post-wildfire ET model for semi-arid regions. Accurate estimates of post-fire ET will provide a better representation of vegetation and hydrologic recovery, which can be used to improve hydrologic models and predictions.

  8. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  9. A near real-time satellite-based global drought climate data record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Reliable drought monitoring requires long-term and continuous precipitation data. High resolution satellite measurements provide valuable precipitation information on a quasi-global scale. However, their short lengths of records limit their applications in drought monitoring. In addition to this limitation, long-term low resolution satellite-based gauge-adjusted data sets such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one are not available in near real-time form for timely drought monitoring. This study bridges the gap between low resolution long-term satellite gauge-adjusted data and the emerging high resolution satellite precipitation data sets to create a long-term climate data record of droughts. To accomplish this, a Bayesian correction algorithm is used to combine GPCP data with real-time satellite precipitation data sets for drought monitoring and analysis. The results showed that the combined data sets after the Bayesian correction were a significant improvement compared to the uncorrected data. Furthermore, several recent major droughts such as the 2011 Texas, 2010 Amazon and 2010 Horn of Africa droughts were detected in the combined real-time and long-term satellite observations. This highlights the potential application of satellite precipitation data for regional to global drought monitoring. The final product is a real-time data-driven satellite-based standardized precipitation index that can be used for drought monitoring especially over remote and/or ungauged regions. (letter)

  10. From extended integrity monitoring to the safety evaluation of satellite-based localisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Cyril; Beugin, Julie; Marais, Juliette; Conrard, Blaise; El-Koursi, El-Miloudi; Berbineau, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS, already used in aeronautics for safety-related applications, can play a major role in railway safety by allowing a train to locate itself safely. However, in order to implement this positioning solution in any embedded system, its performances must be evaluated according to railway standards. The evaluation of GNSS performances is not based on the same attributes class than RAMS evaluation. Face to these diffculties, we propose to express the integrity attribute, performance of satellite-based localisation. This attribute comes from aeronautical standards and for a hybridised GNSS with inertial system. To achieve this objective, the integrity attribute must be extended to this kind of system and algorithms initially devoted to GNSS integrity monitoring only must be adapted. Thereafter, the formalisation of this integrity attribute permits us to analyse the safety quantitatively through the probabilities of integrity risk and wrong-side failure. In this paper, after an introductory discussion about the use of localisation systems in railway safety context together with integrity issues, a particular integrity monitoring is proposed and described. The detection events of this algorithm permit us to conclude about safety level of satellite-based localisation system.

  11. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Montesano, Paul; Markfort, Corey D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hsare examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless

  12. Ground-and satellite-based evidence of the biophysical mechanisms behind the greening Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Mbow, Cheikh; Diouf, Abdoul A.

    2015-01-01

    After a dry period with prolonged droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, recent scientific outcome suggests that the decades of abnormally dry conditions in the Sahel have been reversed by positive anomalies in rainfall. Various remote sensing studies observed a positive trend in vegetation greenness...... over the last decades which is known as the re-greening of the Sahel. However, little investment has been made in including long-term ground-based data collections to evaluate and better understand the biophysical mechanisms behind these findings. Thus, deductions on a possible increment in biomass...... remain speculative. Our aim is to bridge these gaps and give specifics on the biophysical background factors of the re-greening Sahel. Therefore, a trend analysis was applied on long time series (1987-2013) of satellite-based vegetation and rainfall data, as well as on ground-observations of leaf biomass...

  13. Engineering satellite-based navigation and timing global navigation satellite systems, signals, and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, J

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the design and performance analysis of satnav systems, signals, and receivers. It also provides succinct descriptions and comparisons of all the world’s satnav systems. Its comprehensive and logical structure addresses all satnav signals and systems in operation and being developed. Engineering Satellite-Based Navigation and Timing: Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Signals, and Receivers provides the technical foundation for designing and analyzing satnav signals, systems, and receivers. Its contents and structure address all satnav systems and signals: legacy, modernized, and new. It combines qualitative information with detailed techniques and analyses, providing a comprehensive set of insights and engineering tools for this complex multidisciplinary field. Part I describes system and signal engineering including orbital mechanics and constellation design, signal design principles and underlying considerations, link budgets, qua tifying receiver performance in interference, and e...

  14. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  15. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  16. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  17. Comparison of four machine learning algorithms for their applicability in satellite-based optical rainfall retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hanna; Kühnlein, Meike; Appelhans, Tim; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Machine learning (ML) algorithms have successfully been demonstrated to be valuable tools in satellite-based rainfall retrievals which show the practicability of using ML algorithms when faced with high dimensional and complex data. Moreover, recent developments in parallel computing with ML present new possibilities for training and prediction speed and therefore make their usage in real-time systems feasible. This study compares four ML algorithms - random forests (RF), neural networks (NNET), averaged neural networks (AVNNET) and support vector machines (SVM) - for rainfall area detection and rainfall rate assignment using MSG SEVIRI data over Germany. Satellite-based proxies for cloud top height, cloud top temperature, cloud phase and cloud water path serve as predictor variables. The results indicate an overestimation of rainfall area delineation regardless of the ML algorithm (averaged bias = 1.8) but a high probability of detection ranging from 81% (SVM) to 85% (NNET). On a 24-hour basis, the performance of the rainfall rate assignment yielded R2 values between 0.39 (SVM) and 0.44 (AVNNET). Though the differences in the algorithms' performance were rather small, NNET and AVNNET were identified as the most suitable algorithms. On average, they demonstrated the best performance in rainfall area delineation as well as in rainfall rate assignment. NNET's computational speed is an additional advantage in work with large datasets such as in remote sensing based rainfall retrievals. However, since no single algorithm performed considerably better than the others we conclude that further research in providing suitable predictors for rainfall is of greater necessity than an optimization through the choice of the ML algorithm.

  18. Current trends in satellite based emergency mapping - the need for harmonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    During the past years, the availability and use of satellite image data to support disaster management and humanitarian relief organisations has largely increased. The automation and data processing techniques are greatly improving as well as the capacity in accessing and processing satellite imagery in getting better globally. More and more global activities via the internet and through global organisations like the United Nations or the International Charter Space and Major Disaster engage in the topic, while at the same time, more and more national or local centres engage rapid mapping operations and activities. In order to make even more effective use of this very positive increase of capacity, for the sake of operational provision of analysis results, for fast validation of satellite derived damage assessments, for better cooperation in the joint inter agency generation of rapid mapping products and for general scientific use, rapid mapping results in general need to be better harmonized, if not even standardized. In this presentation, experiences from various years of rapid mapping gained by the DLR Center for satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI) within the context of the national activities, the International Charter Space and Major Disasters, GMES/Copernicus etc. are reported. Furthermore, an overview on how automation, quality assurance and optimization can be achieved through standard operation procedures within a rapid mapping workflow is given. Building on this long term rapid mapping experience, and building on the DLR initiative to set in pace an "International Working Group on Satellite Based Emergency Mapping" current trends in rapid mapping are discussed and thoughts on how the sharing of rapid mapping information can be optimized by harmonizing analysis results and data structures are presented. Such an harmonization of analysis procedures, nomenclatures and representations of data as well as meta data are the basis to better cooperate within

  19. Improved Lower Mekong River Basin Hydrological Decision Making Using NASA Satellite-based Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Mohammed, I. N.; Srinivasan, R.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Better understanding of the hydrological cycle of the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB) and addressing the value-added information of using remote sensing data on the spatial variability of soil moisture over the Mekong Basin is the objective of this work. In this work, we present the development and assessment of the LMRB (drainage area of 495,000 km2) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The coupled model framework presented is part of SERVIR, a joint capacity building venture between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development, providing state-of-the-art, satellite-based earth monitoring, imaging and mapping data, geospatial information, predictive models, and science applications to improve environmental decision-making among multiple developing nations. The developed LMRB SWAT model enables the integration of satellite-based daily gridded precipitation, air temperature, digital elevation model, soil texture, and land cover and land use data to drive SWAT model simulations over the Lower Mekong River Basin. The LMRB SWAT model driven by remote sensing climate data was calibrated and verified with observed runoff data at the watershed outlet as well as at multiple sites along the main river course. Another LMRB SWAT model set driven by in-situ climate observations was also calibrated and verified to streamflow data. Simulated soil moisture estimates from the two models were then examined and compared to a downscaled Soil Moisture Active Passive Sensor (SMAP) 36 km radiometer products. Results from this work present a framework for improving SWAT performance by utilizing a downscaled SMAP soil moisture products used for model calibration and validation. Index Terms: 1622: Earth system modeling; 1631: Land/atmosphere interactions; 1800: Hydrology; 1836 Hydrological cycles and budgets; 1840 Hydrometeorology; 1855: Remote sensing; 1866: Soil moisture; 6334: Regional Planning

  20. Biomass route shows lower cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1980-11-21

    There has been much discussion concerning the economics of using biomass for the production of substitute fuels and it has been argued that the net energy gain could be small or even negative. The development of the ATPAL process is described and it is claimed that only one quarter of the energy equivalent contained in the alcohol will be consumed in the total process. Both the pilot plant and a commercial scale plant with some modifications are described. The most significant advantage claimed for the ATPAL process is in its low process energy savings resulting from mechanical vapour recompression, recycling the heat and production of a low volume of effluent.

  1. Batteries: Lower cost than gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werber, Mathew; Fischer, Michael; Schwartz, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    We compare the lifecycle costs of an electric car to a similar gasoline-powered vehicle under different scenarios of required driving range and cost of gasoline. An electric car is cost competitive for a significant portion of the scenarios: for cars of lower range and for higher gasoline prices. Electric cars with ∼150 km range are a technologically viable, cost competitive, high performance, high efficiency alternative that can presently suit the vast majority of consumers' needs.

  2. Satellite Based Education and Training in Remote Sensing and Geo-Information AN E-Learning Approach to Meet the Growing Demands in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity

  3. Long-term analysis of aerosol optical depth over Northeast Asia using a satellite-based measurement: MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Yoon, Jongmin; Chung, Chu-Yong; Chung, Sung-Rae

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the Korean geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite, the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), was launched including the Meteorological Imager (MI). The MI measures atmospheric condition over Northeast Asia (NEA) using a single visible channel centered at 0.675 μm and four IR channels at 3.75, 6.75, 10.8, 12.0 μm. The visible measurement can also be utilized for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties (AOPs). Since the GEO satellite measurement has an advantage for continuous monitoring of AOPs, we can analyze the spatiotemporal variation of the aerosol using the MI observations over NEA. Therefore, we developed an algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using the visible observation of MI, and named as MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER). In this study, we investigated the accuracy of MI YAER AOD by comparing the values with the long-term products of AERONET sun-photometer. The result showed that the MI AODs were significantly overestimated than the AERONET values over bright surface in low AOD case. Because the MI visible channel centered at red color range, contribution of aerosol signal to the measured reflectance is relatively lower than the surface contribution. Therefore, the AOD error in low AOD case over bright surface can be a fundamental limitation of the algorithm. Meanwhile, an assumption of background aerosol optical depth (BAOD) could result in the retrieval uncertainty, also. To estimate the surface reflectance by considering polluted air condition over the NEA, we estimated the BAOD from the MODIS dark target (DT) aerosol products by pixel. The satellite-based AOD retrieval, however, largely depends on the accuracy of the surface reflectance estimation especially in low AOD case, and thus, the BAOD could include the uncertainty in surface reflectance estimation of the satellite-based retrieval. Therefore, we re-estimated the BAOD using the ground-based sun-photometer measurement, and

  4. Efficient all solid-state UV source for satellite-based lidar applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2003-07-01

    A satellite-based UV-DIAL measurement system would allow continuous global monitoring of ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere. However such systems remain difficult to implement because aerosol-scattering return signals for satellite-based lidars are very weak. A suitable system must produce high-energy UV pulses at multiple wavelengths with very high efficiency. For example, a nanosecond system operating at 10 Hz must generate approximately 1 J per pulse at 308-320 nm. An efficient space-qualified wavelength-agile system based on a single UV source that can meet this requirement is probably not available using current laser technology. As an alternative, we're pursuing a multi-source approach employing all-solid-state modules that individually generate 300-320 nm light with pulse energies in the range of 50-200 mJ, with transform-limited bandwidths and good beam quality. Pulses from the individual sources can be incoherently summed to obtain the required single-pulse energy. These sources use sum-frequency mixing of the 532 nm second harmonic of an Nd:YAG pump laser with 731-803 nm light derived from a recently-developed, state-of-the-art, nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. Two source configurations are under development, one using extra-cavity sum-frequency mixing, and the other intra-cavity sum-frequency mixing. In either configuration, we hope to obtain sum-frequency mixing efficiency approaching 60% by carefully matching the spatial and temporal properties of the laser and OPO pulses. This ideal balance of green and near-IR photons requires an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pump-laser with very high beam quality, and an OPO exhibiting unusually high conversion efficiency and exceptional signal beam quality. The OPO employs a singly-resonant high-Fresnel-number image-rotating self-injection-seeded nonplanar-ring cavity that achieves pump depletion > 65% and produces signal beams with M{sup 2} {approx} 3 at pulse energies exceeding 50 mJ. Pump beam

  5. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  6. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  7. Impacts of Satellite-Based Snow Albedo Assimilation on Offline and Coupled Land Surface Model Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere is the largest component of the terrestrial cryosphere and plays a major role in the climate system through strong positive feedbacks related to albedo. The snow-albedo feedback is invoked as an important cause for the polar amplification of ongoing and projected climate change, and its parameterization across models is an important source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Here, instead of developing a physical snow albedo scheme, we use a direct insertion approach to assimilate satellite-based surface albedo during the snow season (hereafter as snow albedo assimilation into the land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms and assess the influences of such assimilation on offline and coupled simulations. Our results have shown that snow albedo assimilation in both ORCHIDEE and ORCHIDEE-LMDZ (a general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique improve the simulation accuracy of mean seasonal (October throughout May snow water equivalent over the region north of 40 degrees. The sensitivity of snow water equivalent to snow albedo assimilation is more pronounced in the coupled simulation than the offline simulation since the feedback of albedo on air temperature is allowed in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ. We have also shown that simulations of air temperature at 2 meters in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ due to snow albedo assimilation are significantly improved during the spring in particular over the eastern Siberia region. This is a result of the fact that high amounts of shortwave radiation during the spring can maximize its snow albedo feedback, which is also supported by the finding that the spatial sensitivity of temperature change to albedo change is much larger during the spring than during the autumn and winter. In addition, the radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere induced by snow albedo assimilation during the spring is estimated to be -2.50 W m-2, the

  8. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; hide

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  9. A Satellite-Based Model for Simulating Ecosystem Respiration in the Tibetan and Inner Mongolian Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to accurately evaluate ecosystem respiration (RE in the alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the temperate grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, as it serves as a sensitivity indicator of regional and global carbon cycles. Here, we combined flux measurements taken between 2003 and 2013 from 16 grassland sites across northern China and the corresponding MODIS land surface temperature (LST, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, and land surface water index (LSWI to build a satellite-based model to estimate RE at a regional scale. First, the dependencies of both spatial and temporal variations of RE on these biotic and climatic factors were examined explicitly. We found that plant productivity and moisture, but not temperature, can best explain the spatial pattern of RE in northern China’s grasslands; while temperature plays a major role in regulating the temporal variability of RE in the alpine grasslands, and moisture is equally as important as temperature in the temperate grasslands. However, the moisture effect on RE and the explicit representation of spatial variation process are often lacking in most of the existing satellite-based RE models. On this basis, we developed a model by comprehensively considering moisture, temperature, and productivity effects on both temporal and spatial processes of RE, and then, we evaluated the model performance. Our results showed that the model well explained the observed RE in both the alpine (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 0.77 g C m−2 day−1 and temperate grasslands (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 0.60 g C m−2 day−1. The inclusion of the LSWI as the water-limiting factor substantially improved the model performance in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and the spatialized basal respiration rate as an indicator for spatial variation largely determined the regional pattern of RE. Finally, the model accurately reproduced the seasonal and inter-annual variations and spatial variability of RE, and it avoided

  10. Satellite based radar interferometry to estimate large-scale soil water depletion from clay shrinkage: possibilities and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te B.; Hanssen, R.F.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Rooij, de G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based radar interferometry is a technique capable of measuring small surface elevation changes at large scales and with a high resolution. In vadose zone hydrology, it has been recognized for a long time that surface elevation changes due to swell and shrinkage of clayey soils can serve as

  11. Providing satellite-based early warnings of fires to reduce fire flashovers on South Africa’s transmission lines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real time operational satellite-based fire monitoring system of its kind in Africa. The main aim of AFIS is to provide information regarding the prediction, detection and assessment...

  12. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  13. Developing Information Services and Tools to Access and Evaluate Data Quality in Global Satellite-based Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Shie, C. L.; Meyer, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Global satellite-based precipitation products have been widely used in research and applications around the world. Compared to ground-based observations, satellite-based measurements provide precipitation data on a global scale, especially in remote continents and over oceans. Over the years, satellite-based precipitation products have evolved from single sensor and single algorithm to multi-sensors and multi-algorithms. As a result, many satellite-based precipitation products have been enhanced such as spatial and temporal coverages. With inclusion of ground-based measurements, biases of satellite-based precipitation products have been significantly reduced. However, data quality issues still exist and can be caused by many factors such as observations, satellite platform anomaly, algorithms, production, calibration, validation, data services, etc. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) is home to NASA global precipitation product archives including the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), as well as other global and regional precipitation products. Precipitation is one of the top downloaded and accessed parameters in the GES DISC data archive. Meanwhile, users want to easily locate and obtain data quality information at regional and global scales to better understand how precipitation products perform and how reliable they are. As data service providers, it is necessary to provide an easy access to data quality information, however, such information normally is not available, and when it is available, it is not in one place and difficult to locate. In this presentation, we will present challenges and activities at the GES DISC to address precipitation data quality issues.

  14. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-05-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts, we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability, and understanding of climate system feedbacks.

  15. Fundamentals of Inertial Navigation, Satellite-based Positioning and their Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Noureldin, Aboelmagd; Georgy, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Inertial Navigation, Satellite-based Positioning and their Integration is an introduction to the field of Integrated Navigation Systems. It serves as an excellent reference for working engineers as well as textbook for beginners and students new to the area. The book is easy to read and understand with minimum background knowledge. The authors explain the derivations in great detail. The intermediate steps are thoroughly explained so that a beginner can easily follow the material. The book shows a step-by-step implementation of navigation algorithms and provides all the necessary details. It provides detailed illustrations for an easy comprehension. The book also demonstrates real field experiments and in-vehicle road test results with professional discussions and analysis. This work is unique in discussing the different INS/GPS integration schemes in an easy to understand and straightforward way. Those schemes include loosely vs tightly coupled, open loop vs closed loop, and many more.

  16. A Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration Climate Data Record for Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kothe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides 2 m - temperature and precipitation, sunshine duration is one of the most important and commonly used parameter in climatology, with measured time series of partly more than 100 years in length. EUMETSAT’s Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF presents a climate data record for daily and monthly sunshine duration (SDU for Europe and Africa. Basis for the advanced retrieval is a highly resolved satellite product of the direct solar radiation from measurements by Meteosat satellites 2 to 10. The data record covers the time period 1983 to 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.05° × 0.05°. The comparison against ground-based data shows high agreement but also some regional differences. Sunshine duration is overestimated by the satellite-based data in many regions, compared to surface data. In West and Central Africa, low clouds seem to be the reason for a stronger overestimation of sunshine duration in this region (up to 20% for monthly sums. For most stations, the overestimation is low, with a bias below 7.5 h for monthly sums and below 0.4 h for daily sums. A high correlation of 0.91 for daily SDU and 0.96 for monthly SDU also proved the high agreement with station data. As SDU is based on a stable and homogeneous climate data record of more than 30 years length, it is highly suitable for climate applications, such as trend estimates.

  17. Satellite-based emission constraint for nitrogen oxides: Capability and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; McElroy, M. B.; Boersma, F.; Nielsen, C.; Zhao, Y.; Lei, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Liu, H.; Mao, J.; Zhuang, G.; Roozendael, M.; Martin, R.; Wang, P.; Spurr, R. J.; Sneep, M.; Stammes, P.; Clemer, K.; Irie, H.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieved from satellite remote sensing have been employed widely to constrain emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A major strength of satellite-based emission constraint is analysis of emission trends and variability, while a crucial limitation is errors both in satellite NO2 data and in model simulations relating NOx emissions to NO2 columns. Through a series of studies, we have explored these aspects over China. We separate anthropogenic from natural sources of NOx by exploiting their different seasonality. We infer trends of NOx emissions in recent years and effects of a variety of socioeconomic events at different spatiotemporal scales including the general economic growth, global financial crisis, Chinese New Year, and Beijing Olympics. We further investigate the impact of growing NOx emissions on particulate matter (PM) pollution in China. As part of recent developments, we identify and correct errors in both satellite NO2 retrieval and model simulation that ultimately affect NOx emission constraint. We improve the treatments of aerosol optical effects, clouds and surface reflectance in the NO2 retrieval process, using as reference ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements to evaluate the improved retrieval results. We analyze the sensitivity of simulated NO2 to errors in the model representation of major meteorological and chemical processes with a subsequent correction of model bias. Future studies will implement these improvements to re-constrain NOx emissions.

  18. New perspectives for satellite-based archaeological research in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lasaponara

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of satellite QuickBird images to find traces of past human activity in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey. This is one of the most important archaeological sites in Turkey, and in 1988 it was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list. Although over the years the archaeological site of Hierapolis has been excavated, restored and well documented, up to now the territory around the ancient urban area is still largely unknown. The current research project, still in progress, aims to search the area neighbouring Hierapolis believed to have been under the control of the city for a long time and, therefore, expected to be very rich in archaeological evidence. In order to investigate a large area around the ancient Hierapolis and discover potential archaeological remains, QuickBird images were adopted.

    Results from satellite-based analysis allowed us to find several unknown rural settlements dating back to early Imperial Roman and the Byzantine age. Two significant test sites were focused on in this paper in order to characterize the different spectral responses observed for different types of archaeological features (shadow and soil marks. Principal Component Analysis and spectral indices were computed to enhance archaeological marks and make identification easier. The capability of the QuickBird data set (panchromatic, multispectral channel, PCA and spectral indices in searching for archaeological marks was assessed in a quantitative way by using a specific indicator.

  19. Does Urban Form Affect Urban NO2? Satellite-Based Evidence for More than 1200 Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Matthew J; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-11-07

    Modifying urban form may be a strategy to mitigate urban air pollution. For example, evidence suggests that urban form can affect motor vehicle usage, a major contributor to urban air pollution. We use satellite-based measurements of urban form and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) to explore relationships between urban form and air pollution for a global data  set of 1274 cities. Three of the urban form metrics studied (contiguity, circularity, and vegetation) have a statistically significant relationship with urban NO 2 ; their combined effect could be substantial. As illustration, if findings presented here are causal, that would suggest that if Christchurch, New Zealand (a city at the 75th percentile for all three urban-form metrics, and with a network of buses, trams, and bicycle facilities) was transformed to match the urban form of Indio - Cathedral City, California, United States (a city at the 25th percentile for those same metrics, and exhibiting sprawl-like suburban development), our models suggest that Christchurch's NO 2 concentrations would be ∼60% higher than its current level. We also find that the combined effect of urban form on NO 2 is larger for small cities (β × IQR = -0.46 for cities urban population and are where much of the future urban growth is expected to occur. This work highlights the need for future study of how changes in urban form and related land use and transportation policies impact urban air pollution, especially for small cities.

  20. An Exploitation of Satellite-based Observation for Health Information: The UFOS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangin, A.; Morel, M.; Fanton d' Andon, O

    2000-07-01

    Short, medium and long-term trends of UV intensity levels are of crucial importance for either assessing effective biological impacts on human population, or implementing adequate preventive behaviours. Better information on a large spatial scale and increased public awareness of the short-term variations in UV values will help to support health agencies' goals of educating the public on UV risks. The Ultraviolet Forecast Operational Service Project (UFAS), financed in part by the European Commission/DG Information Society (TEN-TELECOM programme), aims to exploit satellite-based observations and to supply a set of UV products directly useful to health care. The short-term objective is to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility and benefits that could be brought by such a system. UFOS is carried out by ACRI, with the support of an Advisory Group chaired by WHO and involving representation from the sectors of Health (WHO, INTERSUN collaborating centres, ZAMBON), Environment (WMO, IASB), and Telecommunications (EURECOM, IMET). (author)

  1. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  2. The attitude inversion method of geostationary satellites based on unscented particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Wang, Yang; Hu, Heng; Gou, Ruixin; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The attitude information of geostationary satellites is difficult to be obtained since they are presented in non-resolved images on the ground observation equipment in space object surveillance. In this paper, an attitude inversion method for geostationary satellite based on Unscented Particle Filter (UPF) and ground photometric data is presented. The inversion algorithm based on UPF is proposed aiming at the strong non-linear feature in the photometric data inversion for satellite attitude, which combines the advantage of Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and Particle Filter (PF). This update method improves the particle selection based on the idea of UKF to redesign the importance density function. Moreover, it uses the RMS-UKF to partially correct the prediction covariance matrix, which improves the applicability of the attitude inversion method in view of UKF and the particle degradation and dilution of the attitude inversion method based on PF. This paper describes the main principles and steps of algorithm in detail, correctness, accuracy, stability and applicability of the method are verified by simulation experiment and scaling experiment in the end. The results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problem of particle degradation and depletion in the attitude inversion method on account of PF, and the problem that UKF is not suitable for the strong non-linear attitude inversion. However, the inversion accuracy is obviously superior to UKF and PF, in addition, in the case of the inversion with large attitude error that can inverse the attitude with small particles and high precision.

  3. Satellite Based Downward Long Wave Radiation by Various Models in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyang Sur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based downward long wave radiation measurement under clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia was conducted using five well-known physical models (Brunt 1932, Idso and Jackson 1969, Brutsaert 1975, Satterlund 1979, Prata 1996 with a newly proposed global Rld model (Abramowitz et al. 2012. Data from two flux towers in South Korea were used to validate downward long wave radiation. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS atmospheric profile products were used to develop the Rld models. The overall root mean square error (RMSE of MODIS Rld with respect to two ecosystem-type flux towers was determined to be ≈ 20 W m-2. Based on the statistical analyses, MODIS Rld estimates with Brutsaert (1975 and Abramowitz et al. (2012 models were the most applicable for evaluating Rld for clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia. The Abramowitz Rld maps with MODIS Ta and ea showed reasonable seasonal patterns, which were well-aligned with other biophysical variables reported by previous studies. The MODIS Rld map developed in this study will be very useful for identifying spatial patterns that are not detectable from ground-based Rld measurement sites.

  4. Satellite based hydroclimatic understanding of evolution of Dengue and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Vector-borne diseases are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Africa, South America, and Asia. Vector eradication is perhaps not possible since pathogens adapt to local environment. In absence of appropriate vaccinations for Dengue and Zika virus, burden of these two infections continue to increase in several geographical locations. Aedes spp. is one of the major vectors for Dengue and Zika viruses. Etiologies on Dengue and Zika viruses are evolving, however the key question remains as to how one species of mosquito can transmit two different infections? We argue that a set of conducive environmental condition, modulated by regional climatic and weather processes, may lead to abundance of a specific virus. Using satellite based rainfall (TRMM/GPM), land surface temperature (MODIS) and dew point temperature (AIRS/MERRA), we have identified appropriate thresholds that can provide estimate on risk of abundance of Dengue or Zika viruses at least few weeks in advance. We will discuss a framework coupling satellite derived hydroclimatic and societal processes to predict environmental niches of favorability of conditions of Dengue or Zika risk in human population on a global scale.

  5. An Exploitation of Satellite-based Observation for Health Information: The UFOS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.; Morel, M.; Fanton d'Andon, O.

    2000-01-01

    Short, medium and long-term trends of UV intensity levels are of crucial importance for either assessing effective biological impacts on human population, or implementing adequate preventive behaviours. Better information on a large spatial scale and increased public awareness of the short-term variations in UV values will help to support health agencies' goals of educating the public on UV risks. The Ultraviolet Forecast Operational Service Project (UFAS), financed in part by the European Commission/DG Information Society (TEN-TELECOM programme), aims to exploit satellite-based observations and to supply a set of UV products directly useful to health care. The short-term objective is to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility and benefits that could be brought by such a system. UFOS is carried out by ACRI, with the support of an Advisory Group chaired by WHO and involving representation from the sectors of Health (WHO, INTERSUN collaborating centres, ZAMBON), Environment (WMO, IASB), and Telecommunications (EURECOM, IMET). (author)

  6. Satellite-based ET estimation using Landsat 8 images and SEBAL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bonemberger da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estimation of evapotranspiration is a key factor to achieve sustainable water management in irrigated agriculture because it represents water use of crops. Satellite-based estimations provide advantages compared to direct methods as lysimeters especially when the objective is to calculate evapotranspiration at a regional scale. The present study aimed to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET at a regional scale, using Landsat 8 - OLI/TIRS images and complementary data collected from a weather station. SEBAL model was used in South-West Paraná, region composed of irrigated and dry agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas. Five Landsat 8 images, row 223 and path 78, DOY 336/2013, 19/2014, 35/2014, 131/2014 and 195/2014 were used, from which ET at daily scale was estimated as a residual of the surface energy balance to produce ET maps. The steps for obtain ET using SEBAL include radiometric calibration, calculation of the reflectance, surface albedo, vegetation indexes (NDVI, SAVI and LAI and emissivity. These parameters were obtained based on the reflective bands of the orbital sensor with temperature surface estimated from thermal band. The estimated ET values in agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas using SEBAL algorithm were compatible with those shown in the literature and ET errors between the ET estimates from SEBAL model and Penman Monteith FAO 56 equation were less than or equal to 1.00 mm day-1.

  7. Improved Satellite-based Crop Yield Mapping by Spatially Explicit Parameterization of Crop Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Azzari, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field-scale mapping of crop yields with satellite data often relies on the use of crop simulation models. However, these approaches can be hampered by inaccuracies in the simulation of crop phenology. Here we present and test an approach to use dense time series of Landsat 7 and 8 acquisitions data to calibrate various parameters related to crop phenology simulation, such as leaf number and leaf appearance rates. These parameters are then mapped across the Midwestern United States for maize and soybean, and for two different simulation models. We then implement our recently developed Scalable satellite-based Crop Yield Mapper (SCYM) with simulations reflecting the improved phenology parameterizations, and compare to prior estimates based on default phenology routines. Our preliminary results show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the underestimation of early-season LAI by the default Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), and that spatially explicit parameterization for the phenology model substantially improves the SCYM performance in capturing the spatiotemporal variation in maize and soybean yield. The scheme presented in our study thus preserves the scalability of SCYM, while significantly reducing its uncertainty.

  8. Satellite-based detection of global urban heat-island temperature influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, K.P.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Owen, T.W.; Elvidge, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This study utilizes a satellite-based methodology to assess the urban heat-island influence during warm season months for over 4400 stations included in the Global Historical Climatology Network of climate stations. The methodology includes local and regional satellite retrievals of an indicator of the presence green photosynthetically active vegetation at and around the stations. The difference in local and regional samples of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to estimate differences in mean air temperature. Stations classified as urban averaged 0.90??C (N. Hemisphere) and 0.92??C (S. Hemisphere) warmer than the surrounding environment on the basis of the NDVI-derived temperature estimates. Additionally, stations classified as rural averaged 0.19??C (N. Hemisphere) and 0.16??C (S. Hemisphere) warmer than the surrounding environment. The NDVI-derived temperature estimates were found to be in reasonable agreement with temperature differences observed between climate stations. The results suggest that satellite-derived data sets can be used to estimate the urban heat-island temperature influence on a global basis and that a more detailed analysis of rural stations and their surrounding environment may be necessary to assure that temperature trends derived from assumed rural environments are not influenced by changes in land use/land cover. Copyright 2002 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Development and validation of satellite-based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2016-02-01

    A satellite-based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5 % for classifying clear (V ≥ 30 km), moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  10. Satellite-Based Assessment of Rainfall-Triggered Landslide Hazard for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Determining the time, location, and severity of natural disaster impacts is fundamental to formulating mitigation strategies, appropriate and timely responses, and robust recovery plans. A Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness (LHASA) model was developed to indicate potential landslide activity in near real-time. LHASA combines satellite-based precipitation estimates with a landslide susceptibility map derived from information on slope, geology, road networks, fault zones, and forest loss. Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission are used to identify rainfall conditions from the past 7 days. When rainfall is considered to be extreme and susceptibility values are moderate to very high, a "nowcast" is issued to indicate the times and places where landslides are more probable. When LHASA nowcasts were evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog, the probability of detection (POD) ranged from 8% to 60%, depending on the evaluation period, precipitation product used, and the size of the spatial and temporal window considered around each landslide point. Applications of the LHASA system are also discussed, including how LHASA is used to estimate long-term trends in potential landslide activity at a nearly global scale and how it can be used as a tool to support disaster risk assessment. LHASA is intended to provide situational awareness of landslide hazards in near real-time, providing a flexible, open-source framework that can be adapted to other spatial and temporal scales based on data availability.

  11. Using satellite-based rainfall estimates for streamflow modelling: Bagmati Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M.S.; Artan, Guleid A.; Bajracharya, S.R.; Sharma, R. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have described a hydrologic modelling system that uses satellite-based rainfall estimates and weather forecast data for the Bagmati River Basin of Nepal. The hydrologic model described is the US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM). The GeoSFM is a spatially semidistributed, physically based hydrologic model. We have used the GeoSFM to estimate the streamflow of the Bagmati Basin at Pandhera Dovan hydrometric station. To determine the hydrologic connectivity, we have used the USGS Hydro1k DEM dataset. The model was forced by daily estimates of rainfall and evapotranspiration derived from weather model data. The rainfall estimates used for the modelling are those produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Centre and observed at ground rain gauge stations. The model parameters were estimated from globally available soil and land cover datasets – the Digital Soil Map of the World by FAO and the USGS Global Land Cover dataset. The model predicted the daily streamflow at Pandhera Dovan gauging station. The comparison of the simulated and observed flows at Pandhera Dovan showed that the GeoSFM model performed well in simulating the flows of the Bagmati Basin.

  12. Satellite-based trends of solar radiation and cloud parameters in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifroth, Uwe; Bojanowski, Jedrzej S.; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Manara, Veronica; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Trentmann, Jörg; Walawender, Jakub P.; Hollmann, Rainer

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation is the main driver of the Earth's climate. Measuring solar radiation and analysing its interaction with clouds are essential for the understanding of the climate system. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) generates satellite-based, high-quality climate data records, with a focus on the energy balance and water cycle. Here, multiple of these data records are analyzed in a common framework to assess the consistency in trends and spatio-temporal variability of surface solar radiation, top-of-atmosphere reflected solar radiation and cloud fraction. This multi-parameter analysis focuses on Europe and covers the time period from 1992 to 2015. A high correlation between these three variables has been found over Europe. An overall consistency of the climate data records reveals an increase of surface solar radiation and a decrease in top-of-atmosphere reflected radiation. In addition, those trends are confirmed by negative trends in cloud cover. This consistency documents the high quality and stability of the CM SAF climate data records, which are mostly derived independently from each other. The results of this study indicate that one of the main reasons for the positive trend in surface solar radiation since the 1990's is a decrease in cloud coverage even if an aerosol contribution cannot be completely ruled out.

  13. Two-way digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William E.; Daly, Ed

    1996-03-01

    The communications industry has been rapidly converting from analog to digital communications for audio, video, and data. The initial applications have been concentrating on point-to-multipoint transmission. Currently, a new revolution is occurring in which two-way point-to-point transmission is a rapidly growing market. The system designs for video compression developed for point-to-multipoint transmission are unsuitable for this new market as well as for satellite based video encoding. A new system developed by the Space Communications Technology Center has been designed to address both of these newer applications. An update on the system performance and design will be given.

  14. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

    2014-07-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  15. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alyeshmerni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  16. Evaluation of Bias Correction Method for Satellite-Based Rainfall Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Haris Akram; Rientjes, Tom; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Habib, Emad; Verhoef, Wouter

    2016-06-15

    With the advances in remote sensing technology, satellite-based rainfall estimates are gaining attraction in the field of hydrology, particularly in rainfall-runoff modeling. Since estimates are affected by errors correction is required. In this study, we tested the high resolution National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite rainfall product (CMORPH) in the Gilgel Abbey catchment, Ethiopia. CMORPH data at 8 km-30 min resolution is aggregated to daily to match in-situ observations for the period 2003-2010. Study objectives are to assess bias of the satellite estimates, to identify optimum window size for application of bias correction and to test effectiveness of bias correction. Bias correction factors are calculated for moving window (MW) sizes and for sequential windows (SW's) of 3, 5, 7, 9, …, 31 days with the aim to assess error distribution between the in-situ observations and CMORPH estimates. We tested forward, central and backward window (FW, CW and BW) schemes to assess the effect of time integration on accumulated rainfall. Accuracy of cumulative rainfall depth is assessed by Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). To systematically correct all CMORPH estimates, station based bias factors are spatially interpolated to yield a bias factor map. Reliability of interpolation is assessed by cross validation. The uncorrected CMORPH rainfall images are multiplied by the interpolated bias map to result in bias corrected CMORPH estimates. Findings are evaluated by RMSE, correlation coefficient (r) and standard deviation (SD). Results showed existence of bias in the CMORPH rainfall. It is found that the 7 days SW approach performs best for bias correction of CMORPH rainfall. The outcome of this study showed the efficiency of our bias correction approach.

  17. Evaluation of Bias Correction Method for Satellite-Based Rainfall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Akram Bhatti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in remote sensing technology, satellite-based rainfall estimates are gaining attraction in the field of hydrology, particularly in rainfall-runoff modeling. Since estimates are affected by errors correction is required. In this study, we tested the high resolution National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Climate Prediction Centre (CPC morphing technique (CMORPH satellite rainfall product (CMORPH in the Gilgel Abbey catchment, Ethiopia. CMORPH data at 8 km-30 min resolution is aggregated to daily to match in-situ observations for the period 2003–2010. Study objectives are to assess bias of the satellite estimates, to identify optimum window size for application of bias correction and to test effectiveness of bias correction. Bias correction factors are calculated for moving window (MW sizes and for sequential windows (SW’s of 3, 5, 7, 9, …, 31 days with the aim to assess error distribution between the in-situ observations and CMORPH estimates. We tested forward, central and backward window (FW, CW and BW schemes to assess the effect of time integration on accumulated rainfall. Accuracy of cumulative rainfall depth is assessed by Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE. To systematically correct all CMORPH estimates, station based bias factors are spatially interpolated to yield a bias factor map. Reliability of interpolation is assessed by cross validation. The uncorrected CMORPH rainfall images are multiplied by the interpolated bias map to result in bias corrected CMORPH estimates. Findings are evaluated by RMSE, correlation coefficient (r and standard deviation (SD. Results showed existence of bias in the CMORPH rainfall. It is found that the 7 days SW approach performs best for bias correction of CMORPH rainfall. The outcome of this study showed the efficiency of our bias correction approach.

  18. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  19. Ground- and satellite-based evidence of the biophysical mechanisms behind the greening Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martin; Mbow, Cheikh; Diouf, Abdoul A; Verger, Aleixandre; Samimi, Cyrus; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-04-01

    After a dry period with prolonged droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, recent scientific outcome suggests that the decades of abnormally dry conditions in the Sahel have been reversed by positive anomalies in rainfall. Various remote sensing studies observed a positive trend in vegetation greenness over the last decades which is known as the re-greening of the Sahel. However, little investment has been made in including long-term ground-based data collections to evaluate and better understand the biophysical mechanisms behind these findings. Thus, deductions on a possible increment in biomass remain speculative. Our aim is to bridge these gaps and give specifics on the biophysical background factors of the re-greening Sahel. Therefore, a trend analysis was applied on long time series (1987-2013) of satellite-based vegetation and rainfall data, as well as on ground-observations of leaf biomass of woody species, herb biomass, and woody species abundance in different ecosystems located in the Sahel zone of Senegal. We found that the positive trend observed in satellite vegetation time series (+36%) is caused by an increment of in situ measured biomass (+34%), which is highly controlled by precipitation (+40%). Whereas herb biomass shows large inter-annual fluctuations rather than a clear trend, leaf biomass of woody species has doubled within 27 years (+103%). This increase in woody biomass did not reflect on biodiversity with 11 of 16 woody species declining in abundance over the period. We conclude that the observed greening in the Senegalese Sahel is primarily related to an increasing tree cover that caused satellite-driven vegetation indices to increase with rainfall reversal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of Bias Correction Method for Satellite-Based Rainfall Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Haris Akram; Rientjes, Tom; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Habib, Emad; Verhoef, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    With the advances in remote sensing technology, satellite-based rainfall estimates are gaining attraction in the field of hydrology, particularly in rainfall-runoff modeling. Since estimates are affected by errors correction is required. In this study, we tested the high resolution National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite rainfall product (CMORPH) in the Gilgel Abbey catchment, Ethiopia. CMORPH data at 8 km-30 min resolution is aggregated to daily to match in-situ observations for the period 2003–2010. Study objectives are to assess bias of the satellite estimates, to identify optimum window size for application of bias correction and to test effectiveness of bias correction. Bias correction factors are calculated for moving window (MW) sizes and for sequential windows (SW’s) of 3, 5, 7, 9, …, 31 days with the aim to assess error distribution between the in-situ observations and CMORPH estimates. We tested forward, central and backward window (FW, CW and BW) schemes to assess the effect of time integration on accumulated rainfall. Accuracy of cumulative rainfall depth is assessed by Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE). To systematically correct all CMORPH estimates, station based bias factors are spatially interpolated to yield a bias factor map. Reliability of interpolation is assessed by cross validation. The uncorrected CMORPH rainfall images are multiplied by the interpolated bias map to result in bias corrected CMORPH estimates. Findings are evaluated by RMSE, correlation coefficient (r) and standard deviation (SD). Results showed existence of bias in the CMORPH rainfall. It is found that the 7 days SW approach performs best for bias correction of CMORPH rainfall. The outcome of this study showed the efficiency of our bias correction approach. PMID:27314363

  1. Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.

    2013-12-01

    The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  2. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  3. Long-term change analysis of satellite-based evapotranspiration over Indian vegetated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Krishna, Akhouri P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, trend of satellite based annual evapotranspiration (ET) and natural forcing factors responsible for this were analyzed. Thirty years (1981-2010) of ET data at 0.08° grid resolution, generated over Indian region from opticalthermal observations from NOAA PAL and MODIS AQUA satellites, were used. Long-term data on gridded (0.5° x 0.5°) annual rainfall (RF), annual mean surface soil moisture (SSM) ERS scatterometer at 25 km resolution and annual mean incoming shortwave radiation from MERRA-2D reanalysis were also analyzed. Mann-Kendall tests were performed with time series data for trend analysis. Mean annual ET loss from Indian ago-ecosystem was found to be almost double (1100 Cubic Km) than Indian forest ecosystem (550 Cubic Km). Rainfed vegetation systems such as forest, rainfed cropland, grassland showed declining ET trend @ - 4.8, -0.6 &-0.4 Cubic Kmyr-1, respectively during 30 years. Irrigated cropland initially showed ET decline upto 1995 @ -0.8 cubic Kmyr-1 which could possibly be due to solar dimming followed by increasing ET @ 0.9 cubic Kmyr-1 after 1995. A cross-over point was detected between forest ET decline and ET increase in irrigated cropland during 2008. During 2001-2010, the four agriculturally important Indian states eastern, central, western and southern showed significantly increasing ET trend with S-score of 15-25 and Z-score of 1.09-2.9. Increasing ET in western and southern states was found to be coupled with increase in annual rainfall and SSM. But in eastern and central states no significant trend in rainfall was observed though significant increase in ET was noticed. The study recommended to investigate the influence of anthropogenic factors such as increase in area under irrigation, increased use of water for irrigation through ground water pumping, change in cropping pattern and cultivars on increasing ET.

  4. Satellite-based emergency mapping using optical imagery: experience and reflections from the 2015 Nepal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jack G.; Rosser, Nick J.; Kincey, Mark E.; Benjamin, Jessica; Oven, Katie J.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Milledge, David G.; Robinson, Tom R.; Jordan, Colm A.; Dijkstra, Tom A.

    2018-01-01

    Landslides triggered by large earthquakes in mountainous regions contribute significantly to overall earthquake losses and pose a major secondary hazard that can persist for months or years. While scientific investigations of coseismic landsliding are increasingly common, there is no protocol for rapid (hours-to-days) humanitarian-facing landslide assessment and no published recognition of what is possible and what is useful to compile immediately after the event. Drawing on the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, we consider how quickly a landslide assessment based upon manual satellite-based emergency mapping (SEM) can be realistically achieved and review the decisions taken by analysts to ascertain the timeliness and type of useful information that can be generated. We find that, at present, many forms of landslide assessment are too slow to generate relative to the speed of a humanitarian response, despite increasingly rapid access to high-quality imagery. Importantly, the value of information on landslides evolves rapidly as a disaster response develops, so identifying the purpose, timescales, and end users of a post-earthquake landslide assessment is essential to inform the approach taken. It is clear that discussions are needed on the form and timing of landslide assessments, and how best to present and share this information, before rather than after an earthquake strikes. In this paper, we share the lessons learned from the Gorkha earthquake, with the aim of informing the approach taken by scientists to understand the evolving landslide hazard in future events and the expectations of the humanitarian community involved in disaster response.

  5. Effects of lower-cost incentives on stimulant abstinence in methadone maintenance treatment: a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jessica M; Petry, Nancy M; Stitzer, Maxine L; Blaine, Jack; Kellogg, Scott; Satterfield, Frank; Schwartz, Marion; Krasnansky, Joe; Pencer, Eileen; Silva-Vazquez, Lolita; Kirby, Kimberly C; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Roll, John M; Cohen, Allan; Copersino, Marc L; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2006-02-01

    Contingency management interventions that provide tangible incentives based on objective indicators of drug abstinence have improved treatment outcomes of substance abusers, but have not been widely implemented in community drug abuse treatment settings. To compare outcomes achieved when a lower-cost prize-based contingency management treatment is added to usual care in community methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment settings. Random assignment to usual care with (n = 198) or without (n = 190) abstinence incentives during a 12-week trial. Six community-based methadone maintenance drug abuse treatment clinics in locations across the United States. Three hundred eighty-eight stimulant-abusing patients enrolled in methadone maintenance programs for at least 1 month and no more than 3 years. Participants submitting stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples earned draws for a chance to win prizes; the number of draws earned increased with continuous abstinence time. Total number of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples provided, percentage of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples provided, longest duration of abstinence, retention, and counseling attendance. Submission of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples was twice as likely for incentive as for usual care group participants (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-2.77). Achieving 4 or more, 8 or more, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was approximately 3, 9, and 11 times more likely, respectively, for incentive vs usual care participants. Groups did not differ on study retention or counseling attendance. The average cost of prizes was 120 dollars per participant. An abstinence incentive approach that paid 120 dollars in prizes per participant effectively increased stimulant abstinence in community-based methadone maintenance treatment clinics.

  6. SATELLITE BASED EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN REMOTE SENSING AND GEO-INFORMATION: AN E-LEARNING APPROACH TO MEET THE GROWING DEMANDS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE using NASA’s Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6 with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS and Geographical Information System (GIS, mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and

  7. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  8. Regionalization Study of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM) in Hydrologically Homogeneous River Basins of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Babita; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghvendra P.

    2017-04-01

    A new semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model, namely Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), has been developed under 'PRACRITI-2' program of Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for sustainable water resources management of India by using data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites. Entire India is divided into 5km x 5km grid cells and properties at the center of the cells are assumed to represent the property of the cells. SHM contains five modules namely surface water, forest, snow, groundwater and routing. Two empirical equations (SCS-CN and Hargreaves) and water balance method have been used in the surface water module; the forest module is based on the calculations of water balancing & dynamics of subsurface. 2-D Boussinesq equation is used for groundwater modelling which is solved using implicit finite-difference. The routing module follows a distributed routing approach which requires flow path and network with the key point of travel time estimation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of SHM using regionalization technique which also checks the usefulness of a model in data scarce condition or for ungauged basins. However, homogeneity analysis is pre-requisite to regionalization. Similarity index (Φ) and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis are adopted to test the homogeneity in terms of physical attributes of three basins namely Brahmani (39,033 km km^2)), Baitarani (10,982 km km^2)) and Kangsabati (9,660 km km^2)) with respect to Subarnarekha (29,196 km km^2)) basin. The results of both homogeneity analysis show that Brahmani basin is the most homogeneous with respect to Subarnarekha river basin in terms of physical characteristics (land use land cover classes, soiltype and elevation). The calibration and validation of model parameters of Brahmani basin is in progress which are to be transferred into the SHM set up of Subarnarekha basin and results are to be compared with the results of calibrated and validated

  9. Utility and Value of Satellite-Based Frost Forecasting for Kenya's Tea Farming Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I.

    2016-12-01

    Frost damage regularly inflicts millions of dollars of crop losses in the tea-growing highlands of western Kenya, a problem that the USAID/NASA Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR) program is working to mitigate through a frost monitoring and forecasting product that uses satellite-based temperature and soil moisture data to generate up to three days of advanced warning before frost events. This paper presents the findings of a value of information (VOI) study assessing the value of this product based on Kenyan tea farmers' experiences with frost and frost-damage mitigation. Value was calculated based on historic trends of frost frequency, severity, and extent; likelihood of warning receipt and response; and subsequent frost-related crop-loss aversion. Quantification of these factors was derived through inferential analysis of survey data from 400 tea-farming households across the tea-growing regions of Kericho and Nandi, supplemented with key informant interviews with decision-makers at large estate tea plantations, historical frost incident and crop-loss data from estate tea plantations and agricultural insurance companies, and publicly available demographic and economic data. At this time, the product provides a forecasting window of up to three days, and no other frost-prediction methods are used by the large or small-scale farmers of Kenya's tea sector. This represents a significant opportunity for preemptive loss-reduction via Earth observation data. However, the tea-growing community has only two realistic options for frost-damage mitigation: preemptive harvest of available tea leaves to minimize losses, or skiving (light pruning) to facilitate fast recovery from frost damage. Both options are labor-intensive and require a minimum of three days of warning to be viable. As a result, the frost forecasting system has a very narrow margin of usefulness, making its value highly dependent on rapid access to the warning messages and flexible access

  10. Towards a Near Real-Time Satellite-Based Flux Monitoring System for the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershadi, A.; Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing has the potential to offer spatially and temporally distributed information on land surface characteristics, which may be used as inputs and constraints for estimating land surface fluxes of carbon, water and energy. Enhanced satellite-based monitoring systems for aiding local water resource assessments and agricultural management activities are particularly needed for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The MENA region is an area characterized by limited fresh water resources, an often inefficient use of these, and relatively poor in-situ monitoring as a result of sparse meteorological observations. To address these issues, an integrated modeling approach for near real-time monitoring of land surface states and fluxes at fine spatio-temporal scales over the MENA region is presented. This approach is based on synergistic application of multiple sensors and wavebands in the visible to shortwave infrared and thermal infrared (TIR) domain. The multi-scale flux mapping and monitoring system uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI), and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and multi-sensor remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (e.g. Landsat and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate time-continuous (i.e. daily) estimates of field-scale water, energy and carbon fluxes. Within this modeling system, TIR satellite data provide information about the sub-surface moisture status and plant stress, obviating the need for precipitation input and a detailed soil surface characterization (i.e. for prognostic modeling of soil transport processes). The STARFM fusion methodology blends aspects of high frequency (spatially coarse) and spatially fine resolution sensors and is applied directly to flux output

  11. Advances In Global Aerosol Modeling Applications Through Assimilation of Satellite-Based Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Hyer, Edward; Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey; Westphal, Douglas; Xian, Peng; Vaughan, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Modeling the instantaneous three-dimensional aerosol field and its downwind transport represents an endeavor with many practical benefits foreseeable to air quality, aviation, military and science agencies. The recent proliferation of multi-spectral active and passive satellite-based instruments measuring aerosol physical properties has served as an opportunity to develop and refine the techniques necessary to make such numerical modeling applications possible. Spurred by high-resolution global mapping of aerosol source regions, and combined with novel multivariate data assimilation techniques designed to consider these new data streams, operational forecasts of visibility and aerosol optical depths are now available in near real-time1. Active satellite-based aerosol profiling, accomplished using lidar instruments, represents a critical element for accurate analysis and transport modeling. Aerosol source functions, alone, can be limited in representing the macrophysical structure of injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth from passive satellite observations significantly improves the analysis of the initial state. However, this procedure can not fully compensate for any potential vertical redistribution of mass required at the innovation step. The expense of an inaccurate vertical analysis of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive forecast runs will likely diverge with height. In this paper, the application of a newly-designed system for 3D-VAR (x,y,z) assimilation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles derived from elastic-scattering lidar measurements is described [Campbell et al., 2009]. Performance is evaluated for use with the U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) by assimilating NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 0.532 μm measurements [Winker et al., 2009

  12. A Low Carbon strategy at the service of energy transition. How to reach a successful energy transition at lower cost? Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdilly, Robert; Mamer, Eric; Fleury, Arnaud; Proglio, Henri; Bizet, Jean; Varro, Laszlo; Andoura, Sami; Thibault, Agnes; Roux de bezieux, Geoffroy; Mestrallet, Gerard; Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Bornard, Pierre; Bensasson, Bruno; Torrion, Philippe; Stehmann, Volker; Chatelus, Gautier; Maillard, Dominique; Kohlmann, Roger; Kohler, Stephan; Durdilly, Robert; Schwarz, Virginie; Sem, Gunnar Lund; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Heuze, Loic; Gaubert, Jean; Monloubou, Philippe; Salha, Bernard; Buchel, Christian; Chone, Fabien; Sichel, Olivier; Regnault, Celine; Le Deaut, Jean-Yves; Abad, Damien; Guibert, Geraud; Kervasdoue, Jean de; Oursel, Luc; Cirelli, Jean-Francois; Felzinger, Vincent; Rivaz, Vincent de

    2014-01-01

    negative electricity prices, challenges of self-production, the capacity obligation in the case of France, the fundamental role of power for the electric system, hydroelectricity as an essential vector of a Low Carbon strategy at lower cost. The last part gathers the content of several contributions and of several round tables which addressed the following topics: the great options for the future European commission in terms of climate, energy and competitiveness, the safety of the electric system between regulation and market, the cooperation between French and German industrials as an engine of a Europe of electricity, acting on the demand structure as a priority for a low carbon strategy, innovation and new business models for the electric industry

  13. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products using satellite-based gravity and rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Oliver; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew Francis

    2017-01-01

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this consistency-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2-3 months

  14. Simulation of large-scale soil water systems using groundwater data and satellite based soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Complex concepts for the physically correct depiction of dominant processes in the hydrosphere are increasingly at the forefront of hydrological modelling. Many scientific issues in hydrological modelling demand for additional system variables besides a simulation of runoff only, such as groundwater recharge or soil moisture conditions. Models that include soil water simulations are either very simplified or require a high number of parameters. Against this backdrop there is a heightened demand of observations to be used to calibrate the model. A reasonable integration of groundwater data or remote sensing data in calibration procedures as well as the identifiability of physically plausible sets of parameters is subject to research in the field of hydrology. Since this data is often combined with conceptual models, the given interfaces are not suitable for such demands. Furthermore, the application of automated optimisation procedures is generally associated with conceptual models, whose (fast) computing times allow many iterations of the optimisation in an acceptable time frame. One of the main aims of this study is to reduce the discrepancy between scientific and practical applications in the field of hydrological modelling. Therefore, the soil model DYVESOM (DYnamic VEgetation SOil Model) was developed as one of the primary components of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. DYVESOMs structure provides the required interfaces for the calibrations made at runoff, satellite based soil moisture and groundwater level. The model considers spatial and temporal differentiated feedback of the development of the vegetation on the soil system. In addition, small scale heterogeneities of soil properties (subgrid-variability) are parameterized by variation of van Genuchten parameters depending on distribution functions. Different sets of parameters are operated simultaneously while interacting with each other. The developed soil model is innovative regarding concept

  15. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F14) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  16. Ground test of satellite constellation based quantum communication

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yong, Hai-Lin; Liu, Chang; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Li, Dong-Dong; Lin, Jin; Dai, Hui; Zhao, Shuang-Qiang; Li, Bo; Guan, Jian-Yu; Chen, Wei; Gong, Yun-Hong; Li, Yang; Lin, Ze-Hong; Pan, Ge-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global...

  17. Advancing satellite-based solar power forecasting through integration of infrared channels for automatic detection of coastal marine inversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostylev, Vladimir; Kostylev, Andrey; Carter, Chris; Mahoney, Chad; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs Inc., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Cormier, Dallas Eugene; Fotland, Lena [San Diego Gas and Electric Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The marine atmospheric boundary layer is a layer or cool, moist maritime air with the thickness of a few thousand feet immediately below a temperature inversion. In coastal areas as moist air rises from the ocean surface, it becomes trapped and is often compressed into fog above which a layer of stratus clouds often forms. This phenomenon is common for satellite-based solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. Hour ahead satellite-based solar radiation forecasts are commonly using visible spectrum satellite images, from which it is difficult to automatically differentiate low stratus clouds and fog from high altitude clouds. This provides a challenge for cloud motion tyracking and cloud cover forecasting. San Diego Gas and Electric {sup registered} (SDG and E {sup registered}) Marine Layer Project was undertaken to obtain information for integration with PV forecasts, and to develop a detailed understanding of long-term benefits from forecasting Marine Layer (ML) events and their effects on PV production. In order to establish climatological ML patterns, spatial extent and distribution of marine layer, we analyzed visible and IR spectrum satellite images (GOES WEST) archive for the period of eleven years (2000 - 2010). Historical boundaries of marine layers impact were established based on the cross-classification of visible spectrum (VIS) and infrared (IR) images. This approach is successfully used by us and elsewhere for evaluating cloud albedo in common satellite-based techniques for solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. The approach allows differentiation of cloud cover and helps distinguish low laying fog which is the main consequence of marine layer formation. ML occurrence probability and maximum extent inland was established for each hour and day of the analyzed period and seasonal/patterns were described. SDG and E service area is the most affected region by ML events with highest extent and probability of ML occurrence. Influence of ML was the

  18. Strategies for satellite-based monitoring of CO2 from distributed area and point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Miller, Charles E.; Duren, Riley M.; Natraj, Vijay; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael R.; Crisp, David

    2014-05-01

    and sensor provides the full range of temporal sampling needed to characterize distributed area and point source emissions. For instance, point source emission patterns will vary with source strength, wind speed and direction. Because wind speed, direction and other environmental factors change rapidly, short term variabilities should be sampled. For detailed target selection and pointing verification, important lessons have already been learned and strategies devised during JAXA's GOSAT mission (Schwandner et al, 2013). The fact that competing spatial and temporal requirements drive satellite remote sensing sampling strategies dictates a systematic, multi-factor consideration of potential solutions. Factors to consider include vista, revisit frequency, integration times, spatial resolution, and spatial coverage. No single satellite-based remote sensing solution can address this problem for all scales. It is therefore of paramount importance for the international community to develop and maintain a constellation of atmospheric CO2 monitoring satellites that complement each other in their temporal and spatial observation capabilities: Polar sun-synchronous orbits (fixed local solar time, no diurnal information) with agile pointing allow global sampling of known distributed area and point sources like megacities, power plants and volcanoes with daily to weekly temporal revisits and moderate to high spatial resolution. Extensive targeting of distributed area and point sources comes at the expense of reduced mapping or spatial coverage, and the important contextual information that comes with large-scale contiguous spatial sampling. Polar sun-synchronous orbits with push-broom swath-mapping but limited pointing agility may allow mapping of individual source plumes and their spatial variability, but will depend on fortuitous environmental conditions during the observing period. These solutions typically have longer times between revisits, limiting their ability to resolve

  19. Air-sea fluxes and satellite-based estimation of water masses formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Klockmann, Marlene; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Recent work linking satellite-based measurements of sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) with traditional physical oceanography has demonstrated the capability of generating routinely satellite-derived surface T-S diagrams [1] and analyze the distribution/dynamics of SSS and its relative surface density with respect to in-situ measurements. Even more recently [2,3], this framework has been extended by exploiting these T-S diagrams as a diagnostic tool to derive water masses formation rates and areas. A water mass describes a water body with physical properties distinct from the surrounding water, formed at the ocean surface under specific conditions which determine its temperature and salinity. The SST and SSS (and thus also density) at the ocean surface are largely determined by fluxes of heat and freshwater. The surface density flux is a function of the latter two and describes the change of the density of seawater at the surface. To obtain observations of water mass formation is of great interest, since they serve as indirect observations of the thermo-haline circulation. The SSS data which has become available through the SMOS [4] and Aquarius [5] satellite missions will provide the possibility of studying also the effect of temporally-varying SSS fields on water mass formation. In the present study, the formation of water masses as a function of SST and SSS is derived from the surface density flux by integrating the latter over a specific area and time period in bins of SST and SSS and then taking the derivative of the total density flux with respect to density. This study presents a test case using SMOS SSS, OSTIA SST, as well as Argo ISAS SST and SSS for comparison, heat fluxes from the NOCS Surface Flux Data Set v2.0, OAFlux evaporation and CMORPH precipitation. The study area, initially referred to the North Atlantic, is extended over two additional ocean basins and the study period covers the 2011-2012 timeframe. Yearly, seasonal

  20. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  1. Improving satellite-based PM2.5 estimates in China using Gaussian processes modeling in a Bayesian hierarchical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxi; Liu, Yang; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Using satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements and statistical models to estimate ground-level PM 2.5 is a promising way to fill the areas that are not covered by ground PM 2.5 monitors. The statistical models used in previous studies are primarily Linear Mixed Effects (LME) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models. In this study, we developed a new regression model between PM 2.5 and AOD using Gaussian processes in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Gaussian processes model the stochastic nature of the spatial random effects, where the mean surface and the covariance function is specified. The spatial stochastic process is incorporated under the Bayesian hierarchical framework to explain the variation of PM 2.5 concentrations together with other factors, such as AOD, spatial and non-spatial random effects. We evaluate the results of our model and compare them with those of other, conventional statistical models (GWR and LME) by within-sample model fitting and out-of-sample validation (cross validation, CV). The results show that our model possesses a CV result (R 2  = 0.81) that reflects higher accuracy than that of GWR and LME (0.74 and 0.48, respectively). Our results indicate that Gaussian process models have the potential to improve the accuracy of satellite-based PM 2.5 estimates.

  2. Reaping the space investment. [Shuttle era geosynchronous satellite based technological trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calio, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By 1999 operational space systems will be implemented routinely on a worldwide scale in many areas vital to human survival and life quality. Geosynchronous-based monitoring and observation will be extensively used. The Shuttle era will bring in the capability to allow monitoring and identifying pollution sources which fail to stay within required limits. Remotely sensed data over land masses will provide needed facts on renewable and nonrenewable earth resources. New instruments and techniques will have been developed to provide geologists with clues to the declining number of deposits of fuels and minerals. Also, practical methods for predicting earthquakes will have been elaborated by 1999. Communications will see implementation of many of the technological goals of 1978.

  3. Didactic satellite based on Android platform for space operation demonstration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Space technology plays a pivotal role in society development. It offers new methods for telemetry, monitoring and control. However, this sector requires training, research and skills development but the lack of instruments, materials and budgets affects the ambiguity to understand satellite technology. The objective of this paper is to describe a demonstration prototype of a smart phone device for space operations study. Therefore, the first task was carried out to give a demonstration for spatial imagery and attitude determination missions through a wireless communication. The smart phone's Bluetooth was used to achieve this goal inclusive of a new method to enable real time transmission. In addition, an algorithm around a quaternion based Kalman filter was included in order to detect the reliability of the prototype's orientation. The second task was carried out to provide a demonstration for the attitude control mission using the smart phone's orientation sensor, including a new method for an autonomous guided mode. As a result, the acquisition platform showed real time measurement with good accuracy for orientation detection and image transmission. In addition, the prototype kept the balance during the demonstration based on the attitude control method.

  4. A novel cross-satellite based assessment of the spatio-temporal development of a cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Benjamin P.; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R.

    2018-04-01

    As the frequency of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) become more common in recreational lakes and water supply reservoirs, demand for rapid detection and temporal monitoring will be imminent for effective management. The goal of this study was to demonstrate a novel and potentially operational cross-satellite based protocol for synoptic monitoring of rapidly evolving and increasingly common CyanoHABs in inland waters. The analysis involved a novel way to cross-calibrate a chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) detection model for the Landsat-8 OLI sensor from the relationship between the normalized difference chlorophyll index and the floating algal index derived from Sentinel-2A on a coinciding overpass date during the summer CyanoHAB bloom in Utah Lake. This aided in the construction of a time-series phenology of the Utah Lake CyanoHAB event. Spatio-temporal cyanobacterial density maps from both Sentinel-2A and Landsat-8 sensors revealed that the bloom started in the first week of July 2016 (July 3rd, mean cell count: 9163 cells/mL), reached peak in mid-July (July 15th, mean cell count: 108176 cells/mL), and reduced in August (August 24th, mean cell count: 9145 cells/mL). Analysis of physical and meteorological factors suggested a complex interaction between landscape processes (high surface runoff), climatic conditions (high temperature, high rainfall followed by negligible rainfall, stable wind), and water quality (low water level, high Chl-a) which created a supportive environment for triggering these blooms in Utah Lake. This cross satellite-based monitoring methods can be a great tool for regular monitoring and will reduce the budget cost for monitoring and predicting CyanoHABs in large lakes.

  5. Validation and Application of the Modified Satellite-Based Priestley-Taylor Algorithm for Mapping Terrestrial Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based vegetation indices (VIs and Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI derived from temperature change provide valuable information for estimating evapotranspiration (LE and detecting the onset and severity of drought. The modified satellite-based Priestley-Taylor (MS-PT algorithm that we developed earlier, coupling both VI and ATI, is validated based on observed data from 40 flux towers distributed across the world on all continents. The validation results illustrate that the daily LE can be estimated with the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE varying from 10.7 W/m2 to 87.6 W/m2, and with the square of correlation coefficient (R2 from 0.41 to 0.89 (p < 0.01. Compared with the Priestley-Taylor-based LE (PT-JPL algorithm, the MS-PT algorithm improves the LE estimates at most flux tower sites. Importantly, the MS-PT algorithm is also satisfactory in reproducing the inter-annual variability at flux tower sites with at least five years of data. The R2 between measured and predicted annual LE anomalies is 0.42 (p = 0.02. The MS-PT algorithm is then applied to detect the variations of long-term terrestrial LE over Three-North Shelter Forest Region of China and to monitor global land surface drought. The MS-PT algorithm described here demonstrates the ability to map regional terrestrial LE and identify global soil moisture stress, without requiring precipitation information.

  6. Spatial and temporal interpolation of satellite-based aerosol optical depth measurements over North America using B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Nicolas; O'Neill, Norman T.; Aube, Martin; Nguyen, Minh-Nghia; Bechamp-Laganiere, Xavier; Besnier, Albert; Corriveau, Louis; Gasse, Geremie; Levert, Etienne; Plante, Danick

    2005-08-01

    Satellite-based measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over land are obtained from an inversion procedure applied to dense dark vegetation pixels of remotely sensed images. The limited number of pixels over which the inversion procedure can be applied leaves many areas with little or no AOD data. Moreover, satellite coverage by sensors such as MODIS yields only daily images of a given region with four sequential overpasses required to straddle mid-latitude North America. Ground based AOD data from AERONET sun photometers are available on a more continuous basis but only at approximately fifty locations throughout North America. The object of this work is to produce a complete and coherent mapping of AOD over North America with a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree and a frequency of three hours by interpolating MODIS satellite-based data together with available AERONET ground based measurements. Before being interpolated, the MODIS AOD data extracted from different passes are synchronized to the mapping time using analyzed wind fields from the Global Multiscale Model (Meteorological Service of Canada). This approach amounts to a trajectory type of simplified atmospheric dynamics correction method. The spatial interpolation is performed using a weighted least squares method applied to bicubic B-spline functions defined on a rectangular grid. The least squares method enables one to weight the data accordingly to the measurement errors while the B-splines properties of local support and C2 continuity offer a good approximation of AOD behaviour viewed as a function of time and space.

  7. Satellite Based Live and Interactive Distance Learning Program in the Field of Geoinformatics - a Perspective of Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.; Roy, P. S.

    2011-09-01

    Geoinformatics is a highly specialized discipline that deals with Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and field surveys for assessing, quantification, development and management of resources, planning and infrastructure development, utility services etc. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), a premier institute and one of its kinds has played a key role for capacity Building in this specialized area since its inception in 1966. Realizing the large demand, IIRS has started outreach program in basics of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS for universities and institutions. EDUSAT (Educational Satellite) is the communication satellite built and launched by ISRO in 2004 exclusively for serving the educational sector to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. IIRS has used EDUSAT (shifted to INSAT 4 CR recently due to termination of services from EDUSAT) for its distance learning program to impart basic training in Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS, catering to the universities spread across India. The EDUSAT based training is following similar to e-learning method but has advantage of live interaction sessions between teacher and the students when the lecture is delivered using EDUSAT satellite communication. Because of its good quality reception the interactions are not constrained due to bandwidth problems of Internet. National Natural Resource Management System, Department of Space, Government of India, under Standing Committee in Training and Technology funded this unique program to conduct the basic training in Geoinformatics. IIRS conducts 6 weeks basic training course on "Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS" regularly since the year 2007. The course duration is spread over the period of 3 months beginning with the start of the academic year (1st semester) i.e., July to December every year, for university students. IIRS has utilized EDUSAT satellite for conducting 4 six weeks

  8. Validation and in vivo assessment of an innovative satellite-based solar UV dosimeter for a mobile app dedicated to skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M; Masini, A; Simeone, E; Khazova, M

    2016-08-31

    We present an innovative satellite-based solar UV (ultraviolet) radiation dosimeter with a mobile app interface that has been validated by exploiting both ground-based measurements and an in vivo assessment of the erythemal effects on some volunteers having controlled exposure to solar radiation. The app with this satellite-based UV dosimeter also includes other related functionalities such as the provision of safe sun exposure time updated in real-time and end exposure visual/sound alert. Both validations showed that the system has a good accuracy and reliability needed for health-related applications. This app will be launched on the market by siHealth Ltd in May 2016 under the name of "HappySun" and is available for both Android and iOS devices (more info on ). Extensive R&D activities are on-going for the further improvement of the satellite-based UV dosimeter's accuracy.

  9. Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for Tsunami events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early warning stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of Tsunami early warning by Charter activations following the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004, the Chile Tsunami 2010 and the Honshu Tsunami 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication

  10. Technical comparison of several global mobile satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    The era of satellite-based mobile satellite communications (MSC) systems started with the first MARISAT satellite which was launched into a geostationary orbit over the Pacific Ocean in 1976 to provide communications between ships and shore stations. The combination of high cost and unacceptably large equipment has kept the space-based MSC systems from appealing to the wider market of personal mobile communications. The progress made over the last ten years, however, in digital voice processing, satellite technology, and component miniaturization has resulted in the viability of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems to meet the growing market in personal mobile communications using handsets similar to those currently in use with land-based cellular systems. Three of the more mature LEO/MEO satellite systems are addressed in this paper including GLOBALSTAR, Iridium, and Odyssey. The system architectures of each system are presented along with a description of the satellite and user handset designs and the multiaccess techniques employed. It will be shown that, although a number of similarities exist among the system addressed, each system is unique in a variety of significant design areas. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems seems to be secure. It will be challenging, however, for the vendors to actually develop and deploy these systems in a cost effective, timely, and reliable way that meets a continually evolving set of requirements based upon a rapidly changing technology base.

  11. Relation between Ocean SST Dipoles and Downwind Continental Croplands Assessed for Early Management Using Satellite-based Photosynthesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2015-04-01

    Crop-monitoring systems with the unit of carbon-dioxide sequestration for environmental issues related to climate adaptation to global warming have been improved using satellite-based photosynthesis and meteorological conditions. Early management of crop status is desirable for grain production, stockbreeding, and bio-energy providing that the seasonal climate forecasting is sufficiently accurate. Incorrect seasonal forecasting of crop production can damage global social activities if the recognized conditions are unsatisfied. One cause of poor forecasting related to the atmospheric dynamics at the Earth surface, which reflect the energy budget through land surface, especially the oceans and atmosphere. Recognition of the relation between SST anomalies (e.g. ENSO, Atlantic Niño, Indian dipoles, and Ningaloo Niño) and crop production, as expressed precisely by photosynthesis or the sequestrated-carbon rate, is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms related to poor production. Solar radiation, surface air temperature, and water stress all directly affect grain vegetation photosynthesis. All affect stomata opening, which is related to the water balance or definition by the ratio of the Penman potential evaporation and actual transpiration. Regarding stomata, present data and reanalysis data give overestimated values of stomata opening because they are extended from wet models in forests rather than semi-arid regions commonly associated with wheat, maize, and soybean. This study applies a complementary model based on energy conservation for semi-arid zones instead of the conventional Penman-Monteith method. Partitioning of the integrated Net PSN enables precise estimation of crop yields by modifying the semi-closed stomata opening. Partitioning predicts production more accurately using the cropland distribution already classified using satellite data. Seasonal crop forecasting should include near-real-time monitoring using satellite-based process crop models to avoid

  12. Satellite-based evidence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in biomass burning smoke inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jethva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We provide satellite-based evidence of the spectral dependence of absorption in biomass burning aerosols over South America using near-UV measurements made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI during 2005–2007. In the current near-UV OMI aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV, it is implicitly assumed that the only absorbing component in carbonaceous aerosols is black carbon whose imaginary component of the refractive index is wavelength independent. With this assumption, OMI-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD is found to be significantly over-estimated compared to that of AERONET at several sites during intense biomass burning events (August-September. Other well-known sources of error affecting the near-UV method of aerosol retrieval do not explain the large observed AOD discrepancies between the satellite and the ground-based observations. A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols. A sensitivity analysis examining the importance of accounting for the presence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in carbonaceous particles in satellite-based remote sensing was carried out in this work. The results convincingly show that the inclusion of spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption in the radiative transfer calculations leads to a more accurate characterization of the atmospheric load of carbonaceous aerosols. The use of a new set of aerosol models assuming wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in the near-UV region (Absorption Angstrom Exponent λ−2.5 to −3.0 improved the OMAERUV retrieval results by significantly reducing the AOD bias observed when gray aerosols were assumed. In addition, the new retrieval of single-scattering albedo is in better agreement with those of AERONET within the uncertainties (ΔSSA = ±0.03. The new colored carbonaceous aerosol model was also found to

  13. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  14. Correcting satellite-based precipitation products through SMOS soil moisture data assimilation in two land-surface models of different complexity: API and SURFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time rainfall accumulation estimates at the global scale is useful for many applications. However, the real-time versions of satellite-based rainfall products are known to contain errors relative to real rainfall observed in situ. Recent studies have demonstrated how information about rainfall ...

  15. Improved process control, lowered costs and reduced risks through the use of non-destructive mobility and sheet carrier density measurements on GaAs and GaN wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D.; Hogan, K.; Blew, A.; Cordes, M.

    2004-12-01

    Improved process control, lowered costs and reduced risks can be realized through the use of non-destructive mobility and sheet charge density measurements during the fabrication of GaAs and GaN wafers. The results from this microwave-based technique are shown to agree with destructive van der Pauw Hall testing results to within ±5%. In addition, it has the ability to map wafer uniformity and provide separated 2DEG data for thick cap or multi-layered structures. As a result, this technique provides an efficient and cost-effective alternative to current process control metrology methods, while providing the user with important process control data.

  16. Demonstrating the Value of Near Real-time Satellite-based Earth Observations in a Research and Education Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, L.; Hao, X.; Kinter, J. L.; Stearn, G.; Aliani, M.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of GOES-16 series provides an opportunity to advance near real-time applications in natural hazard detection, monitoring and warning. This study demonstrates the capability and values of receiving real-time satellite-based Earth observations over a fast terrestrial networks and processing high-resolution remote sensing data in a university environment. The demonstration system includes 4 components: 1) Near real-time data receiving and processing; 2) data analysis and visualization; 3) event detection and monitoring; and 4) information dissemination. Various tools are developed and integrated to receive and process GRB data in near real-time, produce images and value-added data products, and detect and monitor extreme weather events such as hurricane, fire, flooding, fog, lightning, etc. A web-based application system is developed to disseminate near-real satellite images and data products. The images are generated with GIS-compatible format (GeoTIFF) to enable convenient use and integration in various GIS platforms. This study enhances the capacities for undergraduate and graduate education in Earth system and climate sciences, and related applications to understand the basic principles and technology in real-time applications with remote sensing measurements. It also provides an integrated platform for near real-time monitoring of extreme weather events, which are helpful for various user communities.

  17. A comparision between satellite based and drone based remote sensing technology to achieve sustainable development: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babankumar Bansod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a way to manage the crop yield resources like water, fertilizers, soil, seeds in order to increase production, quality, gain and reduce squander products so that the existing system become eco-friendly. The main target of precision agriculture is to match resources and execution according to the crop and climate to ameliorate the effects of Praxis. Global Positioning System, Geographic Information System, Remote sensing technologies and various sensors are used in Precision farming for identifying the variability in field and using different methods to deal with them. Satellite based remote sensing is used to study the variability in crop and ground but suffer from various disadvantageous such as prohibited use, high price, less revisiting them, poor resolution due to great height, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is other alternative option for application in precision farming. UAV overcomes the drawback of the ground based system, i.e. inaccessibility to muddy and very dense regions. Hovering at a peak of 500 meter - 1000 meter is good enough to offer various advantageous in image acquisition such as high spatial and temporal resolution, full flexibility, low cost. Recent studies of application of UAV in precision farming indicate advanced designing of UAV, enhancement in georeferencing and the mosaicking of image, analysis and extraction of information required for supplying a true end product to farmers. This paper also discusses the various platforms of UAV used in farming applications, its technical constraints, seclusion rites, reliability and safety.

  18. The Effectiveness of Using Limited Gauge Measurements for Bias Adjustment of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimation over Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Raied; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Braithwaite, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is a key input variable for hydrological and climate studies. Rain gauges are capable of providing reliable precipitation measurements at point scale. However, the uncertainty of rain measurements increases when the rain gauge network is sparse. Satellite -based precipitation estimations appear to be an alternative source of precipitation measurements, but they are influenced by systematic bias. In this study, a method for removing the bias from the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) over a region where the rain gauge is sparse is investigated. The method consists of monthly empirical quantile mapping, climate classification, and inverse-weighted distance method. Daily PERSIANN-CCS is selected to test the capability of the method for removing the bias over Saudi Arabia during the period of 2010 to 2016. The first six years (2010 - 2015) are calibrated years and 2016 is used for validation. The results show that the yearly correlation coefficient was enhanced by 12%, the yearly mean bias was reduced by 93% during validated year. Root mean square error was reduced by 73% during validated year. The correlation coefficient, the mean bias, and the root mean square error show that the proposed method removes the bias on PERSIANN-CCS effectively that the method can be applied to other regions where the rain gauge network is sparse.

  19. Strategic system development toward biofuel, desertification, and crop production monitoring in continental scales using satellite-based photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2013-10-01

    The author regards fundamental root functions as underpinning photosynthesis activities by vegetation and as affecting environmental issues, grain production, and desertification. This paper describes the present development of monitoring and near real-time forecasting of environmental projects and crop production by approaching established operational monitoring step-by-step. The author has been developing a thematic monitoring structure (named RSEM system) which stands on satellite-based photosynthesis models over several continents for operational supports in environmental fields mentioned above. Validation methods stand not on FLUXNET but on carbon partitioning validation (CPV). The models demand continuing parameterization. The entire frame system has been built using Reanalysis meteorological data, but model accuracy remains insufficient except for that of paddy rice. The author shall accomplish the system that incorporates global environmental forces. Regarding crop production applications, industrialization in developing countries achieved through direct investment by economically developed nations raises their income, resulting in increased food demand. Last year, China began to import rice as it had in the past with grains of maize, wheat, and soybeans. Important agro-potential countries make efforts to cultivate new crop lands in South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Trends toward less food sustainability and stability are continuing, with exacerbation by rapid social and climate changes. Operational monitoring of carbon sequestration by herbaceous and bore plants converges with efforts at bio-energy, crop production monitoring, and socio-environmental projects such as CDM A/R, combating desertification, and bio-diversity.

  20. Superconductors Enable Lower Cost MRI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright, light, and green, especially where aircraft are concerned. The division of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program called the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is aiming to reach new heights by 2025-2035, improving the efficiency and environmental impact of air travel by developing new capabilities for cleaner, quieter, and more fuel efficient aircraft. One of the many ways NASA plans to reach its aviation goals is by combining new aircraft configurations with an advanced turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. Jeff Trudell, an engineer at Glenn Research Center, says, "The TeDP system consists of gas turbines generating electricity to power a large number of distributed motor-driven fans embedded into the airframe." The combined effect increases the effective bypass ratio and reduces drag to meet future goals. "While room temperature components may help reduce emissions and noise in a TeDP system, cryogenic superconducting electric motors and generators are essential to reduce fuel burn," says Trudell. Superconductors provide significantly higher current densities and smaller and lighter designs than room temperature equivalents. Superconductors are also able to conduct direct current without resistance (loss of energy) below a critical temperature and applied field. Unfortunately, alternating current (AC) losses represent the major part of the heat load and depend on the frequency of the current and applied field. A refrigeration system is necessary to remove the losses and its weight increases with decreasing temperature. In 2001, a material called magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered to be superconducting. The challenge, however, has been learning to manufacture MgB2 inexpensively and in long lengths to wind into large coils while meeting the application requirements.

  1. Virginia Power's vision of lower costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The top two positions in the 1996 annual league table of US nuclear production costs were taken by Surry at $11.45/MWh generated and North Anna at $12.64. Both are PWR plants operated by Virginia Power. This is part of a consistent pattern of good performance in recent years. In the late 1980s, however, the performance of these plants was very poor. The management changes which have brought about the transformation are examined. They include: setting goals; better teamwork; increased accountability of senior management for budgets; development and monitoring of performance indicators; running the nuclear division as a separate business; more effective maintenance and reduced outage costs. (UK)

  2. Digitizing the Facebow: A Clinician/Technician Communication Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Les; Chrapka, Julia; Joseph, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Communication between the clinician and the technician has been an ongoing problem in dentistry. To improve the issue, a dental software application has been developed--the Virtual Facebow App. It is an alternative to the traditional analog facebow, used to orient the maxillary cast in mounting. Comparison data of the two methods indicated that the digitized virtual facebow provided increased efficiency in mounting, increased accuracy in occlusion, and lower cost. Occlusal accuracy, lab time, and total time were statistically significant (Ptechnician communication.

  3. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Approaches for Monthly Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Downscaling over Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangxiaoyue Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous satellite-based soil moisture (SM products can provide spatiotemporally continuous worldwide datasets, they can hardly be employed in characterizing fine-grained regional land surface processes, owing to their coarse spatial resolution. In this study, we proposed a machine-learning-based method to enhance SM spatial accuracy and improve the availability of SM data. Four machine learning algorithms, including classification and regression trees (CART, K-nearest neighbors (KNN, Bayesian (BAYE, and random forests (RF, were implemented to downscale the monthly European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI SM product from 25-km to 1-km spatial resolution. During the regression, the land surface temperature (including daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and diurnal fluctuation temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, surface reflections (red band, blue band, NIR band and MIR band, and digital elevation model were taken as explanatory variables to produce fine spatial resolution SM. We chose Northeast China as the study area and acquired corresponding SM data from 2003 to 2012 in unfrozen seasons. The reconstructed SM datasets were validated against in-situ measurements. The results showed that the RF-downscaled results had superior matching performance to both ESA CCI SM and in-situ measurements, and can positively respond to precipitation variation. Additionally, the RF was less affected by parameters, which revealed its robustness. Both CART and KNN ranked second. Compared to KNN, CART had a relatively close correlation with the validation data, but KNN showed preferable precision. Moreover, BAYE ranked last with significantly abnormal regression values.

  4. A New Temperature-Vegetation Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE for Satellite-Based Actual Evapotranspiration Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of spatially-variable actual evapotranspiration (AET is a critical challenge to regional water resources management. We propose a new remote sensing method, the Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE, to generate daily AET estimates based on satellite-derived land surface temperature and the vegetation index NDVI. The TAVE captures heterogeneity in AET across elevation zones and permits variability in determining local values of wet and dry end-member classes (known as edges. Compared to traditional triangle methods, TAVE introduces three unique features: (i the discretization of the domain as overlapping elevation zones; (ii a variable wet edge that is a function of elevation zone; and (iii variable values of a combined-effect parameter (that accounts for aerodynamic and surface resistance, vapor pressure gradient, and soil moisture availability along both wet and dry edges. With these features, TAVE effectively addresses the combined influence of terrain and water stress on semi-arid environment AET estimates. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in one of the driest countries in the world—Jordan, and compare it to a traditional triangle method (TA and a global AET product (MOD16 over different land use types. In irrigated agricultural lands, TAVE matched the results of the single crop coefficient model (−3%, in contrast to substantial overestimation by TA (+234% and underestimation by MOD16 (−50%. In forested (non-irrigated, water consuming regions, TA and MOD16 produced AET average deviations 15.5 times and −3.5 times of those based on TAVE. As TAVE has a simple structure and low data requirements, it provides an efficient means to satisfy the increasing need for evapotranspiration estimation in data-scarce semi-arid regions. This study constitutes a much needed step towards the satellite-based quantification of agricultural water consumption in Jordan.

  5. Hydrological real-time modelling in the Zambezi river basin using satellite-based soil moisture and rainfall data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable real-time forecasts of the discharge can provide valuable information for the management of a river basin system. For the management of ecological releases even discharge forecasts with moderate accuracy can be beneficial. Sequential data assimilation using the Ensemble Kalman Filter provides a tool that is both efficient and robust for a real-time modelling framework. One key parameter in a hydrological system is the soil moisture, which recently can be characterized by satellite based measurements. A forecasting framework for the prediction of discharges is developed and applied to three different sub-basins of the Zambezi River Basin. The model is solely based on remote sensing data providing soil moisture and rainfall estimates. The soil moisture product used is based on the back-scattering intensity of a radar signal measured by a radar scatterometer. These soil moisture data correlate well with the measured discharge of the corresponding watershed if the data are shifted by a time lag which is dependent on the size and the dominant runoff process in the catchment. This time lag is the basis for the applicability of the soil moisture data for hydrological forecasts. The conceptual model developed is based on two storage compartments. The processes modeled include evaporation losses, infiltration and percolation. The application of this model in a real-time modelling framework yields good results in watersheds where soil storage is an important factor. The lead time of the forecast is dependent on the size and the retention capacity of the watershed. For the largest watershed a forecast over 40 days can be provided. However, the quality of the forecast increases significantly with decreasing prediction time. In a watershed with little soil storage and a quick response to rainfall events, the performance is relatively poor and the lead time is as short as 10 days only.

  6. AIM satellite-based research bridges the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education programs globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) component of the satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM) will bridge the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education organizations. The informal education materials developed by the EPO will utilize AIM data and educate the public about the environmental implications associated with the data. This will assist with creating a scientifically literate workforce and in developing a citizenry capable of making educated decisions related to environmental policies and laws. The objective of the AIM mission is to understand the mechanisms that cause Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to form, how their presence affects the atmosphere, and how change in the atmosphere affects them. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) because of their visibility during the night from appropriate locations. The phenomenon of PMCs is an observable indicator of global change, a concern to all citizens. Recent sightings of these clouds over populated regions have compelled AIM educators to expand informal education opportunities to communities worldwide. Collaborations with informal organizations include: Museums/Science Centers; NASA Sun-Earth Connection Forum; Alaska Native Ways of Knowing Project; Amateur Noctilucent Cloud Observers Organization; National Parks Education Programs; After School Science Clubs; Public Broadcasting Associations; and National Public Radio. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example of informal collaboration with the AIM EPO. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the EPO website. It will also aid the EPO with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another AIM collaboration that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the United States National Parks

  7. Satellite-Based Evaluation of the Post-Fire Recovery Process from the Worst Forest Fire Case in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyun Ryu

    2018-06-01

    different, using only one satellite-based indicator will not be suitable to understand the post-fire recovery process. NBR, NDVI, and GPP can be combined. Further studies will require more approaches using various terms of indices.

  8. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  9. Communication without communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the necessary conditions for successful communication. It is well known that post-modernity, described as an era of control, produces only decentralized, imploded subjectivities, who are neither able to question their own being nor to relate one with another in authentic bonds of communication. Today, virtual communication has become an ultimate model of every possible communication whatsoever. The authors, therefore, pose the question of conditions for possibility of subjectivities who would be able and apt for authentic communication, wherein faith, fidelity, truth, and capability of keeping one's word occupy the central place.

  10. Estimation of snowpack matching ground-truth data and MODIS satellite-based observations by using regression kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is essential for an appropriate assessment of the available water resources in Alpine catchment. The hydrologic regime in these areas is dominated by the storage of water in the snowpack, which is discharged to rivers throughout the melt season. An accurate estimation of the resources will be necessary for an appropriate analysis of the system operation alternatives using basin scale management models. In order to obtain an appropriate estimation of the SWE we need to know the spatial distribution snowpack and snow density within the Snow Cover Area (SCA). Data for these snow variables can be extracted from in-situ point measurements and air-borne/space-borne remote sensing observations. Different interpolation and simulation techniques have been employed for the estimation of the cited variables. In this paper we propose to estimate snowpack from a reduced number of ground-truth data (1 or 2 campaigns per year with 23 observation point from 2000-2014) and MODIS satellite-based observations in the Sierra Nevada Mountain (Southern Spain). Regression based methodologies has been used to study snowpack distribution using different kind of explicative variables: geographic, topographic, climatic. 40 explicative variables were considered: the longitude, latitude, altitude, slope, eastness, northness, radiation, maximum upwind slope and some mathematical transformation of each of them [Ln(v), (v)^-1; (v)^2; (v)^0.5). Eight different structure of regression models have been tested (combining 1, 2, 3 or 4 explicative variables). Y=B0+B1Xi (1); Y=B0+B1XiXj (2); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj (3); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2XjXl (4); Y=B0+B1XiXk+B2XjXl (5); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl (6); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3XlXk (7); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl+B4Xk (8). Where: Y is the snow depth; (Xi, Xj, Xl, Xk) are the prediction variables (any of the 40 variables); (B0, B1, B2, B3) are the coefficients to be estimated. The ground data are employed to calibrate the multiple regressions. In

  11. Education and Public Outreach for the PICASSO-CENA Satellite-Based Research Mission: K-12 Students Use Sun Photometers to Assist Scientists in Validating Atmospheric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Q.

    2001-05-01

    Hampton University, a historically black university, is leading the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) portion of the PICASSO-CENA satellite-based research mission. Currently scheduled for launch in 2004, PICASSO-CENA will use LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging), to study earth's atmosphere. The PICASSO-CENA Outreach program works with scientists, teachers, and students to better understand the effects of clouds and aerosols on earth's atmosphere. This program actively involves students nationwide in NASA research by having them obtain sun photometer measurements from their schools and homes for comparison with data collected by the PICASSO-CENA mission. Students collect data from their classroom ground observations and report the data via the Internet. Scientists will use the data from the PICASSO-CENA research and the student ground-truthing observations to improve predications about climatic change. The two-band passive remote sensing sun photometer is designed for student use as a stand alone instrument to study atmospheric turbidity or in conjunction with satellite data to provide ground-truthing. The instrument will collect measurements of column optical depth from the ground level. These measurements will not only give the students an appreciation for atmospheric turbidity, but will also provide quantitative correlative information to the PICASSO-CENA mission on ground-level optical depth. Student data obtained in this manner will be sufficiently accurate for scientists to use as ground truthing. Thus, students will have the opportunity to be involved with a NASA satellite-based research mission.

  12. Assessment of a New Lower-Cost Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus: Useful for Cervical Screening in Limited-Resource Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokom Domgue, Joel; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas H; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy E; Befano, Brian; Xie, Yi; Miachon, Lais S; Dean, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Inexpensive and easy-to-perform human papillomavirus (HPV) tests are needed for primary cervical cancer screening in lower-resource regions. In a convenience sample of 516 residual exfoliative cervical specimens from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California and U.S. National Cancer Institute Persistence and Progression Study, we assessed the agreement and clinical performance of a simple, inexpensive real-time PCR assay for the detection of 13 carcinogenic HPV types (the H13 assay; Hybribio, Hong Kong) that is marketed in limited-resource settings compared to previous testing by the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (HC2; Qiagen, Germantown, MD) and the Onclarity assay (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD). The test set was chosen to include many HPV-positive specimens. The reference standard was a combination of HC2 and Onclarity results for HPV detection and histologic diagnosis of controls (less than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 [lower-cost HPV DNA test that might be useful for primary screening in limited-resource settings. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Development of Information Assurance Protocol for Low Bandwidth Nanosatellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS commercial off-the-shelf technology , nanosatellites, CubeSat, encrypted communications 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 161 16. PRICE...integrate with several physical layer technologies . While this protocol does provide some additional functionality at a lower cost, it is limited to...G. S. Vernam, “Secret signaling system.” U.S. Patent U.S. 1310719 A, 22 July 1919. [22] D. Kahn, Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing, New

  14. Monturaqui meteorite impact crater, Chile: A field test of the utility of satellite-based mapping of ejecta at small craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, K.; Ukstins, I.; Drop, S.

    2017-12-01

    Monturaqui Crater is a small ( 350 m diameter), simple meteorite impact crater located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile that was emplaced in Ordovician granite overlain by discontinuous Pliocene ignimbrite. Ejecta deposits are granite and ignimbrite, with lesser amounts of dark impact melt and rare tektites and iron shale. The impact restructured existing drainage systems in the area that have subsequently eroded through the ejecta. Satellite-based mapping and modeling, including a synthesis of photographic satellite imagery and ASTER thermal infrared imagery in ArcGIS, were used to construct a basic geological interpretation of the site with special emphasis on understanding ejecta distribution patterns. This was combined with field-based mapping to construct a high-resolution geologic map of the crater and its ejecta blanket and field check the satellite-based geologic interpretation. The satellite- and modeling-based interpretation suggests a well-preserved crater with an intact, heterogeneous ejecta blanket that has been subjected to moderate erosion. In contrast, field mapping shows that the crater has a heavily-eroded rim and ejecta blanket, and the ejecta is more heterogeneous than previously thought. In addition, the erosion rate at Monturaqui is much higher than erosion rates reported elsewhere in the Atacama Desert. The bulk compositions of the target rocks at Monturaqui are similar and the ejecta deposits are highly heterogeneous, so distinguishing between them with remote sensing is less effective than with direct field observations. In particular, the resolution of available imagery for the site is too low to resolve critical details that are readily apparent in the field on the scale of 10s of cm, and which significantly alter the geologic interpretation. The limiting factors for effective remote interpretation at Monturaqui are its target composition and crater size relative to the resolution of the remote sensing methods employed. This

  15. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  16. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, Norman B.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m−2 yr−1and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr−1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m−2 yr−1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m−2 yr−1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

  17. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic

  18. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  19. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  20. Tactile Communications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communication with the crew is vital and must be maintained regardless of environmental conditions and crew activity. Current spacecraft communication systems depend...

  1. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  2. Evaluation of Satellite-Based Precipitation Products from IMERG V04A and V03D, CMORPH and TMPA with Gauged Rainfall in Three Climatologic Zones in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A critical evaluation of the newly released precipitation data set is very important for both the end users and data developers. Meanwhile, the evaluation may provide a benchmark for the product’s continued development and future improvement. To these ends, the four precipitation estimates including IMERG (the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement V04A, IMERG V03D, CMORPH (the Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique-CRT and TRMM (the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 are systematically evaluated against the gauge precipitation estimates at multiple spatiotemporal scales from 1 June 2014 to 30 November 2015 over three different topographic and climatic watersheds in China. Meanwhile, the statistical methods are utilized to quantize the performance of the four satellite-based precipitation estimates. The results show that: (1 over the Tibetan Plateau cold region, among all products, IMERG V04A underestimates precipitation with the largest RB (−46.98% during the study period and the similar results are seen at the seasonal scale. However, IMERG V03D demonstrates the best performance according to RB (7.46%, RMSE (0.44 mm/day and RRMSE (28.37%. Except for in summer, TRMM 3B42 perform better than CMORPH according to RMSEs, RRMSEs and Rs; (2 within the semi-humid Huaihe River Basin, IMERG V04A has a slight advantage over the other three satellite-based precipitation products with the lowest RMSE (0.32 mm/day during the evaluation period and followed by IMERG V03D, TRMM 3B42 and CMORPH orderly; (3 over the arid/semi-arid Weihe River Basin, in comparison with the other three products, TRMM 3B42 demonstrates the best performance with the lowest RMSE (0.1 mm/day, RRMSE (8.44% and highest R (0.92 during the study period. Meanwhile, IMERG V03D perform better than IMERG V04A according all the statistical indicators; (4 in winter, IMERG V04A and IMERG V03D tend to underestimate the total precipitation

  3. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  4. Detecting robust signals of interannual variability of gross primary productivity in Asia from multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models and long-term satellite-based vegetation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ueyama, M.; Kato, T.; Ito, A.; Sasai, T.; Sato, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.

    2014-12-01

    Long term record of satellite-based terrestrial vegetation are important to evaluate terrestrial carbon cycle models. In this study, we demonstrate how multiple satellite observation can be used for evaluating past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP) and detecting robust anomalies in terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia through our model-data synthesis analysis, Asia-MIP. We focused on the two different temporal coverages: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2011; data intensive period) scales. We used a NOAA/AVHRR NDVI record for long-term analysis and multiple satellite data and products (e.g. Terra-MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION) as historical satellite data, and multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, ORCHIDEE, SEIB-DGVM, and VISIT). As a results of long-term (30 years) trend analysis, satellite-based time-series data showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI were dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation, CO2fertilization and land cover changes are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models. Year-to-year variations of terrestrial GPP were overall consistently captured by the satellite data and terrestrial carbon cycle models if the anomalies are large (e.g. 2003 summer GPP anomalies in East Asia and 2002 spring GPP anomalies in mid to high latitudes). The behind mechanisms can be consistently

  5. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make...... a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...... communications. The most important outlets for CSR communication-related topics are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Originality/value – This paper represents the first attempt to perform a systematic and comprehensive overview of CSR communication papers...

  6. Evaluating Coral Health in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, and Southeastern Florida: Comparison of Satellite-Based Sea Surface Temperature to In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A. M.; McDonald, K. C.; Shein, K. A.; Devries, S. L.; Armstrong, R.; Carlo, M.

    2017-12-01

    The third global coral bleaching event, which began in mid-2014, is a major environmental stressor that has been causing significant documented damage to coral reefs in all tropical ocean basins. This worldwide phenomenon is the longest and largest coral bleaching event on record and now finally appears to be ending. During this event, some coral colonies proved to be more resilient to increased ocean temperatures while others bleached severely. This research investigates the spatial and temporal variability of bleaching stress on coral reefs in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, and Southeastern Florida to help further understand the role of temperature and light in coral bleaching. We examine the microclimate within two coral reef systems, using in situ collections of temperature and light data from data loggers deployed throughout Cayo Enrique and Cayo Mario in La Parguera, and Lauderdale-By-The-Sea in FLorida. The in situ measurements are compared to NOAA Coral Reef Watch's 5-km sea surface temperature data as well as to the associated Light Stress Damage Product. Research outcomes include statistical analyses of in situ measurements with satellite datasets supporting enhanced interpretation of satellite-based SST and light products, and ecological niche modeling to assess where corals could potentially survive under future climate conditions. Additional understanding of the microclimate encompassing coral reefs and improved satellite SST and light data will ultimately help coral reef ecosystem managers and policy makers in prioritizing resources toward the monitoring and protection of coral reef ecosystems.

  7. Toward a Satellite-Based System of Sugarcane Yield Estimation and Forecasting in Smallholder Farming Conditions: A Case Study on Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Morel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating sugarcane biomass is difficult to achieve when working with highly variable spatial distributions of growing conditions, like on Reunion Island. We used a dataset of in-farm fields with contrasted climatic conditions and farming practices to compare three methods of yield estimation based on remote sensing: (1 an empirical relationship method with a growing season-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI, (2 the Kumar-Monteith efficiency model, and (3 a forced-coupling method with a sugarcane crop model (MOSICAS and satellite-derived fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation. These models were compared with the crop model alone and discussed to provide recommendations for a satellite-based system for the estimation of yield at the field scale. Results showed that the linear empirical model produced the best results (RMSE = 10.4 t∙ha−1. Because this method is also the simplest to set up and requires less input data, it appears that it is the most suitable for performing operational estimations and forecasts of sugarcane yield at the field scale. The main limitation is the acquisition of a minimum of five satellite images. The upcoming open-access Sentinel-2 Earth observation system should overcome this limitation because it will provide 10-m resolution satellite images with a 5-day frequency.

  8. Role of physical forcings and nutrient availability on the control of satellite-based chlorophyll a concentration in the coastal upwelling area of the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Patti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern sector of the Sicilian Channel is an area of favourable upwelling winds, which ought to support primary production. However, the values for primary production are low when compared with other Mediterranean areas and very low compared with the most biologically productive regions of the world’s oceans: California, the Canary Islands, Humboldt and Benguela. The aim of this study was to identify the main factors that limit phytoplankton biomass in the Sicilian Channel and modulate its monthly changes. We compared satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll a concentration in the Strait of Sicily with those observed in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems mentioned above and in other Mediterranean wind-induced coastal upwelling systems (the Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Lions and the Aegean Sea. Our results show that this low level of chlorophyll is mainly due to the low nutrient level in surface and sub-surface waters, independently of wind-induced upwelling intensity. Further, monthly changes in chlorophyll are mainly driven by the mixing of water column and wind-induced and/or circulation-related upwelling processes. Finally, primary production limitation due to the enhanced stratification processes resulting from the general warming trend of Mediterranean waters is not active over most of the coastal upwelling area off the southern Sicilian coast.

  9. A change detection strategy for monitoring vegetative and land-use cover types using remotely-sensed, satellite-based data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallum, C.

    1993-01-01

    Changes to the environment are of critical concern in the world today; consequently, monitoring such changes and assessing their impacts are tasks demanding considerably higher priority. The ecological impacts of the natural global cycles of gases and particulates in the earth's atmosphere are highly influenced by the extent of changes to vegetative canopy characteristics which dictates the need for capability to detect and assess the magnitude of such changes. The primary emphasis of this paper is on the determination of the size and configuration of the sampling unit that maximizes the probability of its intersection with a 'change' area. Assessment of the significance of the 'change' in a given locality is also addressed and relies on a statistical approach that compares the number of elemental units exceeding a reflectance threshold when compared to a previous point in time. Consideration is also given to a technical framework that supports quantifying the magnitude of the 'change' over large areas (i.e., the estimated area changing from forest to agricultural land-use). The latter entails a multistage approach which utilizes satellite-based and other related data sources

  10. Tree Canopy Light Interception Estimates in Almond and a Walnut Orchards Using Ground, Low Flying Aircraft, and Satellite Based Methods to Improve Irrigation Scheduling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, Richard C.; Johnson, Lee; Soderstrom, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  11. Towards a more objective evaluation of modelled land-carbon trends using atmospheric CO2 and satellite-based vegetation activity observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dalmonech

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystem models used for Earth system modelling show a significant divergence in future patterns of ecosystem processes, in particular the net land–atmosphere carbon exchanges, despite a seemingly common behaviour for the contemporary period. An in-depth evaluation of these models is hence of high importance to better understand the reasons for this disagreement. Here, we develop an extension for existing benchmarking systems by making use of the complementary information contained in the observational records of atmospheric CO2 and remotely sensed vegetation activity to provide a novel set of diagnostics of ecosystem responses to climate variability in the last 30 yr at different temporal and spatial scales. The selection of observational characteristics (traits specifically considers the robustness of information given that the uncertainty of both data and evaluation methodology is largely unknown or difficult to quantify. Based on these considerations, we introduce a baseline benchmark – a minimum test that any model has to pass – to provide a more objective, quantitative evaluation framework. The benchmarking strategy can be used for any land surface model, either driven by observed meteorology or coupled to a climate model. We apply this framework to evaluate the offline version of the MPI Earth System Model's land surface scheme JSBACH. We demonstrate that the complementary use of atmospheric CO2 and satellite-based vegetation activity data allows pinpointing of specific model deficiencies that would not be possible by the sole use of atmospheric CO2 observations.

  12. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  13. Satellite-Based Precipitation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Of the possible sources of precipitation data, those based on satellites provide the greatest spatial coverage. There is a wide selection of datasets, algorithms, and versions from which to choose, which can be confusing to non-specialists wishing to use the data. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) maintains tables of the major publicly available, long-term, quasi-global precipitation data sets (http://www.isac.cnr.it/ ipwg/data/datasets.html), and this talk briefly reviews the various categories. As examples, NASA provides two sets of quasi-global precipitation data sets: the older Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and current Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). Both provide near-real-time and post-real-time products that are uniformly gridded in space and time. The TMPA products are 3-hourly 0.25°x0.25° on the latitude band 50°N-S for about 16 years, while the IMERG products are half-hourly 0.1°x0.1° on 60°N-S for over 3 years (with plans to go to 16+ years in Spring 2018). In addition to the precipitation estimates, each data set provides fields of other variables, such as the satellite sensor providing estimates and estimated random error. The discussion concludes with advice about determining suitability for use, the necessity of being clear about product names and versions, and the need for continued support for satellite- and surface-based observation.

  14. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability

  15. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  16. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical exp......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  17. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  18. Stereotypes Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  19. Communication Speaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Robin Lynn

    2010-01-01

    When the author recently turned her attention to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards," she was startled to see communication as key. She adjusted her teaching to meet the NCTM Communication Standard and promote communication in her classroom by providing a safe environment, developing discourse and…

  20. Ripple Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. Stimson

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

  1. On the ability of RegCM4 to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: An assessment using satellite-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Georgia; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Zanis, Prodromos; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Katragkou, Eleni; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Meleti, Charikleia

    2015-04-01

    We assess here the ability of RegCM4 to simulate the surface solar radiation (SSR) patterns over the European domain. For the needs of this work, a decadal (1999-2009) simulation was implemented at a horizontal resolution of 50km using the first year as a spin-up. The model is driven by emissions from CMIP5 while ERA-interim data were used as lateral boundary conditions. The RegCM4 SSR fields were validated against satellite-based SSR observations from Meteosat First Generation (MFG) and Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) sensors (CM SAF SIS product). The RegCM4 simulations slightly overestimate SSR compared to CM SAF over Europe with the bias being +1.54% in case of MFG (2000-2005) and +3.34% in case of MSG (2006-2009). SSR from RegCM4 is much closer to SSR from CM SAF over land (bias of -1.59% for MFG and +0.66% for MSG) than over ocean (bias of +7.20% for MFG and 8.07% for MSG). In order to understand the reasons of this bias, we proceeded to a detailed assessment of various parameters that define the SSR levels (cloud fractional cover - CFC, cloud optical thickness - COT, cloud droplet effective radius - Re, aerosol optical thickness - AOD, asymmetry factor - ASY, single scattering albedo - SSA, water vapor - WV and surface albedo - ALB). We validated the simulated CFC, COT and Re from RegCM4 against satellite-based observations from MSG and we found that RegCM4 significantly underestimates CFC and Re, and overestimates COT over Europe. The aerosol-related parameters from RegCM4 were compared with values from the aerosol climatology taken into account within CM SAF SSR estimates. AOD is significantly underestimated in our simulations which leads to a positive SSR bias. The RegCM4 WV and ALB were compared with WV values from ERA-interim and ALB climatological observations from CERES which are also taken into account within CM SAF SSR estimates. Finally, with the use of a radiative transfer model (SBDART) we manage to quantify the relative contribution of each of

  2. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  3. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  4. An assessment of commonly employed satellite-based remote sensors for mapping mangrove species in Mexico using an NDVI-based classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama-Landeros, L; Flores-de-Santiago, F; Kovacs, J M; Flores-Verdugo, F

    2017-12-14

    Optimizing the classification accuracy of a mangrove forest is of utmost importance for conservation practitioners. Mangrove forest mapping using satellite-based remote sensing techniques is by far the most common method of classification currently used given the logistical difficulties of field endeavors in these forested wetlands. However, there is now an abundance of options from which to choose in regards to satellite sensors, which has led to substantially different estimations of mangrove forest location and extent with particular concern for degraded systems. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of mangrove forest classification using different remotely sensed data sources (i.e., Landsat-8, SPOT-5, Sentinel-2, and WorldView-2) for a system located along the Pacific coast of Mexico. Specifically, we examined a stressed semiarid mangrove forest which offers a variety of conditions such as dead areas, degraded stands, healthy mangroves, and very dense mangrove island formations. The results indicated that Landsat-8 (30 m per pixel) had  the lowest overall accuracy at 64% and that WorldView-2 (1.6 m per pixel) had the highest at 93%. Moreover, the SPOT-5 and the Sentinel-2 classifications (10 m per pixel) were very similar having accuracies of 75 and 78%, respectively. In comparison to WorldView-2, the other sensors overestimated the extent of Laguncularia racemosa and underestimated the extent of Rhizophora mangle. When considering such type of sensors, the higher spatial resolution can be particularly important in mapping small mangrove islands that often occur in degraded mangrove systems.

  5. The AMSR2 Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA) to estimate regional to global snow depth and snow water equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. E. J.; Saberi, N.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    With moderate to high spatial resolution (observation approaches yet to be fully scoped and developed, the long-term satellite passive microwave record remains an important tool for cryosphere-climate diagnostics. A new satellite microwave remote sensing approach is described for estimating snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE). The algorithm, called the Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA), uses Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - 2 (AMSR2) observations aboard the Global Change Observation Mission - Water mission launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 2012. The approach is unique since it leverages observed brightness temperatures (Tb) with static ancillary data to parameterize a physically-based retrieval without requiring parameter constraints from in situ snow depth observations or historical snow depth climatology. After screening snow from non-snow surface targets (water bodies [including freeze/thaw state], rainfall, high altitude plateau regions [e.g. Tibetan plateau]), moderate and shallow snow depths are estimated by minimizing the difference between Dense Media Radiative Transfer model estimates (Tsang et al., 2000; Picard et al., 2011) and AMSR2 Tb observations to retrieve SWE and SD. Parameterization of the model combines a parsimonious snow grain size and density approach originally developed by Kelly et al. (2003). Evaluation of the SMSA performance is achieved using in situ snow depth data from a variety of standard and experiment data sources. Results presented from winter seasons 2012-13 to 2016-17 illustrate the improved performance of the new approach in comparison with the baseline AMSR2 algorithm estimates and approach the performance of the model assimilation-based approach of GlobSnow. Given the variation in estimation power of SWE by different land surface/climate models and selected satellite-derived passive microwave approaches, SMSA provides SWE estimates that are independent of real or near real

  6. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, Byeong Ho; Baek, Jeong Hun

    1998-01-01

    The contents of this book are notion of data communications : summary on data communication, data transmission, data communications system, data transmission technology, data conversion, data link control and control over error of data transmission and exchange of data communications network in the first part, computer communications network architecture : data communications architecture, OSI model, lower layer of OSI model, upper layer of OSI model and distributed surroundings in the second part, data information networking : LAN, FDDI, 100 Base T, DQDB and Frame Relay in the third part, Public Network : PSDN, N-ISDN, B-ISDN in the fourth part, internet and PC communication : emulator program, Binary file, BBS, E-mail service and user on-line service in the last part.

  7. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  8. Postcultural Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    When we as scholars use the concept of intercultural communication in its classic definition, as communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, we perpetuate the notion that national differences influence communication more than other differences; in doing so, ethnic minorities...... is presented as a postcultural prism composed by practice theory (Schatzki 1996, Reckwitz 2002, Nicolini 2012, Kemmis 2012), Intersectionality (Brah, Phoenix, Collins Rahsack) and positioning theory (Harre & Langenhove 1998)....

  9. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    station, and NOAA ESRL high-resolution Optimum Interpolation SST (OISST). Precise understanding of the influence these auxiliary inputs have on final satellite-based Ts retrievals may help guide refinement in ɛs characterization and NWP development, e.g., future Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System versions.

  10. Land-use regression with long-term satellite-based greenness index and culture-specific sources to model PM2.5 spatial-temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Pan, Wen-Chi; Zeng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Mu-Jean; Guo, Yue Leon; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-05-01

    This study utilized a long-term satellite-based vegetation index, and considered culture-specific emission sources (temples and Chinese restaurants) with Land-use Regression (LUR) modelling to estimate the spatial-temporal variability of PM 2.5 using data from Taipei metropolis, which exhibits typical Asian city characteristics. Annual average PM 2.5 concentrations from 2006 to 2012 of 17 air quality monitoring stations established by Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan were used for model development. PM 2.5 measurements from 2013 were used for external data verification. Monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images coupled with buffer analysis were used to assess the spatial-temporal variations of greenness surrounding the monitoring sites. The distribution of temples and Chinese restaurants were included to represent the emission contributions from incense and joss money burning, and gas cooking, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficient and stepwise regression were used for LUR model development, and 10-fold cross-validation and external data verification were applied to verify the model reliability. The results showed a strongly negative correlation (r: -0.71 to -0.77) between NDVI and PM 2.5 while temples (r: 0.52 to 0.66) and Chinese restaurants (r: 0.31 to 0.44) were positively correlated to PM 2.5 concentrations. With the adjusted model R 2 of 0.89, a cross-validated adj-R 2 of 0.90, and external validated R 2 of 0.83, the high explanatory power of the resultant model was confirmed. Moreover, the averaged NDVI within a 1750 m circular buffer (p < 0.01), the number of Chinese restaurants within a 1750 m buffer (p < 0.01), and the number of temples within a 750 m buffer (p = 0.06) were selected as important predictors during the stepwise selection procedures. According to the partial R 2 , NDVI explained 66% of PM 2.5 variation and was the dominant variable in the developed model. We suggest future studies

  11. The Feasibility of Tropospheric and Total Ozone Determination Using a Fabry-perot Interferometer as a Satellite-based Nadir-viewing Atmospheric Sensor. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, Allen Maurice

    1993-01-01

    Monitoring of the global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) is desirable for enhanced scientific understanding as well as to potentially lessen the ill-health impacts associated with exposure to elevated concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Such a capability can be achieved using a satellite-based device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios; this would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface, interfering species, and clouds. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. Through proper selection of channel spectral regions, the FPI optimized for tropospheric O3 measurements can simultaneously observe a stratospheric component and thus the total O3 column abundance. Decreasing stratospheric O3 concentrations may lead to an increase in biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface, which is detrimental to health. In this research, a conceptual instrument design to achieve the desired measurement has been formulated. This involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). A spectral region of about 1 cm(exp -1) wide centered at 1054.73 cm(exp -1) within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band is sampled with 24 spectral channels. Other design characteristics include operation from a nadir-viewing satellite configuration utilizing a 9 inch (diameter) telescope and achieving horizontal spatial resolution with a 50 km nadir footprint. A retrieval technique has been implemented and is demonstrated for a tropical atmosphere possessing enhanced tropospheric ozone amounts. An error analysis

  12. Global Monitoring RSEM System for Crop Production by Incorporating Satellite-based Photosynthesis Rates and Anomaly Data of Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.; Sakuma, H.

    2014-12-01

    The first author has been developing RSEM crop-monitoring system using satellite-based assessment of photosynthesis, incorporating meteorological conditions. Crop production comprises of several stages and plural mechanisms based on leaf photosynthesis, surface energy balance, and the maturing of grains after fixation of CO2, along with water exchange through soil vegetation-atmosphere transfer. Grain production in prime countries appears to be randomly perturbed regionally and globally. Weather for crop plants reflects turbulent phenomena of convective and advection flows in atmosphere and surface boundary layer. It has been difficult for scientists to simulate and forecast weather correctly for sufficiently long terms to crop harvesting. However, severely poor harvests related to continental events must originate from a consistent mechanism of abnormal energetic flow in the atmosphere through both land and oceans. It should be remembered that oceans have more than 100 times of energy storage compared to atmosphere and ocean currents represent gigantic energy flows, strongly affecting climate. Anomalies of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), globally known as El Niño, Indian Ocean dipole, and Atlantic Niño etc., affect the seasonal climate on a continental scale. The authors aim to combine monitoring and seasonal forecasting, considering such mechanisms through land-ocean biosphere transfer. The present system produces assessments for all continents, specifically monitoring agricultural fields of main crops. Historical regions of poor and good harvests are compared with distributions of SST anomalies, which are provided by NASA GSFC. Those comparisons fairly suggest that the Worst harvest in 1993 and the Best in 1994 relate to the offshore distribution of low temperature anomalies and high gaps in ocean surface temperatures. However, high-temperature anomalies supported good harvests because of sufficient solar radiation for photosynthesis, and poor harvests because

  13. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  14. Championship Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerveer, Beth; Butterick, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses team development and focuses specifically on championship communication and team-building activities. Team development takes time and the process typically occurs in stages. Regardless of the sport or what the competitive field may look like, communication is an often overlooked, yet vital element in cultivating a…

  15. Effective communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) the responsibilities assigned to public affairs (PA) include communications to two main groups: institutional representatives and the general public. Research data indicates that these two populations perceive risk in different fashions. This paper discusses these distinct perceptions and how the communication programs at WIPP have been designed to accommodate these two differences

  16. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  17. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  18. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  19. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  20. Advanced transfer chute reduces dust at lower cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C. [Benetech Inc. (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Dominion Resources' Kincaid Generating Station in Illinois is recognized as a leader in handling and burning PRB coal. Since being named the Powder Plant of the Year in 2001 and 2004 by the PRB Coal Users' Group, Kincaid has improved its coal handling by installing an InteliFlo controlled-flow transfer chute from Benetech. The InteliFlo design eliminates the need for skirt boards, conveyor discharge hoods, and complex load bed designs, and reduces O & M costs. 4 figs.

  1. 'The Andrew results to date are, quite simply, lower costs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    A new management strategy for the exploration and exploitation of the Andrew Oil Field is described. When discovered in 1974, its small oil and gas reserves, expensive drilling costs, a difficult gas production profile and poor soil conditions, made it unattractive to British Petroleum (BP) and its investors. This has been changed using an innovative alliancing approach which brings together the commercial, technical and reservoir teams, so that fields like Andrew can become exciting new business opportunities. The strategy's pre-sanction phase, and the post-sanction alliance gainsharing are explained and the positive results delivered for the Andrew Field are documented. (UK)

  2. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height above the surface of the water bath. The process causes carbon nanotubes to form in the lowest 2.5 cm of the anode. It also causes a deposit reminiscent of a sandcastle to form on the cathode. The nanotube-containing material is harvested. The cathode and anode can then be cleaned (or the anode is replaced, if necessary) and the process repeated to produce more nanotubes. Tests have shown that the process results in approximately equal to 50-percent yield of carbon nanotubes (mostly of the single-wall type) of various sizes. Whereas the unit cost of purified single-wall carbon nanotubes produced by other process is about $1,000/g in the year 2000, it has been estimated that for the present process, the corresponding cost would be about $10/g.

  3. Higher performance and lower cost optical DPSK receiver

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To demonstrate (benchtop experiment) a DPSK receiver with a free-space interferometer, showing that fiber-optic coupling, associated adaptive optics, and optical...

  4. Lower costs as a result of auctioning of emission rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, S.; Davidson, M.; Korteland, M.

    2008-01-01

    According to economic theory auctioning of emission allowances is not more efficient than free allocation. Free allocation of emission allowances in Europe involves product subsidy, thus removing the incentive for emission reduction. [mk] [nl

  5. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  6. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-05

    Nov 5, 2013 ... Brief communication. Published ... showed longer FIDs in response to a human looking at them than to a human not looking at them (Burger et al. 1992). ..... Rivas JA and Burghardt GM 2001 Understanding sexual size dimor-.

  7. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... 1Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, 2Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, ... controlled by the soybean heat-shock promoter is an effective tool for conditional removal ... Brief communication ...

  8. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  9. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  10. PC communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-15

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  12. Research of remote control for Chinese Antarctica Telescope based on iridium satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingzhe; Yang, Shihai

    2010-07-01

    Astronomers are ever dreaming of sites with best seeing on the Earth surface for celestial observation, and the Antarctica is one of a few such sites only left owing to the global air pollution. However, Antarctica region is largely unaccessible for human being due to lacking of fundamental living conditions, travel facilities and effective ways of communication. Worst of all, the popular internet source as a general way of communication scarcely exists there. Facing such a dilemma and as a solution remote control and data transmission for telescopes through iridium satellite communication has been put forward for the Chinese network Antarctic Schmidt Telescopes 3 (AST3), which is currently under all round research and development. This paper presents iridium satellite-based remote control application adapted to telescope control. The pioneer work in China involves hardware and software configuration utilizing techniques for reliable and secure communication, which is outlined in the paper too.

  13. Police Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  14. Antifragile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtman, Marc Louis

    2016-01-01

    Jamming is an ongoing threat that plagues wireless communications in contested areas. Unfortunately, jamming complexity and sophistication will continue to increase over time. The traditional approach to addressing the jamming threat is to harden radios, such that they sacrifice communications performance for more advanced jamming protection. To provide an escape from this trend, we investigate the previously unexplored area of jammer exploitation. This dissertation develops the concep...

  15. Aesthetic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting. As communic......Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting....... As communication inevitably makes use of a sensuous medium, such as light or sound, all communication has an aesthetic dimension. In the 19th Century, an important distinction was made between pure and applied art, following Immanuel Kant's separation of theory of knowledge, moral theory and aesthetic theory....... Whereas pure art is produced in order to be observed, applied art has to fulfill practical purposes as well. Modern organizations, defined as systems of communication, may use art works to embellish and define themselves. But they inevitably use applied art as a practical tool in their normal...

  16. Satellite-based remote sensing of running water habitats at large riverscape scales: Tools to analyze habitat heterogeneity for river ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugue, F.; Lapointe, M.; Eaton, B. C.; Lepoutre, A.

    2016-01-01

    We illustrate an approach to quantify patterns in hydraulic habitat composition and local heterogeneity applicable at low cost over very large river extents, with selectable reach window scales. Ongoing developments in remote sensing and geographical information science massively improve efficiencies in analyzing earth surface features. With the development of new satellite sensors and drone platforms and with the lowered cost of high resolution multispectral imagery, fluvial geomorphology is experiencing a revolution in mapping streams at high resolution. Exploiting the power of aerial or satellite imagery is particularly useful in a riverscape research framework (Fausch et al., 2002), where high resolution sampling of fluvial features and very large coverage extents are needed. This study presents a satellite remote sensing method that requires very limited field calibration data to estimate over various scales ranging from 1 m to many tens or river kilometers (i) spatial composition metrics for key hydraulic mesohabitat types and (ii) reach-scale wetted habitat heterogeneity indices such as the hydromorphological index of diversity (HMID). When the purpose is hydraulic habitat characterization applied over long river networks, the proposed method (although less accurate) is much less computationally expensive and less data demanding than two dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Here, we illustrate the tools based on a Worldview 2 satellite image of the Kiamika River, near Mont Laurier, Quebec, Canada, specifically over a 17-km river reach below the Kiamika dam. In the first step, a high resolution water depth (D) map is produced from a spectral band ratio (calculated from the multispectral image), calibrated with limited field measurements. Next, based only on known river discharge and estimated cross section depths at time of image capture, empirical-based pseudo-2D hydraulic rules are used to rapidly generate a two-dimensional map of flow velocity

  17. The Visual Communication or Graphic Communication Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecik, John T.

    1975-01-01

    The author reviews the history of communication and communications technology, considers differences between "visual communication" and "graphic communication," and comments on "seeds of revolution" in the industry. He offers four components of an educational structure or organization titled "graphic…

  18. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  19. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-09-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  20. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  1. Communication & Management

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 s...

  2. Management & Communication

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 sept...

  3. Interlimb communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    A continual coordination between the two legs is necessary for maintaining a symmetric walking pattern and adapting to changes in the external environment. Recent evidence in animals and humans suggests that spinal interneuronal circuits under supraspinal control may mediate communication between...... the lower limbs. The overall objective of the present thesis was to further investigate and elucidate neural pathways underlying interlimb communication in humans, focusing primarily on the possible interlimb connections to the biceps femoris muscle. The major aims were 1) to investigate whether interlimb...... walking (Study IV). The results of the this thesis provide new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying human interlimb communication, as well as their functional relevance to human locomotion. Although it is difficult to propose the exact neural pathways mediating interlimb reflexes...

  4. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  5. Constructive communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Richard Ellis is a consultant in communications and the successful author of 'Communication for Engineers'. In each chapter he highlights key points and situations, and provides exercises to consolidate what has already been learnt. The book ends with a 'toolbox' of useful information on subjects such as writing letters, spelling, punctuation, using abbreviations, studying for exams, using libraries and training.Written in clear, informative English, with the emphasis on the practical, this book is essential reading for both students and professionals in the con

  6. Digital communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2010-01-01

    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  7. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  8. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  10. Communication & Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  11. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  12. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. ... using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication .... Assume Alice and Bob know a good error correcting code. E : {0, 1}n → {0, 1}10n with distance, say, 3n. Alice.

  13. Communication Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  15. Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Patrick R.

    Three papers are presented which delineate the foundation of theory and principles which underlie the research and instructional approach to communications at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Pittsburgh. Cybernetic principles provide the integration, and validation is based in part on a situation-producing…

  16. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  17. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  18. Crisis Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Jarmila Guţă

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the manner in which the crisis of different types can disturb the normal activity of an organization and also the modalities by which the communication in this situation can solve or attenuate the negative effects of a crisis.

  19. Core Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Greg; Ross, J. D.; Mulder, David

    2011-01-01

    The website--it is where people go to find out anything and everything about a school, college, or university. In the relatively short life of the Internet, institutional websites have moved from the periphery to center stage and become strategically integral communications and marketing tools. As the flow of information accelerates and new…

  20. Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  1. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  2. Digital communication communication, multimedia, security

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The authors give a detailed summary about the fundamentals and the historical background of digital communication. This includes an overview of the encoding principles and algorithms of textual information, audio information, as well as images, graphics, and video in the Internet. Furthermore the fundamentals of computer networking, digital security and cryptography are covered. Thus, the book provides a well-founded access to communication technology of computer networks, the internet and the WWW. Numerous pictures and images, a subject-index and a detailed list of historical personalities in

  3. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  4. Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Strate, Simon Wolter; Loznica, Javor; Nærland, Kristoffer; Skipper, Mads Christian; Jensen, Charlotte Haagen

    2013-01-01

    This project focuses on the oil company, Shell, and their way of conducting themselves on social media sites, specifically Facebook and twitter. We establish this by using social media theory, and corporate campaign theories, and applying these to the content that Shell puts out on these particular social media sites. Furthermore, the project establishes a critical evaluation of the weight and presence of social media within modern corporate communication and issue management. This project...

  5. Communication theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goldie, Charles M

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction, for mathematics students, to the theories of information and codes. They are usually treated separately but, as both address the problem of communication through noisy channels (albeit from different directions), the authors have been able to exploit the connection to give a reasonably self-contained treatment, relating the probabilistic and algebraic viewpoints. The style is discursive and, as befits the subject, plenty of examples and exercises are provided. Some examples and exercises are provided. Some examples of computer codes are given to provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas.

  6. Risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowsky, Wolf R.; Kiel Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The study on risk communication identifies the deficiencies concerning empirical and theoretical knowledge on objective radiation hazards of the acting personnel (managers, politicians, jurists, etc.) in administrations, governmental agencies, and business management. This is especially problematic with respect to emergency planning and estimations concerning the public behavior. The incident/accident information in Germany is discussed based on the legislative regulations revealing the controversial perception between industry, legislative and public interest. Further topics include the meandering of the modern safety semantics and the public opinion concerning catastrophic risk.

  7. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  8. Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence%Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时婷洁

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates intercultural communication ethics is a vital element to promote intercultural communication competence. Firstly, it defines the concept of intercultural communication ethics; Secondly, it illustrates the relation between ethics and the key point of intercultural communication competence; and finally addresses how intercultural communication ethics can improve intercultural communication competence.

  9. Data communications and computer communications network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Gwon; Gu, Chang Hoe

    2005-03-01

    This textbook is composed of twelve chapters, which are communication network introduction, foundation of data communication, data link control, circuit switching system, packet switching system, multiple access communication system, protocol and architecture, LAN, MAN communication network, integrated service digital network, internet and Asymmetric digital subscriber Line and Wireless Local Loop. Each chapter has the introduction of the technique, structure, function and practice problems. It also has the appendix on electricity and communication standards organization, characteristic table and glossary.

  10. Crisis Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkle, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how one of the strongest examples of how destructive poor crisis communications can be the Three Mile Island accident of March 1979. This was an event that was minimal in its physical effects on the public and environment beyond the walls of that nuclear power plant. However, the emotional trauma on the local public, the economic impact on area businesses and property owners, and the long term impact on the entire nuclear utility industry were great. Approximately 80,000 people as far as 15 miles from the plant evacuated over a weekend. There have been no new orders for nuclear plants and many cancellations since the event 10 years ago. This paper presents an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island

  11. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  12. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  13. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    university, Stephen Malloch listened to tapes of mothers and their babies ‘chatting’ with each other, recorded by Trevarthen in the 70’s. One of the first tapes was the vocal interaction of Laura and her mother. “As I listened, intrigued by the fluid give and take of the communication, and the lilting speech...... of the mother as she chatted with her baby, I began to tap my foot. I am, by training, a musician, so I was very used to automatically feeling the beat as I listened to musical sounds.… I replaced the tape, and again, I could sense a distinct rhythmicity and melodious give and take to the gentle prompting...... therapy as purely protomusic. But with Malloch & Trevarthen’s focus on musicality as the innate human abilities that make music production and appreciation possible, this discussion can easily move on. These and many other essential discussions await us – thanks to this comprehensive – and demanding...

  14. Communicating EAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

     (Schaeffer’s work in Paris, the studio in Cologne and in the studio EMS in Stockholm) and in relation to today’s discussions of EAM and Sound Art. The extended rhetoric about the music and the production of it is a useful tool in our discussions of musical development and analysis, but can in some cases lead......Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios...... to the disappearing of the aesthetic work and contemplation. In the paper I will illustrate this by presenting an analysis of the rhetoric at the electronic music studio EMS, Stockholm: It’s aesthetic and scientific context and its function in a political context. I will discuss what impact this displacement of focus...

  15. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  16. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  17. Evaluating Internal Communication: The ICA Communication Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Gerald M.

    1978-01-01

    The ICA Communication Audit is described in detail as an effective measurement procedure that can help an academic institution to evaluate its internal communication system. Tools, computer programs, analysis, and feedback procedures are described and illustrated. (JMF)

  18. Communication and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Communication and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print ... stage Communication in the late stage Changes in communication In addition to changes in the brain caused ...

  19. Communication in organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Communication is one of the most discussed themes of today and its significance is ever growing. Most often, communication is divided in verbal and nonverbal. It depends if the content of the communicated message is put across in words or not. Every person uses his or her communication style in the contact with others which is different in each situation. The art of communication is the ground not only in everyday life but also in employment. Every organization is a place where communication ...

  20. Invitation to a forum: architecting operational `next generation' earth monitoring satellites based on best modeling, existing sensor capabilities, with constellation efficiencies to secure trusted datasets for the next 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Douglas B.; Bell, Raymond M.; Grant, David A.; Lentz, Christopher A.

    2012-09-01

    Architecting the operational Next Generation of earth monitoring satellites based on matured climate modeling, reuse of existing sensor & satellite capabilities, attention to affordability and evolutionary improvements integrated with constellation efficiencies - becomes our collective goal for an open architectural design forum. Understanding the earth's climate and collecting requisite signatures over the next 30 years is a shared mandate by many of the world's governments. But there remains a daunting challenge to bridge scientific missions to 'operational' systems that truly support the demands of decision makers, scientific investigators and global users' requirements for trusted data. In this paper we will suggest an architectural structure that takes advantage of current earth modeling examples including cross-model verification and a first order set of critical climate parameters and metrics; that in turn, are matched up with existing space borne collection capabilities and sensors. The tools used and the frameworks offered are designed to allow collaborative overlays by other stakeholders nominating different critical parameters and their own treaded connections to existing international collection experience. These aggregate design suggestions will be held up to group review and prioritized as potential constellation solutions including incremental and spiral developments - including cost benefits and organizational opportunities. This Part IV effort is focused on being an inclusive 'Next Gen Constellation' design discussion and is the natural extension to earlier papers.

  1. Intervehicle Communication Research – Communication Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas Stanaitis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently intervehicle communications are attracting much attention from industry and academia. Upcoming standard for intervehicle communication IEEE 802.11p, known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE, is still in its draft stage, but already coming into final standardization phase. Problematic, regarding mobile WAVE nodes, are described in several articles, simulations prepared and experiments done. But most of these works do not consider possible maximal communication load. This paper presents intervehicle communication scenario in respect to radio communications, mobility and other aspects of vehicular environments.Article in English

  2. Satellite-based monitoring of cotton evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, Nicolas; Dercas, Nicholas; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Water for agricultural use represents the largest share among all water uses. Vulnerability in agriculture is influenced, among others, by extended periods of water shortage in regions exposed to droughts. Advanced technological approaches and methodologies, including remote sensing, are increasingly incorporated for the assessment of irrigation water requirements. In this paper, remote sensing techniques are integrated for the estimation and monitoring of crop evapotranspiration ETc. The study area is Thessaly central Greece, which is a drought-prone agricultural region. Cotton fields in a small agricultural sub-catchment in Thessaly are used as an experimental site. Daily meteorological data and weekly field data are recorded throughout seven (2004-2010) growing seasons for the computation of reference evapotranspiration ETo, crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc based on conventional data. Satellite data (Landsat TM) for the corresponding period are processed to estimate cotton crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc and delineate its spatiotemporal variability. The methodology is applied for monitoring Kc and ETc during the growing season in the selected sub-catchment. Several error statistics are used showing very good agreement with ground-truth observations.

  3. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  4. Satellite based Ocean Forecasting, the SOFT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmann, L.; Tintoré, J.; Moneris, S.

    2003-04-01

    The knowledge of future oceanic conditions would have enormous impact on human marine related areas. For such reasons, a number of international efforts are being carried out to obtain reliable and manageable ocean forecasting systems. Among the possible techniques that can be used to estimate the near future states of the ocean, an ocean forecasting system based on satellite imagery is developped through the Satelitte based Ocean ForecasTing project (SOFT). SOFT, established by the European Commission, considers the development of a forecasting system of the ocean space-time variability based on satellite data by using Artificial Intelligence techniques. This system will be merged with numerical simulation approaches, via assimilation techniques, to get a hybrid SOFT-numerical forecasting system of improved performance. The results of the project will provide efficient forecasting of sea-surface temperature structures, currents, dynamic height, and biological activity associated to chlorophyll fields. All these quantities could give valuable information on the planning and management of human activities in marine environments such as navigation, fisheries, pollution control, or coastal management. A detailed identification of present or new needs and potential end-users concerned by such an operational tool is being performed. The project would study solutions adapted to these specific needs.

  5. A satellite-based global landslide model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahmand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are devastating phenomena that cause huge damage around the world. This paper presents a quasi-global landslide model derived using satellite precipitation data, land-use land cover maps, and 250 m topography information. This suggested landslide model is based on the Support Vector Machines (SVM, a machine learning algorithm. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC landslide inventory data is used as observations and reference data. In all, 70% of the data are used for model development and training, whereas 30% are used for validation and verification. The results of 100 random subsamples of available landslide observations revealed that the suggested landslide model can predict historical landslides reliably. The average error of 100 iterations of landslide prediction is estimated to be approximately 7%, while approximately 2% false landslide events are observed.

  6. Satellite-based Tropical Cyclone Monitoring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M.; Yang, S.; Lee, T. F.; Sampson, C. R.; Solbrig, J.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Miller, S. D.; Kent, J.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing capabilities to monitor tropical cyclone (TC) location, structure, and intensity have evolved by utilizing a combination of operational and research and development (R&D) sensors. The microwave imagers from the operational Defense Meteorological Satellite Program [Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS)] form the "base" for structure observations due to their ability to view through upper-level clouds, modest size swaths and ability to capture most storm structure features. The NASA TRMM microwave imager and precipitation radar continue their 15+ yearlong missions in serving the TC warning and research communities. The cessation of NASA's QuikSCAT satellite after more than a decade of service is sorely missed, but India's OceanSat-2 scatterometer is now providing crucial ocean surface wind vectors in addition to the Navy's WindSat ocean surface wind vector retrievals. Another Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-2 satellite is slated for launch soon. Passive microwave imagery has received a much needed boost with the launch of the French/Indian Megha Tropiques imager in September 2011, basically greatly supplementing the very successful NASA TRMM pathfinder with a larger swath and more frequent temporal sampling. While initial data issues have delayed data utilization, current news indicates this data will be available in 2013. Future NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) sensors starting in 2014 will provide enhanced capabilities. Also, the inclusion of the new microwave sounder data from the NPP ATMS (Oct 2011) will assist in mapping TC convective structures. The National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) program's VIIRS sensor includes a day night band (DNB) with the capability to view TC cloud structure at night when sufficient lunar illumination exits. Examples highlighting this new capability will be discussed in concert with additional data fusion efforts.

  7. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  8. Future of wireless communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, M

    1996-12-31

    This document reproduces slides from a conference presentation giving an overview of current and upcoming wireless communication methods of interest to Canadian electric utilities. Both voice and data communication methods are considered, including cellular telephone, satellite communications, personal communication services, regulated licensed arrowband data systems, and integrated services.

  9. Internet-Based Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…

  10. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  11. I-centric Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Arbanowski, S; Steglich, S; Popescu-Zeletin, R

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, a variety of concepts for service integration and corresponding systems have gained momentum. On the one hand, they aim for the interworking and integration of classical telecommunications and data communications services. On the other hand, they are focusing on universal service access from a variety of end user systems. Looking at humans' communication behavior and communication space, it is obvious that human beings interact frequently in a set of contexts in their environment (communication space). Following this view, we want to build communication systems on the analysis of the individual communication spaces. The results are communication systems adapted to the specific demands of each individual. The authors introduce I-centric Communication Systems, an approach to design communication systems which adapt to the individual communication space and individual environment and situation. In this context "I" means I, or individual, "Centric" means adaptable to I requirements and a ce...

  12. Effective communication with seniors

    OpenAIRE

    PONCAROVÁ, Ester

    2008-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is called "The Effective Communication With Seniors". The aim of this thesis is to describe communication, its various kinds and the basic principles of the effective communication. I will also describe the communication with seniors suffering from dementia. Another aim of this thesis is to find out whether workers in the senior houses know and use the principles of the effective communication.

  13. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  14. Direct Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krajačić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Today we use numerous methods of direct communications, for which we use a technical term Unified Communications. It is almost impossible to imagine the business world today without Unified Communications, which are improving productivity and reducing costs. The goal of using Unified Communications is to ensure a consistent user experience at any location and any device. Skype for Business, a Microsoft product, is one of the solutions for Unified Communications and is described in this thesis...

  15. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  16. Handbook of Technical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler , Alexander; Romary , Laurent; Gibbon , Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The handbook "Technical Communication" brings together a variety of topics which range from the role of technical media in human communication to the linguistic, multimodal enhancement of present-day technologies. It covers the area of computer-mediated text, voice and multimedia communication as well as of technical documentation. In doing so, the handbook takes professional and private communication into account. Special emphasis is put on technical communication bas...

  17. Wireless communication technology NFC

    OpenAIRE

    MÁROVÁ, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this bachelor thesis is to handle the issue of new wireless communication technology NFC (Near Field Communication) including a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of NFC with other wireless technologies (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.). NFC is a technology for wireless communications between different electronic devices, one of which is typically a mobile phone. Near Field Communication allows wireless communication at very short distance by approaching or enclosing two devices and can...

  18. Pseudo-communication vs Quasi-communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Константиновна Черничкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of such specific forms of human interaction as quasi- and pseudo-communication. The authors specify the terms which sometimes are used interchangeably. The aim of the conducted research is to find out and demonstrate existing differences and similarities of these communicative phenomena on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis of the research material in the Russian and English languages. The authors describe communicative features of these phenomena and consider the reasons for such forms of communication and their increased use at present. The research material is represented fiction extracts, film scripts, jokes, print media, a collection of oral speech records both in Russian and English. The authors make use of the following research methods: definitional analysis (to define the terminology of the research, the method of linguistic observation and introspection (to select the communicative situations, the descriptive-analytical method and the method of comparative analysis (to identify similarities and differences of the target phenomena, and the conversational analysis method (to view productivity and effectiveness of a dialogue, etc. The classification of possible forms of their existence in different discourses is suggested. The authors assume that both pseudo- and quasi-communication are characterized as fictitious forms of human interaction with some noticeable violation of the basic communicative model. Pseudo-communication suffers from the discrepancy of the meaning of a coded and decoded message. The authors put forward the main parameters of scientific classification of it as follows: adequate understanding, intentionality, and the stage of communicative action where the failure takes place. At the same time they stress the necessity to distinguish the cases of pseudo talks from phatic and indirect communication. Quasi-communcation is marked by the lack of a real partner and hence

  19. Improving Pathologists' Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintzis, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients [1]. The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Do future commercial broadband communication satellites really need laser-communication intersatellite links (ISLs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidell, James E.

    1997-04-01

    Large commercial satellite programs requiring ISLs are growing in number and maturing. An important segment of the commercial satellite market, and its ISL needs, is discussed in the paper. ISL value will increase as long-haul terrestrial backbones become increasingly congested. Providing interregional and intercontinental connectivity via ISL presents far lower cost and fewer problems than relying on terrestrial fiber-optic networks. To demonstrate this, a new metric is proposed which allows 'apples-to- apples' cost/performance comparisons between laser communications in GEO, LEO, and terrestrial fiber-optics. ISL requirements in to the next decade are predicted >= 50-100 Gb/s full duplex. Many attitudinal changes must be embraced among those who choose to focus on this new commercial business. Foremost among these is a preponderance to delivering fully acceptable hardware fast and at low cost, as opposed to merely designing such. Considerable attention must be given business considerations foreign to professionals who have spent time in the government or government contracting sectors. Successful ISL customers will come to recognize that ISLs are not commodity products. Failure to embrace these attitudes will nonetheless constitute decision to which the commercial market, and particularly the financial market, will appropriately respond.

  1. Digital Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita Corniani

    2006-01-01

    Digital marketing communication is directed to profiled targets, which are active in the communication process. Every communication flow can ask for an information answer from the market. This opportunity grants immediate feed-backs and feed-forwards, so that digital communication can be easily and cheaply measured; digital communication flows are diffused at costs that are getting lower and lower, but it asks specialized and deep competences to communication managers. The ease in the flowing...

  2. Energy and scientific communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, E.

    2013-06-01

    Energy communication is a paradigmatic case of scientific communication. It is particularly important today, when the world is confronted with a number of immediate, urgent problems. Science communication has become a real duty and a big challenge for scientists. It serves to create and foster a climate of reciprocal knowledge and trust between science and society, and to establish a good level of interest and enthusiasm for research. For an effective communication it is important to establish an open dialogue with the audience, and a close collaboration among scientists and science communicators. An international collaboration in energy communication is appropriate to better support international and interdisciplinary research and projects.

  3. X-Band CubeSat Communication System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunc, Serhat; Kegege, Obadiah; Bundick, Steve; Shaw, Harry; Schaire, Scott; Bussey, George; Crum, Gary; Burke, Jacob C.; Palo, Scott; O'Conor, Darren

    2015-01-01

    demonstration between a balloon and/or a sounding rocket and a Near Earth Network (NEN) ground system. This paper presents CubeSat communication systems simulation results, analysis of X-band and S-band antennas and RF front-end components, transceiver design, analysis and optimization of space-to-ground communication performance, subsystem development, as well as the test results for an end-to-end X-band CubeSat communication system demonstration. The outcome of this work will be used to pave the way for next generation NEN-compatible X-band CubeSat communication systems to support higher data rates with more advanced modulation and forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes, and to support and attract new science missions at lower cost. It also includes an abbreviated concept of operations for CubeSat users to utilize the NEN, starting from first contact with NASA's communication network and continuing through on-orbit operations.

  4. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Mar 8,2018 After a cardiac event ... shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get ...

  5. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  6. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the ...

  7. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  8. Communication System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  9. Intimacy and Computer Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Dave; Robson, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between intimacy and communication that is based on computer technology. Discusses definitions of intimacy and the nature of intimate conversations that use computers as a communications medium. Explores implications for counseling. (MKA)

  10. Improving Communication in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Doenmez, Denniz; Hepperle, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Communication permeates every aspect of an engineer’s work – from clarifying product specifications to shaping social ties. This paper offers an overview of recommendations from literature to improve communication within and among engineering teams. We assume communication problems are often...... of tasks. To improve these factors in order to enable effective communication, this paper collates more than hundred recommendations from journal articles and textbooks published in the fields of engineering design, management science, sociology, and psychology. Recommendations include, for example...

  11. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms ...

  12. Intercultural communication: conceptual delimitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela SPÎNU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era of interference, intercultural communication is timely and advisable. The article analyzes the relation between communication/ language and culture. Starting from a description of different approaches and models of the concept of culture that have influenced and still influence the intercultural communication, and a description of the linguistic theories regarding the relation between language and culture.

  13. Communicating with Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Harrelson, Peggy O'Neill, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    Communicating positively with young children helps them develop confidence, feelings of self-worth, and good relationships with others. Adults sometimes have difficulty communicating positively with children when feelings are involved-either their own or the child's. This publication explores ways for parents to improve their communication with children.

  14. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  15. Terrorism as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Warren; Rainey, Daniel

    Terrorism has become not merely a political act, but a carefully designed and rhetorically sophisticated attempt at communication. What role should the communication scholar play in the investigation of terrorism? Specifically, there are six areas within which the communication scholar may actively contribute to an understanding of terrorism as…

  16. IBM 3705 Communications Controller

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The IBM 3705 Communications Controller is a simple computer which attaches to an IBM System/360 or System/370. Its purpose is to connect communication lines to the mainframe channel. It was a first communications controller of the popular IBM 37xx series.

  17. CSR communication: quo vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golob, U.; Podnar, K.; Elving, W.J.; Ellerup Nielsen, A.; Thomsen, C.; Schultz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make a

  18. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  19. Teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimmer, Dale

    2009-07-01

    Effective teamwork and communication is critical to the delivery of safe and reliable patient care. Communication breakdowns account for the overwhelming majority of sentinel events. Effective teamwork and communication can help prevent mistakes and decrease patient risk. The implementation of simple tools and behaviors can greatly enhance patient safety and improve perceptions of teamwork.

  20. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  2. Diagnosing Communication Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carol J.

    This paper addresses the concept of the communication audit, i.e., a fact-finding analysis, interpretation, and reporting process that studies the communication philosophy, structure, flow, and practice of the organization. Reasons for doing a communication audit are identified: (1) to uncover information blockages and organizational hindrances;…

  3. Measuring Communication in Parallel Communicating Finite Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Bordihn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Systems of deterministic finite automata communicating by sending their states upon request are investigated, when the amount of communication is restricted. The computational power and decidability properties are studied for the case of returning centralized systems, when the number of necessary communications during the computations of the system is bounded by a function depending on the length of the input. It is proved that an infinite hierarchy of language families exists, depending on the number of messages sent during their most economical recognitions. Moreover, several properties are shown to be not semi-decidable for the systems under consideration.

  4. Communication network for decentralized remote tele-science during the Spacelab mission IML-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Uwe; Schulz, Klaus-Juergen; Incollingo, Marco

    1994-01-01

    The ESA communication network for decentralized remote telescience during the Spacelab mission IML-2, called Interconnection Ground Subnetwork (IGS), provided data, voice conferencing, video distribution/conferencing and high rate data services to 5 remote user centers in Europe. The combination of services allowed the experimenters to interact with their experiments as they would normally do from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at MSFC. In addition, to enhance their science results, they were able to make use of reference facilities and computing resources in their home laboratory, which typically are not available in the POCC. Characteristics of the IML-2 communications implementation were the adaptation to the different user needs based on modular service capabilities of IGS and the cost optimization for the connectivity. This was achieved by using a combination of traditional leased lines, satellite based VSAT connectivity and N-ISDN according to the simulation and mission schedule for each remote site. The central management system of IGS allows minimization of staffing and the involvement of communications personnel at the remote sites. The successful operation of IGS for IML-2 as a precursor network for the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) has proven the concept for communications to support the operation of the COF decentralized scenario.

  5. An analysis of the low-earth-orbit communications environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diersing, Robert Joseph

    Advances in microprocessor technology and availability of launch opportunities have caused interest in low-earth-orbit satellite based communications systems to increase dramatically during the past several years. In this research the capabilities of two low-cost, store-and-forward LEO communications satellites operating in the public domain are examined--PACSAT-1 (operated by the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation) and UoSAT-3 (operated by the University of Surrey, England, Electrical Engineering Department). The file broadcasting and file transfer facilities are examined in detail and a simulation model of the downlink traffic pattern is developed. The simulator will aid the assessment of changes in design and implementation for other systems. The development of the downlink traffic simulator is based on three major parts. First, is a characterization of the low-earth-orbit operating environment along with preliminary measurements of the PACSAT-1 and UoSAT-3 systems including: satellite visibility constraints on communications, monitoring equipment configuration, link margin computations, determination of block and bit error rates, and establishing typical data capture rates for ground stations using computer-pointed directional antennas and fixed omni-directional antennas. Second, arrival rates for successful and unsuccessful file server connections are established along with transaction service times. Downlink traffic has been further characterized by measuring: frame and byte counts for all data-link layer traffic; 30-second interval average response time for all traffic and for file server traffic only; file server response time on a per-connection basis; and retry rates for information and supervisory frames. Finally, the model is verified by comparison with measurements of actual traffic not previously used in the model building process. The simulator is then used to predict operation of the PACSAT-1 satellite with modifications to the original design.

  6. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  7. Engagement through communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we work from the assumption that university engagement can be fostered by addressing the dissemination of scientific knowledge as a communication process, and we explore how university engagement can be encouraged through the communication of scientific knowledge to SMEs (small...... and potentials) in relation to scientific knowledge, which must be taken into account in attempts to communicate scientific knowledge to SMEs. Based on this analysis, we discuss solutions and outline some communicative principles that can contribute with a solution-oriented perspective on how communicating...

  8. Data communication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Seon; Lee, Sang Mok

    1998-02-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of data communication on definition, purpose and history, information terminal about data communication system and data transmission system, data transmit equipment of summary, transmission cable, data port, concentrator and front-end processor, audio communication equipment like phones, radio communication equipment of summary on foundation of electromagnetic waves, AM transmitter, AM receiver, FM receiver and FM transmitter, a satellite and mobile communication equipment such as earth station, TT and C and Cellular phone, video telephone and new media apparatus.

  9. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  10. The Trouble With Strategic Communication(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    .... There is no overarching U.S. government definition of strategic communication. There is, however, a Department of Defense definition as a result of the most recent Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR...

  11. Crisis Communication Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utz, Sonja; Schultz, Friederike; Glocka, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Social media play in today's societies a fundamental role for the negotiation and dynamics of crises. However, classical crisis communication theories neglect the role of the medium and focus mainly on the interplay between crisis type and crisis communication strategy. Building on the recently...... developed “networked crisis communication model” we contrast effects of medium (Facebook vs. Twitter vs. online newspaper) and crisis type (intentional vs. victim) in an online experiment. Using the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster as crisis scenario, we show that medium effects are stronger than...... the effects of crisis type. Crisis communication via social media resulted in a higher reputation and less secondary crisis reactions such as boycotting the company than crisis communication in the newspaper. However, secondary crisis communication, e.g. talking about the crisis communication, was higher...

  12. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  13. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resilient Communication: A New Crisis Communication Strategy for Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    communication theory. Author, Timothy Coombs , in Ongoing Crisis Communication , discusses the need for a crisis management 10 plan to prepare for potential... COMMUNICATION : A NEW CRISIS COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR HOMELAND SECURITY by Sharon L. Watson March 2012 Thesis Advisor: Christopher Bellavita...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Resilient Communication : A New Crisis Communication

  15. Quantum cryptography communication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Hong, Seok Boong; Koo, In Soo

    2007-09-01

    Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant

  16. Quantum cryptography communication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Hong, Seok Boong; Koo, In Soo

    2007-09-15

    Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant.

  17. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELF Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Cavalheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional notion of English as a foreign language solely for communicating with native speakers can no longer be applied in a world that is constantly changing, hence paving the way for an alternative use of the language known as English as a lingua franca. As a result, instead of focusing only on grammatical correctness, research into language pedagogy has also come to recognize the importance of exploring bottom-up learning processes, and developing intercultural communicative competence (ICC and more communicative-based methods. Nowadays, it is essential to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and critical cultural awareness necessary to communicate successfully. To show the importance of integrating ICC in language pedagogy, a recording from the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English is analysed here to demonstrate the significance of developing critical awareness as well as several communicative strategies, so that language learners can afterwards have the necessary ICC to interact in today’s multi-lingual/cultural society.

  18. Organizational communication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Spaho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Managers spend majority of their time communicating in several forms: meeting, face-to –face dis- cussion, letters, emails etc. Also more and more employees realize that communication is a very im- portant part of their work because a lot of their work activities are based on teamwork among workers in different functional groups. This is the reason why communication has become more important in companies. The experience shows that there are significant differences in manners of communication and that it appears to be a very important factor which makes some organizations more successful than others. Communication is the most important for managers because research shows that the spent long period in work time in communication.

  19. Communicating Your Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective science communication can open doors, accelerate your career and even make you a better scientist. Part of being an effective and productive scientist means being an effective science communicator. The scientist must communicate their work in talks, posters, peer-reviewed papers, internal reports, proposals as well as to the broader public (including law makers). Despite the importance of communication, it has traditionally not been part of our core training as scientists. Today's science students are beginning to have more opportunities to formally develop their science communication skills. Fortunately, new and even more established scientists have a range of tools and resources at their disposal. In this presentation, we will share some of these resources, share our own experiences utilizing them, and provide some practical tools to improve your own science communication skills.

  20. Exploring Constrained Creative Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Creative collaboration via online tools offers a less ‘media rich’ exchange of information between participants than face-to-face collaboration. The participants’ freedom to communicate is restricted in means of communication, and rectified in terms of possibilities offered in the interface. How do...... these constrains influence the creative process and the outcome? In order to isolate the communication problem from the interface- and technology problem, we examine via a design game the creative communication on an open-ended task in a highly constrained setting, a design game. Via an experiment the relation...... between communicative constrains and participants’ perception of dialogue and creativity is examined. Four batches of students preparing for forming semester project groups were conducted and documented. Students were asked to create an unspecified object without any exchange of communication except...

  1. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system.   Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: E2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  2. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system. Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: F2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  3. Communication in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Masao

    1996-01-01

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ''the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others'' are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  4. Green symbiotic cloud communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, H D; Desai, Uday B; Baveja, Brij Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This book intends to change the perception of modern day telecommunications. Communication systems, usually perceived as “dumb pipes”, carrying information / data from one point to another, are evolved into intelligently communicating smart systems. The book introduces a new field of cloud communications. The concept, theory, and architecture of this new field of cloud communications are discussed. The book lays down nine design postulates that form the basis of the development of a first of its kind cloud communication paradigm entitled Green Symbiotic Cloud Communications or GSCC. The proposed design postulates are formulated in a generic way to form the backbone for development of systems and technologies of the future. The book can be used to develop courses that serve as an essential part of graduate curriculum in computer science and electrical engineering. Such courses can be independent or part of high-level research courses. The book will also be of interest to a wide range of readers including b...

  5. Designing for Networked Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development explains how to plan, use, and understand the products and the dynamic social processes and tasks some of the most vital innovations in the knowledge society depend upon– social as well as technological. Focusing on various forms...... of design, implementation and integration of computer mediated communication, this book bridges the academic fields of computer science and communication studies. Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development uses an interdisciplinary approach, and presents results from recent...... and important research in a variety of forms for networked communications. A constructive and critical view of the interplay between the new electronic and the more conventional modes of communication are utilized, while studies of organizational work practices demonstrate that the use of new technologies...

  6. Organizational communication process

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan Spaho

    2012-01-01

    Managers spend majority of their time communicating in several forms: meeting, face-to –face dis- cussion, letters, emails etc. Also more and more employees realize that communication is a very im- portant part of their work because a lot of their work activities are based on teamwork among workers in different functional groups. This is the reason why communication has become more important in companies. The experience shows that there are significant differences in manners of ...

  7. Digital communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Union, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A digital communication system for communicating among two central consoles and a plurality of local controllers, e.g. in a radiation and monitoring system, provides communication between each of the consoles and all of the local controllers via dual paths. Each path is independent of the other and each extends from one of the consoles to all of the local controllers from opposite directions, thereby forming a unique non-continuous loop. (author)

  8. Secure Fiberoptic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, Henri

    At the heart of our current information explosion is the communication network. Networks are now an intrinsic part of our daily activities, whether they are for Internet business transactions or military communications in Future Combat Systems. Protection of this communication infrastructure is a must. In this article, we discuss two approaches for securing all-optical networks. The first is an optical encryption technique that denies the information to intruders. The second is an authentication scheme capable of detecting and identifying unauthorized users.

  9. Communications and media services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

  10. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no commun...

  11. Corruption and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    , and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...... the powerful communicative dynamics playing out between the local organizational meanings of particular practices and externally imposed definitions of what constitutes appropriate organizational behavior....

  12. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  13. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across......The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  14. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Being Active - FAQs About Physical Activity Managing Your Medicines - Introduction - Taking Control of Your Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker Communicating ...

  15. Networked Constellation Communications Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop communications architectures and enabling technologies for mission concepts relying on multiple spatially distributed spacecraft to perform coordinated...

  16. The art of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Emma

    2014-03-01

    Effective communication is an essential skill in general practice consultations. The art of communication is the development of effective skills and finding a style of communication that suits the clinician and produces benefits for both patient and doctor. This paper outlines the essential skills required for effective communication with a patient and suggests that clinicians consider this communication as an art that can be developed throughout a medical career. Good communication can improve outcomes for patients and doctors, and deserves equal importance as developing clinical knowledge and procedural skill. The importance of good communication is so critical that Australian guidelines list effective communication as part of the required conduct for all doctors. A therapeutic patient-doctor relationship uses the clinician as a therapeutic intervention and is part of the art of communication. Despite all the technological advances of recent decades, caring, compassionate, healing doctors remain the best therapeutic tool in medicine. The ability of a doctor to provide comfort through their presence and their words is a fundamental component of good medical care.

  17. Improve your communication skills

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."

  18. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  19. Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

    2015-01-01

    systems, as well as those communications and navigation systems operated by international space agencies and civilian and government agencies. In this paper, we review the philosophies, technologies, architectural attributes, mission services, and communications capabilities that form the structure of candidate next-generation integrated communication architectures for space communications and navigation. A key area that this paper explores is from the development and operation of the software defined radio for the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed currently on the International Space Station (ISS). Evaluating the lessons learned from development and operation feed back into the communications architecture. Leveraging the reconfigurability provides a change in the way that operations are done and must be considered. Quantifying the impact on the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio architecture provides feedback to keep the standard useful and up to date. NASA is not the only customer of these radios. Software defined radios are developed for other applications, and taking advantage of these developments promotes an architecture that is cost effective and sustainable. Developments in the following areas such as an updated operating environment, higher data rates, networking and security can be leveraged. The ability to sustain an architecture that uses radios for multiple markets can lower costs and keep new technology infused.

  20. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  1. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  2. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  3. Nonprofit Communications from a Corporate Communications Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ava

    2006-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations, such as social service agencies, charities, and hospitals, plan and prepare communications that are vital to their missions. Although not corporations, these organizations produce news releases, newsletters, and annual reports that are similar to those created in the corporate sector. In this research project for a course…

  4. Ordinateur et communication (Computer and Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangenot, Francois

    1994-01-01

    Because use of computers in second-language classrooms may tend to decrease interpersonal interaction, and therefore communication, ways to promote interaction are offered. These include small group computer projects, and suggestions are made for use with various computer functions and features: tutorials, word processing, voice recording,…

  5. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  6. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  7. Flesh as communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2012-01-01

    , action. A correlative bond lies in communication theory as the operational difference between ego and alter-ego. This article investigates the non-semiotic intertwinement of ‘flesh’ in art perception and theory based on communication theory in performance art (body art). The thesis is that ‘flesh...

  8. Business Communication in BELF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  9. Marketing communication in tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkina, Katsiaryna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this graduation thesis was to analyze some possibilities of marketing communication in tourism. For this analize were chosen travel agencies in Tábor. The partial objects consisted in the analysis of supply of researched travel agencies including their marketing communication. There was found out also demand of products in tourism. After analyses were prepared some recommendations for improvement.

  10. International Communication and Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    The author discusses (1) the nature of communication, (2) sociological aspects of the communication problem, and (3) solutions to the language problem that have been tried. He believes that "there is a solution easier and more successful than multilingualism, and less discriminatory than the unilateral imposition of one national language for…

  11. Intracultural Communication: Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    The 63 books and journal articles listed in this bibliography address the problem of intracultural communication. A short introduction to the bibliography defines intracultural communication as the creation and sharing of meaning among citizens of the same geo-political system who come from various tributary cultures (groups distinguishable from…

  12. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  13. Communication of the popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of the communication of popular culture. It considers the more specialized meaning of popular culture, which primarily encompasses the works of artistic forms which have a popular character - easily understandable and entertaining contents and wide audience. The aesthetic communication of the popular through popular literature, film, pop and rock music is examined. The paper is divided into three parts. The first parts deals with the aesthetics of the communication of popular culture. It contains the analysis of the major formal-aesthetic procedures embedded in the creative expression of the popular. In the part which is dedicated to social aspects of the communication of popular art, the author examines the industrial, market and commercial principles upon which this whole culture is based. It is a time of new technologies and mass consumption, which represent, in the words of Eric Hobsbawm, a 'cultural landscape' that has transformed the manner in which a new audience experiences the artistic. Finally, popular culture stars are observed as communicators. The author adds them as a new, even crucial, link in the already known chain of communication comprising the author, the work and the audience. Stars (film, popular music are active factors of communication as well as its bearers. They are the intermediaries through which the audience establishes relationships with the authors (writers, directors, composers and the works in which those stars appear. Stars as 'new Olympians' (Morin are, indeed, another significant category that distinguishes the communication of popular culture.

  14. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  15. Information or communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....

  16. Participatory Development Communication

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Training Needs in Participatory Development Communication .... to the development of society (communications in the service of development), ... There are also some definitions that give a more restrictive meaning to the way ...... Although proponents of participation appreciate that there is more good than bad in the ...

  17. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  18. Socio-Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James David

    The focus of this work is the introduction and description of a quasi-new concept called socio-communication. In chapter 1 the term "socio communication" is defined as "human interaction, among and between different classes of people, by means of verbal and nonverbal expression in day-to-day social situations." In chapter 2 social communication…

  19. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  20. Communication Challenge Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Tom; Vance, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Communication Challenge Softball is a developmentally appropriate game for middle school students. The game allows them to develop new communication skills using American Sign Language (signing). Traditional softball has been a part of physical education for years, and remains a popular sport played by children in community leagues throughout the…

  1. Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…

  2. Project Communications Management

    OpenAIRE

    José C. Santiago-Guevara; Mauricio Rojas-Contreras; Luis A. Esteban-Villamizar

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review in relation to the object of study: Communications Management as an important factor in the management of projects. The review includes the most relevant and most renowned authors in the field of project management, focusing on telecommunications projects, which lets you define a communications management model.

  3. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one…

  4. Marxism and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  5. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela JIREGHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the idea of an effective communication between teacher and students aiming to prove that classroom activities maximize opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities. The emphasis lies on meaning (messages they are creating or tasks they are completing rather than form (correctness of language and language structure.

  6. Subliminal communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of subliminal communication devices presently in use, the psychological basis for subliminal technology, and the effectiveness of subliminal communication for therapy are examined as well as potentials for abuse. Social, legal, and ethical aspects are considered with respect to the privacy and autonomy of captive audiences. Implications for the regulation of subliminal techniques are reviewed with application to the various media.

  7. Communication in cartelized industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cayseele, P.J.G.; Camesasca, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we first survey both the European Commission’s legal standard and economic theory on communication in industries in which a cartel is operating. We notice a strong tension between the per se illegal nature of communication on price and price fixing, considered to be proof of the

  8. Data communications pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Data Communications Pocket Book, Second Edition presents information relevant to data communication. The book provides tabulated reference materials with a brief description and diagrams. The coverage of the text includes abbreviations, terminal control codes, and conversion tables. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the interconnection of computer systems.

  9. Communicating research results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Fryk

    1999-01-01

    A research finding is of little value until it is known and applied. Hence) communication of results should be regarded as a natural, integrated part of research) and thus addressed in the research plans from the very beginning. A clearly defined information strategy and operational goals for information activities are needed for successful communication. For maximum...

  10. Communicating the seemingly unintelligible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    -communicable to others. Unintelligible imaginations may be grounds for suffering, as an individual’s struggles cannot be communicatively exchanged with others and may therefore never be overcome – one’s sense, so to say, may never be turned into a shareable common sense and consequently never finds its expression...

  11. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of…

  12. Comparative Political Communication Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care

  13. Essays on Strategic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sharif (Zara)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThree essays on strategic communication are discussed in this dissertation. These essays consider different settings in which a decision maker has to rely on another agent for information. In each essay, we analyze how much information the sender is able to credibly communicate to

  14. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  15. Organizational Communication and Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

      The paper reflects an interest in the relation between organizational communication and media. It tries to answer the question, how we can observe the relationship between organizational communication and media. It is a work-in-progress which tries to combine organizational studies inspired...... of Niklas Luhmann (Tække & Paulsen 2008, Tække 2008a) with analysis of how organizations communicate in and about media. Using systems theory and form theory, it puts forward a theoretical framework and a strategy for analysing organisational communication in and about media. The medium aspect is inspired...... is a possible framework to draw the two disciplines together in, because it is a theory about the relation between the social and the media it is based on. First the paper sum up the Luhmann inspired theory about organizations, fleshing out how organizations are thought to communicate in and about media and how...

  16. Scholarly communication changing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The dissertation aims at investigating the changing scholarly communication in general and more specifically the implications of open access on scholarly communication. The overall research question is: What are the effects of open access on scholarly communication? The dissertation...... consists of five empirical studies of various aspects of the implications of open access on scholarly communication. The five studies, published as journal articles, are bibliometric studies conducted on three different levels. The first level consists of two studies of a general, more explorative....... Furthermore, the dissertation includes a chapter that presents and discusses the research findings in a theoretical framework. Initially the chapter presents and discusses terminology needed for analysing open access and scholarly communication. Following the necessary definitions and clarifications...

  17. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense of establishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  18. Heidegger, communication, and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentmeester, Casey

    2018-01-12

    Communication between medical professionals and patients is an important aspect of therapy and patient satisfaction. Common barriers that get in the way of effective communication in this sphere include: (1) gender, age, and cultural differences; (2) physical or psychological discomfort or pain; (3) medical literacy; and (4) distraction due to technological factors or simply being overworked. The author examines these communicative barriers from a philosophical lens and then utilizes Martin Heidegger's phenomenology and hermeneutics to provide guidance for medical professional-patient interactions. The phenomenological approach espoused emphasizes the particular, contextual nature of such interactions, and thus is opposed to abstract, theoretical principles. Heidegger's hermeneutics provides a philosophical approach to communication that may guide the back-and-forth interpretation that should happen between medical professionals and patients to achieve effective communication.

  19. Interdiscursive leadership communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Broeng, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Communication realized as discourses, positions, and stories are the stuff leadership primarily is made of and recreated by. Leadership and organizational communication in late capitalism and postmodernity are characterized by hybridity, interdicursivity, and subtle discursive forms of power. We...... Communication (AMOC). We draw on developments in theories of leadership, power, and paradigms within the field of organizational communication. These developments are related to their social and historical contexts. We claim that awareness of approaches, paradigms, forms of power, and positions, as well...... as their historical background, form an important background of knowledge. Such knowledge gives the possibility to learn, meta-reflect, and react and relate in different ways to leadership, communication, power, and the interpersonal relations in organizations. It also gives the possibility to change position...

  20. Strategic Communication Institutionalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2013-01-01

    of institutionalization when strategic communication is not yet visible as organizational practice, and how can such detections provide explanation for the later outcome of the process? (2) How can studies of strategic communication benefit from an institutional perspective? How can the virus metaphor generate a deeper...... understanding of the mechanisms that interact from the time an organization is exposed to a new organizational idea such as strategic communication until it surfaces in the form of symptoms such as mission and vision statements, communication manuals and communication positions? The first part of the article...... focuses on a discussion of the virus metaphor as an alternative to the widespread fashion metaphor for processes of institutionalization. The second part of the article provides empirical examples of the virus metaphor employed, examples that are drawn from a study of the institutionalization of strategic...

  1. Communication in Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Časar

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In their paper the authors point to the importance of communication in adult education, seeing man as a relational creature. They stress the importance verbal as well as non-verbal communication, which discloses the speaker's attitude to both what is being said and the students. The authors detail the components of non-verbal communication, which the group leaders can use as guide­ lines in their educational work. They define constructive and destructive, content-related and relationship-related types of communication, concluding that communication is at its best when it is relaxed and involves all members of the group as well as the tutor-organiser. Only then can feedback be generated, resulting in a closer connectedness and enhanced quality of the process of education.

  2. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication is involved in all social life acts, being the constituent factor of creation and of cultural processes. Cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue are intensely discussed topics in today's society which is marked by globalization. Cultural differences are the core subject for studies addressing intercultural communication. Good knowledge of other cultures is a necessary step to get to recognize the nature of these differences and to relate to others through attitudes of understanding and tolerance which are premises for genuine intercultural dialogue, especially in the tourism industry. While communication is an act of human relationships, culture is the motive of this act. In tourism, quality of communication is related to the level of the culture involved and to the degree of improvement of the means of which is done. Intercultural communication experiences help tourists to know and to appreciate other cultures, but also help them to a better understanding of their own culture.

  3. COMMUNICATION, ETHICS AND ANTHROPOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  4. Long-distance multipartite quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, T.

    2014-01-01

    entangled four photons in a GHZ-state with one of the recipients being separated by 143 km. Entanglement swapping and multi-photon entanglement such as GHZ-states lay the foundation for the distribution of entanglement over large distances and for entangling multiple nodes with each other. Our findings prove the feasibility of these protocols in future satellite-based quantum-communication applications, furthering the vision of quantum networks on a global scale. (author) [de

  5. Communication system for emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru

    1996-01-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  6. NASA science communications strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  7. JINR rapid communications. Collection no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The volume includes 7 communications in the field of elementary particle physics (3 communications), nuclear physics (1 communication), atoms and molecules (1 communication), accelerators (1 communication) and nuclear instrumentation (1 communication). A separate abstract was prepared for each of them

  8. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  9. Communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This is the first point of reference for the communications industries. It offers an introduction to a wide range of topics and concepts encountered in the field of communications technology. Whether you are looking for a simple explanation, or need to go into a subject in more depth, the Communications Technology Handbook provides all the information you need in one single volume.This second edition has been updated to include the latest technology including: Video on DemandWire-less Distribution systemsHigh spee

  10. Customer Communication Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  11. Serial interprocessor communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-01-01

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM

  12. COMMUNICATING FOR SUCCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria Popa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational communication, both internal and external, affects organizational efficiency and effectiveness and consequently, the objectives of the organization. Communication is one the elements of the organizational life which is taken for granted and most of the times overlooked. It is pervasive and inherent in all activities thus, it cannot be analyzed in isolation, but in an organizational context. A well structured communication system will impact the performance of the organization through the quantity, but mostly the quality of the information it transports. Information should be clear, concise, specific, open, multi-directional.

  13. Digital communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  14. 75 FR 5241 - Maritime Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...] Maritime Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this... that its rules governing the Maritime Radio Services continue to promote maritime safety, maximize effective and efficient use of the spectrum available for maritime communications, accommodate technological...

  15. Visual implementation of computer communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Tobias; Johansson, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Communication is a fundamental part of life and during the 20th century several new ways for communication has been developed and created. From the first telegraph which made it possible to send messages over long distances to radio communication and the telephone. In the last decades, computer to computer communication at high speed has become increasingly important, and so also the need for understanding computer communication. Since data communication today works in speeds that are so high...

  16. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  17. Informationization nuclear apparatus communication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tiqi; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the request of communication ability in nuclear technique application area. Based on the actuality of nuclear apparatus communication ability, and mainly combining with the development of communication technique, the authors analyzes the application trend of communication technique applying in nuclear apparatus, for the apparatus and system needing communication ability, they need selecting suitable communication means to make them accomplish the task immediately and effectively. (authors)

  18. Karl Marx & Communication @ 200: Towards a Marxian Theory of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for reflecting on foundations of a Marxian theory of communication. It aims to show that Marx provides a consistent account as foundation for a critical, dialectical theory of communication. The article first discusses the relationship of communication and materialism in order to ground a communicative materialism that avoids the dualist assumption that communication is a superstructure erected on a material base. Second, the paper provides an overview of how Marx’s approach helps us to understand the role of the means of communication and communicative labour in capitalism. Third, it conceives of ideology as a form of fetishised communication and fetishism as ideological communication. Given that communicative capitalism is a significant dimension of contemporary society, it is about time to develop a Marxian theory of communication.

  19. Organizational Communication: Communication and Motivation in The Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Ramadanty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every human activity was basically driven by the motivation. Work motivation was a condition or an energy that directed employees to achieve organizational goals of the company. Nowadays, the development of organizational communication saw the communication as one of the most dominant and important activity in the organization and it could be able to motivate employees. The purpose of this study was to reveal how the role of the communication that occurs within the organization could give the motivation to employee. The problem of the research was the relationship employee motivation with factors of communication, such as nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate. The method used descriptive qualitative method. Methods of data collection of this study were literature study. Research finds that nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate have a significant role to form employee motivation. Nonverbal communication has slightly strong role in shaping the positive motivation to employee. The role includes body communication, facial communication and eye communication. Interpersonal communication leader is based on the satisfaction level of information between management and employees. Management and transparency in openness in downward communication under the form of information from superiors are by listening the communication between supervisors and employees are running smoothly. 

  20. Identifying Error in AUV Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Joseph; Merrill, Kaylani; O'Rourke, Michael; Rajala, Andrew G; Edwards, Dean B

    2006-01-01

    Mine Countermeasures (MCM) involving Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are especially susceptible to error, given the constraints on underwater acoustic communication and the inconstancy of the underwater communication channel...

  1. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    .... This book critically examines the origin of this drive to improve communication, and discusses why simply improving scientists' communication skills and understanding of their audiences may not be...

  2. Communication satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  3. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  4. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow-up ... or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the phone, ...

  5. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology......, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience...

  6. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getting the facts. Usually, office visits and phone calls are shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ...

  7. Emotional crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Organizational crises are usually highly emotional experiences for both organizations and stakeholders. Hence, crisis situations often result in emotionally charged communication between the two parties. Despite the attention of organizations and scholars to the emotions of stakeholders during

  8. Economic communication model set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Olga M.; Berg, Dmitry B.

    2017-06-01

    This paper details findings from the research work targeted at economic communications investigation with agent-based models usage. The agent-based model set was engineered to simulate economic communications. Money in the form of internal and external currencies was introduced into the models to support exchanges in communications. Every model, being based on the general concept, has its own peculiarities in algorithm and input data set since it was engineered to solve the specific problem. Several and different origin data sets were used in experiments: theoretic sets were estimated on the basis of static Leontief's equilibrium equation and the real set was constructed on the basis of statistical data. While simulation experiments, communication process was observed in dynamics, and system macroparameters were estimated. This research approved that combination of an agent-based and mathematical model can cause a synergetic effect.

  9. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... concerns, asking questions and getting the facts. Usually, office visits and phone calls are shorter and more ... over the phone, at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better ...

  10. Psychology of communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunns, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A theory is proposed relating to the structuring of mental models and this theory used to account for a number of human error mechanisms. Communications amongst operators and the systems around them is seen as a vital factor in the area of human error and a technique, communications analysis, is proposed as one approach to systematically predicting the ways in which actual system state and the operators' perceptions of that state can get out of step and lead to catastrophe. To be most effective it is expected that the analyst would apply communications analyst with an interactive computer system. Of particular importance is the ability to trace the operator-system communication scenarios in various abnormal system configurations. (orig.)

  11. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  12. Research and Communication Officer

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    guidance on problems relating to the Centre's programming and issues of ... Ability to use information and communication technologies and virtual media navigation ... Tact and maturity for successful interpersonal and professional contacts.

  13. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow- ... you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the ...

  14. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... summarizes communication tips This content was last reviewed March 2018. Video: Recovering From Your Surgery Find helpful ... Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 4 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 5 ...

  15. Improving Family Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  16. Credentialed Secure Communication "Switchboards"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freudenthal, Eric; Port, Lawrence; Keenan, Edward; Pesin, Tracy; Karamcheti, Vijay

    2001-01-01

    ... with connection monitoring facilities. Switchboard extends the secure authenticated communication channel abstraction provided by standard interfaces such as SSL/TLS with mechanisms to support trust management, key sharing, service...

  17. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... communication skills can help you get what you need – over the phone, at the hospital or during ... complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

  18. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  19. The Corporate Communication Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Thomas E.; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of Fortune 500 companies regarding the position of communications manager. Profiles the responsibilities, typical salary, and usefulness of the position as perceived by respondents. (MS)

  20. Political communication in referendums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Reinemann, C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews research on political communication in referendums that have become increasingly popular in democracies worldwide. The authors define key characteristics of referendums, touch upon participation in and popular support for referendums, and highlight the differences between them

  1. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  2. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  3. Management in Professional Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Irama Milei Flores

    2012-01-01

    The following work describes to the type of existing communication in the professional schools and the strategies that use this type of organizations, to interact with its public. This reality is compared, with the theoretical expositions that in the matter of organizational communication, contribute students like: The Fernandez (1997), Goldhaber (1984), Serna (1996), Bartoli (1992), Go Rail (1998), among others. The study was developed in a sample of 104 affiliated and 4 Secretary Generals o...

  4. Programmable synchronous communications module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1979-10-01

    The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering

  5. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  6. Industrial communication technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Featuring contributions from major technology vendors, industry consortia, and government and private research establishments, the Industrial Communication Technology Handbook, Second Edition provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of wire- and wireless-based specialized communication networks used in plant and factory automation, automotive applications, avionics, building automation, energy and power systems, train applications, and more.New to the Second Edition:46 brand-new chapters and 21 substantially revised chaptersInclusion of the latest, most significant developments in spe

  7. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  8. The SKI communication programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Sweden has, since many years, an ongoing debate on nuclear power in general and nuclear safety and nuclear waste in particular. SKI is not the only part who wants to communicate about these subjects. The nuclear power plants, other authorities, the anti-nuclear groups and the politicians are other parts on the communication scene. The role of SKI is to provide the Swedish public with objective and prompt information based on facts. (author)

  9. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  10. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Spring 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 9......Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Spring 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 9...

  11. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Autumn 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 18......Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Autumn 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 18...

  12. Communication about risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conditions, difficulties and possibilities of communication on technological risks are detailed here. There is a description of the types and levels of argument on risks and the risk-concept itself, of the research field of risk communication, of the conceptional frame-work of the working-party, of the research programme and of the chances for a long-term prospect from the group. (DG) [de

  13. Relativity of Visual Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-01-01

    Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is conn...

  14. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes

  15. RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan VLADUTESCU

    2012-01-01

    The main feature of the present situation regarding communication is the impregnation of the social with technology. Computer-mediated communication systems has led to the crystallization of a strong specific interactions. This article describes how human relationships constitues the ontological pillar of society and social relations form the axis irradiance of sociology. Overall, as social agents in social space, people come in a variety of social relationships. Thus, a distinct note of the ...

  16. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanova, I.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers language as the organization of the speech of any person in any situation, without which it is impossible to characterize the internal structure of the speech stream. Language is exactly a system of guidelines necessary for the activity in the social world. Communication is primarily nothing but as a way of making one or another correction in the image of the interlocutor’s world. In order for a language to serve as a means of communication, it must have a single or a similar understanding of reality behind it. Conversely, the unity of understanding the reality and the unity of coherence presuppose the possibility of adequate communication. A mandatory component of communication is the communicative act, that is, the act of sharing information between people. The speech, i.e. the natural sound language is an important means of conveying information that defines this aspect of the communication process as verbal communication. The idea of dialogue as the space, in which the exchange of information takes place, is defined as initial. Essentially, it is the dialogue that in this case acts as the backbone principle in dealing with problems of language. It is here that the essence of social and psychological transition to the analysis of communication is most visibly concentrated. An individual essentially "lives" in the world of Another person’s worlds, and studying the words of this person, he or she studies the "world" of Another person. Thus, the dialogue is not merely the interaction (verbal with another person, but, ultimately, the interaction with the world of culture.

  17. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  18. Solar effects on communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, F.; Malcolm, W.; Nordell, D.E.; Zirker, J.

    1991-01-01

    When people involved in the power industry think of Solar Magnetic Disturbances (SMD), they normally consider the potential for disrupting power transmission which results form solar-induced disturbances to the earth's magnetic field known as geomagnetic storms. However, in addition to the disruption of power transmission, solar phenomena can interfere with utility communication systems. Utilities use many different types of communication media, some of which can be affected by various solar phenomena. These include wire-based facilities (metallic cables and power line carrier), radio systems (HF, VHF, UHF mobile radio, microwave networks, and satellite transmissions), and fiber optic systems. This paper reports that the solar flares and other solar phenomena can affect these media through different mechanisms: Radio communications can be disturbed by flare-induced changes in the ionispheric layer of the atmosphere; Cable communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced changes in the magnetosphere which surrounds the earth. These changes, in turn, induce currents in the power equipment that energizes long communications cables; Satellite communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced perturbations of satellite orbits and equipment

  19. [Communication among hospital leaders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique; Heeb, Jean-Luc; De Morgan, Paula Emilie

    2013-12-01

    New management styles imposed on hospital institutions in recent years, have fundamentally changed the organization of the latter. Many texts discuss the consequences, specifically on the field of communication. The aim of this study was to understand the real impact of new management methods on communication by managers in hospital, but also on care teams in termes of satisfaction and/or stress. This two-year study was conducted among 900 executives in hospitals in Western Switzerland using a mixed methodology. A first phase of questionnaires highlighted the problematic areas, while a second phase in the form of organized group interviews in each hospital, had the objective of achieving a better understanding of the relationship between management and communication. The latter proved to be particularly significant in terms of results, and this is the one we focused on in this article.These results indeed show that a crucial role is given to communication by carers, and, at the same time a lessening of the time devoted to relationships, both among peers and with patients. Frustration then arises, which is not without consequences both for the management of patients and the institutions themselves. It is by means of these results that awareness is raised of the omnipresence of communication at all levels and the major advantages that positive dynamic supports. And, on the contrary, of the serious problems which may arise from management practice that do not give due importance to the dimension of communication, present in all sectors of the hospital.

  20. Cancer patients' evaluation of communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how communication with health care staff is perceived by Danish cancer patients and to characterise those patients who report problems in communication.......The aims of this study were to assess how communication with health care staff is perceived by Danish cancer patients and to characterise those patients who report problems in communication....

  1. The Science of Strategic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one s...

  2. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  3. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, N

    2010-01-01

    ... patterns of communication among scientists, popular communication to the public and science in literature and drama. This three-part framework shows how historical and cultural factors operate in today's complex communication landscape, and should be actively considered when designing and evaluating science communication. Ideal for students and p...

  4. Quantum secure communication models comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Petrov Bebrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the quantum cryptography, more specifically, the quantum secure communication type of schemes. The main focus here is on making a comparison between the distinct secure quantum communication models – quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication, in terms of three parameters: resource efficiency, eavesdropping check efficiency, and security (degree of preserving the confidentiality.

  5. Social communication in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2018-05-15

    Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories. However, while the study of communication in bats is rapidly growing, it still lags behind other taxa. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of communication in bats, from the reasons why they communicate to the diversity and application of different signal modalities. The most widespread form of communication is the transmission of a signaller's characteristics, such as species identity, sex, individual identity, group membership, social status and body condition, and because many species of bats can rely little on vision due to their nocturnal lifestyles, it is assumed that sound and olfaction are particularly important signalling modes. For example, research suggests that secretions from specialized glands, often in combination with urine and saliva, are responsible for species recognition in several species. These olfactory signals may also convey information about sex and colony membership. Olfaction may be used in combination with sound, particularly in species that emit constant frequency (CF) echolocation calls, to recognize conspecifics from heterospecifics, yet their simple structure and high frequency do not allow much information of individual identity to be conveyed over long distances. By contrast, social calls may encode a larger number of cues of individual identity, and their lower frequencies increase their range of detection. Social

  6. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  7. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples.

  8. Management in Professional Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irama Milei Flores

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The following work describes to the type of existing communication in the professional schools and the strategies that use this type of organizations, to interact with its public. This reality is compared, with the theoretical expositions that in the matter of organizational communication, contribute students like: The Fernandez (1997, Goldhaber (1984, Serna (1996, Bartoli (1992, Go Rail (1998, among others. The study was developed in a sample of 104 affiliated and 4 Secretary Generals of the schools of Lawyers, Engineers, Accountants Public and Journalists of the state Nueva Esparta (Venezuela and used like technique and tool to the survey and the questionnaire. Between the conclusions they tell, that the type of communication that predominates in the schools is the unreliable person (rumors and formal the descendent one, but of regular way in amount and occasional form, they do not have communication plans and they fail to take advantage of the use of Internet. The elaboration of a plan of communications was recommended, according to the necessities of each union.

  9. Students' communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šafranj Jelisaveta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Communicative competence is the ability to send messages which promote attainment of goals while maintaining social acceptability. Competent communicators attempt to align themselves with each others goals and methods to produce a smooth, productive and often enjoyable dialogue. The aim of this research was to investigate self-perceived communicative competence (SPCC of students of Engineering Management in General English and English for Specific Purposes (ESP. A longitudinal study was carried out starting with the first year students at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad and was repeated with the same sample of students during their second and third year of study. Participation was voluntary and took place during regular class time. The measure of communicative competence employed was the Self-perceived Communication Competence Scale. The results of the study indicated that differences in SPCC between the years do exist. The SPCC gradually improved between the first, the second and the third year. The research was also motivated by gaining better overview of the teaching activity. An anonymous questionnaire provided many useful hints and ideas for further work and thus, language teacher made a thorough analysis of the overall teaching procedure. However, it is essential to get some feedback and talk to students in order to evaluate both them and ourselves as well as the teaching syllabus.

  10. Apologies in business communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Ruzaitė

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to examine the routine of apologizing in spoken business communication. Being face-threatening acts, apologies are of special importance in communication. Since apologies express sincerity and are remedial acts, apologizing helps to enhance mutual respect and to keep the relationship between colleagues stable, which is especially important in business communication. The present analysis focuses on four main expressions of explicit apologies, i.e. apologies with sorry, I apologise, pardon and excuse me. The data have been obtained from the sub-corpus of the British National Corpus, which includes transcripts of business communication and amounts to 1,321,844 words. The analysis accounts for the general frequency of different forms of apology in business communication as well as their frequency in relation to gender. The paper also focuses on the most typical patterns of apologies and argues that apologies range from neutral to highly emphatic or tentative. Finally, the present analysis investigates what is commonly apologised for in business settings.

  11. Communication with patients and colleagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Although patient-centred communication has provided a focus point in health care for many years, patient surveys continuously reveal serious communication problems as experienced by patients, due to poor communication. Likewise, poor inter-collegial communication can cause problems for both health...... care staff and patients. So, knowing that patient-centred communication and good inter-collegial communication is for the benefit of both health professionals and patients, the relevance of improving health care professionals' communication skills and investigating the effect on both professionals...

  12. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  13. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  14. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  15. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  16. Management & Communication Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available which may vary. Calendar of courses for May to June 2006 Management Curriculum 1st semester 2006 Titles Dates language CDP for Supervisors & section Leaders - part 2 2, 3 May English Personal Awareness & Impact 9, 10, 11 May Bilingual CDP pour superviseurs & chefs de section - part 2 11, 12 mai français Introduction to Leadership 17, 18, 19 May English Communicating Effectively - Residential 14, 15, 16 June Bilingual CDP for Group Leaders - part 2 19, 20, 21 June Bilingual Project Management 19, 20, 21 June Bilingual Personal Awareness & Impact - Follow-up 19, 20 June bilingual Leadership Competencies 27, 28 June Bilingual Communication curriculum 1st semester 2006 Titles Dates language Personal Awareness & Impact 9, 10, 11 May Bilingual Personal Awareness & Impact - Follow-up 19, 20 June Bilingual Communicating Effectively 15, 16 May &...

  17. Crisis Communication and Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The academic field of crisis communication is more relevant than ever due to the digital media revolution, setting new standards for how to manage criticism and crises. This paper presents a systems theoretical approach to crisis communication in the age of digital media with a special regard...... to social media. The paper shows that the recent changes in the media environment require that organizations be more observant, reflected and responsive to the public opinion. Correspondingly, organizations need to engage in strategic impression management with the aim to be, or to be observed to be, more...... consistent with their communicated values and strategies, thus managing to appear as trustworthy in a hyper-dynamic social surrounding world. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  18. Communication as practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholamian, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    sort of human activity also include communication as practice. Inspired by Bakhtin, I believe that dialogical relationship is almost a universal phenomenon that permeates all human speech and in general all relationships and manifestations of human life, and "everything in life is dialogue", (Dysthe...... of communicational practices within conversations contexts. Based on Bakhtin’s thought, I understand any conversation as a sociocultural communicative practice. In this concept, the focus will be on how participants via interaction create meaning. In order to elaborate and examine these notions, I will include some......According to Schatzki "Practice" brings into view activities which are situated, corporeal, and shaped by habits without reflection. This notion has been extraordinarily successful and has now been extended to cover every sort of human activity” (Schatzki 2001:2). And I would like to add that every...

  19. Experience Communication and Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    to user aspect (web 2.0), the personal engagement or the community spirit. This increasing demand of experiences reflects the postmodern cultural trends where rules for how to think and behave no longer exist. This results in individualism, where the identity of the human being has changed from something......-actualization. The individualization of the human being can lead to loneliness and a need of participating in communities as a replacement of an overall fixed point in one's life. (Anthony Giddens, 1990, 1991; Zygmunt Bauman, 1997; Carsten René Jørgensen, 2002). The field of communication is consequently experiencing a great......In this article the term "experience communication" will be introduced and discussed. It will be illustrated how different concepts of aesthetical experiences are an integrated part of experience communication and how these concepts are produced within the industries of consumerism, branding...

  20. Quantum communication with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)

  1. Relativity of Visual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is connected to the compositionality of the (pictorial languages. In the paper Charles Sanders Peirce’s theory of signs will be used in characterizing visual languages. This allows us to relate visual languages to natural languages. The foundation of information presentation methods for visual languages is the logic of perception, but only if perception is understood as propositional perception. This allows us to understand better the relativity of information presentation methods, and hence to evaluate the cultural relativity of visual communication.

  2. Innovating science communication

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051192; The ATLAS collaboration; Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia; Shaw, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Education & Outreach project has, over the years, developed a strong reputation for supporting innovation. Animated event displays, musical CDs, 3d movies, 3-storey murals, photo books, data sonifications, multi-media art installations, pub slams, masterclasses, documentaries, pop-up books, LEGO® models, and virtual visits are among the many diverse methods being exploited to communicate to the world the goals and accomplishments of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. This variety of creativity and innovation does not pop out of a vacuum. It requires underlying motivation by the collaboration to communicate with the public; freedom and encouragement to do so in a creative manner; and a support structure for developing, implementing and promoting these activities. The ATLAS Outreach project has built this support structure on a well-defined communication plan, high-quality content, and effective delivery platforms. Most importantly, implementation of the program has been based on the effective engagem...

  3. Communication of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Słomski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication always takes place by means of symbols. Information must be coded by the sender, i.e. expressed by the use of symbols (mostly language symbols, and then decoded by the recipient. The process of message decoding may be divided into two stages: the acquisition and the interpretation of the message, so-called "understanding" through the attaching of the meaning to symbols, which made up the message. Itself the understanding of the message is a not a sufficient condition of communication, as it may happen so, that the recipient interprets (understands the message in a more or less different way from what the sender intended to transfer, what in practice may lead to the consequences more or less similar to the total impossibility of decoding the message. We may speak about communication only if the meanings attached by the sender to the individual symbols are close or identical to the meanings attached to these symbols by the recipient.

  4. Communication: I like

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To fulfill its mission to represent CERN personnel with the Management and the Member States, the Staff Council has set up a series of Commissions: employment conditions, pensions, legal matters, social protection, health and safety, InformAction, CAPA (individual cases) and, more recently, Media-Com. As its name suggests the Media-Com Commission deals with all matters of communication. The mandate of the new Commission is to implement and optimize the communication channels that the Staff Association uses to keep you informed. To attract the greatest number of people, Media-Com operates through multiple communication channels, such as articles in the Echo, the Staff Association information bulletin, the Staff Association website (http://staff- association.web.cern.ch/), Facebook, and, more recently, the intra-CERN Social platform. The Social platform is a discussion forum, for exchanging ideas, expressing views, reacting to, and commenting on current events of the Staff Association. To participa...

  5. Underwater wireless communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, J H; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    Underwater communication has a range of applications including remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) communication and docking in the offshore industry. Current underwater transmission techniques is primarily utilise sound waves for large distance at lower frequencies and the velocity of sound in water is approximately 1500m/s the resultant communications have problems with multi-path propagation and low bandwidth problems. The use of electromagnetic (EM) techniques underwater has largely been overlooked because of the attenuation due to the conductivity of seawater. However, for short range applications, the higher frequencies and much higher velocity can prove advantageous. This paper will outline a project which will utilise recent investigations that demonstrate EM wave propagation up to the MHz frequency range is possible in seawater.

  6. WHO risk communication seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International EMF project organised by the WHO is now entering its third year. In addition to providing authoritative reviews of the scientific literature on the health effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields, a key objective of the five year programme is to provide information on the perception, communication and management of risk, and how this relates to electric and magnetic fields. To this end, an International seminar on: Risk perception, risk communication and its application to EMF exposure, was held in Vienna on 22-23 October last year, bringing togehter an array of speakers from around the world to talk about perceptions of risk, how best to communicate risks to the public and present some practical examples. (author)

  7. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  8. Near field communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A; Furht, Borko

    2011-01-01

    Near Field Communication, or NFC, is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology that enables the exchange of data between devices over about a decimeter. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO 14443 proximity-card standard (contact less card, RFID) that combines the interface of a smart card and a reader into a single device with practical implications. A complete reference for NFC, this handbook provides technical information about all aspects of NFC, as well as applications. It covers basic concepts as well as research grade material and includes a discussion of

  9. Culture, technology, communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay

    The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...... attention to the role of culturally-variable dimensions, including communication preferences, in the design, implementation, and use of ICTs - and thereby helping to bring into the mainstream of related scholarship and research (e.g., HCI, etc.) what was then a novel perspective and series of questions...

  10. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  11. Language in Web Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Having taught and carried out research in LSP and business communication for many years, I have come across, again and again, the problems arising from the inferior status of language in the business environment. Being convinced that it does not have to be so, instead of going on trying to convince...... non-linguistically trained colleagues of the importance of language via the usual arguments, I suggest that we let them experience the problems arising from the non-recognition of the importance of language via a Web communication crash course, inspired by a course taught to BA students...

  12. Grammar and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2007-01-01

    Instead of being a boring subject, grammar is in fact one of the most exciting, creative, relevant subjects. It is sometimes described as the skeleton of a language, but it is much more than bones. It is the language's heartbeat, for without grammar; there can be no meaningful or effective communication. And grammar has different definitions and categories according to different contexts. By first reviewing the past linguists, especially those grammarians and their research, the paper makes some comparisons between some categories of grammar and puts forward that there is no 'good' or 'bad' grammar but knowing grammar or knowing about grammar really has a close relationship with effective communication.

  13. Communications options for teleoperations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springthorpe, R.T.

    1991-08-01

    TELEMAN is a programme of research work on remote handling in hazardous or disordered nuclear environments, carried out for the European Atomic Agency Community by a number of participants, part funded by the CEC. The objective is to develop advanced tele-operated robots for users in the nuclear industry to contribute to safety and profitability. A study performed by AEA Technology in 1989 for the TELEMAN programme examined communications standards and made recommendations where possible. It was recognised that a control architecture needed to be defined before determining which communications standards are appropriate. Several developing areas were recommended for further study and the results of this study are reported here. (author)

  14. Computer-communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meditch, James S

    1983-01-01

    Computer- Communication Networks presents a collection of articles the focus of which is on the field of modeling, analysis, design, and performance optimization. It discusses the problem of modeling the performance of local area networks under file transfer. It addresses the design of multi-hop, mobile-user radio networks. Some of the topics covered in the book are the distributed packet switching queuing network design, some investigations on communication switching techniques in computer networks and the minimum hop flow assignment and routing subject to an average message delay constraint

  15. Social communication impairments: pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.

  16. Digital communication device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The invention concerns a digital communication device like a hearing aid or a headset. The hearing aid or headset has a power supply, a signal processing device, means for receiving a wireless signal and a receiver or loudspeaker, which produces an audio signal based on a modulated pulsed signal...... point is provided which is in electrical contact with the metal of the metal box and whereby this third connection point is connected to the electric circuitry of the communication device at a point having a stable and well defined electrical potential. In this way the electro-and magnetic radiation...

  17. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  18. Communication in different keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souwer, Corinne

    1995-01-01

    This paper is based on a study for which the research has been conducted by Esther van der Draai, trainee at ECN - Nuclear Energy, Dutch member of the NucNet board, delegation member of the European Task Force Group - 10th Anniversary of Chernobyl. The complete study is presented to WIN. It explains how to attune communication to the target group, and discusses the communication theory analogue language, which does not only include the typical non-verbal signals, such as eye contact, facial expression, gestures, etc., but also smiling, blushing, sighing, clothing, smell. In short, analogue language is always there and always influences other parties

  19. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  20. Setting the research agenda for governmental communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vos

    2006-01-01

    The Research Group for Governmental Communication has carried out a trend study of governmental communication within The Netherlands (1). Research topics were: the major tasks for communication, current issues, profiling the communication department, and policy plans for communication. Another study