WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite thermal ir

  1. Cross calibration of IRS-P4 OCM satellite sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Naik, P.; Nayak, S.R.

    The cross calibration of ocean color satellite sensor, IRS-P4 OCM using the radiative transfer code, with SeaWiFS as a reference are presented here. Since the bands of IRS-P4 OCM are identical to those of SeaWiFS and SeaWiFS has been continuously...

  2. Global Land Surface Emissivity Retrieved From Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, W. L.; Strow, L. L.; Yang, Ping; Schlussel, P.; Calbet, X.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraspectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances obtained from nadir observations provide information about the atmosphere, surface, aerosols, and clouds. Surface spectral emissivity (SSE) and surface skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information about the Earth s ecosystem and land-surface-type properties, which might be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth s environment and global climate change. In this study, fast radiative transfer models applied to the atmosphere under all weather conditions are used for atmospheric profile and surface or cloud parameter retrieval from ultraspectral and/or hyperspectral spaceborne IR soundings. An inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral IR sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface or cloud microphysical parameters. This inversion scheme has been applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). Rapidly produced SSE is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted surface and atmospheric parameters. Initial validation of retrieved emissivity spectra is conducted with Namib and Kalahari desert laboratory measurements. Seasonal products of global land SSE and surface skin temperature retrieved with IASI are presented to demonstrate seasonal variation of SSE.

  3. LARES Satellite Thermal Forces and a Test of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Matzner, Richard; Brooks, Jason; Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Penrose, Roger; Sindoni, Giampiero; Paris, Claudio; Khachatryan, Harutyun; Mirzoyan, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We summarize a laser-ranged satellite test of General Relativity, the measurement of the Earth's dragging of inertial frames, and then describe the modeling of an important perturbing effect, thermally induced forces, on the satellite. The frame dragging result is obtained by using about 3.5 years of laser-ranged observations of the LARES, LAGEOS, and LAGEOS 2 laser-ranged satellites together with the Earth gravity field model GGM05S produced by the space geodesy mission GRACE. It produces a result in agreement with the prediction of General Relativity: $\\mu = (0.994 \\pm 0.002) \\pm 0.05$, where $\\mu$ is the Earth's dragging of inertial frames normalized to its General Relativity value, 0.002 is the 1-sigma formal error and 0.05 is the estimated systematic error. The thermal force model assumes heat flow from the sun (visual) and from Earth (IR) to the satellite core and to the fused silica reflectors on the satellite, and reradiation into space. For a roughly current epoch (days 1460 - 1580 after launch) we c...

  4. Thermal deformations of a glass spherical satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, V. P.; Nenadovich, V. D.; Murashkin, V. V.; Sokolov, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the kind of the reflecting coating of a glass spherical satellite on thermal deformations caused by the solar irradiation is considered. Two types of coating deposited on one of the hemispheres are considered: aluminum with a protective layer of bakelite varnish and interference dielectric coating for two orientations of the satellite orbit. Structures of a multilayer dielectric coating and technologies of its deposition are described.

  5. Hydrogen Bonding in Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers: IR Thermal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogen bond percentage and its temperature dependence of the three TPU samples synthesized from polytetrahydrofuran, 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, N-methyl diethanol amine or 1,4-butane diol were studied by means of IR thermal analysis. The enthalpy and the entropy of the hydrogen bond dissociation were determined by the Vant Hoff plot.

  6. Progress in Understanding the Pre-Earthquake Associated Events by Analyzing IR Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Taylor, Patrick; Bryant, Nevin

    2004-01-01

    We present latest result in understanding the potential relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earths crust and atmosphere with an increase in IR flux as a potential signature of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that are related to earthquake activity, either pre-, co- or post seismic. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by the polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) gave an indication of the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients that are associated with the location (epicenter and local tectonic structures) and time of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths less than 50km. We analyzed broad category of associated pre-earthquake events, which provided evidence for changes in surface temperature, surface latent heat flux, chlorophyll concentrations, soil moisture, brightness temperature, emissivity of surface, water vapour in the atmosphere prior to the earthquakes occurred in Algeria, India, Iran, Italy, Mexico and Japan. The cause of such anomalies has been mainly related to the change of near-surface thermal properties due to complex lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmospheric interactions. As final results we present examples from the most recent (2000-2004) worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of EM emission mid-IR anomalies and a methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  7. PM-GCD - a combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.; di Paola, F.; Formenton, M.; Mugnai, A.; Porcù, F.; Sanò, P.

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach high level of accuracy - especially regarding convective precipitation. At the present stage though, these observations cannot provide satisfactory coverage of the evolution of intense and rapid precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications - especially in supporting authorities for flood alerts and weather warnings. To tackle this problem, over the past two decades several techniques have been developed combining accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this framework, we have developed a new fast and simple precipitation retrieval technique which we call Passive Microwave - Global Convective Diagnostic, (PM-GCD). This method uses MW retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convective Diagnostic (GCD) technique which discriminates deep convective clouds based on the difference between the MSG water vapor (6.2 μm) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm) channels. Specifically, MSG observations and the GCD technique are used to identify deep convective areas. These areas are then calibrated using MW precipitation estimates based on observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiometers onboard operational NOAA and Eumetsat satellites, and then finally propagated in time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique, analyzing its results for a case study that refers to a flood event that struck the island of Sicily in southern Italy on 1-2 October 2009.

  8. Sectoral thermal emitter for testing of modern IR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulski, R.; Piątkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents multi-sector stable IR grey body radiation source, that can be used for testing of MRT. Its main element is monolithic metal plate with a test pattern, made of material with high thermal conductivity. On the surface of the test plate the sectors of different emissivity are created during manufacturing process. As a result when viewed by a thermal camera those sectors exhibit thermal contrast depending mainly on the radiative properties of each sector. The value of thermal contrast between particular sectors can be adjusted by changing the temperature of a test plate with respect to ambient. The emissivity values of particular sectors have been calculated and the procedure of adjusting the thermal contrast has been described, as well as the technology used to create the test plate. The model of described emitter has been tested and the results of temperature values obtained from thermal camera were compared with theoretical, calculated figures. The proposed emitter is dedicated for testing and calibrating of modern observations IR systems.

  9. Thermal analysis of paracetamol polymorphs by FT-IR spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Baranović, Goran

    2011-01-25

    A simple IR spectroscopy based methodology in routine screening studies of polymorphism is proposed. Reflectance and transmittance temperature-dependent IR measurements (coupled with the 2D-IR data presentation and the baseline analysis) offer a positive identification of each polymorphic phase, therefore allowing simple and rapid monitoring of the measured system. Applicability and flexibility of the methodology was demonstrated on the measurement of the model polymorphic compound paracetamol under various conditions (including geometric constraints and elevated pressure). The thermal behavior of paracetamol strongly depends on slight variations in experimental conditions that can result in formation of various phases (three polymorphs and the amorphous form). The amorphous phase can crystallize during heating into either Form II or Form III within almost identical temperature range. Likewise, the crystal transformations II→I and III→II also can proceed within almost identical temperature range. Furthermore, the thermal behavior is even more diverse than that, and includes the crystallizations of Forms I, II and III from the melt, and the high temperature II→I transition. The variety of the temperatures of the transformations is a major obstacle for unambiguous identification of a particular phase by DSC and a major reason for the implementation of these IR methods.

  10. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of the HJ-1B IRS in the Thermal Infrared Spectral Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.

    2012-12-01

    The natural calamities occur continually, environment pollution and destruction in a severe position on the earth presently, which restricts societal and economic development. The satellite remote sensing technology has an important effect on improving surveillance ability of environment pollution and natural calamities. The radiometric calibration is precondition of quantitative remote sensing; which accuracy decides quality of the retrieval parameters. Since the China Environment Satellite (HJ-1A/B) has been launched successfully on September 6th, 2008, it has made an important role in the economic development of China. The satellite has four infrared bands; and one of it is thermal infrared. With application fields of quantitative remote sensing in china, finding appropriate calibration method becomes more and more important. Many kinds of independent methods can be used to do the absolute radiometric calibration. In this paper, according to the characteristic of thermal infrared channel of HJ-1B thermal infrared multi-spectral camera, the thermal infrared spectral band of HJ-1B IRS was calibrated using cross-calibration methods based on MODIS data. Firstly, the corresponding bands of the two sensors were obtained. Secondly, the MONDTRAN was run to analyze the influences of different spectral response, satellite view zenith angle, atmosphere condition and temperature on the match factor. In the end, their band match factor was calculated in different temperature, considering the dissimilar band response of the match bands. Seven images of Lake Qinghai in different time were chosen as the calibration data. On the basis of radiance of MODIS and match factor, the IRS radiance was calculated. And then the calibration coefficients were obtained by linearly regressing the radiance and the DN value. We compared the result of this cross-calibration with that of the onboard blackbody calibration, which consistency was good.The maximum difference of brightness temperature

  11. Estimation of Leaf Area Index Using IRS Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faridhosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of vegetation cover attributes, such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI, is an important step in identifying the amount of water use for some plants. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using IRS LISS-III data to retrieve LAI. To get a LAI retrieval model based on reflectance and vegetation index, detailed field data were collected in the study area of eastern Iran. In this study, atmospheric corrected IRS LISS-III imagery was used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Data of 50 samples of LAI were measured by Sun Scan System – SS1 in the study area. In situ measurements of LAI were related to widely use spectral vegetation indices (NDVI. The best model through analyzing the results was LAI = 19.305×NDVI+5.514 using the method of linear-regression analysis. The results showed that the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.534 and RMSE was 0.67. Thereby, suggesting that, when using remote sensing NDVI for LAI estimation, not only is the choice of NDVI of importance but also prior knowledge of plant architecture and soil background. Hence, some kind of landscape stratification is required before using multi- spectral imagery for large-scale mapping of vegetation biophysical variables.

  12. Thermal deformation analysis of the composite material satellite antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Controlling the thermal deformation is a crucial index for the design of the satellite antenna. To calculate and measure the satellite antenna's thermal deformation is also an important step for the design of satellite antenna. Based on the foundation of equivalent assumption, the thermal deformation of the parabolic satellite antenna was analyzed by the finite element method for different design project. The best design project that had the minimum of the thermal deformation could be obtained through changing the lay-angle, lay-layers and lay-thickness of each layer. Results show the asymmetry structure has the minimum of thermal deformation. This paper may provide useful information for the further investigation on the coupling of thermal-stress structure.

  13. Thermal Mapping Airborne Simulator for Small Satellite Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance, inexpensive, airborne simulator that will serve as the prototype for a small satellite based imaging system capable of mapping thermal anomalies...

  14. Statistical Design Model (SDM) of satellite thermal control subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshams, Mehran; Zabihian, Ehsan; Aarabi Chamalishahi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Satellites thermal control, is a satellite subsystem that its main task is keeping the satellite components at its own survival and activity temperatures. Ability of satellite thermal control plays a key role in satisfying satellite's operational requirements and designing this subsystem is a part of satellite design. In the other hand due to the lack of information provided by companies and designers still doesn't have a specific design process while it is one of the fundamental subsystems. The aim of this paper, is to identify and extract statistical design models of spacecraft thermal control subsystem by using SDM design method. This method analyses statistical data with a particular procedure. To implement SDM method, a complete database is required. Therefore, we first collect spacecraft data and create a database, and then we extract statistical graphs using Microsoft Excel, from which we further extract mathematical models. Inputs parameters of the method are mass, mission, and life time of the satellite. For this purpose at first thermal control subsystem has been introduced and hardware using in the this subsystem and its variants has been investigated. In the next part different statistical models has been mentioned and a brief compare will be between them. Finally, this paper particular statistical model is extracted from collected statistical data. Process of testing the accuracy and verifying the method use a case study. Which by the comparisons between the specifications of thermal control subsystem of a fabricated satellite and the analyses results, the methodology in this paper was proved to be effective. Key Words: Thermal control subsystem design, Statistical design model (SDM), Satellite conceptual design, Thermal hardware

  15. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  16. Thermal rocketing and the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. LAGEOS is the most accurately tracked satellite in orbit. It is a totally passive, dense spherical satellite covered with 426 cube corner reflectors. Besides its great utility in measuring the Earth`s length of day and polar wobble, this satellite can be used to measure, for the first time, the general relativistic frame-dragging effect. Of the five dominant error sources in such an experiment, the largest one involves surface interaction of thermal forces (thermal rocketing) and its influence on the orbital nodal precession. The project objective was to enhance an already available theoretical model (computer code) developed at Los Alamos based on new optical-spin data obtained at the University of Maryland. The project objective was met and the enhanced code will serve as the new spin-dynamics model for future LAGEOS satellite missions.

  17. Thermal and IR studies on copper doped polyvinyl alcohol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ch Linga Raju; J L Rao; B C V Reddy; K Veera Brahmam

    2007-06-01

    5 mol% PVA : mol% Cu2+ polymer films were prepared by casting process. Thermal transitions and thermal degradation of samples with respect to copper concentration were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Increase in glass transition temperature as a function of copper concentration shows a strong branching and steric effects in copper doped PVA complexes. Thermal degradation of films to an extent of 4–5% was found with an increase in copper content. FTIR spectrum of PVA doped Cu2+ ions indicate the presence of O–H, C–H, C=C and C–O groups.

  18. Land surface thermal characterization of Asian-pacific region with Japanese geostationary satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tamura, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant indicator of energy balance at the Earth's surface. It is required for a wide variety of climate, hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical studies. Although LST is highly variable both temporally and spatially, it is impossible for polar-orbiting satellite to detect hourly changes in LST, because the satellite is able to only collect data of the same area at most twice a day. On the other hand, geostationary satellite is able to collect hourly data and has a possibility to monitor hourly changes in LST, therefore hourly measurements of geostationary satellite enables us to characterize detailed thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and improve our understanding of the surface energy balance. Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) is a Japanese geostationary satellite launched in 2005 and covers Asia-Pacific region. MTSAT provides hourly data with 5 bands including two thermal infrared (TIR) bands in the 10.5-12.5 micron region. In this research, we have developed a methodology to retrieve hourly LST from thermal infrared data of MTSAT. We applied Generalized Split-window (GSW) equation to estimate LST from TIR data. First, the brightness temperatures measured at sensor on MTSAT was simulated by radiative transfer code (MODTRAN), and the numerical coefficients of GSW equation were optimized based on the simulation results with non-linear minimization algorithm. The standard deviation of derived GSW equation was less than or equal to 1.09K in the case of viewing zenith angle lower than 40 degree and 1.73K in 60 degree. Then, spatial distributions of LST have been mapped optimized GSW equation with brightness temperatures of MTSAT IR1 and IR2 and emissivity map from MODIS product. Finally, these maps were validated with MODIS LST product (MOD11A1) over four Asian-pacific regions such as Bangkok, Tokyo, UlanBator and Jakarta , It is found that RMSE of these regions were 4.57K, 2.22K, 2.71K and 3.92K

  19. Management applications for thermal IR imagery of lake processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, J. M.; Haynes, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A thermal infrared scanning program was conducted in the Lake Ontario Basin region in an effort to determine: (1) limonologic data that could be collected by remote sensing techniques, and (2) local interest in and routine use of such data in water management programs. Difficulties encountered in the development of an infrared survey program in New York suggest that some of the major obstacles to acceptance of remotely sensed data for routine use are factors of psychology rather than technology. Also, terminology used should suit the measurement technique in order to encourage acceptance of the surface thermal data obtained.

  20. Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

  1. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  2. Remote Thermal IR Spectroscopy of our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Livengood, Timothy; Fast, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Indirect methods to detect extrasolar planets have been successful in identifying a number of stars with companion planets. No direct detection of an extrasolar planet has yet been reported. Spectroscopy in the thermal infrared region provides a potentially powerful approach to detection and characterization of planets and planetary systems. We can use knowledge of our own solar system, its planets and their atmospheres to model spectral characteristics of planets around other stars. Spectra derived from modeling our own solar system seen from an extrasolar perspective can be used to constrain detection strategies, identification of planetary class (terrestrial vs. gaseous) and retrieval of chemical, thermal and dynamical information. Emission from planets in our solar system peaks in the thermal infrared region, approximately 10 - 30 microns, substantially displaced from the maximum of the much brighter solar emission in the visible near 0.5 microns. This fact provides a relatively good contrast ratio to discriminate between stellar (solar) and planetary emission and optimize the delectability of planetary spectra. Important molecular constituents in planetary atmospheres have rotational-vibrational spectra in the thermal infrared region. Spectra from these molecules have been well characterized in the laboratory and studied in the atmospheres of solar system planets from ground-based and space platforms. The best example of such measurements are the studies with Fourier transform spectrometers, the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometers (IRIS), from spacecraft: Earth observed from NIMBUS 8, Mars observed from Mariner 9, and the outer planets observed from Voyager spacecraft. An Earth-like planet is characterized by atmospheric spectra of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water. Terrestrial planets have oxidizing atmospheres which are easily distinguished from reducing atmospheres of gaseous giant planets which lack oxygen-bearing species and are characterized by spectra

  3. Thermal migration of water on the Galilean satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, N.G.; Pilcher, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    We have modeled the thermal migration of water on the Galilean satellites under the assumption of ballistic molecular trajectories. It is found that water migrating owing to solar radiation on an ice-covered satellite will build up in temperate latitudes, in general not reaching the poles. As much as 50 m of ice may have been lost by this process from the equatorial regions of Europa over the age of the solar system. The disappearance of patches of ice - for instance, the bright rays surrounding some impact craters - from the equatorial regions of Ganymede and Callisto may approach a value (the irreversible evaporation rate) three orders of magnitude larger than the net equatorial loss rate for ice-covered Europa. The presence of water ice pole caps on Ganymede extending to the latitudes at which thermal migration becomes important suggests that some process distributed an extensive, thin covering of water on the satellite, and that the equatorial regions were subsequently cleared by the thermal process.

  4. Fractal Particles: Titan's Thermal Structure and IR Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, C. P.; Rannou, P.; Guez, L.; Young, E. F.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Titan's haze particles are the principle opacity at solar wavelengths. Most past work in modeling these particles has assumed spherical particles. However, observational evidence strongly favors fractal shapes for the haze particles. We consider the implications of fractal particles for the thermal structure and near infrared opacity of Titan's atmosphere. We find that assuming fractal particles with the optical properties based on laboratory tholin material and with a production rate that allows for a match to the geometric albedo results in warmer troposphere and surface temperatures compared to spherical particles. In the near infrared (1-3 microns) the predicted opacity of the fractal particles is up to a factor of two less than for spherical particles. This has implications for the ability of Cassini to image Titan's surface at 1 micron.

  5. Characterization of Organosolv Lignins using Thermal and FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea J. Sammons; David P. Harper; Nicole Labbe; Joseph J. Bozell; Thomas Elder; Timothy G. Rials

    2013-01-01

    A group of biomass-derived lignins isolated using organosolv fractionation was characterized by FT-IR spectral and thermal property analysis coupled with multivariate analysis. The principal component analysis indicated that there were significant variations between the hardwood, softwood, and grass lignins due to the differences in syringyl and guaiacyl units as well...

  6. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of the thermal analysis and design of the Iodine Satellite (iSAT). The purpose of the iSAT spacecraft (SC) is to demonstrate the ability of the iodine Hall Thruster propulsion system throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the system for use on future satellites. The benefit of this propulsion system is that it uses a propellant, iodine, that is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. The spacecraft will also act as a bus for an earth observation payload, the Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Camera. Four phases of the mission, determined to either be critical to achieving requirements or phases of thermal concern, are modeled. The phases are the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) Change, Altitude Reduction, De-Orbit, and Science Phases. Each phase was modeled in a worst case hot environment and the coldest phase, the Science Phase, was also modeled in a worst case cold environment. The thermal environments of the spacecraft are especially important to model because iSAT has a very high power density. The satellite is the size of a 12 unit cubesat, and dissipates slightly more than 75 Watts of power as heat at times. The maximum temperatures for several components are above their maximum operational limit for one or more cases. The analysis done for the first Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC1) showed that many components were above or within 5 degrees Centigrade of their maximum operation limit. The battery is a component of concern because although it is not over its operational temperature limit, efficiency greatly decreases if it operates at the currently predicted temperatures. In the second Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC2), many steps were taken to mitigate the overheating of components, including isolating several high temperature components, removal of components, and rearrangement of systems. These changes have greatly increased the thermal margin available.

  7. Comparison of the inversion periods for MidIR and LWIR polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, M.; Gurton, K. P.; Pezzaniti, J. L.; Chenault, D. B.; Roth, L. E.

    2010-04-01

    We report the results of a diurnal study in which radiometrically calibrated polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery are recorded in the MidIR and LWIR to identify and compare the respective time periods in which minimum target contrast is achieved. The MidIR polarimetric sensor is based on a division-of-aperture approach and has a 640x512 InSb focal-plane array, while the LWIR polarimetric sensor uses a spinning achromatic retarder to perform the polarimetric filtering and has a 324x256 microbolometer focal-plane array. The images used in this study include the S0 and S1 Stokes images of a scene containing a military vehicle and the natural background. In addition, relevant meteorological parameters measured during the test period include air temperature, ambient loading in the LWIR, relative humidity, cloud cover, height, and density. The data shows that the chief factors affecting polarimetric contrast in both wavebands are the amount of thermal emission from the objects in the scene and the abundance of MidIR and LWIR sources in the optical background. In particular, it has been observed that the MidIR polarimetric contrast was positively correlated to the presence of MidIR sources in the optical background, while the LWIR polarimetric contrast was negatively correlated to the presence of LWIR sources in the optical background.

  8. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  9. The 2010 Eyja eruption evolution by using IR satellite sensors measurements: retrieval comparison and insights into explosive volcanic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, A.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Scollo, S.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 April-May Eyja eruption caused an unprecedented disruption to economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, many European airports were in fact closed causing millions of passengers to be stranded, and with a worldwide airline industry loss estimated of about 2.5 billion Euros. Both security and economical issues require robust and affordable volcanic cloud retrievals that may be really improved through the intercomparison among different remote sensing instruments. In this work the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) measurements of different polar and geostationary satellites instruments as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), have been used to retrieve the volcanic ash and SO2 in the entire eruption period over Iceland. The ash retrievals (mass, AOD and effective radius) have been carried out by means of the split window BTD technique using the channels centered around 11 and 12 micron. The least square fit procedure is used for the SO2 retrieval by using the 7.3 and 8.7 micron channels. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT) needed for both the ash and SO2 column abundance retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. Further, the volcanic plume column altitude and ash density have been computed and compared, when available, with ground observations. The results coming from the retrieval of different IR sensors show a good agreement over the entire eruption period. The column height, the volcanic ash and the SO2 emission trend confirm the indentified different phases occurred during the Eyja eruption. We remark that the retrieved volcanic plume evolution can give important insights into eruptive dynamics during long-lived explosive activity.

  10. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  11. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  12. Preparation, Analytical, IR Spectral, and Thermal Studies of Some New Hydrazinium Carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manimekalai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrazinium salts of 2,4-dichlorophenylacetic acid, phenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diphenylacetic acid, cinnamic acid, and picolinic and nicotinic acids have been prepared by accomplishing neutralization of aqueous hydrazine hydrate with the respective acids. Formation of these hydrazinium salts has been confirmed by analytical, IR spectral, and thermal studies. IR spectra of the salts register N–N stretching frequencies of ion in the region 963–951 cm−1 and the frequencies of ion in the region 1047–1026 cm−1. Thermal decomposition studies show that the hydrazinium salts undergo melting followed by endothermic decomposition into carbon residue as the endproduct.

  13. Evaluation of HCMM satellite data for estuarine tidal circulation patterns and thermal inertia soil moisture measurements. [Delaware Bay, Cooper River, and the Potomac River estuaries; Luverne, Minnesota, soil moisture, and water temperature of Lake Anna, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Matson, M.; Pritchard, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Digital thermal maps of the Cooper River (SC) and the Potomac River estuaries were prepared from heat capacity mapping radiometer (HCMR) tapes. Tidal phases were correctly interpreted and verified. Synoptic surface circulation patterns were charted by location thermal fronts and water mass boundaries within the estuaries. Thermal anomalies were detected adjacent of a conventional power plant on the Potomac. Under optimum conditions, estuaries as small as the Cooper River can be monitored for generalized thermal/tidal circulation patterns by the HCMM-type IR sensors. The HCMM thermal inertia approach to estimating soil moisture at the Luverne (MN) test site was found to be unsatisfactory as a NESS operational satellite technique because of cloud cover interference. Thermal-IR data show similar structure of the Baltimore and Washington heat islands when compared to NOAA AVHRR thermal-IR data. Thermal anomalies from the warm water discharge water of a nuclear power plant were mapped in Lake Anna, Virginia.

  14. Thermal-structure coupled deformation in an optical-mechanical system for radiometric calibration of satellite IR remote sensor%卫星红外遥感器辐射定标光机系统热-结构耦合变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆生; 杨林华; 赵寿根

    2011-01-01

    The thermal deformation of a radiometric calibration optical-structure system under simulated space environments would cause a great damage to the imaging quality of the system, and reduce the precision of the calibration test eventually.In this paper, a finite element model of such a system is built.Based on the model, with the temperature values at nodes obtained in the radiometric calibration test for the satellite multi-spectral scanner, the distribution of the thermal-structure coupling deformation is calculated and analyzed.The results show that the thermal distortion of the optical bracket would cause rigid displacements of the primary mirror and the primary reflector,making them off the axis or acclivitous and the black body off the focus, and changing the focal distance of the system in a non-uniform steady-state Iow temperature condition.But the root-mean-square (RMS) values of deformation of the anamorphic mirrors are both less than one fortieth of the wave length, within the actual surface shape accuracy requirements of the optical system.%辐射定标光机系统在模拟空间环境下的热变形直接影响定标光学系统成像质量,并决定星载遥感器辐射定标试验精度.文章建立的辐射定标光机系统有限元模型,以某卫星多光谱扫描仪辐射定标试验中的实测温度变化作为温度载荷,计算和研究了该系统在真空低温环境下的热-结构耦合变形的分布情况和分布规律.结果表明:在非均匀稳态低温环境下,该系统光学支架热变形使主镜及主反射镜发生刚性位移,引起垂轴方向位移、倾斜,黑体的离焦和光学系统焦距变化;反射镜表面畸变RMS值均为1/40波长以下,可以满足实际光学系统的面形准确度要求.

  15. PM-GCD - A combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation: Application to the EU FLASH project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Daniele; Dietrich, Stefano; di Paola, Francesco; Formenton, Marco; Mugnai, Alberto; Sanò, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach a high level of accuracy - and especially so, for deep convective precipitating systems. However, these observations do not provide a satisfactorily coverage of the rapid evolution of intense precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications -- including support to authorities in activating flood alarms. To avoid this problem, several techniques have been developed that combine accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). Within the European Union FP6 FLASH project, we have developed a new combined MW-IR technique for producing frequent precipitation retrievals from space (which we call PM-GCD technique). This technique uses passive-microwave (PM) retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convection Detection (GCD) technique that discriminates deep convective clouds within the GEO observations, based on the difference between the water vapor (6.2 μm ) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm ) channels. In essence, within the PM-GCD technique, deep convective areas are defined from MSG observations, then calibrated using MW-AMSU precipitation retrievals and finally propagated over time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique and discuss the results of its application to a flood event that occurred on September 12-15, 2006 over the north-western Mediterranean coastal areas, and that has been selected for joint research by the EU FLASH and HYDRATE projects.

  16. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  17. Monitoring biochemical changes in bacterial spore during thermal and pressure-assisted thermal processing using FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Anand; Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V M; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2007-10-31

    Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) is being widely investigated for processing low acid foods. However, its microbial safety has not been well established and the mechanism of inactivation of pathogens and spores is not well understood. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to study some of the biochemical changes in bacterial spores occurring during PATP and thermal processing (TP). Spore suspensions (approximately 10(9) CFU/mL of water) of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Bacillus sphaericus, and three strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were treated by PATP (121 degrees C and 700 MPa) for 0, 10, 20, and 30 s and TP (121 degrees C) for 0, 10, 20, and 30 s. Treated and untreated spore suspensions were analyzed using FT-IR in the mid-infrared region (4000-800 cm(-1)). Multivariate classification models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were developed using second derivative-transformed spectra. The spores could be differentiated up to the strain level due to differences in their biochemical composition, especially dipicolinic acid (DPA) and secondary structure of proteins. During PATP changes in alpha-helix and beta-sheets of secondary protein were evident in the spectral regions 1655 and 1626 cm(-1), respectively. Infrared absorption bands from DPA (1281, 1378, 1440, and 1568 cm(-1)) decreased significantly during the initial stages of PATP, indicating release of DPA. During TP changes were evident in the bands associated with secondary proteins. DPA bands showed little or no change during TP. A correlation was found between the spore's Ca-DPA content and its resistance to PATP. FT-IR spectroscopy could classify different strains of bacterial spores and determine some of the changes occurring during spore inactivation by PATP and TP. Furthermore, this technique shows great promise for rapid screening PATP-resistant bacterial spores.

  18. Potential of multispectral synergism for observing tropospheric ozone by combining IR and UV measurements from incoming LEO (EPS-SG) and GEO (MTG) satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Coman, Adriana; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations offer a great potential for monitoring air quality on daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently in orbit sensors do not allow to probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone (Liu et al., 2010). Using single-band approaches based on spaceborne measurements of either thermal infrared radiance (TIR, Eremenko et al., 2008) or ultraviolet reflectance (UV, Liu et al., 2010) only ozone down to the lower troposphere (3 km) may be observed. A recent multispectral method (referred to as IASI+GOME-2) combining the information of IASI and GOME-2 (both onboard MetOp satellites) spectra, respectively from the TIR and UV, has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) with maximum sensitivity down to 2.20 km a.s.l. over land, while sensitivity for IASI or GOME-2 only peaks at 3 to 4 km at lowest (Cuesta et al., 2013). Future spatial missions will be launched in the upcoming years on both low and geostationary orbits, such as EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation) and MTG (Meteosat Third Generation), carrying respectively IASI-NG (for IR) and UVNS (for UV), and IRS (for IR) and UVN (Sentinel 4, for UV). This new-generation sensors will enhance the capacity to observe ozone pollution and particularly by synergism of multispectral measurements. In this work we develop a pseudo-observation simulator and evaluate the potential of future EPS-SG and MTG satellite observations, through IASI-NG+UVNS and IRS+UVN multispectral methods to observe near-surface O3. The pseudo-real state of atmosphere (nature run) is provided by MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle) chemical transport model. Simulations are calibrated by careful comparisons with real data, to ensure the best coherence between pseudo-reality and reality, as well as between the pseudo-observation simulator and existing satellite products. We perform full and

  19. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry.

  20. Thermally Resilient, Broadband Optical Absorber from UV to IR Derived from Carbon Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Optical absorber coatings have been developed from carbon-based paints, metal blacks, or glassy carbon. However, such materials are not truly black and have poor absorption characteristics at longer wavelengths. The blackness of such coatings is important to increase the accuracy of calibration targets used in radiometric imaging spectrometers since blackbody cavities are prohibitively large in size. Such coatings are also useful potentially for thermal detectors, where a broadband absorber is desired. Au-black has been a commonly used broadband optical absorber, but it is very fragile and can easily be damaged by heat and mechanical vibration. An optically efficient, thermally rugged absorber could also be beneficial for thermal solar cell applications for energy harnessing, particularly in the 350-2,500 nm spectral window. It has been demonstrated that arrays of vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), specifically multi-walled-carbon- nanotubes (MWCNTs), are an exceptional optical absorber over a broad range of wavelengths well into the infrared (IR). The reflectance of such arrays is 100x lower compared to conventional black materials, such as Au black in the spectral window of 350-2,500 nm. Total hemispherical measurements revealed a reflectance of approximately equal to 1.7% at lambda approximately equal to 1 micrometer, and at longer wavelengths into the infrared (IR), the specular reflectance was approximately equal to 2.4% at lambda approximately equal to 7 micrometers. The previously synthesized CNTs for optical absorber applications were formed using water-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which yields CNT lengths in excess of 100's of microns. Vertical alignment, deemed to be a critical feature in enabling the high optical absorption from CNT arrays, occurs primarily via the crowding effect with thermal CVD synthesized CNTs, which is generally not effective in aligning CNTs with lengths less than 10 m. Here it has been shown that the

  1. IR thermography for the assessment of the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric modules at intermediate temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, S.; Ferrario, A.; Bison, P.; Miozzo, A.; Montagner, F.; Fabrizio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The correct measurement of the performances of thermoelectric (TE) modules for energy conversion is a mandatory task both for laboratory research and for industries engaged in TE modules development or in their integration into thermoelectric generators. A testing device oriented to the maximum flexibility, based on the heat flow meter method at the cold side of the module has been developed. The system is conceived to test TE modules (single or in cascade) with a footprint up to 60x60 mm2, from room temperature up to intermediate temperature. Modules can be tested under vacuum or inert atmosphere. Specifically, the flow meter is made of a block of material, with known thermal conductivity, in contact with the cold side of the thermoelectric module. The heat flow is finally determined by measuring the temperature profile along the heat flow path and that is obtained by IR thermography. IR thermography is also utilized to evaluate the contact resistance between the active thermoelectric elements made of ceramic materials and the ceramic layer working as heat diffuser and mechanical support. Some finite element thermal analyses of the system performed for its design are presented.

  2. TIRCIS: thermal infrared compact imaging spectrometer for small satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul; Crites, Sarah; Garbeil, Harold; Wood, Mark; Pilger, Eric; Gabrieli, Andrea; Honniball, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm ♢ 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible. Measured signal-to-noise ratios range from peak values of 500:1 to 1500:1, for source temperature of 10 to 100°C.

  3. Multivariate chemometric approach to thermal solid-state FT-IR monitoring of pharmaceutical drug compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Jian; Widjaja, Effendi

    2008-08-01

    The study of thermal-related solid-state reaction monitored by spectroscopic method needs the use of advanced multivariate chemometric approach. It is because visual inspection of spectral data on particular functional groups or spectral bands is difficult to reveal the complete physical and chemical information. The spectral contributions from various species involved in the solid-state changes are generally highly overlapping and the spectral differences between reactant and product are usually quite minute. In this article, we demonstrate the use of multivariate chemometric approach to resolve the in situ thermal-dependent Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) mixture spectra of lisinopril dihydrate when it was heated from 24 to 170 degrees C. The collected FT-IR mixture spectra were first subjected to singular value decomposition (SVD) to obtain the right singular vectors. The right singular vectors were rotated into a set of pure component spectral estimates based on entropy minimization and spectral dissimilarity objective functions. The resulting pure component spectral estimates were then further refined using alternating least squares (ALS). In current study, four pure component spectra, that is, lisinopril dihydrate, monohydrate, anhydrate, and diketopiperazine (DKP) were all resolved and the relative thermal-dependent contributions of each component were also obtained. These relative contributions revealed the critical temperature for each transformation and degradation. This novel approach provides better interpretation of the pathway of dehydration and intramolecular cyclization of lisinopril dihydrate in the solid state. In addition, it can be used to complement the information obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  4. Water in the Earth's Mantle: Mineral-specific IR Absorption Coefficients and Radiative Thermal Conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Minor and trace element chemistry, phase relations, rheology, thermal structure and the role of volatiles and their abundance in the deep Earth mantle are still far from fully explored, but fundamental to understanding the processes involved in Earth formation and evolution. Theory and high pressure experiments imply a significant water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals, such as majoritic garnet, olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, composing the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone to a depth of 660 km. Studying the effect of water incorporation on chemical and physical mineral properties is of importance, because the presence of trace amounts of water, incorporated as OH through charge-coupled chemical substitutions into such nominally anhydrous high-pressure silicates, notably influences phase relations, melting behavior, conductivity, elasticity, viscosity and rheology. Knowledge of absolute water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals is essential for modeling the Earth's interior water cycle. One of the most common and sensitive tools for water quantification is IR spectroscopy for which mineral-specific absorption coefficients are required. Such calibration constants can be derived from hydrogen concentrations determined by independent techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy or proton-proton(pp)-scattering. Here, analytical advances and mineral-specific IR absorption coefficients for the quantification of H2O in major phases of the Earth's mantle will be discussed. Furthermore, new data from optical absorption measurements in resistively heated diamond-anvil cells at high pressures and temperatures up to 1000 K will be presented. Experiments were performed on synthetic single-crystals of olivine, ringwoodite, majoritic garnet, and Al-bearing phase D with varying iron, aluminum and OH contents to calculate radiative thermal conductivities and study their contribution to heat transfer in the Earth's interior

  5. Ir-Ru/Al2O3 catalysts used in satellite propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Soares Neto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Ir/Al2O3, Ir-Ru/Al2O3 and Ru/Al2O3, catalysts with total metal contents of 30% were prepared using the methods of incipient wetness and incipient coimpregnation wetness and were tested in a 2N microthruster. Their performances were then compared with that of the Shell 405 commercial catalyst (30% Ir/Al2O3. Tests were performed in continuous and pulsed regimes, where there are steep temperature and pressure gradients, from ambient values up to 650 ºC and 14 bar. Performance stability, thrust produced, temperature and stagnation pressure in the chamber and losses of mass were analyzed and compared to the corresponding parameters in Shell 405 tests. It was observed that the performance of all the above-mentioned catalysts was comparable to that of the commercial one, except for in loss of mass, where the values was higher, which was attributed to the lower mechanical resistance of the support.

  6. Ab initio study of structural, electronic, and thermal properties of Ir1-xRhx alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural, electronic, mechanical and thermal properties of Ir1-xRhx alloys was studied systematically using ab initio density functional theory at different concentration (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00. The Special Quasirandom Structure method was used to make the alloys with FCC structure with four atoms per unit cell. The ground state properties such as lattice constant and bulk modulus were calculated to find the equilibrium atomic position for stable alloys. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the experimental and previously presented other theoretical data. The electronic band structure and density of states were calculated to study the electronic properties for these alloys at different concentration. The electronic properties substantiate metallic behavior of alloys. The first principle density functional perturbation theory as implemented in quasiharmonic approximation was used for the calculation of thermal properties. We have calculated the thermal properties such the Debye temperatures, vibration energy, entropy, constant-volume specific heat and internal energy. The ab initio linear-response method was used for phonon densities of states calculations.

  7. Upper atomosphere and Thermal control of the Super Low Altitude Test Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Super Low Altitude Test Satellite (SLATS) is an engineering test satellite currently under development in JAXA in an attempt to open a new frontier of space utilization on extremely low earth orbits. The altitude of SLATS orbit is around200km altitude. In this altitude, rarefied aerodynamics and high-density atomic oxygen effect on the thermal design of SLATS. The thermal control of SLATS was introduced in this paper. And, the equilibrium temperature on the bumper of SLATS was estimated w...

  8. FT-IR spectroscopic, thermal analysis of human urinary stones and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, FT-IR, XRD, TGA-DTA spectral methods have been used to investigate the chemical compositions of urinary calculi. Multi-components of urinary calculi such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid have been studied. The chemical compounds are identified by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The mineral identification was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction patterns as compared with JCPDS reported values. Thermal analysis techniques are considered the best techniques for the characterization and detection of endothermic and exothermic behaviors of the urinary stones. The percentages of each hydrate (COM and COD) are present together, in the presences of MAPH or UA. Finally, the present study suggests that the Urolithiasis is significant health problem in children, and is very common in some parts of the world, especially in India. So that present study is so useful and helpful to the scientific community for identification of latest human health problems and their remedies using spectroscopic techniques.

  9. Thermal Stability of CoFe/Cu/CoFe/IrMn Top Spin Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-Hong; WANG Yin-Gang; QI Xian-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of thermal stability of the top spin valve with a structure of seed Ta (5nm)/Co75Fe25 (5nm)/Cu (2.5nm)/Co75Fe25n (5nm)/Ir20 Mn80 (12nm)/cap Ta (8nm) deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. A vibrating sample magnetometer fixed with a heater was used to record the magnetic hysteresis loops at variational temperatures and x-ray diffraction was performed to characterize the structure of the multilayer.The exchange field Hex and the coercivity of the pinned CoFe layer Hcp decrease monotonically with increasing temperature.The coercivity of the free CoFe layer Hcf in the spin valve shows a maximum at 498K.The temperature dependences of Hex,Hcp and Hcf have also been discussed.

  10. Thermal, FT–IR and SHG efficiency studies of L-arginine doped KDP crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Parikh; D J Dave; B B Parekh; M J Joshi

    2007-04-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is a well known nonlinear optical (NLO) material with different applications. Since most of the amino acids exhibit NLO property, it is of interest to dope them in KDP. In the present study, amino acid L-arginine was doped in KDP. The doping of L-arginine was confirmed by FT–IR and paper chromatography. Thermogravimetry suggested that as the amount of doping increases the thermal stability decreases as well as the value of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters decreases. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of L-arginine doped KDP crystals was found to be increasing with doping concentration of L-arginine. The results are discussed here.

  11. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirinos J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  12. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, J.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF) are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  13. A 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Far-IR Thermal Detectors for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-01-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  14. Satellite thermal monitoring of the 2010 - 2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano (Kamchatka) using MIROVA hot-spot detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimetti, Francesco; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Cigolini, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    After 81 years of rest, the Holocenic stratovolcano of Kizimen (Kamchatka, Russia) began a new eruptive phase on December 2010. The eruption was preceded by a year-long seismic unrest and fumarole activity, and persisted for 3 years showing a transition from explosive to effusive style. The initial explosive phase caused the partial disruption of the volcano summit and was followed by the effusion of andesitic lava flow along the eastern side of the edifice. Here we used an automatic hot-spot detection system named MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), in order to track the thermal evolution of the eruption and to understand the eruptive dynamic. MIROVA is based on the analysis IR images acquired by the MODIS sensor (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and is able to provide thermal maps (1 km resolution) and Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP, in Watt) time series in near real time (1-4 hours from satellite overpass). Each image with a thermal alert has been classified, distinguishing different quality level of the data based on cloud cover, viewing geometry and coherence with the VRP trend. The analysis of VRP variation show different thermal phases that have been correlated with independent observations of KVERT (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team). Finally, we show that the relation between total thermal energy radiated (VRE, in Joule) and erupted lava volume is consistent with the typical radiant density of an intermediate-silicic lava flow (Coppola et al., 2013).

  15. Thermal precursors in satellite images of the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Jonathan; Dean, Kenneson; Engle, Kevin; Izbekov, Pavel

    2002-07-01

    Shishaldin Volcano, Unimak Island Alaska, began showing signs of thermal unrest in satellite images on 9 February 1999. A thermal anomaly and small steam plume were detected at the summit of the volcano in short-wave thermal infrared AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) satellite data. This was followed by over 2 months of changes in the observed thermal character of the volcano. Initially, the thermal anomaly was only visible when the satellite passed nearly directly over the volcano, suggesting a hot source deep in the central crater obscured from more oblique satellite passes. The "zenith angle" needed to see the anomaly increased with time, presumably as the thermal source rose within the conduit. Based on this change, an ascent rate of ca. 14 m per day for the thermal source was estimated, until it reached the summit on around 21 March. It is thought that Strombolian activity began around this time. The precursory activity culminated in a sub-Plinian eruption on 19 April, ejecting ash to over 45,000 ft. (13,700 m). The thermal energy output through the precursory period was calculated based on geometric constraints unique to Shishaldin. These calculations show fluctuations that can be tied to changes in the eruptive character inferred from seismic records and later geologic studies. The remote location of this volcano made satellite images a necessary observation tool for this eruption. To date, this is the longest thermal precursory activity preceding a sub-Plinian eruption recorded by satellite images in the region. This type of thermal monitoring of remote volcanoes is central in the efforts of the Alaska Volcano Observatory to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruption, and mitigate their associated hazards to air-traffic and local residents.

  16. [Monitoring the thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant using satellite remote sensing data: modeling, and validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhao, Li-Min; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Wu, Chuan-Qing; Li, Jia-Guo; Shi, Ji-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant is a small-scale human activity, mornitoring of which requires high-frequency and high-spatial remote sensing data. The infrared scanner (IRS), on board of HJ-1B, has an infrared channel IRS4 with 300 m and 4-days as its spatial and temporal resolution. Remote sensing data aquired using IRS4 is an available source for mornitoring thermal plume. Retrieval pattern for coastal sea surface temperature (SST) was built to monitor the thermal plume from nuclear power plant. The research area is located near Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), where synchronized validations were also implemented. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data was interpolated spatially and temporally. The interpolated data as well as surface weather conditions were subsequently employed into radiative transfer model for the atmospheric correction of IRS4 thermal image. A look-up-table (LUT) was built for the inversion between IRS4 channel radiance and radiometric temperature, and a fitted function was also built from the LUT data for the same purpose. The SST was finally retrieved based on those preprocessing procedures mentioned above. The bulk temperature (BT) of 84 samples distributed near GNPS was shipboard collected synchronically using salinity-temperature-deepness (CTD) instruments. The discrete sample data was surface interpolated and compared with the satellite retrieved SST. Results show that the average BT over the study area is 0.47 degrees C higher than the retrieved skin temperature (ST). For areas far away from outfall, the ST is higher than BT, with differences less than 1.0 degrees C. The main driving force for temperature variations in these regions is solar radiation. For areas near outfall, on the contrary, the retrieved ST is lower than BT, and greater differences between the two (meaning > 1.0 degrees C) happen when it gets closer to the outfall. Unlike the former case, the convective heat

  17. Earth's thermal radiation sensors for attitude determination systems of small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertat, I.; Linhart, R.; Masopust, J.; Vobornik, A.; Dudacek, L.

    2017-07-01

    Satellite attitude determination is a complex process with expensive hardware and software and it could consume the most of resources (volume, mass, electric power), especially of small satellites as CubeSats. Thermal radiation infrared detectors could be one of useful sensors for attitude determination systems in such small satellites. Nowadays, these sensors are widely used in contact-less thermometers and thermo-cameras resulting in a low-cost technology. On low Earth orbits the infrared thermal sensors can be utilized for coarse attitude determination against a relative warm and close Earth's globe.

  18. Quantitative thermal wave phase imaging of an IR semi-transparent GaAs wafer using IR lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Michal; Streza, Mihaela; Morari, Cristian; Strzałkowski, Karol; Depriester, Michael; Chirtoc, Mihai

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient of an IR semi-transparent GaAs wafer using infrared lock-in thermography technique (LIT) is presented. The method relies on analysis of the generated LIT phase images recorded at different modulation frequencies, using the thermal wave model in the transmission configuration. The out-of-plane thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient are estimated from the best fit of the theoretical model to the experimental data. The obtained values are in good agreement with those obtained by supplementary measurement using the modulated photothermal infrared radiometry technique (PTR) in the reflection mode, and also with data reported in the literature. In addition, simple modification of the LIT experiment set up allows one to determinate the in-plane thermal diffusivity of n-GaAs wafer. It was found that in-plane and out-of-plane thermal diffusivities of the GaAs wafer are very close, as expected, within the limit of measurement errors. The results show that the LIT technique in transmission configuration can provide spatial information about both the (effective) infrared absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of semiconductor crystals.

  19. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  20. Post eclipse thermal response of Uranian satellites with SINFONI: a status report .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.; Grundy, W.; Stansberry, J.; Tozzi, G. P.; Tanga, P.; Thuillot, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the status of a project to measure eclipse-induced changes in surface temperature on the major Uranian satellites. Such measurements enable a uniquely direct determination of the thermal inertia, a measure of the resistance to changes in surface temperature. Thermal inertia is a very se

  1. Post eclipse thermal response of Uranian satellites with SINFONI: a status report .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.; Grundy, W.; Stansberry, J.; Tozzi, G. P.; Tanga, P.; Thuillot, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the status of a project to measure eclipse-induced changes in surface temperature on the major Uranian satellites. Such measurements enable a uniquely direct determination of the thermal inertia, a measure of the resistance to changes in surface temperature. Thermal inertia is a very se

  2. Sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer for atmospheric remote sensing in thermal IR: atmospheric weighting functions and surface partials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this presentation, we apply the adjoint sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer in thermal IR to the general case of the analytic evaluation of the weighting functions of atmospheric parameters together with the partial derivatives for the surface parameters. Applications to remote sensing of atmospheres of Mars and Venus are discussed.

  3. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  4. Estimation of surface latent heat fluxes from IRS-P4/MSMR satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Randhir Singh; B Simon; P C Joshi

    2001-09-01

    The brightness temperatures of the Microwave sensor MSMR (Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) launched in May 1999 onboard Indian Oceansat-1 IRS-P4 are used to develop a direct retrieval method for latent heat ux by multivariate regression technique. The MSMR measures the microwave radiances at 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz at both vertical and horizontal polarizations. It is found that the surface LHF (Latent Heat Flux) is sensitive to all the channels. The coeficients were derived using the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data of three months: July, September, November of 1999. The NCEP daily analyzed latent heat uxes and brightness temperatures observed by MSMR were used to derive the coeficients. Validity of the derived coeficients was checked with in situ observations over the Indian Ocean and with NCEP analyzed LHF for global points. The LHF derived directly from the MSMR brightness temperature (Tb) yielded an accuracy of 35 watt/m2. LHF was also computed by applying bulk formula using the geophysical parameters extracted from MSMR. In this case the errors were higher apparently due to the errors involved in derivation of the geophysical parameters.

  5. A Spatio-Temporal Model for Forest Fire Detection Using HJ-IRS Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire detection based on multi-temporal remote sensing data is an active research field. However, multi-temporal detection processes are usually complicated because of the spatial and temporal variability of remote sensing imagery. This paper presents a spatio-temporal model (STM based forest fire detection method that uses multiple images of the inspected scene. In STM, the strong correlation between an inspected pixel and its neighboring pixels is considered, which can mitigate adverse impacts of spatial heterogeneity on background intensity predictions. The integration of spatial contextual information and temporal information makes it a more robust model for anomaly detection. The proposed algorithm was applied to a forest fire in 2009 in the Yinanhe forest, Heilongjiang province, China, using two-month HJ-1B infrared camera sensor (IRS images. A comparison of detection results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm described in this paper are useful to represent the spatio-temporal information contained in multi-temporal remotely sensed data, and the STM detection method can be used to obtain a higher detection accuracy than the optimized contextual algorithm.

  6. Temperature dependent behavior of thermal conductivity of sub-5 nm Ir film: Defect-electron scattering quantified by residual thermal resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhe; Xu, Zaoli; Xu, Shen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2010 Black Engineering Building, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Wang, Xinwei, E-mail: xwang3@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2010 Black Engineering Building, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China)

    2015-01-14

    By studying the temperature-dependent behavior (300 K down to 43 K) of electron thermal conductivity (κ) in a 3.2 nm-thin Ir film, we quantify the extremely confined defect-electron scatterings and isolate the intrinsic phonon-electron scattering that is shared by the bulk Ir. At low temperatures below 50 K, κ of the film has almost two orders of magnitude reduction from that of bulk Ir. The film has ∂κ/∂T > 0, while the bulk Ir has ∂κ/∂T < 0. We introduce a unified thermal resistivity (Θ = T/κ) to interpret these completely different κ ∼ T relations. It is found that the film and the bulk Ir share a very similar Θ ∼ T trend, while they have a different residual part (Θ{sub 0}) at 0 K limit: Θ{sub 0} ∼ 0 for the bulk Ir, and Θ{sub 0} = 5.5 m·K{sup 2}/W for the film. The Ir film and the bulk Ir have very close ∂Θ/∂T (75–290 K): 6.33 × 10{sup −3} m K/W for the film and 7.62 × 10{sup −3} m K/W for the bulk Ir. This strongly confirms the similar phonon-electron scattering in them. Therefore, the residual thermal resistivity provides an unprecedented way to quantitatively evaluating defect-electron scattering (Θ{sub 0}) in heat conduction. Moreover, the interfacial thermal conductance across the grain boundaries is found larger than that of Al/Cu interface, and its value is proportional to temperature, largely due to the electron's specific heat. A unified interfacial thermal conductance is also defined and firmly proves this relation. Additionally, the electron reflection coefficient is found to be large (88%) and almost temperature independent.

  7. Synthesis, Structure, and Rigid Unit Mode-like Anisotropic Thermal Expansion of BaIr2In9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calta, Nicholas P; Han, Fei; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-09-08

    This Article reports the synthesis of large single crystals of BaIr2In9 using In flux and their characterization by variable-temperature single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, resistivity, and magnetization measurements. The title compound adopts the BaFe2Al9-type structure in the space group P6/mmm with room temperature unit cell parameters a = 8.8548(6) Å and c = 4.2696(4) Å. BaIr2In9 exhibits anisotropic thermal expansion behavior with linear expansion along the c axis more than 3 times larger than expansion in the ab plane between 90 and 400 K. This anisotropic expansion originates from a rigid unit mode-like mechanism similar to the mechanism of zero and negative thermal expansion observed in many anomalous thermal expansion materials such as ZrW2O8 and ScF3.

  8. Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt area mapping.

  9. Rapid Manufacturing of Reconfigurable Satellite Panels with Embedded Electronics, Embedded Thermal Devices, and Novel Structural Features

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Quinn; Stucker, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Satellite Manufacturing (CASM) at Utah State University has been investigating the use of new, advanced manufacturing technologies for the rapid manufacture of highly capable satellite panels. Using Ultrasonic Consolidation it is now possible to additively manufacture (a.k.a. rapid prototype) aluminum structures with embedded electronics, thermal devices, internal structural features, and fibers. CASM has built and tested embedded USB networks, electronic devices, ther...

  10. Modeling on thermally induced coupled micro-motions of satellite with complex flexible appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the characteristics of thermally induced coupled micro-motions more exactly, a numerical model is proposed for a satellite system consisting of a rigid body and the complex appendages. The coupled governing equations including the effects of transient temperature differences are formulated within the framework of the Lagrangian Method based on the finite element models of flexible structures. Meanwhile, the problem of coupling between attitude motions of rigid body and vibrations of flexible attachments are addressed with explicit expressions. Thermally induced micro-motions are examined in detail for a simple satellite with a large solar panel under the disturbance of thermal environment from earth shadow to sunlight area in the earth orbit. The results show that the thermal–mechanical performances of an on-orbit satellite can be well predicted by the proposed finite element model.

  11. Visir-Sat - a Prospective Micro-Satellite Based Multi-Spectral Thermal Mission for Land Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, G.; Menz, G.; Heinemann, S.; Hartmann, M.; Oertel, D.

    2015-04-01

    Current space-borne thermal infrared satellite systems aimed at land surface remote sensing retain some significant deficiencies, in particular in terms of spatial resolution, spectral coverage, number of imaging bands and temperature-emissivity separation. The proposed VISible-to-thermal IR micro-SATellite (VISIR-SAT) mission addresses many of these limitations, providing multi-spectral imaging data with medium-to-high spatial resolution (80m GSD from 800 km altitude) in the thermal infrared (up to 6 TIR bands, between 8 and 11μm) and in the mid infrared (1 or 2 MIR bands, at 4μm). These MIR/TIR bands will be co-registered with simultaneously acquired high spatial resolution (less than 30 m GSP) visible and near infrared multi-spectral imaging data. To enhance the spatial resolution of the MIR/TIR multi-spectral imagery during daytime, data fusion methods will be applied, such as the Multi-sensor Multi-resolution Technique (MMT), already successfully tested over agricultural terrain. This image processing technique will make generation of Land Surface Temperature (LST) EO products with a spatial resolution of 30 x 30 m2 possible. For high temperature phenomena such as vegetation- and peat-fires, the Fire Disturbance Essential Climate Variables (ECV) "Active fire location" and "Fire Radiative Power" will be retrieved with less than 100 m spatial resolution. Together with the effective fire temperature and the spatial extent even for small fire events the innovative system characteristics of VISIR-SAT go beyond existing and planned IR missions. The comprehensive and physically high-accuracy products from VISIR-SAT (e.g. for fire monitoring) may synergistically complement the high temperature observations of Sentinel-3 SLSTR in a unique way. Additionally, VISIR-SAT offers a very agile sensor system, which will be able to conduct intelligent and flexible pointing of the sensor's line-of-sight with the aim to provide global coverage of cloud free imagery every 5

  12. Detecting Forest Degradation in Kouchi, Japan Using Visible, Near-IR, Mid-IR, and Thermal-IR Data from ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, B.; Onda, Y.; Xu, M.; Otsuki, Y.; Toyota, M.

    2006-12-01

    Forest degradation, mainly due to poor management, is of increasing concern in Japan because some major ecosystem functions, such as biodiversity, productivity, and soil and water retention, are losing or weakening in the forests, especially in the Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis Obtusa Sieb.) plantations. The lack of timely thinning in the plantation has resulted in very dense canopy, which has completely excluded the understory species, such as shrubs and herbs. Litter layer is also absent in this plantation due to the frequent litter removal from heavy rain storms as well as the absence of shrub/herb layers in the understory. Therefore, soil erosion and soil compaction/crust have severely changed the soil hydrology, resulting in the decreased soil infiltration, and increased flooding and sedimentation in downstreams, and furthermore, reduced the ecosystem productivity. Therefore, it is a critical issue to detect the degraded forest for effective forest management and protection of downstream ecosystems. This paper describes a method for mapping forest degradation based on remote sensing techniques. Field survey was firstly carried out to record the locations and conditions of the devastated Japanese cypress plantation. Investigation sites were then divided into four groups based the values of relative illuminance (threshold: 5 percent) and the status of understory vegetation (threshold: 8 percent). Several vegetation indices (Land Surface Water Index: LSWI, Water Index: WI, Normalized Difference Water Index: NDWI, Photochemical Reflectance Index: PRI, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI) and the values of the digital number in the ASTER thermal band were calculated/extracted and tested for the four groups, respectively. Results showed that the ASTER thermal band was the most effective for mapping the degraded forest.

  13. An IR thermal imaging method to investigate spreading process of ethanol solution droplets on carbon fiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Lu, Longsheng; Teh, Kwok Siong; Wang, Hongfei; Wan, Zhenping; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Porous media are a class of basic engineering material, and the applications of a porous medium are significantly influenced by its surface and bulk wettabilities. Conventionally, the surface wettability and dynamics of a liquid droplet on a stationary material surface can be observed by performing a dyed droplet spreading test captured with a high-speed camera. Such a method, however, is not effective in the quantification of droplet dynamics within a porous medium. In this work, we propose an infrared (IR) thermal imaging method to investigate the spreading of colorless droplet beneath the surface of, and within, the porous network of the porous medium. The spreading rim of a colorless droplet is accurately detected by the locations of extreme points in its temperature gradient curve, as deduced from temperature distribution data collected by an IR camera imaging from the top. Compared with the images captured simultaneously by a high-speed camera from the side, the droplet spreading rim is revealed to be an inner precursor rim located inside the porous media. To evaluate this method, carbon fiber (CF) mats with different porosities are used as the porous media. The spreading velocities of droplets in CF mats are measured successfully and coincide exactly with conclusions obtained by the background subtraction method. This finding validates the effectiveness of IR thermal imaging method in a droplet spreading test. This work demonstrates that IR imaging holds great promise in the visualization of the inner precursor rim of droplets in porous media.

  14. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  15. Study on thermal properties of Cd-Ni batteries for satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingang, Hu

    1995-06-01

    Empirical research was carried out on thermal properties associated with the use of Cd-Ni storage cells in satellite engineering. Introduction is made of measured cell thermal capacities as well as amounts of heat put out by systems. The systems in question possess the advantages of being simple and reliable. Measured results are given, and, in conjunction with that, comparisons are carried out with data from abroad.

  16. The influence of topographic structures on night-time surface temperatures: Evaluation of a satellite thermal image of the upper Rhine plain and the surrounding highlands. [Germany and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite data supplied the same information as aerial IR registrations with corresponding averaging for all studies requiring a survey of the thermal pattern within an area measuring 10 km x 10 km ore more, provided that sufficiently precise control points could be established for the purpose of geometric rectification in the surroundings of the area observed. Satellite thermal data are more comprehensive than aircraft data for studies on a regional, rather than a local scale, since airborne images often obscure the basic correlation in thermal patterns because of a variety of irrelevant topographical detail. The satellite data demonstrate the dependence of surface temperature on relief more clearly than comparable airborne imagery.

  17. A data mining approach for sharpening satellite thermal imagery over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes which are at significant...

  18. Satellite and Ground Based Thermal Observation of the 2014 Effusive Eruption at Stromboli Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Zakšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As specifically designed platforms are still unavailable at this point in time, lava flows are usually monitored remotely with the use of meteorological satellites. Generally, meteorological satellites have a low spatial resolution, which leads to uncertain results. This paper presents the first long term satellite monitoring of active lava flows on Stromboli volcano (August–November 2014 at high spatial resolution (160 m and relatively high temporal resolution (~3 days. These data were retrieved by the small satellite Technology Experiment Carrier-1 (TET-1, which was developed and built by the German Aerospace Center (DLR. The satellite instrument is dedicated to high temperature event monitoring. The satellite observations were accompanied by field observations conducted by thermal cameras. These provided short time lava flow dynamics and validation for satellite data. TET-1 retrieved 27 datasets over Stromboli during its effusive activity. Using the radiant density approach, TET-1 data were used to calibrate the MODVOLC data and estimate the time averaged lava discharge rate. With a mean output rate of 0.87 m3/s during the three-month-long eruption, we estimate the total erupted volume to be 7.4 × 106 m3.

  19. Ir Spectroscopic Analysis of Thermal Behavior of Adsorbed Water on Y-Type Zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiro; Koide, Ryuhei; Yamada, Kenzo; Yoshida, Takanori; Horikawa, Toshihide

    In this study, we measured the IR spectra of water adsorbed at a differential temperature under constant pressure. Our purpose is to present a simple estimation method for the recycled temperature condition of water adsorbents. For a NaY zeolite, the IR integrated intensity of the bending vibration band of adsorbed water was increased with a decrease of temperature. The IR spectra were measured from 230°C to 30°C for several ion-exchanged Y-type zeolites. On the other hand, the adsorption isotherms of water on these zeolites were measured at 30°C. The result of this work is that the best correlation between the IR integrated intensity and the amount of adsorbed water was found for some of the zeolites. We concluded that the obtained correlation equation could easily estimate the amount of water desorbed between arbitrary temperatures.

  20. Application of remote sensing to thermal pollution analysis. [satellite sea surface temperature measurement assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, H. W.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Sengupta, S.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical model development program for near-field thermal plume discharge and far field general circulation in coastal regions is being carried on at the University of Miami Clean Energy Research Institute. The objective of the program is to develop a generalized, three-dimensional, predictive model for thermal pollution studies. Two regions of specific application of the model are the power plants sites at the Biscayne Bay and Hutchinson Island area along the Florida coastline. Remote sensing from aircraft as well as satellites are used in parallel with in situ measurements to provide information needed for the development and verification of the mathematical model. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to identify problems and limitations of the presently available satellite data and to develop methods for enhancing and enlarging thermal infrared displays for mesoscale sea surface temperature measurements.

  1. Landsat 7 thermal-IR image sharpening using an artificial neural network and sensor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshewsky, George P.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    2001-08-01

    The enhanced thematic mapper (plus)(ETM+) instrument on Landsat 7 shares the same basic design as the TM sensors on Landsats 4 and 5, with some significanti mprovements. In common are six multispetral bands with a 30-m ground projected instantaneous field of view (GIFOV). However, the thermal-IR (TIR) band now has a 60-m GIFOV, instead of 120- m. Also, a 15-m panchromatic band has been added. The artificial neural network (NN) image sharpening method described here uses data form the higher spatial resolution ETM+ bands to enhance (sharpen) the spatial resolution of the TIR imagery. It is based on an assumed correlation over multiple scales of resolution, between image edge contrast patterns in the TIR band and several other spectral bands. A multilayer, feedforward NN is trained to approximate TIR data at 60m, given degraded (from 30-m to 60-m) spatial resolution input from spectral bands 7,5, and 2. After training, the NN output for full-resolution input generates an approximation of a TIR image at 30-m resolution. Two methods are used to degrade the spatial resolution of the imagery used for NN training, and the corresponding sharpening results are compared. One degradation method uses a published sensor transfer function (TR) for Landsat 5 to simulate sensor coarser resolution imagery form higher resolution imagery. For comparison, the second degradation method is simply Gaussian low pass filtering and subsampling, wherein the Gaussian filter approximates the full width at half maximum amplitude characteristics of the TF-based spatial filter. Two fixed-size Nns (that is, number of weights and processing elements) were trained separately with the degraded resolution data, and the sharpening results compared. The comparison evaluates the relative influence of the degradation technique employed and whether or not it is desirable to incorporate a sensor TF model. Preliminary results indicate some improvements for the sensor model-based technique. Further evaluation

  2. The Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer: An Imaging Mid-IR Spectrometer for the Marco Polo NEO Sample Return Cosmic Vision Candidate Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S.; Reininger, F.; Green, S. F.; Mortimer, H.

    2009-03-01

    We describe the Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer (ATMS) instrument, a compact imaging mid-IR Fourier transform spectrometer currently being developed at the University of Oxford for NEO remote sensing applications.

  3. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apreutesei, Mihai [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco, E-mail: fmacedo@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Borges, Joel [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and SEG-CEMUC Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  4. A compact thermal infrared imaging radiometer with high spatial resolution and wide swath for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kenji; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tanii, Jun; Kawanishi, Toneo; Ueno, Shinichi; Kuga, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study for the potential of a high spatial resolution and wide swath thermal infrared (TIR) imaging radiometer for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). The preliminary TIR imaging radiometer designs were performed. One is a panchromatic (mono-band) imaging radiometer (8-12μm) with a large format 2000 x 1000 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 15 μm. The other is a multiband imaging radiometer (8.8μm, 10.8μm, 11.4μm). This radiometer is employed separate optics and detectors for each wave band. It is based on the use of a 640 x 480 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 25 μm. The thermal time constant of an uncooled IR-FPA is approximately 10-16ms, and introduces a constraint to the satellite operation to achieve better signal-to-noise ratio, MTF and linearity performances. The study addressed both on-ground time-delayintegration binning and staring imaging solutions, although a staring imaging was preferred after trade-off. The staring imaging requires that the line of sight of the TIR imaging radiometer gazes at a target area during the acquisition time of the image, which can be obtained by rotating the satellite or a steering mirror around the pitch axis. The single band radiometer has been designed to yield a 30m ground sample distance over a 30km swath width from a satellite altitude of 500km. The radiometric performance, enhanced with staring imaging, is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.5K for a 300K ground scene. The multi-band radiometer has three spectral bands with spatial resolution of 50m and swath width of 24km. The radiometric performance is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.85K. We also showed some preliminary simulation results on volcano, desert/urban scenes, and wildfire.

  5. Hybrid functional IrO2-TiO2 thin film resistor prepared by atomic layer deposition for thermal inkjet printheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won-Sub KWACK; Hyoung-Seok MOON; Seong-Jun JEONG; Qi-min WANG; Se-Hun KWON

    2011-01-01

    IrO2-TiO2 thin films were prepared by atomic layer deposition using Ir(EtCp)(COD) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP).in the IrO2-TiO2 thin films. The low temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR) values can be obtained by adopting IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films. Moreover, the change in the resistivity of lrO2-TiO2 thin films was below 10% even after O2 annealing process at 600 ℃. The step stress test results show that IrO2-TiO2 films have better characteristics than conventional TaN08 heater resistor.Therefore, IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films can be used as a heater resistor material in thermal inkjet printhead.

  6. Physicochemical, morphological, thermal and IR spectral changes in the properties of waxy rice starch modified with vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Dipankar; Kaushik, Neelima; Mahanta, Charu L

    2014-10-01

    Waxy rice starch was modified with vinyl acetate at levels of 4, 6, 8, and 10 % with degree of substitution of 0.021, 0.023, 0.032 and 0.056. The modified starches were studied for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and infra red spectral properties. Waxy starch acetates had high water holding capacity and did not sediment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface damage of the granules and their fusion. X ray diffractography showed that crystalline peak intensity had increased on acetylation. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed changes in thermal properties. While gelatinization temperatures of modified starches were higher than the native starch, their transition enthalpies were lower than the native starch. IR spectra of the starch acetates did not show the peak typical for acetyl group. Thus, modification of waxy rice starch with vinyl acetate caused changes in the starch properties. The high water holding capacity of starch acetates can be exploited for specific applications.

  7. Surface chlorophyll a estimation in the Arabian Sea using IRS-P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, P.; Mohan, M.; Sarangi, R.K; Kumari, B.; Nayak, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments, coloured dissolved organic matter and suspended particulate matter. Remote sensing data obtained from IRS-P4 OCM sensor is processed for the removal of atmospheric effects of Rayleigh and aerosol scattering to derive...

  8. IR thermography applied to the assessment of thermal conductivity of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bison, P.; Grinzato, E.

    2010-05-01

    A device to measure thermal conductivity of small specimens is presented. The specimen is sandwiched between two thermoelectric cells, one sources heat the other sink it. An infrared camera looks at the device and specimen on its side, determining both the heat flux flowing through it and the temperature gradient due to the unknown thermal resistance. The thermal conductivity is quickly recovered, as soon as the steady thermal regime is reached. The heat flux toward the environment is evaluated and minimized working at zero mean temperature difference. A couple of specimens made of materials used to prepare radiant heating floor screeds are measured. The Maxwell model to determine the thermal conductivity of mixture, based on the knowledge of the conductivity of the different phases and their volume fraction, is used to interpret the results.

  9. Exploring the Thermal Limits of IR-Based Automatic Whale Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    whilst concurrently recording their position with visual observations through a theodolite . We deployed a team of 2 (IR technology) plus 6 (visual...recorded. Theodolite measurements of whales were conducted (as part of different protocols, see table below) for a total of 170h distributed across this...of pods which were already detected. Open squares: detections by the theodolite team to obtain ground truth. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS The data

  10. Towards stochastically downscaled precipitation in the Tropics based on a robust 1DD combined satellite product and a high resolution IR-based rain mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Clement; Roca, Rémy; Gosset, Marielle

    2015-04-01

    In the Tropics where the ground-based rain gauges network is very sparse, satellite rainfall estimates are becoming a compulsory source of information for various applications: hydrological modeling, water resources management or vegetation-monitoring. The tropical Tropical Amount of Precipitation with Estimate of Error (TAPEER) algorithm, developed within the framework of Megha-Tropiques satellite mission is a robust estimate of surface rainfall accumulations at the daily, one degree resolution. TAPEER validation in West Africa has proven its accuracy. Nevertheless applications that involve non-linear processes (such as surface runoff) require finer space / time resolution than one degree one day, or at least the statistical characterization of the sub-grid rainfall variability. TAPEER is based on a Universally Adjusted Global Precipitation Index (UAGPI) technique. The one degree, one day estimation relies on the combination of observations from microwave radiometers embarked on the 7 platforms forming the GPM constellation of low earth orbit satellites together with geostationary infra-red (GEO-IR) imagery. TAPEER provides as an intermediate product a high-resolution rain-mask based on the GEO-IR information (2.8 km, 15 min in Africa). The main question of this work is, how to use this high-resolution mask information as a constraint for downscaling ? This work first presents the multi-scale evaluation of TAPEER's rain detection mask against ground X-band polarimetric radar data and TRMM precipitation radar data in West Africa, through wavelet transform. Other algorithms (climate prediction center morphing technique CMORPH, global satellite mapping of precipitation GSMaP, multi-sensor precipitation estimate MPE) detection capabilities are also evaluated. Spatio-temporal wavelet filtering of the detection mask is then used to compute precipitation probability at the GEO-IR resolution. The wavelet tool is finally used to stochastically generate rain / no rain field

  11. Air quality monitoring with current (IASI) and future (IASI-NG/MetOp-SG, IRS/MTG) space-borne thermal infrared sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynard, Anne; Clerbaux, Cathy; Bauduin, Sophie; Prunet, Pascal; Tournier, Bernard; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-04-01

    Current nadir-looking thermal infrared (TIR) sounders, such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched onboard the MetOp polar-orbiting platforms, are now playing an important role for probing pollutants in the troposphere and in the boundary layer (e.g., carbon monoxide - CO, ozone - O3, ammonia, sulfur dioxide). Vertical profiles can be obtained for the main absorbers, with varying vertical resolution and accuracy, depending on geophysical parameters and instrumental specifications. Two future missions using TIR instruments (IRS on Sentinel 4/MTG geostationary-orbiting platform and IASI-NG on Sentinel 5/MetOp-SG polar-orbiting platform) are planned to be launched by EUMETSAT within 5 years. Both instruments are nadir looking Fourier transform spectrometers like IASI but with different radiometric and spectral characteristics. In this study, we illustrate the ability of IASI to monitor CO and O3 in the lowermost troposphere. We assess more specifically the performances of the different satellite instrument concepts in terms of vertical resolution and sensitivity at the surface for CO and O3, using representative cases at local, continental and global scales.

  12. Validation of Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Satellite Products for Coral Bleaching Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Heron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite monitoring of thermal stress on coral reefs has become an essential component of reef management practice around the world. A recent development by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Watch (NOAA CRW program provides daily global monitoring at 5 km resolution—at or near the scale of most coral reefs. In this paper, we introduce two new monitoring products in the CRW Decision Support System for coral reef management: Regional Virtual Stations, a regional synthesis of thermal stress conditions, and Seven-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST Trend, describing recent changes in temperature at each location. We describe how these products provided information in support of management activities prior to, during and after the 2014 thermal stress event in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using in situ survey data from this event, we undertake the first quantitative comparison between 5 km satellite monitoring products and coral bleaching observations. Analysis of coral community characteristics, historical temperature conditions and thermal stress revealed a strong influence of coral biodiversity in the patterns of observed bleaching. This resulted in a model based on thermal stress and generic richness that explained 97% of the variance in observed bleaching. These findings illustrate the importance of using local benthic characteristics to interpret the level of impact from thermal stress exposure. In an era of continuing climate change, accurate monitoring of thermal stress and prediction of coral bleaching are essential for stakeholders to direct resources to the most effective management actions to conserve coral reefs.

  13. Measurements of scattering, transmittance/reflectance, IR-transmittance and thermal conductivity of small aerogel samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels...... project deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of different types of aerogels and aerogel-like materials for the purpose of using aerogel in clear glazings.All measurements presented...

  14. Measured comparison of the inversion periods for polarimetric and conventional thermal long-wave IR (LWIR) imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, M.; Gurton, K. P.; Roth, L. E.; Pezzaniti, J. L.; Chenault, D. B.

    2009-08-01

    We report the results of a multi-day diurnal study in which radiometrically calibrated polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery is recorded in the LWIR to identify/compare the respective time periods in which minimum target contrast is achieved, e.g., thermal inversion periods are typically experienced during dusk and dawn. Imagery is recorded with a polarimetric IR sensor employing a 324x256 microbolometer array using a spinning achromatic retarder to perform the polarimetric filtering. The images used in this study include the S0, normalized S1, and normalized S2 Stokes images and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) images of a scene containing military vehicles and the natural background. In addition, relevant meteorological parameters measured during the test period include air temperature, ambient loading in the LWIR, relative humidity, and cloud cover, height and density. The data shows that the chief factors affecting polarimetric contrast are the amount of thermal emission from the objects in the scene and the abundance of LWIR sources in the optical background. In addition, we found that contrast between targets and background within polarimetric images often remains relatively high during periods of low thermal contrast.

  15. Near-IR Imaging of Thermal Changes in Enamel during Laser Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Linn H; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-03-05

    The objective of this work was to observe the various thermal-induced optical changes that occur in the near-infrared (NIR) during drilling in dentin and enamel with the laser and the high-speed dental handpiece. Tooth sections of ~ 3 mm-thickness were prepared from extracted human incisors (N=60). Samples were ablated with a mechanically scanned CO(2) laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3-µm, a 300-Hz laser pulse repetition rate, and a laser pulse duration of 10-20 µs. An InGaAs imaging camera was used to acquire real-time NIR images at 1300-nm of thermal and mechanical changes (cracks). Enamel was rapidly removed by the CO(2) laser without peripheral thermal damage by mechanically scanning the laser beam while a water spray was used to cool the sample. Comparison of the peripheral thermal and mechanical changes produced while cutting with the laser and the high-speed hand-piece suggest that enamel and dentin can be removed at high speed by the CO(2) laser without excessive peripheral thermal or mechanical damage. Only 2 of the 15 samples ablated with the laser showed the formation of small cracks while 9 out of 15 samples exhibited crack formation with the dental hand-piece. The first indication of thermal change is a decrease in transparency due to loss of the mobile water from pores in the enamel which increase light-scattering. To test the hypothesis that peripheral thermal changes were caused by loss of mobile water in the enamel, thermal changes were intentionally induced by heating the surface. The mean attenuation coefficient of enamel increased significantly from 2.12 ± 0.82 to 5.08 ± 0.98 with loss of mobile water due to heating.

  16. Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstov, S. V.; Firstova, E. G.; Alyshev, S. V.; Khopin, V. F.; Riumkin, K. E.; Melkumov, M. A.; Guryanov, A. N.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the luminescent properties of bismuth-doped fibers bleached by 532 nm laser radiation was investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed in pristine and photobleached samples which were thermally annealed at various temperatures ranging from 100 to 900 °C and slowly cooled. We observed that the intensity of the PL band at 1700 nm in the photobleached fibers recovered its pre-bleached level. Moreover, it was shown that a significant increase of the PL level could be achieved using the special annealing regime. Thereby, we obtained the experimental evidence of a thermally activated recovery process of the PL intensity showing that photoinduced changes of PL in bismuth-doped fibers are completely reversible. The mechanism of the thermal recovery of the PL is discussed.

  17. Thermal performance of prefabricated multistory house in Tallinn, Estonia, based on IR survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo T.; Hyartt, Jarmo; Sasi, Lennart

    1997-04-01

    The paper deals with how to improve the thermal performance of prefabricated multistory houses in Tallinn, Estonia, built in the 1960s and 1970s based on the results of thermal scanning during 1995 - 1996. The thermal scanning was performed by VTT Building Technology and reported by Helsinki Univ. of Technology. Based on the results of the first tests, some light renovation works were made, and the second tests showed how the repair work had succeeded. The aim of the project was to develop and test less-expensive and easy repair methods for large prefabricated multi-story house areas. The houses have been planned based on uniform design, when the existing problems can be generalized.

  18. Role of thermal diffusion in cw IR laser absorption in gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleissye, J T; Lempereur, F

    1982-01-15

    The absorption of radiation from a cw CO(2) laser by a mixture of absorbing SF(6) and transparent buffer gases has been measured as a function of pressure of added transparent gas (C(4)H(10)). The results are analyzed in terms of thermal diffusion of excited SF6 molecules out of the irradiation zone. In the 60-400-Torr pressure range, thermal difusion depletes the concentration of SF(6) so that the overall absorption is decreased and competes with the various channels of collisional relaxation which enhance absorption. An approximate semiempirical expression is used to determine the transient perturbation of concentration which occurs inside the laser beam.

  19. Non-Contact Thermal Properties Measurement with Low-Power Laser and IR Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Troy L.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    As shown by the Phoenix Mars Lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), contact measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity (using a modified flux-plate or line-source heat-pulse method) are constrained by a number of factors. Robotic resources must be used to place the probe, making them unavailable for other operations for the duration of the measurement. The range of placement is also limited by mobility, particularly in the case of a lander. Placement is also subject to irregularities in contact quality, resulting in non-repeatable heat transfer to the material under test. Most important from a scientific perspective, the varieties of materials which can be measured are limited to unconsolidated or weakly-cohesive regolith materials, rocks, and ices being too hard for nominal insertion strengths. Accurately measuring thermal properties in the laboratory requires significant experimental finesse, involving sample preparation, controlled and repeatable procedures, and, practically, instrumentation much more voluminous than the sample being tested (heater plates, insulation, temperature sensors). Remote measurements (infrared images from orbiting spacecraft) can reveal composite properties like thermal inertia, but suffer both from a large footprint (low spatial resolution) and convolution of the thermal properties of a potentially layered medium. In situ measurement techniques (the Phoenix TECP is the only robotic measurement of thermal properties to date) suffer from problems of placement range, placement quality, occupation of robotic resources, and the ability to only measure materials of low mechanical strength. A spacecraft needs the ability to perform a non-contact thermal properties measurement in situ. Essential components include low power consumption, leveraging of existing or highly-developed flight technologies, and mechanical simplicity. This new in situ method, by virtue of its being non-contact, bypasses all of these

  20. GC/FT-IR ANALYSIS OF THE THERMALLY LABILE COMPOUND TRIS (2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fast and convenient GC method has been developed for a compound [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate] that poses a difficult analytical problem for both GC (thermal instability/low volatility) and LC (not amenable to commonly available, sensitive detectors) analysis. his method em...

  1. GC/FT-IR ANALYSIS OF THE THERMALLY LABILE COMPOUND TRIS (2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fast and convenient GC method has been developed for a compound [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate] that poses a difficult analytical problem for both GC (thermal instability/low volatility) and LC (not amenable to commonly available, sensitive detectors) analysis. his method em...

  2. Ab initio study of structural, electronic, and thermal properties of Ir_{1-x}Rh_{x} alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural, electronic, mechanical and thermal properties of Ir_{1-x}Rh_{x} alloys was studied systematically using ab initio density functional theory at different concentration (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00. The Special Quasirandom Structure method was used to make the alloys with FCC structure with four atoms per unit cell. The ground state properties such as lattice constant and bulk modulus were calculated to find the equilibrium atomic position for stable alloys. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the experimental and previously presented other theoretical data. The electronic band structure and density of states were calculated to study the electronic properties for these alloys at different concentration. The electronic properties substantiate metallic behavior of alloys. The first principle density functional perturbation theory as implemented in quasiharmonic approximation was used for the calculation of thermal properties. We have calculated the thermal properties such the Debye temperatures, vibration energy, entropy, constant-volume specific heat and internal energy. The ab initio linear-response method was used for phonon densities of states calculations.

  3. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Parekh; P M Vyas; Sonal R Vasant; M J Joshi

    2008-04-01

    Oxalic acid metabolism is important in humans, animals and plants. The effect of oxalic acid sodium salt is widely studied in living body. The growth of sodium oxalate single crystals by gel growth is reported, which can be used to mimic the growth of crystals in vivo. The grown single crystals are colourless, transparent and prismatic. The crystals have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, FT–IR spectroscopy and dielectric response at various frequencies of applied field. The crystals become anhydrous at 129.3°C. Coats and Redfern relation is applied to evaluate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration. The dielectric study suggests very less variation of dielectric constant with frequency of applied field in the range of 1 kHz–1 MHz. The nature of variation of imaginary part of complex permittivity, dielectric loss and a.c. resistivity with applied frequency has been reported.

  4. Adaptive bimaterial lattices to mitigate thermal expansion mismatch stresses in satellite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Marina M.; Steeves, Craig A.

    2015-08-01

    Earth-orbiting satellites regularly pass from sunlight to shade and back; these transitions are typically accompanied by significant temperature changes. When adjoining parts of a satellite that are made of different materials are subjected to large temperature changes, thermal mismatch stresses arise that are a function of the temperature change and the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between the two materials. These thermal stresses are linked to undesirable deformation and, through long-term cycling, fatigue and failure of the structure. This paper describes a type of anisotropic lattice that can serve as a stress-free adaptor between two materials, eliminating thermal mismatch stresses and their concomitant consequences. The lattices consist of planar nonidentical anisotropic bimaterial cells, each designed based on a virtual triangle. Physically the cells consist of a triangle made of material with higher CTE surrounded by a hexagon made of material with lower CTE. Different skew angles of the hexagon make a particular cell and the whole lattice anisotropic. The cells can be designed and combined in a lattice in such a way that one edge of the lattice has CTE that coincides with the CTE of the first part of the structure (substrate 1), while the other edge of the lattice has CTE equal to the CTE of the second part of the structure (substrate 2). If all joints between the parts of each cell, neighbouring cells, and the lattice and the substrates are pinned, the whole structure will be free of thermal stresses. This paper will discuss the fundamental principles governing such lattices, their refinement for special circumstances, and opportunities for improving the structural performance of the lattices. This will be presented coupled to a rational strategy for lattice design.

  5. Characterization of supersaturated lidocaine/polyacrylate pressure sensitive adhesive systems: thermal analysis and FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Frank, Sylvan G

    2006-03-01

    Supersaturated and crystallized lidocaine (LC)/pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) systems have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR with the objective of characterizing the thermodynamic states and compatibility of the two-component systems. Analysis of the phase behavior of LC/DT2287 systems indicates that LC and DT2287 are thermodynamically miscible within the composition range containing less than approximately 20% w/w LC, beyond which LC may crystallize from the blends forming a separated crystalline phase. The composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) was used to characterize the physical and thermodynamic states of the supersaturated systems. The Fox, Gordon-Taylor, Kwei, Kovacs, and Brekner, Schneider and Cantow (BSC) equations were employed to conduct the analysis. It was found that the PSA in the supersaturated LC/PSA systems underwent significant entropic relaxation upon mixing. LC in the miscible systems is absorbed into and swells the polymer network of the PSA, thereby exhibiting reduced molecular mobility, while the PSA attains significant molecular conformation relaxation and entropy increase. It was also found that LC molecules extensively participate in molecular relaxation of the PSA throughout the composition range studied. The molecular mobility of LC is inhibited as the volume fraction of DT2287 increases, suggesting that the PSA molecular network reduces the molecular mobility of LC by closely involving LC molecules in its relaxation, and thereby may enhancing the physical stability of the systems. No strong intermolecular interactions between the two components were found based upon the results of T(g)-composition analysis, and was confirmed by FT-IR studies. This indicates that the analysis based on the BSC equation provides more precise characterization of polymer systems than the T(g) -composition analysis based on other equations cited. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American

  6. Structure of the St. Francois Mountains and surrounding lead belt, S. E. Missouri: Inferences from thermal IR and other data sets. [Ozard Plateau and St. Francois Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Day-IR, day-visible, and night-IR image data sets were analyzed. All three images were contrast enhanced, using a linear stretch. The night-IR image was destriped using a box-car filtering approach. Apparent thermal inertia images were generated from the data. The enhanced data and the apparent thermal inertia image were also registered and overlayed onto shaded relief images depicting topography and onto a colored version of the Missouri geologic map. The combination of the apparent thermal inertial image and the shaded relief map proved to have the greatest discriminability in terms of portraying linear features. The reason seems to be that the vegetation canopy on the Ozark Plateau is different topography, tend to emphasize subtle topographic effects.

  7. Urban thermal environment and its biophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2013-10-01

    In frame of global warming, the field of urbanization and urban thermal environment are important issues among scientists all over the world. This paper investigated the influences of urbanization on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on satellite remote sensing imagery Landsat TM/ETM+, time series MODIS Terra/Aqua data and IKONOS acquired during 1990 - 2012 period. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of Landsat TM/ETM+, from MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. Results indicated that the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during two decades investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  8. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station:Satellite-observed evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Tao; HUANG Yong; WANG Hong; SHI Chun-E; YANG Yuan-Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC), land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization is the main factor that affects the spatial-temporal distribution of thermal environment around meteorological stations. Moreover, the normalized LST and NDVI exhibit strong inverse correlations around meteorological stations, so the variability of LST can be monitored through evaluating the variability of NDVI. In addition, station-relocation plays an important role in improving representativeness of thermal environment. Notably, the environment representativeness was improved, but when using the data from the station to study climate change, the relocation-induced inhomogeneous data should be considered and adjusted. Consequently, controlling the scale and layout of the urban buildings and constructions around meteorological stations is an effective method to ameliorate observational thermal environment and to improve regional representativeness of station observation. The present work provides observational evidences that high resolution Landsat images can be used to evaluate the thermal environment of meteorological stations.

  9. Selective modification of polylactide by introducing acrylate groups: IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkova, V. T.; Matveeva, I. A.; Glagolev, N. N.; Zarkhina, T. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Solov'eva, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    One-stage modification of polylactide has been performed to obtain the acrylate derivatives of the polymer capable of further polymerization and preparation of cross-linked polymer materials suitable for creating implants. The reaction mechanism was determined by IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential thermal analysis. It was shown for the first time that the reaction path changes depending on the ratio of components so that the desired product polylactide acrylate forms with a ~90% yield only in the presence of large (approximately tenfold) excesses of the isocyanate and acrylate components; at the equimolar ratio of components generally used in urethane formation, a mixture of the desired product (~30%), oligourethane diacrylates, and unchanged polylactide forms.

  10. Design and fabrication of thin film Bi-Sb and Bi-Cu thermopiles for IR thermal radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Afzalzadeh, R

    2003-01-01

    Thin film thermopiles are widely used as small size sensors, in particular to sense infra-red thermal radiations. In this paper a method for designing and fabrication of thin films Bi-Cu thermopiles in linear in linear array of 8 and 11 elements in series and mono-layer is introduced. Also, fabrication of of Bi-Cu thin film thermopiles, which are used as IR radiation sensors, made in multilayer from with 100 series junctions in circular shape are presented. The samples are fabricated on a PCB board with double-side copper laminated as a substrate. The results of our measurements show that the output voltage produced due to temperature difference between junctions, is very sensitive and linear to temperature difference.

  11. a Diagnostic Approach to Obtaining Planetary Boundary Layer Winds Using Satellite-Derived Thermal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Carol Lynn

    The feasibility of using satellite-derived thermal data to generate realistic synoptic-scale winds within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is examined. Diagnostic "modified Ekman" wind equations from the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) Boundary Layer Model are used to compute winds at seven levels within the PBL transition layer (50 m to 1600 m AGL). Satellite-derived winds based on 62 predawn (0921 GMT 19 April 1979) TIROS-N soundings are compared to similarly-derived wind fields based on 39 AVE-SESAME II rawinsonde (RAOB) soundings taken 2 h later. Actual wind fields are also used as a basis for comparison. Qualitative and statistical comparisons show that the Ekman winds from both sources are in very close agreement, with an average vector correlation coefficient of 0.815. Best results are obtained at 300 m AGL. Satellite winds tend to be slightly weaker than their RAOB counterparts and exhibit a greater degree of cross-isobaric flow. The modified Ekman winds show a significant improvement over geostrophic values at levels nearest the surface. Horizontal moisture divergence, moisture advection, velocity divergence and relative vorticity are computed at 300 m AGL using satellite-derived winds and moisture data. Results show excellent agreement with corresponding RAOB-derived values. Areas of horizontal moisture convergence, velocity convergence, and positive vorticity are nearly coincident and align in regions which later develop intense convection. Vertical motion at 1600 m AGL is computed using stepwise integration of the satellite winds through the PBL. Values and patterns are similar to those obtained using the RAOB-derived winds. Regions of maximum upward motion correspond with areas of greatest moisture convergence and the convection that later develops.

  12. Investigation of optimal thermal injection conditions and the capability of IR thermography for detecting wall-thinning defects in small-diameter piping components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon, E-mail: jwkim@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Kyung Won [Department of Advanced Part and Materials Engineering, Graduate School, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Chul [Department of Mechanical Design, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    In this study, optimal thermal injection conditions and the detection capability of infrared (IR) thermography were investigated to confirm the applicability of active IR thermography for detecting wall-thinning defects in small-diameter nuclear piping components. IR thermography tests were conducted on pipe specimens, including elbow specimens, with artificial wall-thinning defects. Each specimen was thermally activated using two halogen lamps, and thermal images were captured via an IR camera. The thermal injection conditions that provided the best images of defects were dependent on the pipe diameter; the smaller the pipe diameter, the shorter the optimal object distance. Under the optimal conditions, active IR thermography was able to detect all wall-thinning defects with depth d/t ≥ 0.5 in a 500 mm specimen of pipe at one time, except for the defects with very short and narrow. However, wall-thinning defects with depth d/t = 0.25 could only be detected when they had suitable lengths and circumferential angles.

  13. Effect of mechanical tissue properties on thermal damage in skin after IR-laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M.; Mischler, Ch.; Romano, V.; Forrer, M.; Müller, O. M.; Weber, H. P.

    1991-04-01

    The damage created instantaneously in dorsal skin and in the subjacent skeletal muscle layer after CO2 and Er3+ laser incisions is histologically and ultrastructurally investigated. Light microscopical examinations show an up to three times larger damage zone in the subcutaneous layer of skeletal muscle than in the connective tissue above. The extent of thermally altered muscle tissue is classified by different zones and characterized by comparison to long time heating injuries. The unexpectedly large damage is a result of the change of elastic properties occurring abruptly at the transition between different materials. This leads to a discontinuity of the cutting dynamics that reduces the ejection of tissue material. We show that the degree of thermal damage originates from the amount of hot material that is not ejected out of the crater acting as a secondary heat source.

  14. Inversion of Aerosol Optical Depth Based on the CCD and IRS Sensors on the HJ-1 Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform a high-resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD inversion from the HJ-1 satellites, a dark pixel algorithm utilizing the HJ-1 satellite data was developed based on the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS algorithm. By analyzing the relationship between the apparent reflectance from the 1.65 μm and 2.1 μm channels of MODIS, a method for estimating albedo using the 1.65 μm channel data of the HJ-1 satellites was established, and a high-resolution AOD inversion in the Chengdu region based on the HJ-1 satellite was completed. A comparison of the inversion results with CE318 measured data produced a correlation of 0.957, respectively, with an absolute error of 0.106. An analysis of the AOD inversion results from different aerosol models showed that the rural aerosol model was suitable as a general model for establishing an aerosol inversion look-up table for the Chengdu region.

  15. Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Lee, Jae-Hak; Kang, Yong Q

    2006-03-01

    The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28 degrees C in summer and 12 degrees C in winter. The DeltaT varied from 2 to 4 degrees C in winter and 2 degrees C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9 degrees C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5 degrees C during the flood tides and 3.5 degrees C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from

  16. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from single thermal channel radiometer data onboard Kalpana satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Naveen R.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Mathur, Aloke K.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2011-06-01

    An atmospheric correction method has been applied on sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm using Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) single window channel radiance data onboard Kalpana satellite (K-SAT). The technique makes use of concurrent water vapour fields available from Microwave Imager onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMI) satellite. Total water vapour content and satellite zenith angle dependent SST retrieval algorithm has been developed using Radiative Transfer Model [MODTRAN ver3.0] simulations for Kalpana 10.5-12.5 μm thermal window channel. Retrieval of Kalpana SST (K-SST) has been carried out for every half-hourly acquisition of Kalpana data for the year 2008 to cover whole annual cycle of SST over Indian Ocean (IO). Validation of the retrieved corrected SST has been carried out using near-simultaneous observations of ship and buoys datasets covering Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and IO regions. A significant improvement in Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of K-SST with respect to buoy (1.50-1.02 K) and to ship datasets (1.41-1.19 K) is seen with the use of near real-time water vapour fields of TMI. Furthermore, comparison of the retrieved SST has also been carried out using near simultaneous observations of TRMM/TMI SST over IO regions. The analysis shows that K-SST has overall cold bias of 1.17 K and an RMSD of 1.09 K after bias correction.

  17. Subsurface Dynamical Properties of Variable Features Seen in Satellite IR Imagery off Point Sur and Their Acoustic Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    profile as in Fig. 87 except 60 foot source at 50 Hz -------------------------------. 205 90 Graph showing the difference between clima - tological PL...graph as in Fig. 90 except 300 foot source ---------------------------------------- 207 92 Graph showing the difference between clima - tological PL and... temporal scales, to make observations on the subsurface structure of features observed by satellite imagery, to investigate the diurnal variation of the sea

  18. Studying bio-thermal effects at and around MSW dumps using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Estimating negative impacts of MSW dumps on its surrounding environment is the key requirement for any remedial measures. This study has been undertaken to map bio-thermal effects of MSW dumping at and around dumping facilities (non-engineered) using satellite imagery for Faisalabad, Pakistan. Thirty images of Landsat 8 have been selected after validation for the accuracy of their observational details from April 2013 to October 2015. Land Surface Temperature (LST), NDVI, SAVI and MSAVI have been derived from these images through Digital Image Processing (DIP) and have been subjected to spatio-temporal analysis in GIS environment. MSW dump has been found with average temperature elevation of 4.3K and 2.78K from nearby agriculture land and urban settlement respectively. Vegetation health has been used as the bio-indicator of MSW effects and is implemented through NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI. Spatial analyses have been used to mark boundary of bio-thermally affected zone around dumped MSW and measure 700m. Seasonal fluctuations of elevated temperatures and boundary of the bio-thermally affected zones have also been discussed. Based on the direct relation found between vegetation vigor and the level of deterioration within the bio-thermally affected region, use of crops with heavy vigor is recommended to study MSW hazard influence using bio-indicators of vegetation health.

  19. Thermal Analysis of InAs/A1Sb Short Wavelength Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lin; LI Ai-Zhen; XU Gang-Yi

    2009-01-01

    We present the effects of hereto-interfaces and major key parameters on the thermal behaviors and performance of short wavelength mid-IR InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers (QCLs).We use a finite element method (FEM) with commercial software,ANSYS,to simulate the heat dissipation in QCLs in cw operation mode with an epilayer-down mounting package.The thermal performance is characterized by the temperature increase △T (self-heating effect) between the active region of QCLs and the heatsink.Results show that (1) the self-heating effects of InAs/AlSb QCLs are much less than those in AllnAs/GaInAs QCLs,(2) narrower ridges lead to significantly cooler active regions of InAs/AlSb QCLs due to poor heat transport in the cross-plane direction (across interfaces) and that most of the heat flows out of the active region in the lateral direction,and (3) the cavity length of the laser has little influence on the self-heating effect of the device,but the long cavity reduces mirror loss and threshold current density.

  20. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes that are at significantly finer spatial scales. Consequently, thermal sharpening techniques have been developed to sharpen TIR imagery to shortwave band pixel resolutions, which are often fine enough for field-scale applications. A classic thermal sharpening technique, TsHARP, uses a relationship between land surface temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI developed empirically at the TIR pixel resolution and applied at the NDVI pixel resolution. However, recent studies show that unique relationships between temperature and NDVI may only exist for a limited class of landscapes, with mostly green vegetation and homogeneous air and soil conditions. To extend application of thermal sharpening to more complex conditions, a new data mining sharpener (DMS technique is developed. The DMS approach builds regression trees between TIR band brightness temperatures and shortwave spectral reflectances based on intrinsic sample characteristics. A comparison of sharpening techniques applied over a rainfed agricultural area in central Iowa, an irrigated agricultural region in the Texas High Plains, and a heterogeneous naturally vegetated landscape in Alaska indicates that the DMS outperformed TsHARP in all cases. The artificial box-like patterns in LST generated by the TsHARP approach are greatly reduced using the DMS scheme, especially for areas containing irrigated crops, water bodies, thin clouds or terrain. While the DMS technique can provide fine resolution TIR imagery, there are limits to the sharpening ratios that can be reasonably implemented. Consequently, sharpening techniques cannot replace actual thermal band imagery at fine resolutions or missions that

  1. Estimation and Mapping Forest Attributes Using “k Nearest Neighbor” Method on IRS-P6 LISS III Satellite Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Eslam Bonyad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explored the utility of k Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm to integrate IRS-P6 LISS III satellite imagery data and ground inventory data for application in forest attributes (DBH, trees height, volume, basal area, density and forest cover type estimation and mapping. The ground inventory data was based on a systematic-random sampling grid and the numbers of sampling plots were 408 circular plots in a plantation in Guilan province, north of Iran. We concluded that kNN method was useful tool for mapping at a fine accuracy between 80% and 93.94%. Values of k between 5 and 8 seemed appropriate. The best distance metrics were found Euclidean, Fuzzy and Mahalanobis. Results showed that kNN was accurate enough for practical applicability for mapping forest areas.

  2. High-throughput thermal stability analysis of a monoclonal antibody by attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Byrne, Bernadette; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2014-10-07

    The use of biotherapeutics, such as monoclonal antibodies, has markedly increased in recent years. It is thus essential that biotherapeutic production pipelines are as efficient as possible. For the production process, one of the major concerns is the propensity of a biotherapeutic antibody to aggregate. In addition to reducing bioactive material recovery, protein aggregation can have major effects on drug potency and cause highly undesirable immunological effects. It is thus essential to identify processing conditions which maximize recovery while avoiding aggregation. Heat resistance is a proxy for long-term aggregation propensity. Thermal stability assays are routinely performed using various spectroscopic and scattering detection methods. Here, we evaluated the potential of macro attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging as a novel method for the high-throughput thermal stability assay of a monoclonal antibody. This chemically specific visualization method has the distinct advantage of being able to discriminate between monomeric and aggregated protein. Attenuated total reflection is particularly suitable for selectively probing the bottom of vessels, where precipitated aggregates accumulate. With focal plane array detection, we tested 12 different buffer conditions simultaneously to assess the effect of pH and ionic strength on protein thermal stability. Applying the Finke model to our imaging kinetics allowed us to determine the rate constants of nucleation and autocatalytic growth. This analysis demonstrated the greater stability of our immunoglobulin at higher pH and moderate ionic strength, revealing the key role of electrostatic interactions. The high-throughput approach presented here has significant potential for analyzing the stability of biotherapeutics as well as any other biological molecules prone to aggregation.

  3. Landsat 7 thermal-IR image sharpening using an artificial neural network and sensor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; Schowengerdt, R.A.; ,

    2001-01-01

    The enhanced thematic mapper (plus) (ETM+) instrument on Landsat 7 shares the same basic design as the TM sensors on Landsats 4 and 5, with some significant improvements. In common are six multispectral bands with a 30-m ground-projected instantaneous field of view (GIFOV). However, the thermaL-IR (TIR) band now has a 60-m GIFOV, instead of 120-m. Also, a 15-m panchromatic band has been added. The artificial neural network (NN) image sharpening method described here uses data from the higher spatial resolution ETM+ bands to enhance (sharpen) the spatial resolution of the TIR imagery. It is based on an assumed correlation over multiple scales of resolution, between image edge contrast patterns in the TIR band and several other spectral bands. A multilayer, feedforward NN is trained to approximate TIR data at 60m, given degraded (from 30-m to 60-m) spatial resolution input from spectral bands 7, 5, and 2. After training, the NN output for full-resolution input generates an approximation of a TIR image at 30-m resolution. Two methods are used to degrade the spatial resolution of the imagery used for NN training, and the corresponding sharpening results are compared. One degradation method uses a published sensor transfer function (TF) for Landsat 5 to simulate sensor coarser resolution imagery from higher resolution imagery. For comparison, the second degradation method is simply Gaussian low pass filtering and subsampling, wherein the Gaussian filter approximates the full width at half maximum amplitude characteristics of the TF-based spatial filter. Two fixed-size NNs (that is, number of weights and processing elements) were trained separately with the degraded resolution data, and the sharpening results compared. The comparison evaluates the relative influence of the degradation technique employed and whether or not it is desirable to incorporate a sensor TF model. Preliminary results indicate some improvements for the sensor model-based technique. Further

  4. IRS organigram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1991-01-01

    Charts and graphs relative to magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology are given. The research activities at the Institute of Space Transportation, University of Stuttgart, are summarized. Information is given on the Institute's Electric Propulsion and Plasma Wind Tunnel; thermal arcjet research; the nozzle-type thruster, DT-IRS; nozzle-type MPD thrusters; a hot anode thruster; the DT6 thruster; the ZT-1 thruster; the cylindrical MPD thruster; and a comparison of continuous and quasi-steady MPD.

  5. An Autonomous System to Take Angular Thermal-Infrared Measurements for Validating Satellite Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Niclòs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous system for field land surface temperature (LST measurements taken at different observation angles was developed to be deployed easily at any conventional meteorological tower station. The system permits ground-truth data to be acquired on a continuous basis, and angularly scans land and sky hemispheres with a single thermal-infrared (TIR radiometer. This paper describes the autonomous angular system and the methodology to assess ground-truth LST and relative-to-nadir emissivity data from system measurements. Ground-truth LSTs were used to validate satellite-retrieved LST products at two experimental sites (rice crop and shrubland areas. The relative-to-nadir emissivity values were used to analyze the anisotropy of surface emissive properties over thermally-homogeneous covers. The EOS-MODIS MOD11_L2/MYD11_L2 LST product was evaluated and shown to work within expected uncertainties (<2.0 K when tested against the system data. A slight underestimation of around −0.15 K was observed, which became greater for the off-nadir observation angles at the shrubland site. The system took angular measurements for the different seasonal homogeneous covers at the rice crop site. These measurements showed emissivity angular anisotropies, which were in good agreement with previously published data. The dual-view ENVISAT-AATSR data reproduced them, and revealed that the system data collected for thermally-homogeneous surfaces could be used to test future satellite TIR sensors with multi-angular or bi-angular capabilities, like the forthcoming SLSTR on board Copernicus Sentinel-3A.

  6. Seeing is believing I: The use of thermal sensing from satellite imagery to predict crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, Potgieter A.; D, Rodriguez; B, Power; J, Mclean; P, Davis

    2014-02-01

    Volatility in crop production has been part of the Australian environment since cropping began with the arrival of the first European settlers. Climate variability is the main factor affecting crop production at national, state and local scales. At field level spatial patterns on yield production are also determined by spatially changing soil properties in interaction with seasonal climate conditions and weather patterns at critical stages in the crop development. Here we used a combination of field level weather records, canopy characteristics, and satellite information to determine the spatial performance of a large field of wheat. The main objective of this research is to determine the ability of remote sensing technologies to capture yield losses due to water stress at the canopy level. The yield, canopy characteristics (i.e. canopy temperature and ground cover) and seasonal conditions of a field of wheat (~1400ha) (-29.402° South and 149.508°, New South Wales, Australia) were continuously monitored during the winter of 2011. Weather and crop variables were continuously monitored by installing three automatic weather stations in a transect covering different positions and soils in the landscape. Weather variables included rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity, and crop characteristics included ground cover and canopy temperature. Satellite imagery Landsat TM 5 and 7 was collected at five different stages in the crop cycle. Weather variables and crop characteristics were used to calculate a crop stress index (CSI) at point and field scale (39 fields). Field data was used to validate a spatial satellite image derived index. Spatial yield data was downloaded from the harvester at the different locations in the field. We used the thermal band (land surface temperature, LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) bands from the MODIS (250 m for visible bands and 1km for thermal band) and a derived EVI from Landsat TM 7 (25 m for visible and

  7. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  8. Experimental design for the evaluation of high-T(sub c) superconductive thermal bridges in a sensor satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine P.; Lee, Kasey M.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared sensor satellites, which consist of cryogenic infrared sensor detectors, electrical instrumentation, and data acquisition systems, are used to monitor the conditions of the earth's upper atmosphere in order to evaluate its present and future changes. Currently, the electrical connections (instrumentation), which act as thermal bridges between the cryogenic infrared sensor and the significantly warmer data acquisition unit of the sensor satellite system, constitute a significant portion of the heat load on the cryogen. As a part of extending the mission life of the sensor satellite system, the researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) are evaluating the effectiveness of replacing the currently used manganin wires with high-temperature superconductive (HTS) materials as the electrical connections (thermal bridges). In conjunction with the study being conducted at NASA-LaRC, the proposed research is to design a space experiment to determine the thermal savings on a cryogenic subsystem when manganin leads are replaced by HTS leads printed onto a substrate with a low thermal conductivity, and to determine the thermal conductivities of HTS materials. The experiment is designed to compare manganin wires with two different types of superconductors on substrates by determining the heat loss by the thermal bridges and providing temperature measurements for the estimation of thermal conductivity. A conductive mathematical model has been developed and used as a key tool in the design process and subsequent analysis.

  9. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C. [CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France)

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  10. Direct imaging of thermally-activated grain-boundary diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange-bias structures using atom-probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, F.; Lardé, R.; Le Breton, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.lebreton@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Lechevallier, L. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Département de GEII, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-28

    Magnetic devices are often subject to thermal processing steps, such as field cooling to set exchange bias and annealing to crystallize amorphous magnetic electrodes. These processing steps may result in interdiffusion and the subsequent deterioration of magnetic properties. In this study, we investigated thermally-activated diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange biased polycrystalline thin-film structures using atom probe tomography. Images taken after annealing at 400 °C for 60 min revealed Mn diffusion into Co grains at the Co/IrMn interface and along Pt grain boundaries for the IrMn/Pt stack, i.e., a Harrison type C regime. Annealing at 500 °C showed further Mn diffusion into Co grains. At the IrMn/Pt interface, annealing at 500 °C led to a type B behavior since Mn diffusion was detected both along Pt grain boundaries and also into Pt grains. The deterioration of the films' exchange bias properties upon annealing was correlated to the observed diffusion. In particular, the topmost Pt capping layer thickness turned out to be crucial since a faster deterioration of the exchange bias properties for thicker caps was observed. This is consistent with the idea that Pt acts as a getter for Mn, drawing Mn out of the IrMn layer.

  11. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from single thermal channel radiometer data onboard Kalpana satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen R Shahi; Neeraj Agarwal; Aloke K Mathur; Abhijit Sarkar

    2011-06-01

    An atmospheric correction method has been applied on sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm using Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) single window channel radiance data onboard Kalpana satellite (K-SAT). The technique makes use of concurrent water vapour fields available from Microwave Imager onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMI) satellite. Total water vapour content and satellite zenith angle dependent SST retrieval algorithm has been developed using Radiative Transfer Model [MODTRAN ver3.0] simulations for Kalpana 10.5–12.5 m thermal window channel. Retrieval of Kalpana SST (K-SST) has been carried out for every half-hourly acquisition of Kalpana data for the year 2008 to cover whole annual cycle of SST over Indian Ocean (IO). Validation of the retrieved corrected SST has been carried out using near-simultaneous observations of ship and buoys datasets covering Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and IO regions. A significant improvement in Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of K-SST with respect to buoy (1.50–1.02 K) and to ship datasets (1.41–1.19 K) is seen with the use of near real-time water vapour fields of TMI. Furthermore, comparison of the retrieved SST has also been carried out using near simultaneous observations of TRMM/TMI SST over IO regions. The analysis shows that K-SST has overall cold bias of 1.17 K and an RMSD of 1.09 K after bias correction.

  12. Giant-Planet Chemistry: Ammonium Hydrosulfide (NH4SH), Its IR Spectra and Thermal and Radiolytic Stabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present our recent studies of proton-irradiated and unirradiated ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, a compound predicted to be an important tropospheric cloud component of Jupiter and other giant planets. We irradiated both crystalline and amorphous NH4SH at 10-160 K and used IR spectroscopy to observe and identify reaction products in the ice, specifically NH3 and long-chained sulfur-containing ions. Crystalline NH4SH was amorphized during irradiation at all temperatures studied with the rate being the fastest at the lowest temperatures. Irradiation of amorphous NH4SH at approximately 10-75 K showed that 60-80% of the NH4 + remained when equilibrium was reached, and that NH4SH destruction rates were relatively constant within this temperature range. Irradiations at higher temperatures produced different dose dependence and were accompanied by pressure outbursts that, in some cases, fractured the ice. The thermal stability of irradiated NH4SH was found to be greater than that of unirradiated NH4SH, suggesting that an irradiated giant-planet cloud precipitate can exist at temperatures and altitudes not previously considered.

  13. Giant-Planet Chemistry: Ammonium Hydrosulfide (NH4SH), Its IR Spectra and Thermal and Radiolytic Stabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present our recent studies of proton-irradiated and unirradiated ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, a compound predicted to be an important tropospheric cloud component of Jupiter and other giant planets. We irradiated both crystalline and amorphous NH4SH at 10-160 K and used IR spectroscopy to observe and identify reaction products in the ice, specifically NH3 and long-chained sulfur-containing ions. Crystalline NH4SH was amorphized during irradiation at all temperatures studied with the rate being the fastest at the lowest temperatures. Irradiation of amorphous NH4SH at approximately 10-75 K showed that 60-80% of the NH4 + remained when equilibrium was reached, and that NH4SH destruction rates were relatively constant within this temperature range. Irradiations at higher temperatures produced different dose dependence and were accompanied by pressure outbursts that, in some cases, fractured the ice. The thermal stability of irradiated NH4SH was found to be greater than that of unirradiated NH4SH, suggesting that an irradiated giant-planet cloud precipitate can exist at temperatures and altitudes not previously considered.

  14. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient () based optical classification of IRS-P3 MOS-B satellite ocean colour data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Sarangi; Prakash Chauhan; S R Nayak

    2002-09-01

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical classification based on values was performed. An atmospheric correction scheme was used for retrieving water leaving radiances in blue and green channels of 412, 443, 490 and 550 nm. The upwelling radiances from 443nm and 550nm spectral channels were used for computation of vertical diffuse attenuation coeffcient at 490 nm. The waters off the Gujarat coast were classified into different water types based on Jerlov classification scheme. The oceanic water type IA ( range 0.035-0.040m-1), type IB (0.042-0.065m-1), type II (0.07-0.1m-1) and type III (0.115-0.14m-1) were identified. For the coastal waters along Gujarat coast and Gulf of Kachchh, (490) values ranged between 0.15m-1 and 0.35m-1. The depth of 1% of surface light for water type IA, IB, II and III corresponds to 88, 68, 58 and 34 meters respectively. Classification of oceanic and coastal waters based on is useful in understanding the light transmission characteristics for sub-marine navigation and under-water imaging.

  15. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Peter, Maria; Langer, Moritz; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD) in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1-2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2-3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of -0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures are modeled for the eastern part, which is an

  16. Influence of Ga+ ion irradiation on thermal relaxation of exchange bias field in exchange-coupled CoFe/IrMn bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xian-Jin; Wang Yin-Gang; Miao Xue-Fei; Li Zi-Quan; Huang Yi-zhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that the CoFe/IrMn bilayers are deposited by magnetron sputtering on the surfaces of thermallyoxidized Si substrates. It investigates the thermal relaxations of both non-irradiated and Ga+ ion irradiated CoFe/IrMn bilayers by means of holding the bilayers in a negative saturation field. The results show that exchange bias field decreases with the increase of holding time period for both non-irradiated and Ga+ ion irradiated CoFe/IrMn bilayers. Exchange bias field is also found to be smaller upon irradiation at higher ion dose. This reduction of exchange bias field is attributed to the change of energy barrier induced by ion-radiation.

  17. Preparation of ZnO nanoribbon–MWCNT composite film and its application as antimicrobial bandage, antibacterial filter and thermal IR camouflage material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASAD UPASANI; T V SREEKUMAR; V G GAIKAR; NEETU JHA

    2017-08-01

    A zinc oxide nanoribbon (ZnO NR)–multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite film was prepared byfiltration technique. The film was characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy. The SEM images showed ZnO NRs trappedin the porous MWCNT network. This composite film displayed a strong antimicrobial property and porous structure, whichhas potential application as an antimicrobial bandage material. The composite film successfully removed the Escherichiacoli bacteria from water and destroyed the bacteria retained on its surface due to the antibacterial action of ZnO NRs. The absorption of thermal IR radiation by the composite film was studied by thermography, which can be useful in IR camouflageapplications.

  18. Maximizing the Use of Satellite Thermal Infrared Data for Advancing Land Surface Temperature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Q.; Fu, P.; Gao, F.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a crucial parameter in investigating environmental, ecological processes and climate change at various scales, and is also valuable in the studies of evapotranspiration, soil moisture conditions, surface energy balance, and urban heat islands. These studies require thermal infrared (TIR) images at both high temporal and spatial resolution to retrieve LST. However, currently, no single satellite sensors can deliver TIR data at both high temporal and spatial resolution. Thus, various algorithms/models have been developed to enhance the spatial or the temporal resolution of TIR data, but rare of those can enhance both spatial and temporal details. This paper presents a new data fusion algorithm for producing Landsat-like LST data by blending daily MODIS and periodic Landsat TM datasets. The original Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) was improved and modified for predicting thermal radiance and LST data by considering annual temperature cycle (ATC) and urban thermal landscape heterogeneity. The technique of linear spectral mixture analysis was employed to relate the Landsat radiance with the MODIS one, so that the temporal changes in radiance can be incorporated in the fusion model. This paper details the theoretical basis and the implementation procedures of the proposed data fusion algorithm, Spatio-temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm for Temperature mapping (SADFAT). A case study was conducted that predicted LSTs of five dates in 2005 from July to October in Los Angeles County, California. The results indicate that the prediction accuracy for the whole study area ranged from 1.3 K to 2 K. Like existing spatio-temporal data fusion models, the SADFAT method has a limitation in predicting LST changes that were not recorded in the MODIS and/or Landsat pixels due to the model assumption.

  19. Probable satellite thermal infrared anomaly before the Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake on January 10, 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper used the thermal infrared data of the satellite NOAA-AAVHRR of the north part of North China (113°~119° E, 38°~42° N), and processed the remote sensing data through radiation adjustment, geometric adjustment and so on by the software "The Monitoring and Fast Process System of Earthquake Precursor Thermal Infrared Anomaly", inversed the earth surface temperature. Some disturbances effect had been excluded, and thermal infrared temperature anomaly had been extracted by the picture difference method. The Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake is used as the example in the paper, so that in the paper thermal infrared characteristics on time-space before earthquake and the relationship between the anomaly and the earthquake prediction have been summarized.Within more than ten days before the Zhangbei earthquake, the thermal infrared anomaly had emerged widely along Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and the anomalous region seemed like a belt and it is also consistent with the tectonic background there; the anomaly expanded from the outside toward the earthquake focus, but the focus lay at the edge of the thermal infrared region. So it is possible to explore a new anomaly observation method for earthquake prediction by observing and studying the satellite thermal infrared anomaly before big earthquakes happen.

  20. Thermal expansion, heat capacity and Grüneisen parameter of iridium phosphide Ir2P from quasi-harmonic Debye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Song, T.; Sun, X. W.; Ma, Q.; Wang, T.; Guo, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter of iridium phosphide Ir2P are reported by means of quasi-harmonic Debye model for the first time in the current study. This model combines with first-principles calculations within generalized gradient approximation using pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis in the framework of density functional theory, and it takes into account the phononic effects within the quasi-harmonic approximation. The Debye temperature as a function of volume, the Grüneisen parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, constant-volume and constant-pressure heat capacities, and entropy on the temperature T are also successfully obtained. All the thermodynamic properties of Ir2P in the whole pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 3000 K are summarized and discussed in detail.

  1. Investigating the Capability of IRS-P6-LISS IV Satellite Image for Pistachio Forests Density Mapping (case Study: Northeast of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, F.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Zargham, N.

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the capability of satellite images for Pistachio forests density mapping, IRS-P6-LISS IV data were analyzed in an area of 500 ha in Iran. After geometric correction, suitable training areas were determined based on fieldwork. Suitable spectral transformations like NDVI, PVI and PCA were performed. A ground truth map included of 34 plots (each plot 1 ha) were prepared. Hard and soft supervised classifications were performed with 5 density classes (0-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%). Because of low separability of classes, some classes were merged and classifications were repeated with 3 classes. Finally, the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70% and 0.44, respectively, were obtained with three classes (0-5%, 5-20%, and > 20%) by fuzzy classifier. Considering the low kappa value obtained, it could be concluded that the result of the classification was not desirable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate for operational mapping of these valuable Pistachio forests.

  2. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  3. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  4. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  5. The Critical Need for Future Mid-Resolution Thermal Infrared Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.

    2006-12-01

    Eight future applications of data from mid-resolution thermal infrared satellite sensors are suggested, from least to most significant as follows: 8. Map thin ice unsafe for ice-fishing in the Great Lakes as a warning to winter fishermen; 7. Map ammonia plumes to locate large ammonia stockpiles (Homeland Security) and to monitor concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs); 6. Map types of surface algae in ocean, lakes, and rivers, especially those containing surface diatoms; 5. Monitor urban heat islands to determine the cooling affects of painting visibly dark surfaces with bright paints or coatings; 4. Map rock-types and soil-types of non- vegetated regions world-wide, a task which ASTER cannot complete in its current lifetime; 3. Detect surface warming of rocks under increased stress and pressure as an earthquake precursor; 2. Map pollutant gases, especially sulfur dioxide, which is important both for smokestack monitoring and volcanic eruption precursors; 1. Map methane escape into the atmosphere from methane clathrate destabilization as a key warning of imminent and drastic temperature rises in the troposphere. Each of these applications will be briefly discussed and past examples will be given for most of them.

  6. Influence of wavelength and pulse duration on peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin and alveolar bone during IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the peripheral thermal damage produced during the laser ablation of alveolar bone and dentin for clinically relevant IR laser systems. Previous studies have demonstrated that a char layer produced around the laser incision site can inhibit the wound healing process. Moreover, in the case of dentin, a char layer is unsightly and is difficult to bond to with restorative materials. Thermal damage was assessed using polarized light microscopy for laser pulse widths from 500 ns to 300 microseconds at 2.94 micrometer and 9.6 micrometer. Water- cooling was not employed to alleviate thermal damage during the laser irradiation. At 9.6 micrometer, minimal thermal damage was observed for pulse widths on the order of the thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy in the tissue, 3 - 4 microseconds, and peripheral thermal damage increased with increasing pulse duration. At 2.94 micrometer, thermal damage was minimal for the Q-switched (500 ns) laser system. This study shows that 9.6 micrometer CO2 laser pulses with pulse widths of 5 - 10 microseconds are well suited for the efficient ablation of dentin and bone with minimal peripheral damage. This work was supported by NIH/NIDCR R29DE12091.

  7. Thermally-Induced Chemistry and the Jovian Icy Satellites: A Laboratory Study of the Formation of Sulfur Oxyanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that magnetospheric radiation in the Jovian system drives reaction chemistry in ices at temperatures relevant to Europa and other icy satellites. Here we present new results on thermally-induced reactions at 50-100 K in solid H2O-SO2 mixtures, reactions that take place without the need for a high-radiation environment. We find that H2O and SO2 react to produce sulfur Oxyanions, such as bisulfite, that as much as 30% of the SO2 can be consumed through this reaction, and that the products remain in the ice when the temperature is lowered, indicating that these reactions are irreversible. Our results suggest that thermally-induced reactions can alter the chemistry at temperatures relevant to the icy satellites in the Jovian system.

  8. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  9. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  10. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  11. Effect of nanofluid on thermal performance of heat pipe with two evaporators; application to satellite equipment cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaei, P. R.; Shahryari, M.

    2015-06-01

    A study on the behavior of nanofluid in a cylindrical heat pipe with two heat sources is performed to analyze the nanofluid application in heat-dissipating satellite equipment cooling. Pure water, Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids are used as working fluids. An analytical modeling is presented to predict the wall temperature profile for the heat pipe assuming saturated vapor and conduction heat transfer for porous media and wall, respectively. The effects of particle concentration levels (φ=0 (distilled water), 2, 4, and 8%), particle diameters (dp=10, 20, and 40 nm) on the local wall temperature, heat transfer coefficient, thermal resistance, and the size of the heat pipe are investigated. It is observed that the better wall temperature uniformity can be achieved using nanofluid which results in lower temperature difference between evaporators and condenser sections. Results reveal that applying nanoparticle with smaller size and higher concentration level increases heat transfer coefficient remarkably by reducing thermal resistance of saturated porous media. It is also found that the presence of nanoparticles in water can lead to a reduction in weight of heat pipe, and thus satellite, under nearly identical condition. The findings of this paper prove the potential of nanofluid in satellite equipment cooling application.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient in IR semitransparent and semiconducting n-CdMgSe crystals using photothermal radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M., E-mail: mpawlak@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5/7, Toruń (Poland); Maliński, M. [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich St., Koszalin 75-453 (Poland)

    2015-01-10

    Highlights: • The new method of determination of the effective infrared absorption coefficient is presented. • The method can be used for transparent samples for the excitation radiation. • The effect of aluminum foil on the PTR signal in a transmission configuration is discussed. - Abstract: In this paper we propose a new procedure of simultaneous estimation of the effective infrared optical absorption coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of solid state samples using the photothermal infrared radiometry method in the transmission configuration. The proposed procedure relies on the analysis of the frequency dependent signal obtained from the samples covered with thin aluminum foil. This method can be applied for both optically opaque and transparent samples. The proposed method is illustrated with the results of the thermal diffusivity and the effective IR absorption coefficient obtained for several Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Se crystals.

  13. Monitoring system for phreatic eruptions and thermal behavior on Poás volcano hyperacidic lake, with permanent IR and HD cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R. A., Sr.; Alpizar Segura, Y.; González, G.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring volcanoes have been on the past decades an expanding matter, one of the rising techniques that involve new technology is the digital video surveillance, and the automated software that come within, now is possible if you have the budget and some facilities on site, to set up a real-time network of high definition video cameras, some of them even with special features like infrared, thermal, ultraviolet, etc. That can make easier or harder the analysis of volcanic phenomena like lava eruptions, phreatic eruption, plume speed, lava flows, close/open vents, just to mention some of the many application of these cameras. We present the methodology of the installation at Poás volcano of a real-time system for processing and storing HD and thermal images and video, also the process to install and acquired the HD and IR cameras, towers, solar panels and radios to transmit the data on a volcano located at the tropics, plus what volcanic areas are our goal and why. On the other hand we show the hardware and software we consider necessary to carry on our project. Finally we show some early data examples of upwelling areas on the Poás volcano hyperacidic lake and the relation with lake phreatic eruptions, also some data of increasing temperature on an old dome wall and the suddenly wall explosions, and the use of IR video for measuring plume speed and contour for use on combination with DOAS or FTIR measurements.

  14. Satellite Characterization of Bio-Optical and Thermal Variability in the Japan/East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-30

    remote sensing. We have created a climatology of the inherent optical properties (IOP s) using SeaWiFS satellite imagery to define how the bio -optical cycle is driven by the physical processes and circulation.

  15. Satellite Thermal Infrared Earthquake Precursor to the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake in Sichuan, China, and its Analysis on Geo-dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lejun; GUO Jianfeng; LIU Jianhua; LU Zhenquan; LI Haibing; CAI Hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an interpretation and study of the satellite remote-sensing images of FY-2C thermal infrared 1st wave band (10.3-11.3 μm) designed in China, the authors found that there existed obvious and isolated satellite thermal infrared anomalies before the 5.12 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake. These anomalies had the following characteristics: (1) The precursor appeared rather early: on March 18, 2008, I.e., 55 days before the earthquake, thermal infrared anomalies began to occur; (2) The anomalies experienced quite many and complex evolutionary stages: the satellite thermal infrared anomalies might be divided into five stages, whose manifestations were somewhat different from each other. The existence of so many anomaly stages was probably observed for the first time in numerous cases of satellite thermal infrared research on earthquakes; (3) Each stage lasted quite a long time, with the longest one spanning 13 days; (4) An evident geothermal anomaly gradient was distributed along the Longmen seismic fracture zone, and such a phenomenon might also be discovered for the first time in satellite thermal infrared earthquake research. This discovery is therefore of great guiding and instructive significance in the study of the earthquake occurrence itself and the trend of the post-earthquake phenomena.

  16. Thermally controlled mid-IR band-gap engineering in all-glass chalcogenide microstructured fibers: a numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, Ravi K.; Pal, Bishnu P.

    2017-01-01

    Presence of photonic band-gap (PBG) in an all-glass low refractive index (RI) contrast chalcogenide (Ch) microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is investigated numerically. The effect of external temperature on the position of band-gap is explored to realize potential fiber-based wavelength filters....../sensors at functional mid-IR spectral range. The cross-sectional geometry of the MOF is formed by considering a Ch glass to form the overall background cross-section as well as the central fiber core. The core region is surrounded by periodically arranged (hexagonal pattern) smaller holes, which are assumed...

  17. 印度IRS-P5影像的几何纠正%Geometric Rectiifcation of India P5 Mapping Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔嘉

    2014-01-01

    本文给出了IRS-P5测图卫星及其传感器的有关性能参数,根据IRS-P5测图卫星的特点,重点分析了基于有理函数模型的几何纠正,使用北京怀柔地区的立体像对数据进行了有关试验研究。%The paper gives the related parameters of IRS-P5 Mapping Satel ite, According to the features of IRS-P5 mapping satel ite, the paper focuses on the theory of geometric rectification based on RFM and gives research on the method of calculating coefficient of RFM. And at last an experiment is made based on a pair of stereo images of Huairou country in Beijing city.

  18. Thermal behavior of J-aggregates in a Langmuir-Blodgett film of pure merocyanine dye investigated by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Shinsuke; Maio, Ari; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2009-03-05

    We have characterized the structure of J-aggregate in a Langmuir-Blodgett film of pure merocyanine dye (MS18) fabricated under an aqueous subphase containing a cadmium ion (Cd2+) and have investigated its thermal behavior by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy in the range from 25 to 250 degrees C with a continuous scan. The results of both UV-visible and IR absorption spectra indicate that temperature-dependent changes in the MS18 aggregation state in the pure MS18 system are closely and mildly linked with the MS18 intramolecular charge transfer and the behavior of the packing, orientation, conformation, and thermal mobility of MS18 hydrocarbon chain, respectively. The J-aggregate in the pure MS18 system dissociates from 25 to 150 degrees C, and the dissociation temperature at 150 degrees C is higher by 50 degrees C than that in the previous MS18- arachidic acid (C20) binary system. The lower dissociation temperature in the binary system originates from the fact that temperature-dependent structural disorder of cadmium arachidate (CdC20), being phase-separated from MS18, has an influence on the dissociation of J-aggregate. From 160 to 180 degrees C, thermally induced blue-shifted bands, caused by the oligomeric MS18 aggregation, appear at around 520 nm in the pure MS18 system by contraries, regardless of the lack of driving force by the melting phenomenon of CdC20. The temperature at which the 520 nm bands occur is in good agreement with the melting point (160 degrees C) of hydrocarbon chain in MS18 with Cd2+, whereas its chromophore part is clearly observed to melt near 205 degrees C by UV-visible spectra. Therefore, it is suggested that the driving force that induces the 520 nm band in the pure MS18 system arises from the partial melting of hydrocarbon chain in MS18 with Cd2+.

  19. IR, UV-Vis, magnetic and thermal characterization of chelates of some catecholamines and 4-aminoantipyrine with Fe(III) and Cu(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Zayed, M. A.; El-Dien, F. A. Nour; El-Nahas, Reham G.

    2004-07-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. α-Methyldopa (α-MD) in tablets is used in medication of hypertension. The Fe(III) and Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of adrenaline hydrogen tartarate (AHT), levodopa (LD), α-MD and carbidopa (CD) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical methods like IR, magnetic and UV-Vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Fe(III) form 1:2 (M:catecholamines) chelates while Cu(II) form 1:1 chelates. Catecholamines behave as a bidentate mono- or dibasic ligands in binding to the metal ions. IR spectra show that the catecholamines are coordinated to the metal ions in a bidentate manner with O,O donor sites of the phenolic - OH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Fe(III) chelates in octahedral geometry while the Cu(II) chelates are square planar. The thermal decomposition of Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The water molecules are removed in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the ligand molecules. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  20. Thermal decomposition of methyl 2-azidopropionate studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and matrix isolation IR spectroscopy: heterocyclic intermediate vs imine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R M; Dias, A A; Costa, M L; Rodrigues, P; Barros, M T; Ogden, J S; Dyke, J M

    2011-08-01

    Methyl 2-azidopropionate (N(3)CH(3)CHCOOCH(3), M2AP) has been synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic methods, and the thermal decomposition of this molecule has been investigated by matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES). Computational methods have been employed in the spectral simulation of both UVPES and matrix IR spectra and in the rationalization of the thermal decomposition results. M2AP presents a HOMO vertical ionization energy (VIE) of 9.60 ± 0.03 eV and contributions from all four lowest-energy conformations of this molecule are detected in the gas phase. Its thermal decomposition starts at ca. 400 °C and is complete at ca. 650 °C, yielding N(2), CO, CO(2), CH(3)CN, and CH(3)OH as the final decomposition products. Methyl formate (MF) and CH(4) are also found during the pyrolysis process. Analysis of the potential energy surface of the decomposition of M2AP indicates that M2AP decomposes preferentially into the corresponding imine (M2IP), through a 1,2-H shift synchronous with the N(2) elimination (Type 1 mechanism), requiring an activation energy of 160.8 kJ/mol. The imine further decomposes via two competitive routes: one accounting for CO, CH(3)OH, and CH(3)CN (ΔE(G3) = 260.2 kJ/mol) and another leading to CO(2), CH(4), and CH(3)CN (ΔE(G3) = 268.6 kJ/mol). A heterocyclic intermediate (Type 2 mechanism)-4-Me-5-oxazolidone-can also be formed from M2AP via H transfer from the remote O-CH(3) group, together with the N(2) elimination (ΔE(G3) = 260.2 kJ/mol). Finally, a third pathway which accounts for the formation of MF through an M2AP isomer is envisioned.

  1. IR intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output.......Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output....

  2. Thermally induced vibrations of smart solar panel in a low-orbit satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, E.; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Azadi, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a smart flexible satellite moving in a circular orbit with two flexible panels are studied. The panels have been modeled as clamped-free-free-free rectangular plates with attached piezoelectric actuators. It is assumed that the satellite has a pitch angle rotation maneuver. Rapid temperature changes at day-night transitions in orbit generate time dependent bending moments. Satellite maneuver and temperature varying induce vibrations in the appendages. So, to simulate the system, heat radiation effects on the appendages have been considered. The nonlinear equations of motion and the heat transfer equations are coupled and solved simultaneously. So, the governing equations of motion are nonlinear and very complicated ones. Finally, the whole system is simulated and the effects of the heat radiation, radius of the orbit, piezoelectric voltages, and piezoelectric locations on the response of the system are studied.

  3. TIRCIS: Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Imaging Using a Small-Satellite Compliant Fourier-Transform Imaging Spectrometer, for Natural Hazard Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural hazards, including wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and, from the perspective of climate-related hazards, urban heat islands, could be better quantified via the routine availability of hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing data from orbit. However, no sensors are currently in operation that provide such data at high-to-moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat-class resolution). In this presentation we will describe a prototype instrument, developed using funding provided by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, that can make these important measurements. Significantly, the instrument has been designed such that its size, mass, power, and cost are consistent with its integration into small satellite platforms, or deployment as part of small satellite constellations. The instrument, TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data cubes. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. Neither the focal plane nor the optics need to be cooled, and the instrument has a mass of <10 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm. Although the prototype has four moving parts, this can easily be reduced to one. The current optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 90 spectral samples are possible, by varying the physical design of the interferometer. Our performance model indicates signal-to-noise ratios of the order of about 200 to 300:1. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the instrument design, fabrication, results from our initial laboratory characterization, and some of the application areas in which small-satellite-ready instruments such as TIRCIS could make a valuable contribution to the study of natural hazards.

  4. Towards improved knowledge of geology and global thermal regime from Swarm satellites magnetic gradient observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, Terence

    Gradients of magnetic field have higher spatial resolution than the fields themselves and are helpful in improving the resolution of downward continued satellite magnetic anomaly maps (Kotsiaros et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.; Sabaka et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.). Higher spatial resolution and ...

  5. Towards improved knowledge of geology and global thermal regime from Swarm satellites magnetic gradient observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, Terence

    Gradients of magnetic field have higher spatial resolution than the fields themselves and are helpful in improving the resolution of downward continued satellite magnetic anomaly maps (Kotsiaros et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.; Sabaka et al., 2015, Geophys. J. Int.). Higher spatial resolution and ...

  6. Unidirectional Photo-induced Charge Separation and Thermal Charge Recombination of Cofacially Aligned Donor-Acceptor System Probed by Ultrafast Visible-Pump/Mid-IR-Probe Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeongmook; Lim, Manho; Chung, Young Keun; Kang, Youn K. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeheung [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hee Chang [Sangmyung Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Similar to its precedent, [Ru(6-(2-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene-1,4-dione)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) (2,2':6',2-terpyridine)][PF6]2 (TQ{sub T}), this system has a cofacial alignment of terpyridine (tpy) ligand and quinonyl (Q) group, which facilitates an electron transfer through π-stacked manifold. Despite the presence of lowest-energy charge transfer transition from the Ru-based-HOMO-to-Q-based-LUMO (MQCT) predicted by theoretical calculations by using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), the experimental steady-state absorption spectrum does not exhibit such a band. The selective excitation to the Ru-based occupied orbitalsto-tpy-based virtual orbital MLCT state was thus possible, from which charge separation (CS) reaction occurred. The photo-induced CS and thermal charge recombination (CR) reactions were probed by using ultrafast visible-pump/mid-IR-probe (TrIR) spectroscopic method. Analysis of decay kinetics of Q and Q{sup -} state CO stretching modes as well as aromatic C=C stretching mode of tpy ligand gave time constants of <1 ps for CS, 1-3 ps for CR, and 10-20 ps for vibrational cooling processes. The electron transfer pathway was revealed to be Ru-tpy-Q rather than Ru-bpy-imidazol-Q.

  7. Design and high-volume manufacture of low-cost molded IR aspheres for personal thermal imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, A. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Deegan, J. P.; Bundschuh, B.; Patton, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for infrared optical elements, particularly those made of chalcogenide materials, is rapidly increasing as thermal imaging becomes affordable to the consumer. The use of these materials in conjunction with established lens manufacturing techniques presents unique challenges relative to the cost sensitive nature of this new market. We explore the process from design to manufacture, and discuss the technical challenges involved. Additionally, facets of the development process including manufacturing logistics, packaging, supply chain management, and qualification are discussed.

  8. Risk assessment of an old landfill regarding the potential of gaseous emissions--a case study based on bioindication, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, Johannes; Smidt, Ena; Böhm, Katharina; Matiasch, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Risk assessment of two sections (I and II) of an old landfill (ALH) in Styria (Austria) in terms of reactivity of waste organic matter and the related potential of gaseous emissions was performed using conventional parameters and innovative tools to verify their effectiveness in practice. The ecological survey of the established vegetation at the landfill surface (plant sociological relevés) indicated no relevant emissions over a longer period of time. Statistical evaluation of conventional parameters reveals that dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respiration activity (RA(4)), loss of ignition (LOI) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) mostly influence the variability of the gas generation sum (GS(21)). According to Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral data and the results of the classification model the reactivity potential of the investigated sections is very low which is in accordance with the results of plant sociological relevés and biological tests. The interpretation of specific regions in the FT-IR spectra was changed and adapted to material characteristics. Contrary to mechanically-biologically treated (MBT) materials, where strong aliphatic methylene bands indicate reactivity, they are rather assigned to the C-H vibrations of plastics in old landfill materials. This assumption was confirmed by thermal analysis and the characteristic heat flow profile of plastics containing landfill samples. Therefore organic carbon contents are relatively high compared to other stable landfills as shown by a prediction model for TOC contents based on heat flow profiles and partial least squares regression (PLS-R). The stability of the landfill samples, expressed by the relation of CO(2) release and enthalpies, was compared to unreactive landfills, archeological samples, earthlike materials and hardly degradable organic matter. Due to the material composition and the aging process the landfill samples are located between hardly degradable, but easily combustible

  9. Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. After digitization, a noise rejection filter was applied to data obtained by USGS aircraft. An albedo image was formed by combining three bands of visible data. Along with the day and nighttime thermal data, the albedo image was used to construct a relative thermal-inertia image. This image, registered to a topographic base, shows there are thermal property differences in the vicinity of the contact between the Fort Union and Wasatch formations in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

  10. Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two night-time thermal images of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming distinctly show a major thermal feature. This feature is substantially coincident with a drainage divide and the southward facing slope appears cooler, suggesting a lower thermal inertia. An initial examination of regional geologic maps provides no clear evidence to suggest what type of geologic feature or structure may be present, although it can be noted that its northeastern end passes directly through Lead, South Dakota where the Homestake Gold Mine is located.

  11. Demonstration of a Plug and Play Approach to Satellite Thermal Control System Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mainstream is proposing a methodology to reduce the development time and cost, and improve the reliability of future thermal control systems for the next decade of...

  12. Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dim, J. R.; T. Y. Nakajima; T. Takamura; Kikuchi, N

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity) are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI) satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from ...

  13. The First Historic Eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from Thermal and UV Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealing, C. R.; Carn, S. A.; Harris, A. J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In June 2011, the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, took place at the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia. This eruption was the largest in what could be considered an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence, and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study were limited. The purpose of this study is to explore the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement using predominantly free, publicly available satellite data. We use MODIS and OMI data to examine rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission, and quantify the amount of erupted products. We also examine published images from other satellites, such as ALI and SEVIRI in order to understand the temporal evolution of the eruption. Synthesizing these data, we then attempt to infer the mechanisms through which the eruption progressed. Examination of satellite data reveals a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This was followed by a period of rapid effusion, producing a ~17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ~22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. This eruption of Nabro continued for nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. This type of work highlights the effectiveness and importance of accessible satellite remote sensing data for the study of active volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  14. 核电站温排水分布卫星遥感监测及验证%Monitoring the Thermal Plume f rom Coastal Nuclear Power Plant Using Satellite Remote Sensing Data:Modeling and Validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利; 赵利民; 王桥; 张爱玲; 吴传庆; 李家国; 石继香

    2014-01-01

    Thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant is a small-scale human activity ,mornitoring of which requires high-frequency and high-spatial remote sensing data .The infrared scanner (IRS) ,on board of HJ-1B ,has an infrared channel IRS4 with 300 m and 4-days as its spatial and temporal resolution .Remote sensing data aquired using IRS4 is an available source for mornitoring thermal plume .Retrieval pattern for coastal sea surface temperature (SST) was built to monitor the thermal plume from nuclear power plant .The research area is located near Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) ,where syn-chronized validations were also implemented .The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data was interpolated spatially and temporally .The interpolated data as well as surface weather conditions were subsequently employed into radiative transfer model for the atmospheric correction of IRS4 thermal image .A look-up-table (LUT) was built for the inversion between IRS4 channel radiance and radiometric temperature ,and a fitted function was also built from the LUT data for the same purpose . The SST was finally retrieved based on those preprocessing procedures mentioned above .The bulk temperature (BT) of 84 sam-ples distributed near GNPS was shipboard collected synchronically using salinity-temperature-deepness (CTD) instruments .The discrete sample data was surface interpolated and compared with the satellite retrieved SST .Results show that the average BT o-ver the study area is 0.47 ℃ higher than the retrieved skin temperature (ST) .For areas far away from outfall ,the ST is higher than BT ,with differences less than 1.0 ℃ .The main driving force for temperature variations in these regions is solar radiation . For areas near outfall ,on the contrary ,the retrieved ST is lower than BT ,and greater differences between the two (meaning >1.0 ℃) happen when it gets closer to the outfall .Unlike the former case ,the convective heat transfer resulting

  15. Spitzer IRS Observations of Class I/II Objects in Taurus: Composition, Temperature and Thermal History of the Circumstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Zasowski, G; Watson, Dan M; Furlan, E; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Green, J D

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of Taurus-Auriga Class I/II protostars obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Detailed spectral fits to the 6 and 15 micron features are made, using publicly-available laboratory data, to constrain the molecular composition, abundances, and levels of thermal processing along the lines of sight. We provide an inventory of the molecular environments observed, which have an average composition dominated by water ice with ~12% CO_2 (abundance relative to H_2O), >~2-9% CH_3OH, <~14% NH_3, ~4% CH_4, ~2% H_2CO, ~0.6% HCOOH, and ~0.5% SO_2. We find CO_2/H_2O ratios nearly equivalent to those observed in cold clouds and lines of sight toward the galactic center. The unidentified 6.8 micron profile shapes vary from source to source, and it is shown to be likely that even combinations of the most common candidates (NH_4+ and CH_3OH) are inadequate to explain the feature fully. We discuss correlations among SED spectral indices, abundance ratios, and thermally-processed ice fractions ...

  16. USING OF THE MULTITEMPORAL THERMAL INFRARED SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR NATURAL AREAS MAPPING (CASE OF MENDELEEV VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors examine the mountain group of Mendeleev volcano situated on the Kunashir island, Kuril archipelago, Russia. Ground observations were led to examine the vegetation cover of the area as well as its typical landscapes. The other type of used data is Landsat imagery. Images were combined into multitemporal thermal infrared and multispectral pictures, which were classified to reveal the heterogeneity of the study area. Ground observations and comparison of the classification results with landscape map derive that the multitemporal thermal infrared image classification result describes better the vegetation cover structure of the area and particularity of its typical landscapes distribution. It leads to the proposition that miltitemporal thermal infrared imagery can be used to refine landscape and vegetation cover contours. 

  17. Penetration of pyrotechnic effects with SWIR laser gated viewing in comparison to VIS and thermal IR bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, Benjamin; Lutzmann, Peter

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the potential capability of short-wavelength infrared laser gated-viewing for penetrating the pyrotechnic effects smoke and light/heat has been investigated by evaluating data from conducted field trials. The potential of thermal infrared cameras for this purpose has also been considered and the results have been compared to conventional visible cameras as benchmark. The application area is the use in soccer stadiums where pyrotechnics are illegally burned in dense crowds of people obstructing visibility of stadium safety staff and police forces into the involved section of the stadium. Quantitative analyses have been carried out to identify sensor performances. Further, qualitative image comparisons have been presented to give impressions of image quality during the disruptive effects of burning pyrotechnics.

  18. What is Eating Ozone? Thermal Reactions between SO2 and O3 and Implications for the Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark; Hudson, Reggie L.; Gerakines, Perry A.

    2016-10-01

    Here we present first results on a non-radiolytic, thermally-driven reaction sequence in solid H2O + SO2 + O3 mixtures at 50 – 130 K, which produces bisulfate (HSO4-). The results show that at the temperatures of the Jovian satellites, SO2 and O3 will efficiently react making co-detection of these species unlikely. Our results also give a viable explanation for why O3 has not been detected on Callisto and why the concentration of SO2 appears to be highest in its leading hemisphere. Furthermore our results also predict that the SO2 concentration on Ganymede will be lowest in the trailing hemisphere, where the concentration of O3 is the highest. This work is supported by NASA's Outer Planets Research program.

  19. Lava discharge rate estimates from thermal infrared satellite data for Pacaya Volcano during 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hilary A.; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Gurioli, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    Pacaya is one of the most active volcanoes in Central America and has produced lava flows frequently since 1961. All effusive activity between 1961 and 2009 was confined by an arcuate collapse scarp surrounding the northern and eastern flanks. However, the recent breaching of this topographic barrier, and the eruption of a large lava flow outside of the main center of activity, have allowed lava to extend into nearby populated areas, indicating the need for assessment and monitoring of lava flow hazards. We investigated whether a commonly used satellite-based model could produce accurate lava discharge rates for the purpose of near-real-time assessment of hazards during future eruptions and to assess the dynamics of this persistently degassing system. The model assumes a linear relationship between active lava flow area and time-averaged discharge rate (TADR) via a simple conversion factor. We calculated the conversion factor via two methods: (1) best-fitting of satellite-derived flow areas to ground-based estimates of lava flow volume, and (2) theoretically via a parameterized model that takes into account the physical properties of the lava. To apply the latter method, we sampled four lava flows and measured density, vesicularity, crystal content, and major element composition. We found the best agreement of conversion factors in the eruption with the most complete satellite coverage, and used data for these flows to define the linear relationship between area and discharge rate. The physical properties of the sampled flows were essentially identical, so that any discrepancy between the two methods of calculating conversion factors must be due to modeling errors or environmental factors unaccounted for by the parameterized model. However, our best-fitting method provides a new means to set the conversion appropriately, and to obtain self-consistent TADRs. We identified two distinct types of effusive activity at Pacaya: Type 1 activity characterized by initially

  20. Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Dim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from satellite observations and those simulated by atmospheric models are compared. The models studied are the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM and the National Center for Environmental Protection/Department Of Energy (NCEP/DOE. The satellite observations are from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Terra/MODIS satellite. The simulations performed are obtained through a forward radiative transfer calculation procedure. The resulting radiances are transformed into the upper tropospheric brightness temperature (UTBT and relative humidity (UTRH. The discrepancies between the simulated data and the observations are analyzed. These analyses show that both the NICAM and the NCEP/DOE simulated UTBT and UTRH have comparable distribution patterns. However the simulations’ differences with the observations are generally lower with the NCEP/DOE than with the NICAM. The NCEP/DOE model outputs very often overestimate the UTBT and therefore present a drier upper troposphere. The impact of the lower troposphere instability (dry convection on the upper tropospheric moisture and the consequences on the models’ results are evaluated through a thunderstorm and moisture predictor (the K-stability index. The results obtained show a positive relation between the instability and the root mean square error (RMSE: observation versus models. The study of the impact of convective clouds shows that the area covered by these clouds increases with the

  1. Influence of topography on lava flow quantification from satellite thermal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakšek, Klemen; Pick, Leonie; Coppola, Diego; Hort, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Satellite images are an accessible data source for monitoring the heat emission from lava flows during effusive eruptions. Their evaluation regarding the size of a flow and volcanic radiant power (VRP) assists the hazard assessment. VRP is a most important parameter for estimation of lava discharge rate. Thus it is important to correct its value for all possible systematic influences. As several volcanoes have steep slopes, we propose a simple topographic correction of VRP observations. It is based on the corrected size of a pixel area. The proposed correction was first tested in a laboratory experiment, where we simulated a volcanic feature by an electrical heating alloy of 0.5 mm diameter installed on a plywood panel. Two thermographic cameras record images of the artificial heat source in wavebands comparable to those available from satellite data. The influence of the slope was in the laboratory setup reduced by a factor of five. The correction algorithm has been applied also to MODIS data of Etna's 2008-2009 eruption. The time series of corrected results contain significantly less noise than the original data.

  2. 水雾的热红外伪装性能分析%Analysis of Thermal IR Camouflage Performance of Water Fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢辉; 王向伟; 吕绪良; 孟宪浩

    2009-01-01

    利用Mie散射理论,在水的复折射指数随波长变化的情况下,通过雾滴消光效率因子和gamma 尺寸谱分布计算了热红外波长范围内的消光系数,建立了热红外波段gamma尺寸谱分布雾的含水量与消光系数的关系,分析了含水量为0.1和0.5时的红外探测器探测距离随传输路径L之间的变化关系.结论表明,水复折射指数、雾滴尺寸谱分布对雾的热红外辐射传输衰减有着较大影响,水雾遮蔽伪装时需充分考虑.%Under the ground that the refractive indices of water vary with wavelength,the water fog's extinction coefficient was calculated by Mie scattering theory on the basis of the extinction efficiency factor and the particle radius of standard gamma distribution.Then the model of extinction coefficient was set up with different water content in the thermal IR band.When the water content equals to 0.1 and 0.5.the relationships between the detecting distance of the IR detector and transferring distance was analyzed.The results showed that refractive indices and particle radius distribution of water fog had a great influence on the radiation transferring attenuation,so these two factors should be considered seriously when the water fog is used in defilading camouflage.

  3. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  4. An Autonomous System to Take Angular Thermal-Infrared Measurements for Validating Satellite Products

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Niclòs; José A. Valiente; Maria J. Barberà; César Coll

    2015-01-01

    An autonomous system for field land surface temperature (LST) measurements taken at different observation angles was developed to be deployed easily at any conventional meteorological tower station. The system permits ground-truth data to be acquired on a continuous basis, and angularly scans land and sky hemispheres with a single thermal-infrared (TIR) radiometer. This paper describes the autonomous angular system and the methodology to assess ground-truth LST and relative-to-nadir emissivit...

  5. Unravelling thermal emissivity spectra of the main minerals on Mercury's surface by comparison with ab initio calculated IR-HT vibrational frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangarone, C.; Helbert, J.; Tribaudino, M.; Maturilli, A.; D'Amore, M.; Ferrari, S.; Prencipe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral signatures of minerals are intimately related to the crystal structure; therefore they may represent a remote sensing model to determine surface composition of planetary bodies, by analysing their spectral reflectance and emission. However, one of the most critical point is data interpretation considering planetary surfaces, as Mercury, where the changes in spectral characteristics are induced by the high temperatures conditions (Helbert et al., 2013). The aim of this work is to interpret the experimental thermal emissivity spectra with an innovative approach: simulating IR spectra of the main mineral families that compose the surface of Mercury, focusing on pyroxenes (Sprague et al., 2002), both at room and high temperature, exploiting the accuracy of ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, by means of CRYSTAL14 code (Dovesi et al., 2014). The simulations will be compared with experimental emissivity measurements of planetary analogue samples at temperature up to 1000K, performed at Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) by Institute of Planetary Research (DLR, Berlin). Results will be useful to create a theoretical background to interpret HT-IR emissivity spectra that will be collected by the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), a spectrometer developed by DLR that will be on board of the ESA BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) scheduled for 2017. The goal is to point out the most interesting spectral features for a geological mapping of Mercury and other rocky bodies, simulating the environmental conditions of the inner planets of Solar System. Dovesi R., Saunders V. R., Roetti C., Orlando R., Zicovich-Wilson C. M., Pascale F., Civalleri B., Doll K., Harrison N. M., Bush I. J., D'Arco P., Llunell M., Causà M. & Noël Y. 2014. CRYSTAL14 User's Manual, University of Torino. Sprague, A. L., Emery, J. P., Donaldson, K. L., Russell, R. W., Lynch, D. K., & Mazuk, A. L. (2002). Mercury: Mid-infrared (3-13.5

  6. Probing the role of chemical enhancers in facilitating drug release from patches: Mechanistic insights based on FT-IR spectroscopy, molecular modeling and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenting; Quan, Peng; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Chao; Lv, Siji; Zhao, Yongshan; Fang, Liang

    2016-04-10

    In patches, a drug must release from patches prior to its percutaneous absorption. Chemical enhancers have been used for several decades, but their roles in drug release from patches are poorly understood. In this work, the roles of chemical enhancers in bisoprolol tartrate (BSP-T) release from patches were probed in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, an innovative mechanism insight of chemical enhancers in drug release process was provided at molecular level. FT-IR spectroscopy and molecular modeling were employed to investigate the influence of chemical enhancers on drug-adhesive interaction. The results showed chemical enhancers like Span 80, which had a strong ability forming hydrogen bonds, could decrease drug-adhesive interaction leading to the release of drug from adhesive of patches. Thermal analysis was conducted to research the influence of chemical enhancers on the thermodynamic properties of patch system. It showed that chemical enhancers promoted the formation of free volume of adhesive, which facilitated drug release process. By contrast, the influence on the thermodynamic properties of BSP-T was less effective in influencing BSP-T release process. In conclusion, chemical enhancers played an important role in facilitating BSP-T release from the adhesive DURO-TAK® 87-2287 of patches by decreasing drug-adhesive interaction and promoting the formation of free volume of adhesive. This work may be an important step in understanding the important roles of chemical enhancers in drug release process.

  7. Prospecting for geothermal energy through satellite based thermal data: Review and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Howari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal investors need to be confident with the methods and results of exploration programs. Also cutting the upfront cost of geothermal exploration will further encourage investors to consider investment in this emerging clean energy field. Hence, it is of paramount importance to improve prospecting techniques in order to explore where economic concentrations of geothermal energy are to be expected.  The current study evaluates different approaches for downscaling thermal data from remote sensing images together with factors in surface and subsurface environment. The paper discusses case studies, the challenge and the way forward for geothermal prospecting as well as practical solutions to discrepancy that faces the mapping and documentation of spatial geothermal anomalies.  It also discusses main criteria that should be considered while prospecting for geothermal energy.

  8. Estimation of soil moisture-thermal infrared emissivity relation in arid and semi-arid environments using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazia Blasi, Maria; Masiello, Guido; Serio, Carmine; Venafra, Sara; Liuzzi, Giuliano; Dini, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of surface parameters is very important for various aspects concerning the climatological and meteorological context. At this purpose surface emissivity represents one of the most important parameters useful for different applications such as the estimation of climate changes and land cover features. It is known that thermal infrared (TIR) emissivity is affected by soil moisture, but there are very few works in literature on this issue. This study is aimed to analyze and find a relation between satellite soil moisture data and TIR emissivity focusing on arid and semi-arid environments. These two parameters, together with the land surface temperature, are fundamental for a better understanding of the physical phenomena implied in the soil-atmosphere interactions and the surface energy balance. They are also important in several fields of study, such as climatology, meteorology, hydrology and agriculture. In particular, there are several studies stating a correlation between soil moisture and the emissivity at 8-9 μm in desertic soils, which corresponds to the quartz Reststrahlen, a feature which is typical of sandy soils. We investigated several areas characterized by arid or semi-arid environments, focusing our attention on the Dahra desert (Senegal), and on the Negev desert (Israel). For the Dahra desert we considered both in situ, provided by the International Soil Moisture Network, and satellite soil moisture data, from ASCAT and AMSR-E sensors, for the whole year 2011. In the case of the Negev desert soil moisture data are derived from ASCAT observations and we computed a soil moisture index from a temporal series of SAR data acquired by the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation covering a period of six months, from June 2015 to November 2015. For both cases soil moisture data were related to the retrieved TIR emissivity from the geostationary satellite SEVIRI in three different spectral channels, at 8.7 μm, 10.8 μm and 12 μm. A Kalman filter physical

  9. A Satellite Time Slots Climatology of the Urban Heat Island of Guadalajara Megacity in Mexico from NOAA ¡/AVHRR THERMAL Infrared Monitoring (TIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, I.

    2009-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) of the metropolitan area of the second megacity of Mexico, named Guadalajara in Mexico is studied using thermal infrared data (TIR) (10 £ l £ 12 mm) obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board the NOAA polar orbitters whose signals are received on real time at our ground station for the period 1996-2006. The TIR data are selected by means of a software, since they depend on natural causes (e.g., atmospheric transparency, surface temperature, spectral emissivity and topography) and observational (time and incidence angle of the satellite pass, season of the year, etc.). The above conditions have a variable contribution to the measurements which it can be so high that they simulate the temporal-space fluctuations considered as thermal anomalies. Using a Geographic Information System and spatial analysis techniques temperatures are obtained for diofferent times of the day (satellite slots) and dropped into a grid with a 2.5 km distance between points (latitude, longitude). The temperatures obtained for each satellite pass slot (four per day) are monthly averaged and the temperature anomalies are represented in thermal isolines for the study area. The temperature difference usually is larger at night than during the day, reaching a thermal gradient of 9 °C.

  10. Reducing the Impact of Sampling Bias in NASA MODIS and VIIRS Level 3 Satellite Derived IR SST Observations over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, P. J.; Liu, Y.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) measurements by satellites in the northern hemisphere high latitudes confront several difficulties. Year-round prevalent clouds, effects near ice edges, and the relative small difference between SST and low-level cloud temperatures lead to a significant loss of infrared observations regardless of the more frequent polar satellite overpasses. Recent research (Liu and Minnett, 2016) identified sampling issues in the Level 3 NASA MODIS SST products when 4km observations are aggregated into global grids at different time and space scales, particularly in the Arctic, where a binary decision cloud mask designed for global data is often overly conservative at high latitudes and results in many gaps and missing data. This under sampling of some Arctic regions results in a warm bias in Level 3 products, likely a result of warmer surface temperature, more distant from the ice edge, being identified more frequently as cloud free. Here we present an improved method for cloud detection in the Arctic using a majority vote from an ensemble of four classifiers trained based on an Alternative Decision Tree (ADT) algorithm (Freund and Mason 1999, Pfahringer et. al. 2001). This new cloud classifier increases sampling of clear pixel by 50% in several regions and generally produces cooler monthly average SST fields in the ice-free Arctic, while still retaining the same error characteristics at 1km resolution relative to in situ observations. SST time series of 12 years of MODIS (Aqua and Terra) and more recently VIIRS sensors are compared and the improvements in errors and uncertainties resulting from better cloud screening for Level 3 gridded products are assessed and summarized.

  11. Satellite detection of IR precursors using bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer data: a case study of Yushu earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiong; Xuhui Shen; Xingfa Gu; Qingyan Meng; Yaxin Bi; Liming Zhao; Yanhua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The paper has developed and proposed a synthesis analysis method based on the robust satellite data analysis technique (RST) to detect seismic anomalies within the bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer (AATSR) gridded brightness temperature (BT)data based on spatial/temporal continuity analysis.The proposed methods have been applied to analyze the Yushu (Qinghai,China) earthquake occurred on 14th April 2010,and a full AATSR data-set of 8 years data from March 2003 to May 2010 with longitude from 91°E to 101°E and latitude from 28°N to 38°N has been analyzed.Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena,the analyzed results indicate that the infrared radiation anomalies detected by the AATSR BT data with nadir view appear and enhance gradually along with the development and occurring of the earthquake,especially along the Ganzi-Yushu fault,Nu River fault and Jiali-Chayu fault;more infrared anomalies along the earthquake fault zone (Lancangjiang fault and Ning Karma Monastery-Deqin fault) are detected using the proposed synthesis analysis method,which can also characterize the activity of seismic faults more precisely.

  12. Comparison of methods for the calculation of thermal contact resistance of the first Brazilian satellite. M.S. Thesis - Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, 6 Dec. 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Marcia B. H.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of the methods developed for the calculation of thermal contact resistance between two surfaces submitted to a perpendicular heat flux is presented. Several factors affecting this resistance are analyzed and a brief historical review of the works in this field is made, spotting the methods of interest for space applications. These are compared to experimental data so as to establish the most proper method for the couplings of the first Brazilian satellite.

  13. Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, J.; Eremenko, M.; Liu, X.; Dufour, G.; Cai, Z.; Hoepfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Sellitto, P.; Foret, G.; Gaubert, B.; Beekmann, M.; Orphal, J. J.; Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J.; Flaud, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lowermost tropospheric ozone is a major factor determining air quality, which directly affects human health in megacities and causes damages to ecosystems. Monitoring tropospheric ozone is a key societal issue which can be addressed at the regional scale by spaceborne observation. However, current satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone using uncoupled either ultraviolet (UV) or thermal infrared (TIR) observations show limited sensitivity to ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, up to 3 km asl of altitude above sea level), which is the major concern for air quality. In this framework, we have developed a new multispectral approach for observing lowermost tropospheric ozone from space by synergism of atmospheric TIR radiances observed by IASI and earth UV reflectances measured by GOME-2. Both instruments are onboard the series of MetOp satellites (in orbit since 2006 and expected until 2022) and their scanning capabilities offer global coverage every day, with a relatively fine ground pixel resolution (12-km-diameter pixels spaced by 25 km for IASI at nadir). Our technique uses altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips-type constraints, which optimize sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone. It integrates the VLIDORT and KOPRA radiative transfer codes for simulating UV reflectance and TIR radiance, respectively. We have used our method to analyze real observations over Europe during an ozone pollution episode in the summer of 2009. The results show that the multispectral synergism of IASI (TIR) and GOME-2 (UV) enables the observation of the spatial distribution of ozone plumes in the LMT, in good agreement with the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. In this case study, when high ozone concentrations extend vertically above 3 km asl, they are similarly observed over land by both the multispectral and IASI retrievals. On the other hand, ozone plumes located below 3 km asl are only clearly depicted by the multispectral retrieval (both over land and over ocean

  14. Rule-based semi-automated approach for the detection of landslides induced by 18 September 2011 Sikkim, Himalaya, earthquake using IRS LISS3 satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Siyahghalati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is considered as one of the most devastating and most costly natural hazards in highlands, which is triggered mainly by rainfalls or earthquakes. In comparison with other methods, landslide mapping and monitoring via remote sensing data products are considered as the least expensive method of data collection. The current research attempts to detect landslides which occurred due to a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Sikkim Himalaya, India, on 18 September 2011 and also to establish the spatial relationship between landslides and the slope of the terrain. To detect the landslides, decision tree method was applied on two Indian remote sensing satellites linear imaging self-scanning sensor (LISS III images acquired from 2007 and 2011 which were taken before and after the earthquake. As the study area was relatively huge for identifying the landslides, the region was separated into two parts: “tested study area” and “real study area”. The overall accuracy of landslide detection was 76%, and 75% for tested and real study area, respectively. Then, the spatial relationship between the landslides and the slope of the terrain was conducted using the digital elevation model. The results revealed that most of the landslides occurred between the slope of 25° and 45° covering 2.3 km2 and no landslide recorded in the slope of 65°–90° in the real study area. The results obtained in this study may be useful for decision-making and policy support towards reconstruction effort after the landslide occurrence. In addition, the information can be useful for reducing the risk of potential damages to substructures and properties by developing new and efficient strategies.

  15. Analysis and Optimization of SSO Satellite Thermal Control Subsystem%太阳同步轨道卫星热控分系统分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文瑞; 黄海

    2012-01-01

    定义地心日照轨道坐标系,并在此坐标系下简化卫星与地球相对位置的复杂计算,以及卫星轨道外热流分析过程中相关角度的计算,使轨道外热流的分析仿真更加快速、简洁。以正六棱柱形卫星为例,建立热网络模型,对其表面在一圈轨道内所受的轨道外热流进行仿真,并结合仿真结果计算进出地影区时卫星内部的温度。在此基础上,建立以热控分系统多层隔热材料质量最小化为目标的优化问题;在满足高低温工况卫星内部温度在-10~+35℃范围内的约束下,对多层隔热材料厚度和散热窗大小进行了优化。%An Earth-original sunshine orbital coordinate system is defined.In this coordinate system,the complex computation of the relative position between satellite and the Earth can be bypassed,so the calculations of related angles in satellite orbital heat flux analysis become simple,and the satellite thermal analysis can be quickly accomplished.A thermal network model of a six-prism shaped satellite is built.The orbital heat flux on the surfaces of the satellite is simulated and applied in the model to obtain the satellite internal temperature at the start and end of eclipse period.Based on the model,an optimization of thermal control system to minimize multi-layer insulations mass in limitation of the satellite internal temperatures between-10℃ and +35℃ in both cold and hot cases is established.Multi-layer insulations thickness and radiator window area are optimized.

  16. Present status and future plans of the Japanese earth observation satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi; Arai, Kohei; Igarashi, Tamotsu

    Japan is now operating 3 earth observation satellites, i. e. MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1, Momo-1 in Japanese), EGS (Experimental Geodetic Satellite, Ajisai in Japanese) and GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Himawari in Japanese). MOS-1 has 3 different sensors, MESSR (Multispectral Electronic Self Scanning Radiometer), VTIR (Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer) and MSR (Microwave Scanning Radiometer) in addition to DCS (Data Collection System). GMS has two sensors, VISSR (Visible and IR Spin Scan Radiometer) and SEM (Solar Environmental Monitor). EGS is equipped with reflecting mirrors of the sun light and laser reflecters. For the future earth observation satellites, ERS-1 (Earth Resources Satellite-1), MOS-1b, ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) are under development. Two sensors, AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) and ITIR (Intermediate Thermal IR Radiometer) for NASA's polar platform are initial stage of development. Study and planning are made for future earth observation satellites including Japanese polor platform, TRMM, etc.). The study for the second generation GMS has been made by the Committee on the Function of Future GMS under the request of Japan Meteorological Agency in FY 1987.

  17. Long-Term Record of Arctic and Antarctic Sea and Ice Surface Temperatures from Thermal Infrared Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Cristina; Dybkjær, Gorm; Eastwood, Steinar; Tonboe, Rasmus; Høyer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important variables in the surface energy balance equation and it significantly affects the atmospheric boundary layer structure, the turbulent heat exchange and, over ice, the ice growth rate. Here we measure the surface temperature using thermal infrared sensors from 10-12 µm wavelength, a method whose primary limitation over sea ice is the detection of clouds. However, in the Arctic and around Antarctica there are very few conventional observations of surface temperature from buoys, and it is sometimes difficult to determine if the temperature is measured at the surface or within the snowpack, the latter of which often results in a warm bias. To reduce this bias, much interest is being paid to alternative remote sensing methods for monitoring high latitude surface temperature. We used Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) global area coverage (GAC) data to produce a high latitude sea surface temperature (SST), ice surface temperature (IST) and ice cap skin temperature dataset spanning 27 years (1982-2009). This long-term climate record is the first of its kind for IST. In this project we used brightness temperatures from the infrared channels of AVHRR sensors aboard NOAA and Metop polar-orbiting satellites. Surface temperatures were calculated using separate split window algorithms for day SST, night SST, and IST. The snow surface emissivity across all angles of the swath were simulated specifically for all sensors using an emission model. Additionally, all algorithms were tuned to the Arctic using simulated brightness temperatures from a radiative transfer model with atmospheric profiles and skin temperatures from European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) re-analysis data (ERA-Interim). Here we present the results of product quality as compared to in situ measurements from buoys and infrared radiometers, as well as a preliminary analysis of climate trends revealed by the record.

  18. The initial design of LAPAN's IR micro bolometer using mission analysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustanul, A.; Irwan, P.; M. T., Andi; Firman, B.

    2016-11-01

    As new player in Infra Red (IR) sector, uncooled, small, and lightweight IR Micro Bolometer has been chosen as one of payloads for LAPAN's next micro satellite project. Driven the desire to create our own IR Micro Bolometer, mission analysis design procedure has been applied. After tracing all possible missions, the Planck's and Wien's Law for black body, Temperature Responsivity (TR), and sub-pixel response had been utilized in order to determine the appropriate spectral radiance. The 3.8 - 4 μm wavelength were available to detect wild fire (forest fire) and active volcanoes, two major problems faced by Indonesia. In order to strengthen and broaden the result, iteration process had been used throughout the process. The analysis, then, were continued by calculating Ground pixel size, IFOV pixel, swath width, and focus length. Meanwhile, regarding of resolution, at least it is 400 m. The further procedure covered the integrated of optical design, wherein we combined among optical design software, Zemax, with mechanical analysis software (structure and thermal analysis), such as Nastran and Thermal Desktop / Sinda Fluint. The integration process was intended to produce high performance optical system of our IR Micro Bolometer that can be used under extreme environment. The results of all those analysis, either in graphs or in measurement, show that the initial design of LAPAN'S IR Micro Bolometer meets the determined requirement. However, it needs the further evaluation (iteration). This paper describes the initial design of LAPAN's IR Micro Bolometer using mission analysis process

  19. Geologic mapping using thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal radiance data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite has been used to measure surface reflectance data and to provide additional material composition information through remote sensing. The primary goal was to investigate the utility of HCMM data for geologic applications. Three techniques were used for displaying and combining thermal and visible near infrared (VNIR) data for two desert areas in southern California (Trona and Pisgah): color additive composites (CAC) for day and night IR and day VNIR, principal components, and calculation of thermal inertia images. The HCMM thermal data were more effective than Landsat data in producing separation of compositionally different areas including volcanic and intrusive rocks. The satellite CAC data produced an image for a 1 x 2 degree area, and the color picture was enlarged to a scale of 1:250,000. Playa composition, moisture content, presence of standing water, and vegetation cover were displayed in a variety of colors according to physical characteristics. Areas such as sand dunes were not distinguishable because of the coarse 500-mm HCMM resolution. HCMM thermal data have shown a new dimension to geologic remote sensing, and future satellite missions should allow the continued development of the thermal infrared data for geology.

  20. Key technologies of thermal test for DFH-4 platform satellite%东四平台卫星热试验中的关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伟峰; 郄殿福; 许忠旭

    2014-01-01

    东四平台系列卫星对真空热试验期间的星上转发器在轨工作状态模拟、星表高/低热流模拟、星体吊装与水平支撑和污染控制等提出了较高要求。文章对微波负载能量耗散试验技术、红外灯阵设计、液氮冷板设计、卫星吊装与支撑技术、污染控制及星内真空度监测技术等在该系列卫星热试验中的成功应用与完善进行了分析、总结。%In the thermal test for the DFH-4 platform satellite, high technical requirements have to be met for the on-orbit operating state simulation of the transponder, the high or low heat flux simulation for satellite’s surfaces, the satellite lifting and horizontal bracing, and the pollution control. This paper analyses the technologies for the energy dissipation of the microwave load, the design of the infrared lamp array, the design of the cold plate with liquid nitrogen, the satellite lifting and horizontal bracing, the vacuum degree monitoring inside the satellite and the contamination control, as well as the applications of above-mentioned technologies in test.

  1. Characterization of the 3D distribution of ozone and coarse aerosols in the Troposphere using IASI thermal infrared satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, J.; Eremenko, M.; Dufour, G.; Hoepfner, M.; Orphal, J.

    2012-04-01

    Both tropospheric ozone and aerosols significantly affect air quality in megacities during pollution events. Moreover, living conditions may be seriously aggravated when such agglomerations are affected by wildfires (e.g. Russian fires over Moscow in 2010), which produce smoke and pollutant precursors, or even during dense desert dust outbreaks (e.g. recurrently over Beijing or Cairo). Moreover, since aerosols diffuse and absorb solar radiation, they have a direct impact on the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone. These interactions during extreme events of high aerosol loads are nowadays poorly known, even though they may significantly affect the tropospheric photochemical equilibrium. In order to address these issues, we have developed a new retrieval technique to jointly characterize the 3D distribution of both tropospheric ozone and coarse aerosols, using spaceborne observations of the infrared spectrometer IASI onboard MetOp-A satellite. Our methodology is based on the inversion of Earth radiance spectra in the atmospheric window from 8 to 12 μm measured by IASI and a «Tikhonov-Philipps»-type regularisation with constraints varying in altitude (as in [Eremenko et al., 2008, GRL; Dufour et al., 2010 ACP]) to simultaneously retrieve ozone profiles, aerosol optical depths at 10 μm and aerosol layer effective heights. Such joint retrieval prevents biases in the ozone profile retrieval during high aerosol load conditions. Aerosol retrievals using thermal infrared radiances mainly account for desert dust and the coarse fraction of biomass burning aerosols. We use radiances from 15 micro-windows within the 8-12 μm atmospheric window, which were carefully chosen (following [Worden et al., 2006 JGR]) for extracting the maximum information on aerosols and ozone and minimizing contamination by other species. We use the radiative transfer code KOPRA, including line-by-line calculations of gas absorption and single scattering for aerosols [Hoepfner et al

  2. Retrieval of SO2 from thermal infrared satellite measurements: correction procedures for the effects of volcanic ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corradini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous presence of SO2 and ash in a volcanic plume can lead to a significant error in the SO2 column abundance retrieval when multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR data are used. The ash particles within the plume with effective radii from 1 to 10 μm reduce the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA radiance in the entire TIR spectral range, including the channels used for SO2 retrieval. The net effect is a significant SO2 overestimation. In this work the interference of ash is discussed and two correction procedures for satellite SO2 volcanic plume retrieval in the TIR spectral range are developed to achieve an higher computational speed and a better accuracy. The ash correction can be applied when the sensor spectral range includes the 7.3 and/or 8.7 μm SO2 absorption bands, and the split window bands centered around 11 and 12 μm required for ash retrieval. This allows the possibility of simultaneous estimation of both volcanic SO2 and ash in the same data set. The proposed ash correction procedures have been applied to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements. Data collected during the 24 November 2006 Mt. Etna eruption have been used to illustrate the technique. The SO2 and ash estimation is carried out by using a best weighted least squares fit method and the Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD procedures, respectively. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT needed for the SO2 column abundance and the ash retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. The results show the importance of the ash correction on SO2 retrievals at 8.7 μm, where the corrected SO2 column abundance values are less than 50% of the uncorrected values. The ash correction on SO2 retrieval at 7.3 μm is much less important and only significant for low SO2 column abundances. Results also show that the simplified and faster correction procedure

  3. Retrieval of SO2 from thermal infrared satellite measurements: correction procedures for the effects of volcanic ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Prata

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous presence of SO2 and ash in a volcanic plume can lead to a significant error in the SO2 columnar abundance retrieval when multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR data are used. The ash particles within the plume with effective radii (from 1 to 10 μm reduce the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA radiance in the entire TIR spectral range, including the channels used for SO2 retrieval. The net effect is a significant SO2 overestimation. In this work the interference of ash is discussed and two correction procedures for satellite SO2 volcanic plume retrieval in the TIR spectral range are developed to achieve an higher computation speed and a better accuracy. The ash correction can be applied when the sensor spectral range includes the 7.3 and/or 8.7 μm SO2 absorption bands, and the split window bands centered around 11 and 12 μm required for ash retrieval. This allows the possibility of a simultaneous estimation of both volcanic SO2 and ash in the same data set. The proposed ash correction procedures have been applied to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements. Data collected during the 24 November 2006 Mt. Etna eruption have been used to illustrate the technique. The SO2 and ash estimations are carried out by using a least squares fit method and the Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD procedures, respectively. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT needed for the SO2 columnar abundance and the ash retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. The results show the importance of the ash correction on SO2 retrieval at 8.7 μm – the SO2 columnar abundance corrected by the ash influence is less than one half of the values retrieved without the correction. The ash correction on SO2 retrieval at 7.3 μm is much less important and only significant for low SO2 columnar abundances. Results also show that the simplified and

  4. Contribution of ground surface altitude difference to thermal anomaly detection using satellite images: Application to volcanic/geothermal complexes in the Andes of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco J.; Lemus, Martín; Parada, Miguel A.; Benavente, Oscar M.; Aguilera, Felipe A.

    2012-09-01

    Detection of thermal anomalies in volcanic-geothermal areas using remote sensing methodologies requires the subtraction of temperatures, not provided by geothermal manifestations (e.g. hot springs, fumaroles, active craters), from satellite image kinetic temperature, which is assumed to correspond to the ground surface temperature. Temperatures that have been subtracted in current models include those derived from the atmospheric transmittance, reflectance of the Earth's surface (albedo), topography effect, thermal inertia and geographic position effect. We propose a model that includes a new parameter (K) that accounts for the variation of temperature with ground surface altitude difference in areas where steep relief exists. The proposed model was developed and applied, using ASTER satellite images, in two Andean volcanic/geothermal complexes (Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul Volcanic Complex and Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex) where field data of atmosphere and ground surface temperature as well as radiation for albedo calibration were obtained in 10 selected sites. The study area was divided into three zones (Northern, Central and Southern zones) where the thermal anomalies were obtained independently. K value calculated for night images of the three zones are better constrained and resulted to be very similar to the Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR) determined for a stable atmosphere (ELR > 7 °C/km). Using the proposed model, numerous thermal anomalies in areas of ≥ 90 m × 90 m were identified that were successfully cross-checked in the field. Night images provide more reliable information for thermal anomaly detection than day images because they record higher temperature contrast between geothermal areas and its surroundings and correspond to more stable atmospheric condition at the time of image acquisition.

  5. Application of MCR-ALS to reveal intermediate conformations in the thermally induced α-β transition of poly-L-lysine monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaráz, Mirta R.; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Goicoechea, Héctor; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    Temperature-induced conformational transitions of poly-L-lysine were monitored with Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy between 10 °C and 70 °C. Chemometric analysis of dynamic IR spectra was performed by multivariate curve analysis-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) of the amide I‧ and amide II‧ spectral region. With this approach, the pure spectral and concentration profiles of the conformational transition were obtained. Beside the initial α-helical, the intermediate random coil/extended helices and the final β-sheet structure, an additional intermediate PLL conformation was identified and attributed to a transient β-sheet structure.

  6. Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Thutupalli, G. K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Optical constants, i.e., refractive index 'n' and absorption index 'k' of the IR materials, Ge, ThF4, CdTe and CdSe have been determined, through spectrophotometric method, in the IR region from 2.5 to 15 microns. It is seen that all these films are transparent in the IR region, and the optical constants of the films deposited at elevated temperatures (T = 200 C) are unaffected, even after subjecting to severe environs such as humidity and thermal shock/cycling. Making use of Ge/ThF4 and CdTe/CdSe coating combinations, IR antireflection coatings (ARCs) which can find applications in space-borne electrooptical systems have been successfully designed and developed. The resulting ARCs have not only efficient optical properties, low reflection loss and high transmission, but are also durable against adverse environments.

  7. Combined MW-IR Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET of convective rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Di Paola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for convective rain cell continuous monitoring based on rainfall derived from Passive Microwave (PM remote sensing from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellite coupled with Infrared (IR remote sensing Brightness Temperature (TB from the Geosynchronous (GEO orbit satellite. The proposed technique, which we call Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET, propagates forward in time and space the last available rain-rate (RR maps derived from Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS observations by using IR TB maps of water vapor (6.2 μm and thermal-IR (10.8 μm channels from a Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI radiometer. PET is based on two different modules, the first for morphing and tracking rain cells and the second for dynamic calibration IR-RR. The Morphing module uses two consecutive IR data to identify the motion vector to be applied to the rain field so as to propagate it in time and space, whilst the Calibration module computes the dynamic relationship between IR and RR in order to take into account genesis, extinction or size variation of rain cells. Finally, a combination of the Morphing and Calibration output provides a rainfall map at IR space and time scale, and the whole procedure is reiterated by using the last RR map output until a new MW-based rainfall is available. The PET results have been analyzed with respect to two different PM-RR retrieval algorithms for seven case studies referring to different rainfall convective events. The qualitative, dichotomous and continuous assessments show an overall ability of this technique to propagate rain field at least for 2–3 h propagation time.

  8. Reconstruction of gap-free time series satellite observations of land surface temperature to model spectral soil thermal admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafarian Malamiri, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The soil thermal properties (soil thermal conductivity, soil heat capacity and soil diffusivity) are the main parameters in the applications that need quantitative information on soil heat transfer. Conventionally, these properties are either measured in situ or estimated by semi-empirical models us

  9. Characterization of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression by FT-IR spectroscopy: Studies on thermal induction and media formulation on the stability of the protein secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Vemula, Sushma; Dedaniya, Akshay; Kante, Rajesh Kumar; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy

    2016-08-17

    The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic approach has been employed to understand the recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) protein accumulation, secondary structure, and thermal stability in Escherichia coli grown under a temperature shift strategy (37 and 28°C) in various media formulations. The choline + sodium pyruvate (37°C) and sodium pyruvate (28°C) formulations have shown the highest inclusion body (IB) accumulation of 0.41 and 0.46 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, insights on the structure of the rhG-CSF within IBs and intact cells have been investigated through secondary structure analysis. Thermal stability experiments were also carried out to explain the pattern of the second derivative structure of rhG-CSF. The studies showed that choline + sodium pyruvate formulation has preserved the protein secondary structure even at 82°C. Overall, the FT-IR spectroscopic technique can also be adopted to accelerate the characterization of other recombinant therapeutic proteins of E. coli origin.

  10. Nondestructive Handheld Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Analysis of Spectroscopic Changes and Multivariate Modeling of Thermally Degraded Plain Portland Cement Concrete and its Slag and Fly Ash-Based Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Tang, Pik; Alqassim, Mohammad; Nic Daéid, Niamh; Berlouis, Leonard; Seelenbinder, John

    2016-05-01

    Concrete is by far the world's most common construction material. Modern concrete is a mixture of industrial pozzolanic cement formulations and aggregate fillers. The former acts as the glue or binder in the final inorganic composite; however, when exposed to a fire the degree of concrete damage is often difficult to evaluate nondestructively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy through techniques such as transmission, attenuated total reflectance, and diffuse reflectance have been rarely used to evaluate thermally damaged concrete. In this paper, we report on a study assessing the thermal damage of concrete via the use of a nondestructive handheld FT-IR with a diffuse reflectance sample interface. In situ measurements can be made on actual damaged areas, without the need for sample preparation. Separate multivariate models were developed to determine the equivalent maximal temperature endured for three common industrial concrete formulations. The concrete mixtures were successfully modeled displaying high predictive power as well as good specificity. This has potential uses in forensic investigation and remediation services particularly for fires in buildings.

  11. Magma extrusion during the Ubinas 2013–2014 eruptive crisis based on satellite thermal imaging (MIROVA) and ground-based monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Diego; Macedo, Orlando; Ramos, Domingo; Finizola, Anthony; Delle Donne, Dario; del Carpio, Jose; White, Randall A.; McCausland, Wendy; Centeno, Riky; Rivera, Marco; Apaza, Fredy; Ccallata, Beto; Chilo, Wilmer; Cigolini, Corrado; Laiolo, Marco; Lazarte, Ivonne; Machaca, Roger; Masias, Pablo; Ortega, Mayra; Puma, Nino; Taipe, Edú

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of mild gases emissions, the Ubinas volcano entered in a new eruptive phase on September 2nd, 2013. The MIROVA system (a space-based volcanic hot-spot detection system), allowed us to detect in near real time the thermal emissions associated with the eruption and provided early evidence of magma extrusion within the deep summit crater. By combining IR data with plume height, sulfur emissions, hot spring temperatures and seismic activity, we interpret the thermal output detected over Ubinas in terms of extrusion rates associated to the eruption. We suggest that the 2013–2014 eruptive crisis can be subdivided into three main phases: (i) shallow magma intrusion inside the edifice, (ii) extrusion and growing of a lava plug at the bottom of the summit crater coupled with increasing explosive activity and finally, (iii) disruption of the lava plug and gradual decline of the explosive activity. The occurrence of the 8.2 Mw Iquique (Chile) earthquake (365 km away from Ubinas) on April 1st, 2014, may have perturbed most of the analyzed parameters, suggesting a prompt interaction with the ongoing volcanic activity. In particular, the analysis of thermal and seismic datasets shows that the earthquake may have promoted the most intense thermal and explosive phase that culminated in a major explosion on April 19th, 2014.These results reveal the efficiency of space-based thermal observations in detecting the extrusion of hot magma within deep volcanic craters and in tracking its evolution. We emphasize that, in combination with other geophysical and geochemical datasets, MIROVA is an essential tool for monitoring remote volcanoes with rather difficult accessibility, like those of the Andes that reach remarkably high altitudes.

  12. Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Radiative Transfer Equation: Temperature and Gas Mixing Ratio Weighting Functions for Remote Sensing of Scattering Atmospheres in Thermal IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis based on using of the adjoint equation of radiative transfer is applied to the case of atmospheric remote sensing in the thermal spectral region with non-negligeable atmospheric scattering.

  13. Structure of the Saint Francois Mountains and surrounding lead belt, S.E. Missouri: Inference from thermal IR and other data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the preparation of manuscripts on the discovery of a Precambrian rift running NW-SE through Missouri as seen in free air and Bouguer gravity anomalies and in HCMM data, and on digital image processing of potential field and topographic data on the rift is reported. Copies of the papers are attached. Contrast-enhanced HCMM images that have been transformed to Mercator projections are presented. Shaded relief map overlays of thermal and apparent thermal inertia images used as part of a masers thesis examining correlations between HCMM data products, linears, and geologic units are presented. Progress in examination of the difference in information content of daytime infrared, night time infrared, albedo, and thermal inertia images and their application to he identification of linears not directly controlled by topography is reported. Thermal infrared and albedo data were coded as hue, saturation and brightness values to generate a color display, which is included.

  14. Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

  15. Aircraft and satellite remote sensing of desert soils and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. W.; Connors, K. F.; Miller, D. A.; Day, R. L.; Gardner, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing data on desert soils and landscapes, obtained by the Landsat TM, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), Simulated SPOT, and Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) aboard an aircraft, are discussed together with the analytical techniques used in the studies. The TM data for southwestern Nevada were used to discriminate among the alluvial fan deposits with different degrees of desert pavement and varnish, and different vegetation cover. Thermal-IR data acquired from the HCMM satellite were used to map the spatial distribution of diurnal surface temperatures and to estimate mean annual soil temperatures in central Utah. Simulated SPOT data for northwestern New Mexico identified geomorphic features, such as differences in eolian sand cover and fluvial incision, while the TIMS data depicted surface geologic features of the Saline Valley in California.

  16. Thermal behavior of H-aggregate in a mixed Langmuir-Blodgett film of merocyanine dye, arachidic acid, and n-octadecane ternary system investigated by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Shinsuke; Yamashita, Yoshihide; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2008-11-13

    We have investigated the thermal behavior of H-aggregate in a mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the merocyanine dye (MS18)-arachidic acid (C20)- n-octadecane (AL18) ternary system by means of UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy in the range from 25 to 250 degrees C with a continuous scan. The results of both UV-visible and IR spectra indicate that the temperature-dependent variation in MS 18 aggregation state is linked not only with the degree of intramolecular charge transfer and the behavior of packing, orientation, conformation, and thermal mobility of the MS18 hydrocarbon chain but also with the presence and absence of AL18. The H-aggregate dissociates from 25 up to 50 degrees C, which is caused by the AL18 evaporation from the mixed LB film and the increment of thermal mobility of the MS18 hydrocarbon chain. From 110 to 160 degrees C, blue-shifted bands, attributed to the oligomeric MS18 aggregation, appear near 515 nm in the MS18-C 20-AL18 ternary system as well. The temperature at which the 515 nm band occurs is identical for both present ternary system and previously investigated MS18-deuterated arachidic acid (C20- d) binary system, and it is in good agreement with the melting point (110 degrees C) of cadmium arachidate (CdC20). Therefore, it is indicated that the driving force which induces the 515 nm band comes from the melting phenomenon of CdC20 molecules which are phase-separated from MS 18 molecules in as-deposited LB films.

  17. Evidences of volcanic unrest on high-temperature fumaroles by satellite thermal monitoring: The case of Santa Ana volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J. E.; Cigolini, C.; Escobar, D.; Funes, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Henriquez, B.; Hernandez, A.; Montalvo, F.; Olmos, R.; Ripepe, M.; Finizola, A.

    2017-06-01

    On October 1st, 2005, Santa Ana volcano (El Salvador) underwent a VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption after approximately one century of rest. Casualties and damages to some of the local infrastructures and surrounding plantations were followed by the evacuation of the nearby communities. The analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data reveals that the main explosion was preceded by a one-year-long thermal unrest, associated to the development of a fumaroles field, located at the western rim of the summit crater lake. By combining space-based thermal flux and ground-based measurements (seismicity, sulfur emissions and lake temperatures), we suggest that the activity observed at Santa Ana between 2004 and 2005 was driven by the gradual intrusion of an undegassed magma body at a very shallow depth. Magma injection induced thermal anomalies associated with sustained degassing from the fumaroles field and promoted the interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal system and the overlying water table. This process culminated into the VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption of October 2005 that strongly modified the shallow structure of the crater area. The subsequent three-years-long activity resulted from self-sealing of the fracture system and by the opening of a new fracture network directly connecting the deeper hydrothermal system with the crater lake. Our results show that satellite-based thermal data allow us to detect the expansion of the high-temperature fumarolic field. This may precede an explosive eruption and/or a lava dome extrusion. In particular, we show that thermal records can be analyzed with other geochemical (i.e. SO2 emissions) and geophysical (seismicity) data to track a shallow magmatic intrusion interacting with the surrounding hydrothermal system. This provides a remarkable support for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, particularly in remote areas where permanent ground data acquisition is hazardous, expensive

  18. Using Satellite Data to Characterize the Temporal Thermal Behavior of an Active Volcano: Mount St. Helens, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Hook, Simon J.

    2006-01-01

    ASTER thermal infrared data over Mt. St Helens were used to characterize its thermal behavior from Jun 2000 to Feb 2006. Prior to the Oct 2004 eruption, the average crater temperature varied seasonally between -12 and 6 C. After the eruption, maximum single-pixel temperature increased from 10 C (Oct 2004) to 96 C (Aug 2005), then showed a decrease to Feb 2006. The initial increase in temperature was correlated with dome morphology and growth rate and the subsequent decrease was interpreted to relate to both seasonal trends and a decreased growth rate/increased cooling rate, possibly suggesting a significant change in the volcanic system. A single-pixel ASTER thermal anomaly first appeared on Oct 1, 2004, eleven hours after the first eruption - 10 days before new lava was exposed at the surface. By contrast, an automated algorithm for detecting thermal anomalies in MODIS data did not trigger an alert until Dec 18. However, a single-pixel thermal anomaly first appeared in MODIS channel 23 (4 um) on Oct 13, 12 days after the first eruption - 2 days after lava was exposed. The earlier thermal anomaly detected with ASTER data is attributed to the higher spatial resolution (90 m) compared with MODIS (1 m) and the earlier visual observation of anomalous pixels compared to the automated detection method suggests that local spatial statistics and background radiance data could improve automated detection methods.

  19. Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River, Wyoming; Cubeza Prieta, Arizona, and Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the Powder River Basin, Wyo., narrow geologic units having thermal inertias which contrast with their surroundings can be discriminated in optimal images. A few subtle thermal inertia anomalies coincide with areas of helium leakage believed to be associated with deep oil and gas concentrations. The most important results involved delineation of tectonic framework elements some of which were not previously recognized. Thermal and thermal inertia images also permit mapping of geomorphic textural domains. A thermal lineament appears to reveal a basement discontinuity which involves the Homestake Mine in the Black Hill, a zone of Tertiary igneous activity and facies control in oil producing horizons. Applications of these data to the Cabeza Prieta, Ariz., area illustrate their potential for igneous rock type discrimination. Extension to Yellowstone National Park resulted in the detection of additional structural information but surface hydrothermal features could not be distinguished with any confidence. A thermal inertia mapping algorithm, a fast and accurate image registration technique, and an efficient topographic slope and elevation correction method were developed.

  20. Modelling LARES temperature distribution and thermal drag

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Phuc H

    2015-01-01

    The LARES satellite, a laser-ranged space experiment to contribute to geophysics observation, and to measure the general relatistic Lense-Thirring effect, has been observed to undergo an anomalous along-track orbital acceleration of -$0.4\\ pm/s^2$ (pm := picometer). This "drag" is not surprising; along track drag has previously been observed with the related LAGEOS satellites (-$3.4\\ pm/s^2$). It is hypothesized that the drag is due to anisotropic thermal radiation from the satellite's exterior. We report the results of numerical computations of the along-track orbital decay of the LARES satellite during the first 105 days after launch. The results depend to a significant degree on the visual and IR absorbance $\\alpha$ and emissivity $\\epsilon$ of the fused silica cube-cornered laser retroreflectors (CCRs). We present results for two values of $\\alpha_{IR}$ = $\\epsilon_{IR}$: 0.82, a standard number for "clean" fused silica; and 0.60, a possible value for silica with slight surface contamination subjected to ...

  1. Structure of the St. Francois Mountains and surrounding lead belt, S. E. Missouri: Inferences from thermal IR and other data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) in the form of an apparent thermal inertia image were merged with shaded relief maps and Bouguer gravity maps. The HCMM data show that the dominant structural grain in Missouri strikes in a northwesterly direction. The strike is the same as a major basement fault or flexure identified on the basis of gravity images.

  2. Palagonitic Mars from Rock Rinds to Dust: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectra of Poorly Crystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Mertzman, S. A.; Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for Martian bright regions are characterized by a general shape consisting of a ferric absorption edge extending from about 400 to 750 nm and relatively constant reflectivity extending from about 750 nm to beyond 2000 nm . Among terrestrial geologic materials, the best spectral analogues are certain palagonic tephras from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). By definition, palagonite is a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass. The ferric pigment in palagonite is nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout the hydrated basaltic glass matrix. The hydration state of the np-Ox particles is not known, and the best Martian spectral analogues contain allophane-like materials and not crystalline phyllosilicates. We show here that laboratory VNIR and TES spectra of palagonitic alteration rinds developed on basaltic rocks are spectral endmembers that provide a consistent explanation for both VNIR and TES data of Martian dark regions.

  3. Method for correction of errors in observation angles for limb thermal emission measurements. [for satellite sounding of atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Shapiro, G. L.; Conrath, B. J.; Kunde, V. G.; Maguire, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal emission measurements of the earth's stratospheric limb from space platforms require an accurate knowledge of the observation angles for retrieval of temperature and constituent distributions. Without the use of expensive stabilizing systems, however, most observational instruments do not meet the required pointing accuracies, thus leading to large errors in the retrieval of atmospheric data. This paper describes a self-constituent method of correcting errors in pointing angles by using information contained in the observed spectrum. Numerical results based on temperature inversions of synthetic thermal emission spectra with assumed random errors in pointing angles are presented.

  4. Analysis of the sensitivity of thermal infrared nadir satellite observations to the chemical and micro-physical properties of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Sèze, Geneviève; Legras, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Secondary sulphate aerosols are the predominant typology of aerosols in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), and can have an important impact on radiative transfer and climate, cirrus formation and chemistry in the UTLS. Despite their importance, the satellite observation at the regional scale of sulphate aerosols in the UTLS is limited. In this work, we address the sensitivity of the thermal infrared satellite observations to secondary sulphate aerosols in the UTLS. The absorption properties of sulphuric acid/water droplets, for different sulphuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The absorption coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indexes taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques : Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the absorption of idealized aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on the radiance spectra observed by these simulated satellite instruments. We found a marked spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulphate and bi-sulphate ions and the undissociated sulphuric acid, with absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1. Micro-windows with a sensitivity to chemical and micro-physical properties of the sulphate aerosol layer are identified, and the role of interfering species, and temperature and water vapour profile is discussed.

  5. Passive IR flexi-scope with two spectral colors for household screening of gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenneth; Szu, Harold

    2006-04-01

    According to our generalized Shannon Sampling Theorem of developmental system biology, we should increase the sampling frequency of the passive Infrared (IR) spectrum ratio test, (I 8~12mm / I 3~5mm). This procedure proved to be effective in DCIS using the satellite-grade IR spectrum cameras for an early developmental symptom of the "angiogenesis" effect. Thus, we propose to augment the annual hospital checkup of, or biannual Colonoscopy, with an inexpensive non-imaging IR-Flexi-scope intensity measurement device which could be conducted regularly at a household residence without the need doctoral expertise or a data basis system. The only required component would be a smart PC, which would be used to compute the degree of thermal activities through the IR spectral ratio. It will also be used to keep track of the record and send to the medical center for tele-diagnosis. For the purpose of household screening, we propose to have two integrated passive IR probes of dual-IR-color spectrum inserted into the body via the IR fiber-optic device. In order to extract the percentage of malignancy, based on the ratio of dual color IR measurements, the key enabler is the unsupervised learning algorithm in the sense of the Duda & Hart Unlabelled Data Classifier without lookup table exemplars. This learning methodology belongs to the Natural Intelligence (NI) of the human brain, which can effortlessly reduce the redundancy of pair inputs and thereby enhance the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) better than any single sensor for the salient feature extraction. Thus, we can go beyond a closed data basis AI expert system to tailor to the individual ground truth without the biases of the prior knowledge.

  6. Vacuum compatible large uniform-radiance source for ground calibration of satellite cameras inside a thermal vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, Angelo V.; Pal, Samir; Jablonski, Joseph W.; Gervais, Marc; Gugliotta, Mark; Seth, Harish; Bhardwaj, Arun; Sahoo, Hari Sankar

    2008-08-01

    A vacuum compatible integrating sphere was built to operate inside a thermal vacuum chamber. This paper presents the design and test results for a 1.65 meter diameter vacuum compatible integrating sphere with a 1.0 meter diameter exit port and approximately 10kW of internal tungsten lamps. Liquid nitrogen is used as cooling medium to remove the heat generated by these lamps. There are no moving parts inside the vacuum chamber. The radiance is monitored with two filter-wheel detectors, one TE-cooled silicon and one TE-cooled germanium, as well as a TE-cooled silicon array spectrometer. All three detectors are located outside the thermal vacuum chamber and view the sphere radiance through fiber optic cables. The system was tested inside a thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center before commissioning in the 5.5 meter thermal vacuum chamber at Space Applications Centre in Ahmedabad, India. Results of tests of radiance uniformity, radiance levels, and radiance stability are presented. Comparisons of the filter radiometers with the array spectrometer are also presented.

  7. Synthesis, structural, spectral (FT-IR, FT-Ra, and UV-Vis), thermal, and density functional studies on p-methylaniline complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçı, Tayyibe; Altun, Ahmet; Golcuk, Kurtulus; Kumru, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of the form MBr2L2, where M = Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II); L = p-methylaniline, were prepared and characterized by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic moment measurements, and UV-vis, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral studies. Geometries, spin-state energetics, and vibrational spectra of the complexes were obtained at the B3LYP/def2-TZVP level. The present experimental and theoretical data suggest 5-coordinate polymeric bromide bridged structure for the Mn complex, distorted tetrahedral structure for the Co complex, and distorted octahedral coordination site for the Ni complex. The experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman bands of the complexes were assigned based on the computational results expressed in terms of internal coordinates with percent potential energy distributions. The vibrational spectra suggest that the coordination occurs via nitrogen atom of p-methylaniline. The thermal characteristics of the complexes indicate that their decompositions start through p-methylaniline.

  8. Studies on the intercalation of naproxen into layered double hydroxide and its thermal decomposition by in situ FT-IR and in situ HT-XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Shi, Shuxian; Wang, Ji; Li, Yong; Duan, Xue

    2004-07-01

    Layered double hydroxides, novel anionic clay, meet the first requirement as inorganic matrices for encapsulating functional drugs or biomolecules with negative charge in aqueous media. In this study, naproxen has been intercalated into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide by the methods of ion exchange. The structure and composition of the intercalated material have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. A schematic model has been proposed. Furthermore, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in situ high-temperature XRD, and thermogravimetry (TG) have been used to characterize the thermal decomposition of the hybrid material. It has been found that the thermal stability of the intercalated naproxen is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation, which suggests that this drug-inorganic layered material may have prospective application as the basis of a novel drug delivery system.

  9. On the Relationship Between Satellite-Estimated Bio-Optical and Thermal Properties in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-15

    U.S. Navy’s Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) in order to examine the interdependencies between bio -optical fields and their relationship...Mexico may be broadly defined by two seasonally occurring bio -thermal periods. A winter mixing period, characterized by net heat losses to the...and annual minima in surface bio -optical fields. Variability in the interdependencies of ocean color products was used to diagnose an attendant shift

  10. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  11. The use of thermal infrared images in geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal infrared image data can be used as an aid to geologic mapping. Broadband thermal data between 8 and 13 microns is used to measure surface temperature, from which surface thermal properties can be inferred. Data from aircraft multispectral scanners at Pisgah, California which include a broadband thermal channel along with several visible and near-IR spectral channels permit better discrimination between rock type units than the same data set without the thermal data. Data from the HCMM satellite and from aircraft thermal scanners also make it possible to monitor moisture changes in Death Valley, California. Multispectral data in the same 8-13 micron wavelength range can be used to discriminate between surface materials with different spectral emission characteristics, as demonstrated with both aircraft scanner and ground spectrometer data.

  12. Pseudo-thermal bar in poorly salted autumnal waters of the Gulf of Finland from satellite-airborne SAR/ASAR/ALSAR survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, Vladimir; Bobylev, Leonid; Tsepelev, Valery; Melentyev, Konstantin; Bednov, Petr

    2010-05-01

    The thermal bar (TB) was disclosed at the end of XIX century by F.A. Forel - world-famed founder of limnology, who studied different processes in Lake Leman from point of view ecology and hydrobiology. Forel supposed that TB arises in temperate large lakes for short period in spring in presence windless calm weather. Well-directed investigations of TB were recommenced in the beginning 1950-s at the Institute of Lake Research Russian Academy of Sciences by Dr A.I. Tikhomirov who had described also specific features of this phenomenon in fall. At the end of 1960-s we began examination thermal and ice regime of fresh and saltish inland water bodies with using remote sensing including multi-spectral airborne-satellite SLR/SAR/ASAR/ALSAR survey. And as result the possibility revealing TB parameters in fall season by low-frequency radar (ALSAR) installed onboard research aircraft was fixed documentally in the Lake Ladoga [Melentyev et. al., 2002]. According to [Tikhomirov, 1959] TB represents convergence zone around temperature of maximum density of fresh water + 4 °C (3, 98 °C, really). This narrow vertical "curtain" appears in littoral in spring owing to heating coastal waters, in fall - due to its cooling. TB divides large lakes and artificial reservoirs on two unequal thermic zones - heat-active (HAZ) and heat-inert (HIZ) that has different stratification of water temperature. Possible existence of TB in poorly salted sea waters was predicted by outstanding Russian oceanographer professor N. Zubov. Obviously firstly it was disclosed but without explanation the physics by [Bychkova, 1987]. Our own sub-satellite studies onboard nuclear icebreaker "Jamal" in western Arctic in fall 1996 allows reveal the TB on saltish waters in north-eastern "corner" of the Yenisei Gulf in mixing zone of marine and river waters. Long-lived converged zone that we call as pseudo-thermal bar (PTB) was marked by stationary banding narrow continuous rough strip that could be destroyed by

  13. South China Sea crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning from satellite gravity inversion incorporating a lithospheric thermal gravity anomaly correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznir, Nick; Gozzard, Simon; Alvey, Andy

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of ocean crust and lithosphere within the South China Sea (SCS) are controversial. Sea-floor spreading re-orientation and ridge jumps during the Oligocene-Miocene formation of the South China Sea led to the present complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust, micro-continents and volcanic ridges. We determine Moho depth, crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (1- 1/beta) for the South China Sea using a gravity inversion method which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir, 2008). The gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition structure and continent-ocean boundary location which is independent of ocean isochron information. A correction is required for the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly in order to determine Moho depth accurately from gravity inversion; the elevated lithosphere geotherm of the young oceanic and rifted continental margin lithosphere of the South China Sea produces a large lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly which in places exceeds -150 mGal. The gravity anomaly inversion is carried out in the 3D spectral domain (using Parker 1972) to determine 3D Moho geometry and invokes Smith's uniqueness theorem. The gravity anomaly contribution from sediments assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. The gravity inversion includes a parameterization of the decompression melting model of White & McKenzie (1999) to predict volcanic addition generated during continental breakup lithosphere thinning and seafloor spreading. Public domain free air gravity anomaly, bathymetry and sediment thickness data are used in this gravity inversion. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy, rift orientation and sea-floor spreading trajectory. SCS conjugate margins

  14. Long-term energy balance and vegetation water stress monitoring of Mediterranean oak savanna using satellite thermal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dugo, Maria P.; Chen, Xuelong; Andreu, Ana; Carpintero, Elisabet; Gómez-Giraldez, Pedro; Su, Z.(Bob)

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the major hazards faced by natural and cropped vegetation in the Mediterranean Sea Basin. Water scarcity is likely to be worsened under the predicted conditions of climate change, which is expected to make this region both warmer and drier. A Holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is an agro-silvo-pastoral system occupying more than 3 million hectares the Iberian Peninsula and Greece. It consists of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs. This ecosystem is considered an example of sustainable land use, supporting a large number of species and diversity of habitats and for its importance in rural economy. A similar ecosystem is worldwide distributed in areas with Mediterranean climate (as California or South Africa) and shares structural and functional properties with tropical savannas in Africa, Australia and South America. Remote sensing time series can assist the monitoring of the energy balance components, with special attention to the evapotranspiration and vegetation water stress over these areas. Long-term data analysis may improve our understanding of the functioning of the system, helping to assess drought impacts and leading to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability of this ecosystem. This work analyzes the evolution the surface energy balance components, mapping the evapotranspiration and moisture stress of holm oak woodlands of Spain and Portugal during the last 15 years (2001-2015). The surface energy balance model (SEBS) has been applied over the Iberian Peninsula on a monthly time scale and 0.05° spatial resolution, using multi-satellite and meteorological forcing data. Modelled energy and water fluxes have been validated using ground measurements of two eddy covariance towers located in oak savanna sites during 3 years, resulting in moderate deviations from observations (10-25 W/m2). The departure of actual ET from the

  15. Automatic Cloud and Shadow Detection in Optical Satellite Imagery Without Using Thermal Bands—Application to Suomi NPP VIIRS Images over Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Parmes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In land monitoring applications, clouds and shadows are considered noise that should be removed as automatically and quickly as possible, before further analysis. This paper presents a method to detect clouds and shadows in Suomi NPP satellite’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite satellite images. The proposed cloud and shadow detection method has two distinct features when compared to many other methods. First, the method does not use the thermal bands and can thus be applied to other sensors which do not contain thermal channels, such as Sentinel-2 data. Secondly, the method uses the ratio between blue and green reflectance to detect shadows. Seven hundred and forty-seven VIIRS images over Fennoscandia from August 2014 to April 2016 were processed to train and develop the method. Twenty four points from every tenth of the images were used in accuracy assessment. These 1752 points were interpreted visually to cloud, cloud shadow and clear classes, then compared to the output of the cloud and shadow detection. The comparison on VIIRS images showed 94.2% correct detection rates and 11.1% false alarms for clouds, and respectively 36.1% and 82.7% for shadows. The results on cloud detection were similar to state-of-the-art methods. Shadows showed correctly on the northern edge of the clouds, but many shadows were wrongly assigned to other classes in some cases (e.g., to water class on lake and forest boundary, or with shadows over cloud. This may be due to the low spatial resolution of VIIRS images, where shadows are only a few pixels wide and contain lots of mixed pixels.

  16. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  17. Thermal inertia mapping - A promising new tool for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) is a NASA-sponsored program designed to acquire day visible and day and night thermal IR imagery from a satellite launched on April 26, 1978 into a near polar orbit at 620 km altitude. The data are used to produce temperature difference (12 or 36 hour interval) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images or numerical data sets for selected areas within much of North America, Europe, North Africa, and Australia. These data are being applied to rock type discrimination, soil moisture detection, assessment of vegetation states, thermal current monitoring in water bodies, urban heat island analysis and other multidisciplinary studies. Key geological results include (1) groups of dissimilar rock materials and some individual rock types can be separated and sometimes identified by their satellite-determined thermal inertias (dependent on their albedos, densities, and conductivities), (2) large lineaments (including some faults) are often recognized by their thermal signatures (may relate to moisture content and/or reduced bulk density), and (3) visually striking expressions of geomorphic units (types) at a regional scale are especially enhanced in the night IR imagery.

  18. ASTER Urgent Response to the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Science and Decision Support Gained From Frequent High-resolution, Satellite Thermal Infrared Imaging of Volcanic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. S.; Coombs, M.; Dehn, J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    Augustine Volcano, Alaska explosively erupted on January 11, 2006 after nearly eight months of increasing seismicity, deformation, gas emission, and small phreatic explosions. The volcano produced a total of 13 explosive eruptions during the last three weeks of January 2006. A new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows grew during February and March 2006. A series of 7 daytime and 15 nighttime Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) scenes were acquired in response to this new activity. This response was facilitated by a new ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system. The ASTER data provided several significant observations as a part of a much larger suite of real-time or near-real-time data from other satellite (AVHRR, MODIS), airborne (FLIR, visual, gas), and ground-based (seismometers, radiometers) sensors used at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). ASTER is well-suited to volcanic observations because of its 15-m to 90-m spatial resolution, its ability to be scheduled and point off-nadir, and its ability to collect visible-near infrared (VNIR) to thermal infrared (TIR) data during both the day and night. Aided by the volcano's high latitude (59.4°N) ASTER was able to provide frequent repeat imaging as short as one day between scenes with an average 6-day repeat during the height of activity. These data provided a time series of high-resolution VNIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR - detects temperatures from about 200°C to > 600°C averaged over a 30-m pixel), and TIR (detects temperatures up to about 100°C averaged over a 90-m pixel) data of the volcano and its eruptive products. Frequent satellite imaging of volcanoes is necessary to record rapid changes in activity and to avoid recurring cloud cover. Of the 22 ASTER scenes acquired between October 30, 2005 and May 30, 2006, the volcano was clear to partly cloudy in 13 scenes. The most useful pre-eruption ASTER Urgent Request image was acquired on December 20. These data

  19. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  20. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  1. Enabling High Spectral Resolution Thermal Imaging from CubeSat and MicroSatellite Platforms Using Uncooled Microbolometers and a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.; Pilger, E. J.; Honniball, C.; Gabrieli, A.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. This is attributable to two factors. Firstly, earth emits less light than it reflects, reducing the signal available to measure in the TIR, and secondly, instruments designed to measure (and spectrally decompose) this signal are more complex, massive, and expensive than their VSWIR counterparts, largely due to the need to cryogenically cool the detector and optics. However, this measurement gap needs to be filled, as LWIR data provide fundamentally different information than VSWIR measurements. The TIRCIS instrument (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), developed at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data in the 8-14 micron spectral range. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite as part of the ORS-4 mission in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible (the accompanying image shows a quartz spectrum composed of 17 spectral samples). Our

  2. Remote sensing of algal blooms by aircraft and satellite in Lake Erie and Utah Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    During late summer, when the surface waters of Lake Erie reach their maximum temperature, an algal bloom is likely to develop. Such phenomena, which characterize eutrophic conditions, have been noticed on other shallow lakes using the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1). The concentration of the algae into long streamers provides additional information on surface circulations. To augment the ERTS Multispectral Scanner Subsystem data of Lake Erie, an aircraft was used to obtain correlative thermal-IR and additional multiband photographs. A large bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae observed in Utah Lake together with recent bloom history in Lake Erie is used to verify the Great Lakes bloom.

  3. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal channels of Imager payload onboard INSAT-3D satellite using MODTRAN model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Pandya; D B Shah; H J Trivedi; S Panigrahy

    2011-02-01

    INSAT-3D is the new generation Indian satellite designed for improved Earth observations through two payloads – Imager and Sounder. Study was conducted with an aim of simulating satellite level signal over land in the infrared channels of the Imager payload using a radiative transfer model MODTRAN. Satellite level at-sensor radiance corresponding to all four infrared channels of INSAT-3D Imager payload is obtained using MODTRAN and sensitivity of at-sensor radiance was inferred as a function of input parameters namely, surface temperature, emissivity, view angle and atmospheric water vapour, which is helpful in understanding the signal simulation scheme needed for retrieving a very critical parameter namely, land surface temperature.

  5. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  6. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  7. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  8. Clouds-Aerosols-Precipitation Satellite Analysis Tool (CAPSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lensky

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for representing much of the physical information content of the METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG geostationary satellite using red-green-blue (RGB composites of the computed physical values of the picture elements is presented. The physical values are the solar reflectance in the solar channels and brightness temperature in the thermal channels. The main RGB compositions are (1 "Day Natural Colors", presenting vegetation in green, bare surface in brown, sea surface in black, water clouds as white, ice as magenta; (2 "Day Microphysical", presenting cloud microstructure using the solar reflectance component of the 3.9 μm, visible and thermal IR channels; (3 "Night Microphysical", also presenting clouds microstructure using the brightness temperature differences between 10.8 and 3.9 μm; (4 "Day and Night", using only thermal channels for presenting surface and cloud properties, desert dust and volcanic emissions; (5 "Air Mass", presenting mid and upper tropospheric features using thermal water vapor and ozone channels. The scientific basis for these rendering schemes is provided, with examples for the applications. The expanding use of these rendering schemes requires their proper documentation and setting as standards, which is the main objective of this publication.

  9. Growth and termination of a rutile IrO2(100) layer on Ir(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rahul; Li, Tao; Liang, Zhu; Kim, Minkyu; Asthagiri, Aravind; Weaver, Jason F.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the oxidation of Ir(111) by gas-phase oxygen atoms at temperatures between 500 and 625 K using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that a well-ordered surface oxide with (√ 3 × √ 3)R30° periodicity relative to Ir(111) develops prior to the formation of a rutile IrO2(100) layer. The IrO2(100) layer reaches a saturation thickness of about four oxide layers under the oxidation conditions employed, and decomposes during TPD to produce a single, sharp O2 desorption peak at 770 K. Favorable lattice matching at the oxide-metal interface is likely responsible for the preferential growth of the IrO2(100) facet during the initial oxidation of Ir(111), with the resulting coincidence lattice generating a clear (6 × 1) moiré pattern in LEED. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) experiments reveal that CO and H2O molecules bind only weakly on the IrO2(100) surface and LEISS measurements show that the oxide surface is highly enriched in O-atoms. These characteristics provide strong evidence that the rutile IrO2(100) layer is oxygen-terminated, and thus lacks reactive Ir atoms that can strongly bind molecular adsorbates. Oxygen binding energies predicted by DFT suggest that on-top O-atoms will remain adsorbed on IrO2(100) at temperatures up to 625 K, thus supporting the conclusion that the rutile IrO2 layer grown in our experiments is oxygen-terminated. As such, the appearance of only a single O2 TPD peak indicates that the singly coordinate, on-top O-atoms remain stable on the IrO2(100) surface up to temperatures at which the oxide layer begins to thermally decompose.

  10. 热控涂层红外发射率对GEO卫星蓄电池温度波动的影响%Effect of Thermal Control Battery Temperature Coatings Infrared Emittance on Variation in GEO Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘百麟; 周佐新

    2012-01-01

    Based on DFH-3 satellite platform, the simplified south satellite battery cabin is presen- ted as the thermal analysis model. According to the mechanism of battery temperature variation, five combination schemes, in which the thermal control coatings of white paint,aluminized kapton and graphite-epoxy facesheet are used for inner panel of service module board, are proposed and used to analyze the effect of thermal control coatings infrared emittance on battery temperature. The analysis results show that the range of battery temperature variation can be reduced effectively by decreasing the thermal control coatings infrared emittance of inner panel in battery cabin, especially decreasing the thermal control coatings infrared emittance of fixing panel in battery cabin. The range of battery temperature variation in optimization scheme is decreased by 50% than that in original design scheme.%在东方红一3卫星平台的基础上,将合理简化后的南蓄电池舱作为热分析模型。根据影响蓄电池温度波动的机理,提出服务舱舱板内表面常用热控涂层(白漆、镀铝膜、碳蒙皮)的5种组合方案,并量化分析了热控涂层红外发射率对蓄电池温度波动的影响。分析结果表明:降低蓄电池舱舱板内表面热控涂层红外发射率,尤其是降低蓄电池安装舱板表面的热控涂层红外发射率,可有效减小蓄电池温度波动幅度。与基准方案相比,最优组合方案能使蓄电池温度波动幅度降低50%。

  11. HWIL IR imaging testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, R. J.; Passwater, R. D.

    1981-03-01

    The Army simulator facilities are presently configured to conduct hardware-in-the-loop mission tasks on the HELLFIRE and COPPERHEAD missile systems. These systems presently use a LASER seeker. The facility is an ideal candidate to be converted to include infrared (IR) seekers used on the TGSM system. This study investigates the possibility and impact of a facility update. This report documents the feasibility of developing a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) hybrid simulation incorporating infrared IR seekers used for the Assault Breaker program. Other hardware to be considered are the autopilot, signal conditioning, signal processing, and actuators which may be integrated into the system simulation. Considerations are given to replacing all or elements of hardware while substituting math models in the system simulation.

  12. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  13. Localised IR spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    CERN Document Server

    Yarrow, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    IR absorption spectroscopy of hemoglobin was performed using an IR optical parametric oscillator laser and a commercial atomic force microscope in a novel experimental arrangement based on the use of a bottom-up excitation alignment. This experimental approach enables detection of protein samples with a resolution that is much higher than that of standard IR spectroscopy. Presented here are AFM based IR absorption spectra of micron sized hemoglobin features

  14. IR nanoscale spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Yarrow, Fiona; Rice, James H.

    2011-10-01

    Sub diffraction limited infrared absorption imaging was applied to hemoglobin by coupling IR optics with an atomic force microscope. Comparisons between the AFM topography and IR absorption images of micron sized hemoglobin features are presented, along with nanoscale IR spectroscopic analysis of the metalloprotein.

  15. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  16. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  17. Training Effect and Hysteretic Behaviour of Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias in Co/IrMn Bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; DU Jun; BAI Xiao-Jun; YOU Biao; ZHANG Wei; HU An

    2009-01-01

    @@ The training effect and the hysteresis behaviour of the angular dependence of exchange bias are extensively investigated upon the variation of the IrMn layer thickness tIrMn in a series of Co/IrMn bilayers. When tIrMn is very small, both of them are negligible. Then they increase very sharply with increasing tIrMn and then reach maxima at almost the same value of tIrMn. Finally they both decrease when tIrMn is further increased. The similar variation trends suggest that these phenomena arise from irreversible change of antiferromagnet spin orientations, according to the thermal activation model.

  18. 卫星虚拟热试验平台建模工具模块研究%Tool module for modelling satellite virtual thermal test platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志松; 刘绍然; 裴一飞

    2012-01-01

    为预示卫星热试验结果,给热试验设计提供参考,北京卫星环境工程研究所自主研发了卫星虚拟热试验平台.文章介绍了虚拟热试验平台中建模工具模块的建模思想、对象组合策略和数据存储方法;其中数据存储方法采用预排序遍历树算法,相比于传统的邻接列表模式,具有更高的查询效率;最后还介绍了基于本建模工具模块的红外加热笼建模方法.%The virtual thermal test platform is developed to predict the results of a real thermal test, and therefore it can be used to design the real thermal test. The modeling method, the object combination strategy, and the data storage scheme of the modeling tool module for the virtual thermal test platform are analyzed. The model data are stored in the datasheet and queried by using a modified preordered tree traversal algorithm. This algorithm is more efficient, as compared to the adjacency list model. Finally, a method of modeling the infrared cage based on the modeling tool module is presented.

  19. Albuminas ir jo vartojimas

    OpenAIRE

    Reingardienė, Dagmara Ona

    2002-01-01

    Albuminas yra natūralus koloidas, tačiau jo vartojimo svarba ir efektyvumas, gydant kritines būkles, pastaraisiais metais iš esmės pasikeitė. Šiame straipsnyje aptariami naujausi literatūros duomenys apie albumino vartojimą. Aišku, kad įprastas albumino vartojimas, esant sumažėjusiam jo kiekiui plazmoje, nerekomenduotinas. Šiuo metu moksliškai pagrįstų indikacijų albumino vartojimui nėra. Jo galima skirti tik kaip antrojo pasirinkimo tirpalą tais atvejais, kai kiti tirpalai neindikuotini ar k...

  20. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  1. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M F

    1994-02-01

    IRS-1 is a principal substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. It undergoes multi-site tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates the insulin signal by associating with various signaling molecules containing Src homology 2 domains. Interleukin-4 also stimulates IRS-1 phosphorylation, and it is suspected that a few more growth factors or cytokines will be added to form a select group of receptors that utilize the IRS-1 signaling pathway. More IRS-1-like adapter molecules, such as 4PS (IRS-2), may remain to be found.

  2. Contribution To The Data Warehouse And Prospects Of The IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Haydn, Rupert; Parmar, Manish; Makiola, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Over the past two years, the IRS program has again significantly contributed to the GSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, multispectral data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors have been provided. Both cameras are implemented on board of Resourcesat-1 and Resourcesat-2 respectively. Despite reduced capacities, the Resourcesat constellation of satellites so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first HR coverage of CORE_001 and several monthly MR coverages for CORE_008 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  3. Rapid discrimination of Panax notogeinseng of different grades by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Chen, Jian-bo; Wu, Xian-xue; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin

    2016-11-01

    The herbal material of Notoginseng (the root of Panax notoginseng) is sold by "Tou" (the number of Notoginseng in every 500 g) to distinguish the grade. Normally the better quality, the few number of the "Tou" and the size of Notoginseng is bigger. In this study, three grades of Notoginseng harvested from Yunnan province were discriminated and identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR)). The correlation coefficient of IR spectra between the three grades of Notoginseng and starch are greater than 0.95 in the range of 1300-800 cm-1, means the main compositions of Notoginseng are starch polysaccharide. Also, when the size of Notoginseng is bigger, it may contain more polysaccharide. There is no difference in range of 815-1000 cm-1 of the 2DCOS-IR synchronous spectra of the three grades means polysaccharides possess good thermal stability. In the range of 1200-1300 cm-1 shows the inverse ration between the thermal sensitivity of C-O and the number of "Tou". Combination with the 2DCOS-IR asynchronous spectra, the response speed of amino acid (1640 cm-1) on the thermal perturbation is the fastest, followed by nitrate (1384 cm-1); the response speed of polysaccharides (1079 cm-1) is the slowest. The result proved that the 2DCOS-IR could discriminate different grades of Notoginseng.

  4. Studying the nonlinearity in Sonic IR NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuye; Obeidat, Omar; Han, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Sonic IR Imaging combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non--unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors image the temperature map over the target to identify defects. It works in various materials, including metal/metal alloy, ceramics, and composite materials. Its biggest advantage is that it's a fast, wide area NDE technique. It takes only a fraction of a second or a few seconds, depending on the thermal properties of the target, for one test over a few square feet. However, due to the nonlinearity in the coupling between the ultrasound transducer and the target, the repeatability has been an issue, which affects its application. In this paper, we present our study on this issue in Sonic IR.

  5. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  6. A multiple system of high-mass YSOs surrounded by disks in NGC 7538 IRS1 . Gas dynamics on scales of 10-700 AU from CH3OH maser and NH3 thermal lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscadelli, L.; Goddi, C.

    2014-06-01

    Context. It has been claimed that NGC 7538 IRS1 is a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) with 30 M⊙, surrounded by a rotating Keplerian disk, probed by a linear distribution of methanol masers. The YSO is also powering a strong compact Hii region or ionized wind, and is driving at least one molecular outflow. The axis orientations of the different structures (ionized gas, outflow, and disk) are, however, misaligned, which has led to the different competing models proposed to explain individual structures. Aims: We investigate the 3D kinematics and dynamics of circumstellar gas with very high linear resolution, from tens to 1500 AU, with the ultimate goal of building a comprehensive dynamical model for what is considered the best high-mass accretion disk candidate around an O-type young star in the northern hemisphere. Methods: We used high-angular resolution observations of 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers with the EVN, NH3 inversion lines with the JVLA B-Array, and radio continuum with the VLA A-Array. In particular, we employed four different observing epochs of EVN data at 6.7 GHz, spanning almost eight years, which enabled us to measure line-of-sight (l.o.s.) accelerations and proper motions of CH3OH masers, besides l.o.s. velocities and positions (as done in previous works). In addition, we imaged highly excited NH3 inversion lines, from (6,6) to (13,13), which enabled us to probe the hottest molecular gas very close to the exciting source(s). Results: We confirm previous results that five 6.7 GHz maser clusters (labeled from "A" to "E") are distributed over a region extended N-S across ≈1500 AU, and are associated with three components of the radio continuum emission. We propose that these maser clusters identify three individual high-mass YSOs in NGC 7538 IRS1, named IRS1a (associated with clusters "B" and "C"), IRS1b (associated with cluster "A"), and IRS1c (associated with cluster "E"). We find that the 6.7 GHz masers distribute along a line, with a regular

  7. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L

    1994-01-01

    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  8. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  9. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  10. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  11. Automatic temperature computation for realistic IR simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Kersaudy, Philippe; Latger, Jean; Cathala, Thierry; Stolte, Nilo; Barillot, Philippe

    2000-07-01

    Polygon temperature computation in 3D virtual scenes is fundamental for IR image simulation. This article describes in detail the temperature calculation software and its current extensions, briefly presented in [1]. This software, called MURET, is used by the simulation workshop CHORALE of the French DGA. MURET is a one-dimensional thermal software, which accurately takes into account the material thermal attributes of three-dimensional scene and the variation of the environment characteristics (atmosphere) as a function of the time. Concerning the environment, absorbed incident fluxes are computed wavelength by wavelength, for each half an hour, druing 24 hours before the time of the simulation. For each polygon, incident fluxes are compsed of: direct solar fluxes, sky illumination (including diffuse solar fluxes). Concerning the materials, classical thermal attributes are associated to several layers, such as conductivity, absorption, spectral emissivity, density, specific heat, thickness and convection coefficients are taken into account. In the future, MURET will be able to simulate permeable natural materials (water influence) and vegetation natural materials (woods). This model of thermal attributes induces a very accurate polygon temperature computation for the complex 3D databases often found in CHORALE simulations. The kernel of MUET consists of an efficient ray tracer allowing to compute the history (over 24 hours) of the shadowed parts of the 3D scene and a library, responsible for the thermal computations. The great originality concerns the way the heating fluxes are computed. Using ray tracing, the flux received in each 3D point of the scene accurately takes into account the masking (hidden surfaces) between objects. By the way, this library supplies other thermal modules such as a thermal shows computation tool.

  12. Easy-to-use Software Toolkit for IR Cameras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    CEDIP Infrared Systems, specialists in thermal IR camera systems, have announced a new toolkit for use with their range of cameras that enables simple set-up and control of a wide range of parameters using National Instruments LabVIEW? programming environment,

  13. Variation in MidIR and LWIR polarimetric imagery due to diurnal and meteorological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Felton, Melvin

    2008-04-01

    We present radiometric and polarimetric calibrated imagery recorded in both the mid-wave IR (MidIR) and long wave IR (LWIR) as a function diurnal variation over several multiday periods. We compare differences in polarimetric and conventional thermal imagry for both IR atmospheric transmission windows, i.e., 3-5μm and 8-12 μm regions. Meteorological parameters measured during the study include temperature, relative-humidity, wind-speed/direction, precipitation, and ambient atmospheric IR loading. The two camera systems used in the study differed significantly in design. The LWIR polarimetric sensor utilizes a spinning achromatic retarder and is best suited for static scenes, while the MidIR system is based on a division-of-aperture design and is capable of recording polarimetric imagery of targets that are rapidly moving. Examples of both S0 (conventional thermal) and degree-of-linear polarization (DOLP) imagery are presented and compared.

  14. Remote sensing monitoring of thermal discharge in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station based on HJ-1 infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Yin, Shoujing; Wu, Chuanqing; Ma, Wandong; Hou, Haiqian; Xu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the method of monitoring coastal areas affected by thermal discharge of nuclear plant by using remote sensing techniques was introduced. The proposed approach was demonstrated in Daya Bay nuclear plant based on HJ-B IRS data. A single channel water temperature inversion algorithm was detailed, considering the satellite zenith angle and water vapor. Moreover the reference background temperature was obtained using the average environmental temperature method. In the case study of Daya Bay nuclear plant, the spatial distribution of thermal pollution was analyzed by taking into account the influence of tidal, wind and so on. According to the findings of this study, the speed and direction of the ebb tide, is not conducive to the diffusion of thermal discharge of DNNP. The vertically thermal diffusion was limited by the shallow water depth near the outlet.

  15. Organic/IR-Semiconductor heterojunctions for low-cost, high temperature IR arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Colin E.

    1992-08-01

    This program evaluated a new technology for producing infrared photo-diodes in HgCdTe and InSb using evaporated organic heterojunctions. High quantum-efficiency IR detectors were demonstrated with the organic process comparable to commercial IR detectors. The organic photodiodes at room temperature were better than commercial detectors. They had lower leakage currents and higher resistance-area products (RoAs). Detector arrays made with the organics can operate at higher temperatures than the current detectors. Initial data at low temperatures were poorer than commercial detectors with lower RoAs and slightly higher 1/f noise. This comparison at low temperature may change with further optimization of the organic process. The organic diode process is very simple, low cost and non-damaging to the HgCdTe or InSb. It involves thermal evaporation of the organic onto the HgCdTe or InSb followed by evaporation of metal contacts through a shadow mask. Phase 1 demonstrated organic/HaCdTe IR detectors with quantum efficiencies similar to commercial devices operating at higher temperatures. The technology is ready for a Phase 2 to further optimize the processing for IR arrays and to increase yields.

  16. Tethered satellite design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarini, G.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of the satellite to perform a variety of space operations to be accomplished from the shuttle is reviewed considering use of the satellite with man-in-loop and closed loop modes and deployment (toward or away from Earth, up to 100 km), stationkeeping, retrieval and control of the satellite. Scientific payloads are to be used to perform experiments and scientific investigation for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, chemical release, communications, plasmaphysics, dynamic environment, and power and thrust generation. The TSS-S will be reused for at least 3 missions after reconfiguration and refurbishment by changing the peculiar mission items such as thermal control, fixed boom for experiments, aerodynamic tail for yaw attitude control, external skin, experiments, and any other feature. The TSS-S is to be composed of three modules in order to allow independent integration of a single module and to facilitate the refurbishment and reconfiguration between flights. The three modules are service, auxiliary propulsion, and payload modules.

  17. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2001-01-01 to 2001-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0075816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  18. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2005-12-30 to 2006-12-30 (NODC Accession 0075821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  19. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2000-11-28 to 2000-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0075815)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  20. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-31 (NODC Accession 0075825)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  1. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2009-12-31 to 2010-12-30 (NODC Accession 0075824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  2. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2007-12-31 to 2008-12-31 (NODC Accession 0075823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  3. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2001-12-29 to 2002-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0075817)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  4. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2003-12-29 to 2004-12-28 (NODC Accession 0075819)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  5. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2002-12-31 to 2003-12-29 (NODC Accession 0075818)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  6. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2004-12-28 to 2005-12-30 (NODC Accession 0075820)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  7. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2010-12-30 to 2011-12-29 (NODC Accession 0088492)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  8. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Operational Near-real-time Twice-weekly Global 50 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring Product Suite from 2006-12-30 to 2007-12-31 (NODC Accession 0075822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites measure SST around the globe in near-real-time, and Coral Reef Watch produces a suite of products derived from this set of satellite...

  9. IR seeker simulator and IR scene generation to evaluate IR decoy effectiveness; 2005BU1-EO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Dam, F.A.M.; Kunz, G.J.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    IR decoys can be an effective countermeasure against IR guided anti ship missiles. However, it's not so easy to determine how the decoys should be deployed to get maximum effectiveness. A limitation of trials is that results are obtained for the specific trial condition only. Software tools have bee

  10. Red-IR stimulated luminescence in K-feldspar: Single or multiple trap origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Jain, Mayank; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We investigate on the origins of the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in 3 potassium feldspars based on IR-red spectroscopy (700–1050 nm) using a fiber-coupled tunable Ti:Sapphire laser, in combination with different thermal and optical (pre)treatments of the samples. We also...

  11. AFM-IR: Technology and Applications in Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Alexandre; Prater, Craig B

    2016-12-13

    Atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) is a rapidly emerging technique that provides chemical analysis and compositional mapping with spatial resolution far below conventional optical diffraction limits. AFM-IR works by using the tip of an AFM probe to locally detect thermal expansion in a sample resulting from absorption of infrared radiation. AFM-IR thus can provide the spatial resolution of AFM in combination with the chemical analysis and compositional imaging capabilities of infrared spectroscopy. This article briefly reviews the development and underlying technology of AFM-IR, including recent advances, and then surveys a wide range of applications and investigations using AFM-IR. AFM-IR applications that will be discussed include those in polymers, life sciences, photonics, solar cells, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and cultural heritage. In the Supporting Information , the authors provide a theoretical section that reviews the physics underlying the AFM-IR measurement and detection mechanisms.

  12. Multi-Decadal Variability of Polynya Characteristics and Ice Production in the North Water Polynya by Means of Passive Microwave and Thermal Infrared Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Preußer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The North Water (NOW Polynya is a regularly-forming area of open-water and thin-ice, located between northwestern Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canada at the northern tip of Baffin Bay. Due to its large spatial extent, it is of high importance for a variety of physical and biological processes, especially in wintertime. Here, we present a long-term remote sensing study for the winter seasons 1978/1979 to 2014/2015. Polynya characteristics are inferred from (1 sea ice concentrations and brightness temperatures from passive microwave satellite sensors (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E and AMSR2, Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR, Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSM/I-SSMIS and (2 thin-ice thickness distributions, which are calculated using MODIS ice-surface temperatures and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis data in a 1D thermodynamic energy-balance model. Daily ice production rates are retrieved for each winter season from 2002/2003 to 2014/2015, assuming that all heat loss at the ice surface is balanced by ice growth. Two different cloud-cover correction schemes are applied on daily polynya area and ice production values to account for cloud gaps in the MODIS composites. Our results indicate that the NOW polynya experienced significant seasonal changes over the last three decades considering the overall frequency of polynya occurrences, as well as their spatial extent. In the 1980s, there were prolonged periods of a more or less closed ice cover in northern Baffin Bay in winter. This changed towards an average opening on more than 85% of the days between November and March during the last decade. Noticeably, the sea ice cover in the NOW polynya region shows signs of a later-appearing fall freeze-up, starting in the late 1990s. Different methods to obtain daily polynya area using passive microwave AMSR-E/AMSR2 data and SSM/I-SSMIS data were applied. A comparison

  13. An ensemble Kalman filter dual assimilation of thermal infrared and microwave satellite observations of soil moisture into the Noah land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Christopher R.; Crow, Wade T.; Anderson, Martha C.; Mecikalski, John R.

    2012-11-01

    Studies that have assimilated remotely sensed soil moisture (SM) into land surface models (LSMs) have generally focused on retrievals from microwave (MW) sensors. However, retrievals from thermal infrared (TIR) sensors have also been shown to add unique information, especially where MW sensors are not able to provide accurate retrievals (due to, e.g., dense vegetation). In this study, we examine the assimilation of a TIR product based on surface evaporative flux estimates from the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and the MW-based VU Amsterdam NASA surface SM product generated with the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). A set of data assimilation experiments using an ensemble Kalman filter are performed over the contiguous United States to assess the impact of assimilating ALEXI and LPRM SM retrievals in isolation and together in a dual-assimilation case. The relative skill of each assimilation case is assessed through a data denial approach where a LSM is forced with an inferior precipitation data set. The ability of each assimilation case to correct for precipitation errors is quantified by comparing with a simulation forced with a higher-quality precipitation data set. All three assimilation cases (ALEXI, LPRM, and Dual assimilation) show relative improvements versus the open loop (i.e., reduced RMSD) for surface and root zone SM. In the surface zone, the dual assimilation case provides the largest improvements, followed by the LPRM case. However, the ALEXI case performs best in the root zone. Results from the data denial experiment are supported by comparisons between assimilation results and ground-based SM observations from the Soil Climate Analysis Network.

  14. Contributions to the Data Warehouse 2 and Prospects of the IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Venkataraman, V. Raghu; Makiola, Jens

    2016-08-01

    During 2015 and 2016, the IRS program has significantly contributed to the CSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors on board of Resourcesat-2 have been provided. Resourcesat-2 so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first and second coverage of HR_IMAGE_2015 and several monthly MR coverages for MR_IMAGE_2015 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  15. Advanced IR imaging seeker program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiera, R. A.

    1980-05-01

    An advanced IR Imaging Seeker System was developed which is compatible with the Hellfire Missile System mission. A technical overview of this program and current status is presented. The IR imaging seeker was tested during late 1979 and early 1980. This seeker utilizes a 1024 element InAsSb/silicon hybrid focal plane array (FPA) operating at 77 degrees K and IR-sensitive in the 2.4-4.0 micrometer wavelength region. A multimode tracker provides improved tracking capability for operation against targets in a high clutter background.

  16. Numerical simulation of the LAGEOS thermal behavior and thermal accelerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrés, J.I.; Noomen, R.; Vecellio None, S.

    2006-01-01

    The temperature distribution throughout the LAGEOS satellites is simulated numerically with the objective to determine the resulting thermal force. The different elements and materials comprising the spacecraft, with their energy transfer, have been modeled with unprecedented detail. The radiation i

  17. Results of IR working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritson, D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The IP luminosity at the Eloisatron will direct very large fluxes of hadronic debris into the IR quads. For instance at 1.10{sup 35} cm{sup 2}/sec the flux corresponds to 180 kilowatts. Already at the SSC fluxes in the neighborhood of 2 kilowatts are expected to require special handling. Scaling from SSC design experience we propose a configuration for the first IR quads at the Eloisatron capable of handling the heat load and radiation problems.

  18. Determination of effective resonance energy for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction by the cadmium ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Mustafa Guray; Karadag, Mustafa; Yücel, Haluk

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the effective resonance energy, Ebarr -value for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction was measured using cadmium ratio method. A dual monitor (197Au-98Mo), which has convenient resonance properties, was employed for characterization of the irradiation sites. Then analytical grade iridium oxide samples diluted with CaCO3 to lower neutron self-shielding effect stacked in small cylindrical Teflon boxes were irradiated once with a 1 mm thick Cd cylindrical box placed in a thermalized neutron field of an 241Am-Be neutron source then without it. The activities produced in samples during 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction were measured using a p-type HPGe detector γ-ray spectrometer with a 44.8% relative efficiency. The correction factors for thermal, epithermal neutron self-shielding (Gth, Gepi), true coincidence summing (Fcoi) and gamma-ray self-absorption (Fs) effects were determined with appropriate approaches and programs. Thus, the experimental Ebarr -value was determined to be 2.65 ± 0.61 eV for 193Ir target nuclide. The recent data for Q0 and FCd values for Ebarr determination were based on k0-NAA online database. The present experimental Ebarr value was calculated and compared with more recent values for Q0 and FCd for 193Ir. Additionally, the Ebarr -values was theoretically calculated from the up-to-date resonance data obtained from ENDF/B VII library using two different approaches. Since there is no experimentally determined Ebarr -value for the 193Ir isotope, the results are compared with the calculated ones given in the literature.

  19. Monitoring of the optical and 2.5-11.7 micron spectrum and mid-IR imaging of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk279 with ISO

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Lleó, M; Schulz, B; Altieri, B; Barr, P; Alloin, D; Berlind, P; Bertram, R; Crenshaw, D M; Edelson, R A; Giveon, U; Horne, K; Huchra, J P; Kaspi, S; Kriss, G A; Krolik, J H; Malkan, M A; Malkov, Y F; Netzer, H; O'Brien, P T; Peterson, B M; Malkov, Yu.F.

    2001-01-01

    Mid-infrared images of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 279 obtained with the ISO satellite are presented together with the results of a one-year monitoring campaign of the 2.5-11.7 micron spectrum. Contemporaneous optical photometric and spectrophotometric observations are also presented. The galaxy appears as a point-like source at the resolution of the ISOCAM instrument, 4-5". The 2.5-11.7 micron average spectrum of the nucleus in Mrk 279 shows a strong power law continuum with a spectral index alpha = -0.80+/-0.05 and weak PAH emission features. The Mrk 279 spectral energy distribution shows a mid-IR bump, which extends from 2 to 15-20 micron . The mid-IR bump is consistent with thermal emission from dust grains at a distance of >= 100 light-days. No significant variations of the mid-IR flux have been detected during our observing campaign, consistent with the relatively low amplitude (~10 % rms) of the optical variability during the campaign. The time delay for the Hbeta line emission in response to the optical ...

  20. Discrimination of five species of Fritillaria and its extracts by FT-IR and 2D-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jin, Zhexiong; Zhou, Qun; Chen, Jianbo; Lei, Yu; Sun, Suqin

    2010-06-01

    Bulbus Fritillariae (in Chinese named Beimu), referred to the bulbs of several Fritillaria species ( Liliaceae), is a commonly used anti-tussive and expectorant herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 2000 years. The objective of this study is to discriminate five species of Beimu herbs and their total alkaloid extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared spectroscopy, and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) under thermal perturbation. The structural information of the samples indicated that, Beimu and their extract residues contain a large amount of starch, since some characteristic absorption peaks of the starch, such as 1158, 1080, 1015 and 987 cm -1 can be observed. Further more, the characteristic absorption peaks of the sulfate which arouse at 1120 ± 5 and 618 cm -1 in the IR spectra of Beimu aqueous extracts can be find. This validated that people used the sulfur fumigation method in the processing. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.

  1. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  2. Micro cryogenic coolers for IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan; Wang, Yunda; Cooper, Jill; Lin, Martin M.; Bright, Victor M.; Lee, Y. C.; Bradley, Peter E.; Radebaugh, Ray; Huber, Marcia L.

    2011-06-01

    Joule-Thomson micro cryogenic coolers (MCCs) are a preferred approach for small and low power cryocoolers. With the same heat lift, MCC's power input can be only 1/10 of a thermoelectric cooler's input, and MCC's size can be only 1/10 of a Stirling cooler's size. With futuristic planar MCC and with high frequency MEMS compressors to be developed, its size can be reduced another order of magnitude. Such "invisible" cryocoolers may revolutionize future IR imaging systems. We will review our studies on the feasibility of MCC with an emphasis on: 1) high thermal isolation levels reaching 89,000 K/W; 2) custom-designed gas mixtures with refrigeration capabilities increased by 10X and pressure ratio reduced to only 4:1; 3) compressors with low pressure ratios; and 4) excellent scalability for further size reduction.

  3. SODART optical block of the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Frederiksen, P.; Polny, Josef

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the successful integration of the optical block of the SODART telescopes to be flown on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite. The integration involves both the integration of the two high throughput x-ray telescopes as well as the objective crystal spectrometer....... The integrated unit meets all mechanical, thermal and optical specifications and it is now in safe storage in Moscow and awaits further integration procedures with the remaining satellite structure....

  4. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; Van Duinen, R.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.; Clegg, P. E.; De Jong, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) consists of a spacecraft and a liquid helium cryostat that contains a cooled IR telescope. The telescope's focal plane assembly is cooled to less than 3 K, and contains 62 IR detectors in the survey array which are arranged so that every source crossing the field of view can be seen by at least two detectors in each of four wavelength bands. The satellite was launched into a 900 km-altitude near-polar orbit, and its cryogenic helium supply was exhausted on November 22, 1983. By mission's end, 72 percent of the sky had been observed with three or more hours-confirming scans, and 95 percent with two or more hours-confirming scans. About 2000 stars detected at 12 and 25 microns early in the mission, and identified in the SAO (1966) catalog, have a positional uncertainty ellipse whose axes are 45 x 9 arcsec for an hours-confirmed source.

  5. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  6. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  7. The Other Chemistry of the Jovian Icy Satellites - Low Energy and Sulfurous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, M. J.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra of Jupiter's icy satellites reveal surfaces dominated by H2O-ice with minor amounts of SO2 and other materials. The co-existence of H2O and SO2 in surfaces exposed to jovian magnetospheric radiation suggests that sulfuric acid (H2SO4) also could be present. This was noted by Carlson et al. (1999), who supported this suggestion with assignments of near-IR bands in Europa spectra to hydrated H2SO4. Laboratory experiments since have demonstrated radiolytically-driven syntheses in S- and SO2-containing H2O-Ices (Carlson et al., 2002; Moore et al., 2006). In the Cosmic Ice Laboratory, we recently have investigated the thermal chemistry of SO2 trapped in H2O-ice. IR spectra of H2O + SO2 mixtures recorded at 10 to 230 K were used to follow low-temperature reactions in the absence of radiation effects. No SO2 reactions were found at 10 K, but warming to more-relevant Europa temperatures produced both HSO3(-) and S2O5(2-). Added NH3 shifted the product composition toward SO3(2-) and away from the other ions. We find that H2O and SO2 react to produce sulfur oxyanions, such as bisulfite, that as much as 30% of the SO2 can be consumed through this reaction, and that the products remain in the ice when the temperature is lowered, indicating that these reactions are irreversible. Our results suggest that thermally-induced reactions can alter the chemistry at and below the surfaces of the icy satellites in the jovian system.

  8. #Occupy IR: Exposing the Orthodoxy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Manokha; Mona Chalabi

    2012-01-01

    The #occupy IR/IPE initiative was created in response to the #occupy movement, whose own roots can be traced backed to the latest crisis of global finance. In this contribution, we link #occupy and the crisis in a different way. We argue that we must occupy IR/IPE because of the discipline’s failure to apprehend and acknowledge the crisis itself, just as the Occupy movement is calling for their overarching authorities to notice and help address the social and economic inequalities produced by...

  9. Rethinking IR from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Picq

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes Amazonia as a site to think world politics. The Amazon is invisible in the study International Relations (IR, yet its experiences are deeply global. I present the international dynamics at play in Amazonia at different historical moments to posit that this periphery has contributed to forging the political-economy of what is refer to as the core. The Amazon's absence from the study of IR speaks about the larger inequality in processes of knowledge production. Serious engagements with Amazonia are one way to invite a plurality of worlds in the production of theories, disrupting global divisions of labor in knowledge production ally.

  10. Large exchange bias enhancement in (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co trilayers with ultrathin IrMn thanks to interfacial Cu dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinai, G. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Moritz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, Bd des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Bandiera, S. [Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-21

    The magnitude of exchange bias (H{sub ex}) at room temperature can be significantly enhanced in IrMn/Co and (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co structures thanks to the insertion of an ultrathin Cu dusting layer at the IrMn/Co interface. The combination of trilayer structure and interfacial Cu dusting leads to a three-fold increase in H{sub ex} as compared to the conventional IrMn/Co bilayer structure, with an increased blocking temperature (T{sub B}) and a concave curvature of the temperature dependence H{sub ex}(T), ideal for improved Thermally Assisted-Magnetic Random Access Memory storage layer. This exchange bias enhancement is ascribed to a reduction of the spin frustration at the IrMn/Co interface thanks to interfacial Cu addition.

  11. WFC3 IR Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The IR imaging performance over the detector will be assessed periodically {every 4 months} in two passbands to check for image stability. The field around star 58 in the open cluster NGC188 is the chosen target because it is sufficiently dense to provide good sampling over the FOV while providing enough isolated stars to permit accurate PSF {point spread function} measurement. It is available year-round and used previously for ACS image quality assessment. The field is astrometric, and astrometric guide stars will be used, so that the plate scale and image orientation may also be determined if necessary {as in SMOV proposals 11437 and 11443}. Full frame images will be obtained at each of 4 POSTARG offset positions designed to improve sampling over the detector in F098M, F105W, and F160W. The PSFs will be sampled at 4 positions with subpixel shifts in filters F164N and F127M.This proposal is a periodic repeat {once every 4 months} of the visits in SMOV proposal 11437 {activity ID WFC3-24}. The data will be analyzed using the code and techniques described in ISR WFC3 2008-41 {Hartig}. Profiles of encircled energy will be monitored and presented in an ISR. If an update to the SIAF is needed, {V2,V3} locations of stars will be obtained from the Flight Ops Sensors and Calibrations group at GSFC, the {V2,V3} of the reference pixel and the orientation of the detector will be determined by the WFC3 group, and the Telescopes group will update and deliver the SIAF to the PRDB branch.The specific PSF metrics to be examined are encircled energy for aperture diameter 0.25, 0.37, and 0.60 arcsec, FWHM, and sharpness. {See ISR WFC3 2008-41 tables 2 and 3 and preceding text.} 20 stars distributed over the detector will be measured in each exposure for each filter. The mean, rms, and rms of the mean will be determined for each metric. The values determined from each of the 4 exposures per filter within a visit will be compared to each other to see to what extent they are affected

  12. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  13. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  14. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-04-25

    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles.

  15. Validation strategy for satellite observations of tropospheric reactive gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Richter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twodecades, satellite observations of tropospheric composition have becomepossible using nadir viewing spectrometers operating in the UV, visible, nearinfrared, and thermal infrared spectral range. [...

  16. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  17. IRS memorandum limits joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A W

    1992-08-01

    Based on a new memorandum, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will be looking at joint hospital/physician activities with greater attention to the nuances of public versus private benefit. As a result, hospitals face greater risk of losing their tax-exempt status in the maze of joint ventures, physician recruitment, and practice acquisition. To be successful, ventures will have to be backed by sound reasoning and thorough documentation.

  18. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2016-06-14

    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  19. Surface Emissivity Effects on Thermodynamic Retrieval of IR Spectral Radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu

    2006-01-01

    The surface emissivity effect on the thermodynamic parameters (e.g., the surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture) retrieved from satellite infrared (IR) spectral radiance is studied. Simulation analysis demonstrates that surface emissivity plays an important role in retrieval of surface skin temperature and terrestrial boundary layer (TBL) moisture. NAST-I ultraspectral data collected during the CLAMS field campaign are used to retrieve thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere and surface. The retrievals are then validated by coincident in-situ measurements, such as sea surface temperature, radiosonde temperature and moisture profiles. Retrieved surface emissivity is also validated by that computed from the observed radiance and calculated emissions based on the retrievals of surface temperature and atmospheric profiles. In addition, retrieved surface skin temperature and emissivity are validated together by radiance comparison between the observation and retrieval-based calculation in the window region where atmospheric contribution is minimized. Both simulation and validation results have lead to the conclusion that variable surface emissivity in the inversion process is needed to obtain accurate retrievals from satellite IR spectral radiance measurements. Retrieval examples are presented to reveal that surface emissivity plays a significant role in retrieving accurate surface skin temperature and TBL thermodynamic parameters.

  20. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  1. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  2. Spacecraft (Mobile Satellite) configuration design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The relative costs to procure and operate a two-satellite mobile satellite system designed to operate either in the UHF band of the L Band, and with several antenna diameter options in each frequency band was investigated. As configured, the size of the spacecraft is limited to the current RCA Series 4000 Geosynchronous Communications Spacecraft bus, which spans the range from 4000 to 5800 pounds in the transfer orbit. The Series 4000 bus forms the basis around which the Mobile Satellite transponder and associated antennas were appended. Although the resultant configuration has little outward resemblance to the present Series 4000 microwave communications spacecraft, the structure, attitude control, thermal, power, and command and control subsystems of the Series 4000 spacecraft are all adapted to support the Mobile Satellite mission.

  3. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Tronin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.

  5. Cr:ZnSe planar waveguide mid-IR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimas, J. E.; Martyshkin, D. V.; Fedorov, V. V.; Moskalev, I. S.; Camata, R. P.; Mirov, S. B.

    2011-02-01

    Middle infrared (mid-IR) chromium-doped zinc selenide (Cr:ZnSe) bulk lasers have attracted a lot of attention due to their unique combination of optical and laser properties facilitating a wide range of potential scientific, industrial, and medical applications. Utilization of thin film waveguide geometry enabling good thermal management and control of beam quality is a viable pathway for compact chip-integrated optical laser design. Cr:ZnSe thin films are also promising as saturable absorbers and mode-lockers of the cavities of solid state lasers operating over 1.3-2.1 μm. We recently reported the first successful demonstration of mid-IR Cr:ZnSe planar waveguide lasing at 2.6 μm under gain-switched short-pulse (5 ns) 1.56 μm excitation as well as the passive Q-switching of the cavity of a fiber-pumped Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm using a highly doped Cr:ZnSe thin film. PLD grown Cr:ZnSe waveguide were fabricated on sapphire substrates (Cr:ZnSe/sapphire) with chromium concentration of 1018-1019 cm-3. Further development of mid-IR lasing in the Cr:ZnSe planar waveguide under continuous wave excitation were investigated. In addition, deposition of Cr:ZnSe-based thin film structures on n-type GaAs substrates were also investigated for possible mid-IR electroluminescence.

  6. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  7. Red-IR stimulated luminescence in K-feldspar: Single or multiple trap origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalbitzer Andersen, Martin; Jain, Mayank; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-08-01

    We investigate on the origins of the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in 3 potassium feldspars based on IR-red spectroscopy (˜700-1050 nm) using a fiber-coupled tunable Ti:Sapphire laser, in combination with different thermal and optical (pre)treatments of the samples. We also measure dose-response curves with different wavelengths and at different stimulation temperatures so as to be able to distinguish between traps based on their electron trapping cross-sections. Our data suggest that the dosimetric signals, IRSL, and the post IR-IRSL in K-feldspars arise from a single electron trapping centre.

  8. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglass; Spergel, David N.; Staggs,Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  9. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  10. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  11. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  12. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  13. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  14. Moisture map by IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinzato, E.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.

    2010-10-01

    A new approach to moisture detection in buildings by an optical method is presented. Limits of classical and new methods are discussed. The state of the art about the use of IR thermography is illustrated as well. The new technique exploits characteristics of the materials and takes into account explicitly the heat and mass exchange between surface and environment. A set of experiments in controlled laboratory conditions on different materials is used to better understand the physical problem. The testing procedure and the data reduction are illustrated. A case study on a heritage building points up the features of this technique.

  15. Damping and spin mixing conductance in Ni80Fe20/CuIr structures: effect of Ir doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Zighem, F.; Tiusan, C.

    2017-04-01

    Ni80Fe20(Py) thin films of different thicknesses have been sputtered on thermally oxidized Si substrates and capped with Pt or Cu doped with 6 % , 3 % and 1 % of Ir. Vibrating sample magnetometery has been used to measure the magnetization at saturation. Microstrip line ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR) has been used to investigate the Py and capping layer thickness dependence of the damping parameter enhancement due to the spin pumping. The experimental data have been analyzed using a model for spin pumping that includes the effective spin mixing conductance at the Py/HM (HM  =  Pt and CuIr) interface and the spin-diffusion length of HM. The spin mixing conductance (spin diffusion length) increases (decreases) as Ir doping increases. For samples capped with Pt (CuIr(6%)), the obtained values of spin mixing conductance and the spin diffusion length have been estimated to be 25 nm‑2 (9.87 nm‑2) and 1.05 nm (2.8 nm), respectively. MS-FMR measurements revealed that the effective magnetization varies linearly with the effective Py thickness due to the perpendicular surface anisotropy.

  16. PM-GCD – a combined IR–MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Casella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO satellites can reach high level of accuracy – especially regarding convective precipitation. At the present stage though, these observations cannot provide satisfactory coverage of the evolution of intense and rapid precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications – especially in supporting authorities for flood alerts and weather warnings. To tackle this problem, over the past two decades several techniques have been developed combining accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR observations from geosynchronous (GEO satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG. In this framework, we have developed a new fast and simple precipitation retrieval technique which we call Passive Microwave – Global Convective Diagnostic, (PM-GCD. This method uses MW retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convective Diagnostic (GCD technique which discriminates deep convective clouds based on the difference between the MSG water vapor (6.2 μm and thermal-IR (10.8 μm channels. Specifically, MSG observations and the GCD technique are used to identify deep convective areas. These areas are then calibrated using MW precipitation estimates based on observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU radiometers onboard operational NOAA and Eumetsat satellites, and then finally propagated in time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique, analyzing its results for a case study that refers to a flood event that struck the island of Sicily in southern Italy on 1–2 October 2009.

  17. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  18. Geodetic Secor Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  19. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  20. Magnetism, hysteresis cycle, and Ir-substitution doping of Sr2CrIrO6 double perovskite: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhazouani, O.; El Khatabi, M.; Zarhri, Z.; Slassi, A.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.

    2016-12-01

    Iridium-based double perovskite (DP) Sr2CrIrO6 is expected to have the highest Curie temperatures (Tc) among all DPs and a high spin-polarization at room temperature, thanks to the more extended 5d orbitals of Ir, which makes it potential candidate in spintronic applications. Several publications have appeared in recent years documenting Ir-based double perovskites, but very few have explored the promising compound Sr2CrIrO6. In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation has been carried out in the framework of Ising model to make an exploratory study of Sr2CrIrO6. Thermal magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, internal energy and specific heat have been studied. Effect of crystal field of Ir on the magnetic properties has been explored. Magnetic hysteresis cycle has been studied in relation to the exchange coupling values. Effects of Ir-substitution doping by Os "Sr2CrIrxOs1 - xO6" and by Re "Sr2CrIrxRe1 - xO6" (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) on the magnetic behavior have been investigated.

  1. Cloud mask via cumulative discriminant analysis applied to satellite infrared observations: scientific basis and initial evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Amato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a classification method (Cumulative Discriminant Analysis of the Discriminant Analysis type to discriminate between cloudy and clear sky satellite observations in the thermal infrared. The tool is intended for the high spectral resolution infrared sounder (IRS planned for the geostationary METEOSAT (Meteorological Satellite Third Generation platform and uses IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer data as a proxy. The Cumulative Discriminant Analysis does not introduce biases intrinsic with the approximation of the probability density functions and is flexible enough to adapt to different strategies to optimize the cloud mask. The methodology is based on nine statistics computed from IASI spectral radiances, which exploit the high spectral resolution of the instrument and which effectively summarize information contained within the IASI spectrum. A Principal Component Analysis prior step is also introduced which makes the problem more consistent with the statistical assumptions of the methodology. An initial assessment of the scheme is performed based on global and regional IASI real data sets and cloud masks obtained from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager imagers. The agreement with these independent cloud masks is generally well above 80%, except at high latitudes in their winter seasons.

  2. Cloud mask via cumulative discriminant analysis applied to satellite infrared observations: scientific basis and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, U.; Lavanant, L.; Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Stuhlmann, R.; Tjemkes, S. A.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a classification method (cumulative discriminant analysis) of the discriminant analysis type to discriminate between cloudy and clear-sky satellite observations in the thermal infrared. The tool is intended for the high-spectral-resolution infrared sounder (IRS) planned for the geostationary METEOSAT (Meteorological Satellite) Third Generation platform and uses IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) data as a proxy. The cumulative discriminant analysis does not introduce biases intrinsic with the approximation of the probability density functions and is flexible enough to adapt to different strategies to optimize the cloud mask. The methodology is based on nine statistics computed from IASI spectral radiances, which exploit the high spectral resolution of the instrument and which effectively summarize information contained within the IASI spectrum. A principal component analysis prior step is also introduced, which makes the problem more consistent with the statistical assumptions of the methodology. An initial assessment of the scheme is performed based on global and regional IASI real data sets and cloud masks obtained from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) imagers. The agreement with these independent cloud masks is generally well above 80 %, except at high latitudes in the winter seasons.

  3. IR-laser assisted additive freeform optics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhihan; Liang, Rongguang

    2017-08-02

    Computer-controlled additive manufacturing (AM) processes, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, create 3D objects by the successive adding of a material or materials. While there have been tremendous developments in AM, the 3D printing of optics is lagging due to the limits in materials and tight requirements for optical applicaitons. We propose a new precision additive freeform optics manufacturing (AFOM) method using an pulsed infrared (IR) laser. Compared to ultraviolet (UV) curable materials, thermally curable optical silicones have a number of advantages, such as strong UV stability, non-yellowing, and high transmission, making it particularly suitable for optical applications. Pulsed IR laser radiation offers a distinct advantage in processing optical silicones, as the high peak intensity achieved in the focal region allows for curing the material quickly, while the brief duration of the laser-material interaction creates a negligible heat-affected zone.

  4. Studies of Neutron Stars at Optical/IR Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; De Luca, A; Israel, G L; Curto, G L; Motch, C; Perna, R; Rea, N; Turolla, R; Zane, S

    2006-01-01

    In the last years, optical studies of Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) have expanded from the more classical rotation-powered ones to other categories, like the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs), which make up the class of the magnetars, the radio-quiet INSs with X-ray thermal emission and, more recently, the enigmatic Compact Central Objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants. Apart from 10 rotation-powered pulsars, so far optical/IR counterparts have been found for 5 magnetars and for 4 INSs. In this work we present some of the latest observational results obtained from optical/IR observations of different types of INSs.

  5. IR-based spot weld NDT in automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2015-05-01

    Today's auto industry primarily relies on destructive teardown evaluation to ensure the quality of the resistance spot welds (RSWs) due to their criticality in crash resistance and performance of vehicles. The destructive teardown evaluation is labor intensive and costly. The very nature of the destructive test means only a few selected welds will be sampled for quality. Most of the welds in a car are never checked. There are significant costs and risks associated with reworking and scrapping the defective welded parts made between the teardown tests. IR thermography as a non-destructive testing (NDT) tool has its distinct advantage — its non-intrusive and non-contact nature. This makes the IR based NDT especially attractive for the highly automated assembly lines. IR for weld quality inspection has been explored in the past, mostly limited to the offline post-processing manner in a laboratory environment. No online real-time RSW inspection using IR thermography has been reported. Typically for postprocessing inspection, a short-pulse heating via xenon flash lamp light (in a few milliseconds) is applied to the surface of a spot weld. However, applications in the auto industry have been unsuccessful, largely due to a critical drawback that cannot be implemented in the high-volume production line - the prerequisite of painting the weld surface to eliminate surface reflection and other environmental interference. This is due to the low signal-to-noise ratio resulting from the low/unknown surface emissivity and the very small temperature changes (typically on the order of 0.1°C) induced by the flash lamp method. An integrated approach consisting of innovations in both data analysis algorithms and hardware apparatus that effectively solved the key technical barriers for IR NDT. The system can be used for both real-time (during welding) and post-processing inspections (after welds have been made). First, we developed a special IR thermal image processing method that

  6. High speed heterodyne infrared thermography applied to thermal diffusivity identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, C.; Clerjaud, L.; Batsale, J. C.; Dilhaire, S.

    2011-05-01

    We have combined InfraRed thermography and thermal wave techniques to perform microscale, ultrafast (microsecond) temperature field measurements. The method is based on an IR camera coupled to a microscope and synchronized to the heat source by means of phase locked function generators. The principle is based on electronic stroboscopic sampling where the low IR camera acquisition frequency facq (25 Hz) undersamples a high frequency thermal wave. This technique permits the measurement of the emissive thermal response at a (microsecond) short time scale (microsecond) with the full frame mode of the IR camera with a spatial thermal resolution of 7 μm. Then it becomes possible to study 3D transient heat transfer in heterogeneous and high thermal conductive thin layers. Thus it is possible for the first time in our knowledge to achieve temperature field measurements in heterogeneous media within a wide range of time domains. The IR camera is now a suitable instrument for multiscale thermal analysis.

  7. Photothermal Ablation of in Situ Renal Tumor by PEG-IR780-C13 Micelles and Near-Infrared Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Xu, Linfeng; Zhang, Yanting; Yuan, Ahu; Wang, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Wu, Jinhui; Guo, Hongqian; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-03-07

    PEG-IR780-C13 micelles have been demonstrated to be a novel photothermal agent with tumor-targeting property. This study was designed to explore the feasibility of applying PEG-IR780-C13 micelles and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation for thermal ablation of renal tumor by using an in situ tumor model. In addition, the potential thermal injury to normal renal tissue was evaluated. PEG-IR780-C13 micelles were intended to accumulate in renal tumor after systemic delivery. In vitro results revealed that PEG-IR780-C13 micelles were uptaken by RENCA cells mainly through caveola-mediated endocytosis and mainly distributed in late endosomes and lysosomes. Upon NIR irradiation, PEG-IR780-C13 micelles generated heat effectively both in vitro and in vivo, exhibiting a promising photothermal therapeutic property. The photothermal effect of PEG-IR780-C13 micelles could effectively destroy RENCA cells in vitro and adequately inhibit growth of in situ renal tumor in vivo. Meanwhile, PEG-IR780-C13 micelles mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) resulting in only limited injury to normal renal tissue surrounding tumor sites. Our data indicated that PEG-IR780-C13 micelles mediating PTT could generate tumor-specific heat for destruction of renal tumor in a minimally invasive way, providing a novel strategy for thermal ablation of renal tumor.

  8. Application of cooled IR focal plane arrays in thermographic cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollheim, B.; Gaertner, M.; Dammass, G.; Krausz, M.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors in thermographic or radiometric thermal imaging cameras, respectively, leads to special demands on these detectors, which are discussed in this paper. For a radiometric calibration of wide temperature measuring ranges from -40 up to 2,000 °C, a linear and time-stable response of the photodiode array has to be ensured for low as well as high radiation intensities. The maximum detectable photon flux is limited by the allowed shift of the photodiode's bias that should remain in the linear part of the photodiode's I(V) curve even for the highest photocurrent. This limits the measurable highest object temperature in practice earlier than the minimum possible integration time. Higher temperature measuring ranges are realized by means of neutral or spectral filters. Defense and Security applications normally provide images at the given ambient temperature with small hot spots. The usage of radiometric thermal imagers for thermography often feature larger objects with a high temperature contrast to the background. This should not generate artifacts in the image, like pixel patterns or stripes. Further issues concern the clock regime or the sub-frame capabilities of the Read-Out-Circuit and the frame rate dependency of the signal. We will briefly describe the demands on the lens design for thermal imaging cameras when using cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors with large apertures.

  9. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  10. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  11. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chrysotile and crocidolite fibers with IR-spectroscopy: application to asbestos-cement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, D; Valerio, F

    1986-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectrophotometry allows simple and quick qualitative and quantitative evaluations of different kinds of asbestos, as well as of other inorganic particles. In particular, chrysotile and crocidolite have characteristic IR spectra and optical density measures of 2,710 nm band for chrysotile, of 12,820 nm band for crocidolite permit quantitative evaluation of each fiber alone or in mixture. IR spectra also give informations about changes of fiber structure and of chemical composition due, for example, to thermal treatment or acid leaching. The analytical method we developed can detect levels as low as 0.1 mg of fiber in a 300 mg disk of KBr using a low cost IR spectrophotometer. The use of a Fourier Transform IR spectrophotometer (FTIR) improves dramatically the sensitivity and selectivity. Computer assisted analysis of spectra offers the possibility to reduce matrix interferences and to compare different spectra. Examples of IR technique applied to asbestos-cement products and insulating materials are presented.

  14. A COMPARATIVE ASTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE HIGH-MASS PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS NGC 7538 IRS 9 AND IRS 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barentine, John C.; Lacy, John H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We report the results of a spectroscopic study of the high-mass protostellar object NGC 7538 IRS 9 and compare our observations to published data on the nearby object NGC 7538 IRS 1. Both objects originated in the same molecular cloud and appear to be at different points in their evolutionary histories, offering an unusual opportunity to study the temporal evolution of envelope chemistry in objects sharing a presumably identical starting composition. Observations were made with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph, a sensitive, high spectral resolution (R {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx_equal} 100,000) mid-infrared grating spectrometer. Forty-six individual lines in vibrational modes of the molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, NH{sub 3}, and CO were detected, including two isotopologues ({sup 13}CO, {sup 12}C{sup 18}O) and one combination mode ({nu}{sub 4} + {nu}{sub 5} C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). Fitting synthetic spectra to the data yielded the Doppler shift, excitation temperature, Doppler b parameter, column density, and covering factor for each molecule observed; we also computed column density upper limits for lines and species not detected, such as HNCO and OCS. We find differences among spectra of the two objects likely attributable to their differing radiation and thermal environments. Temperatures and column densities for the two objects are generally consistent, while the larger line widths toward IRS 9 result in less saturated lines than those toward IRS 1. Finally, we compute an upper limit on the size of the continuum-emitting region ({approx}2000 AU) and use this constraint and our spectroscopy results to construct a schematic model of IRS 9.

  15. Recommended satellite imagery capabilities for disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. B.; Robinove, C. J.; Wiesnet, D. R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explores the role that satellite imaging systems might play in obtaining information needed in the management of natural and manmade disasters. Information requirements which might conceivably be met by satellite were identified for over twenty disasters. These requirements covered pre-disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, disaster response activities, and post-disaster recovery activities. The essential imaging satellite characteristics needed to meet most of the information requirements are 30 meter (or finer) spatial resolution, frequency of observations of one week or less, data delivery times of one day or less, and stereo, synoptic all-weather coverage of large areas in the visible, near infrared, thermal infrared and microwave bands. Of the current and planned satellite systems investigated for possible application to disaster management, Landsat-D and SPOT appear to have the greatest potential during disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, but all satellites studied have serious deficiencies during response and recovery activities. Several strawman concepts are presented for a satellite system optimized to support all disaster management activities.

  16. Expanded IR glass map for multispectral optics designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Beadie, Guy; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents new multispectral IR glasses with transmission from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and refractive index from 2.38 to 2.17. These new glasses are designed to have comparable glass softening temperatures and compatible coefficients of thermal expansion to allow bonding and co-molding of multilayer optics. With large variation in their Abbe numbers and negative to near-zero dn/dT, optics made from these new glasses can significantly reduce the size/weight or complexity of the multispectral imaging systems for weight sensitive platforms.

  17. Determination of sea surface temperatures from microwave and IR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Grover, J.

    1982-01-01

    Microwave measurements from the Nimbus 7 SMMR were used to derive the atmospheric precipitable water, which was then used to obtain the atmospheric correction for use with AVHRR thermal IR measurements to obtain sea surface temperature (SST). The resulting SST's were compared with the NOAA operational sea surface temperature measurements, and the two sets of measurements were found to be in reasonable agreement. The average residuals between the two sets of measurements was 0.15 K with the NOAA operational SST's being slightly greater.

  18. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  19. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  20. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  1. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  2. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myth...... helps us recognize what is missing from IR theorizing - conceptions of the international by 'others' who also constitute the international. I illustrate this point by focussing on a landmark text on Ottoman history, Ortayll's The Longest Century of the Empire....

  3. IR properties of AGN and SB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talezade Lari, M. H.; Davoudifar, P.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Through multi-wavelength flux ratios it is possible to detect AGN and Star-burst Galaxies. Techniques of detecting extragalactic objects as well as AGN are studied in different wavelengths (X-Ray, Radio and IR). Specification of AGN as IR and radio sources is discussed. IR catalogues of 2MASS and WISE were used to study the interrelationship between interactions/merging, starburst and AGN phenomena.

  4. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  5. IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2005-03-01

    For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  6. Reliability Design and Electro-Thermal-Optical Simulation of Bridge-Style Infrared Thermal Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Designs and simulations of silicon-based micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS infrared (IR thermal emitters for gas sensing application are presented. The IR thermal emitter is designed as a bridge-style hotplate (BSH structure suspended on a silicon frame for realizing a good thermal isolation between hotplate and frame. For investigating the reliability of BSH structure, three kinds of fillet structures were designed in the contact corner between hotplate and frame. A 3-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM is used to investigate the electro-thermal, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-optical properties of BSH IR emitter using software COMSOLTM (COMSOL 4.3b, COMSOL Inc., Stockholm, Sweden. The simulation results show that the BSH with oval fillet has the lowest stress distribution and smoothest flows of stress streamlines, while the BSH with square fillet has the highest temperature and stress distribution. The thermal-optical and thermal-response simulations further indicate that the BSH with oval fillet is the optimal design for a reliable IR thermal emitter in spite of having slight inadequacies in emission intensity and modulation bandwidth in comparison with other two structures.

  7. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger

    2014-01-01

    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  8. Satellite communication antenna technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  9. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  10. Thermal Design and Flight Validation for Solid-state Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state transmitter with large power and high heat flux is a key equipment of an HJ-1-C satellite; therefore, it has a great influence on satellite thermal design. Thermal design ensures that the solid-state transmitter works well within the allowable temperature limits of the equipment. The solid-state transmitter thermal design and solved key problems are provided in accordance with the HJ-1-C characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of satellites on orbit was performed. Based on the telemetry data, the thermal control design is shown to satisfy the temperature requirements of the solid-state transmitter.

  11. Transition Metal Dithiolene Near-IR Dyes and Thier Applications in Liquid Crystal Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, K.L.; Painter, G.; Lotito, K.; Noto, A.G.; Chang, P.

    2006-08-18

    Numerous commercial and military applications exist for guest–host liquid crystal (LC) devices operating in the near- to mid-IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near-IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near-IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. In this paper, we overview our past and present activities in the design and synthesis of transition metal dithiolene dyes, show some specific applications examples for these materials as near-IR dyes in LC electro-optical devices, and present our most recent results in the computational modeling of physical and optical properties of this interesting class of organometallic optical materials.

  12. Reference-free nonuniformity compensation for IR imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Multi-detector IR imaging focal plane arrays possess large detector-to-detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations which can completely mask the useful thermal signatures in IR scenes. Conventional detector compensation techniques require uniform temperature references of constant radiance over the entire field of view and a mechanical/electro-optical shutter. This detracts from the mechanical simplicity of multi-detector staring focal planes (which require no scanning). This paper describes a real-time offset and responsivity (gain) compensation technique which dispenses with temperature references and shutters in staring focal planes. The technique makes use of the IR scene itself for calibration and continuously updates the compensation coefficients without interrupting the field of view with a shutter or a temperature reference. The results of real-time simulations of this technique with a number of sensors are presented. Real-time hardware implementation considerations suggest that the technique can be implemented with the addition of very little hardware to a conventional compensation technique requiring temperature references. The technique is also suitable for multi-detector scanning focal planes and for the removal of shading in TV sensors as well.

  13. Development of Monolithic Michelson Interferometer for RV measurement in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian C.

    2010-07-01

    We present a fixed delay interferometer to be installed in IR-ET (Infra-Red Exoplanets Tracker). We introduce the design, fabrication and testing processes. In particular, we present a new methodology of computing the fundamental limit of radial velocity (RV) measurement given by photon noise for DFDI (Dispersed Fixed Delay Interferometer) method as opposed to conventional echelle method. The new method is later used to determine the optical path difference (OPD) of the IR-ET interferometer. In addition, we introduce a novel method of monitoring the stability of the interferometer for IR-ET in broad-band using fourier-transform white-light scanning interferometry technique. The new method can be potentially expanded and applied to thermo-optic effect measurement if temperature control system is introduced into the experiment. The thermal response of the optical system is 3500 m/s/°C. We find that the RV calibration precision of 'Bracketing' method is 1.74 m/s without temperature control.

  14. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous ...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  15. HST Frontier Fields: WFC3/IR data processing, persistence, time-variable background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandrika, Harish G.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Mack, Jennifer; Robberto, Massimo; Hilbert, Bryan; Sabbi, Elena; Hubble Frontier Fields Pipeline Team, WFC3 Team

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) pipeline and WFC3 teams discuss the specialized procedures for processing IR data for the Frontier Fields program. Frontier Fields is a Director's Discretionary program that uses ultra-deep imaging to observe lensing galaxy clusters in an effort to search for the most distant observable galaxy. The program uses both the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) observing the prime and parallel areas of each field simultaneously. The WFC3/IR data are processed through a pipeline which performs calibrations not included in the standard CalWF3 software including persistence correction, Time-Variable-Background (TVB) correction, and scripts used to create satellite trail masks. Here the HFF pipeline team present the individual methods that perform the corrections and showcase the results of these corrections on sample data of Abell 370, Abell S1063 and others.

  16. Comparative Study of the Optical and Heat Generation Properties of IR820 and Indocyanine Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fernandez-Fernandez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR fluorophores are the focus of extensive research for combined molecular imaging and hyperthermia. In this study, we showed that the cyanine dye IR820 has optical and thermal generation properties similar to those of indocyanine green (ICG but with improved in vitro and in vivo stability. The fluorescent emission of IR820 has a lower quantum yield than ICG but less dependence of the emission peak location on concentration. IR820 demonstrated degradation half-times approximately double those of ICG under all temperature and light conditions in aqueous solution. In hyperthermia applications, IR820 generated lower peak temperatures than ICG (4–9% after 3-minute laser exposure. However, there was no significant difference in hyperthermia cytotoxicity, with both dyes causing significant cell growth inhibition at concentrations ≥ 5 μM. Fluorescent images of cells with 10 μM IR820 were similar to ICG images. In rats, IR820 resulted in a significantly more intense fluorescence signal and significantly higher organ dye content than for ICG 24 hours after intravenous dye administration (p < .05. Our study shows that IR820 is a feasible agent in experimental models of imaging and hyperthermia and could be an alternative to ICG when greater stability, longer image collection times, or more predictable peak locations are desirable.

  17. Thin film encapsulated 1D thermoelectric detector in an IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    A thermopile-based detector array for use in a miniaturized Infrared (IR) spectrometer has been designed and fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The emphasis is on the optimal of the detector array at the system level, while considering the thermal design, the dimensional constraints o

  18. Determining heat-transfer coefficients of solid objects by laser photothermal IR radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, S. E.; Gavrilov, G. A.; Kapralov, A. A.; Muratikov, K. L.; Sotnikova, G. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for determining heat-transfer coefficients of solid objects is proposed that is based on direct measurement of the sample surface temperature dynamics. The object is probed by a laser beam with preset temporal variation of the radiation power, and the thermal response is detected by photodiodes operating in the mid-IR spectral range without forced cooling.

  19. Design of inspection and acceptance test methodology for TIG welded aluminum-alloy bracket for camera housings for IRS-1A space craft and executing it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, V. K.; Vaghmare, Rajeev; Shah, A. K.

    1992-10-01

    The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) 1A was the first indigenously developed operational remote sensing satellite. The most critical element in the satellite was the remote sensing camera. The camera was mounted on aluminum alloy bracket which was fabricated by TIG welding. The methodology of acceptance and inspection of the TIG welded bracket is presented and discussed. These efforts not only provided the confidence in reliable welded joint but also provided trouble free operation of the camera on board the satellite for its whole life.

  20. Hydrogen intercalation under graphene on Ir(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grånäs, Elin; Gerber, Timm; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Schulte, Karina; Andersen, Jesper N.; Michely, Thomas; Knudsen, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy we study the intercalation of hydrogen under graphene/Ir(111). The hydrogen intercalated graphene is characterized by a component in C 1s that is shifted -0.10 to -0.18 eV with respect to pristine graphene and a component in Ir 4f at 60.54 eV. The position of this Ir 4f component is identical to that of the Ir(111) surface layer with hydrogen atoms adsorbed, indicating that the atomic hydrogen adsorption site on bare Ir(111) and beneath graphene is the same. Based on co-existence of fully- and non-intercalated graphene, and the inability to intercalate a closed graphene film covering the entire Ir(111) surface, we conclude that hydrogen dissociatively adsorbs at bare Ir(111) patches, and subsequently diffuses rapidly under graphene. A likely entry point for the intercalating hydrogen atoms is identified to be where graphene crosses an underlying Ir(111) step.

  1. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  2. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED (IR) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DESTRUCTION NOTICE FOR CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L

  3. The IR Luminosity Functions of Rich Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lei; Rieke, Marcia J; Christlein, Daniel; Zabludoff, Ann I

    2008-01-01

    We present MIPS observations of the cluster A3266. About 100 spectroscopic cluster members have been detected at 24 micron. The IR luminosity function in A3266 is very similar to that in the Coma cluster down to the detection limit L_IR~10^43 ergs/s, suggesting a universal form of the bright end IR LF for local rich clusters with M~10^15 M_sun. The shape of the bright end of the A3266-Coma composite IR LF is not significantly different from that of nearby field galaxies, but the fraction of IR-bright galaxies (SFR > 0.2M_sun/yr) in both clusters increases with cluster-centric radius. The decrease of the blue galaxy fraction toward the high density cores only accounts for part of the trend; the fraction of red galaxies with moderate SFRs (0.2 < SFR < 1 M_sun/yr) also decreases with increasing galaxy density. These results suggest that for the IR bright galaxies, nearby rich clusters are distinguished from the field by a lower star-forming galaxy fraction, but not by a change in L*_IR. The composite IR LF...

  4. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  5. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P attended believed they had more knowledge of IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P attendance could name a significantly greater number of IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P attended would consider a career in IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P attended had knowledge of the IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Infrared Images by Using a Human Thermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    thermal environmental history have been recorded. In this case, the thermal environmental history could be estimated from the behavior of a subject... environmental history and physiological condition history. An advantage of the evaluation of IR images using the thermal model is to provide

  7. Qualification tests for {sup 192}Ir sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancso, Georgeta, E-mail: georgetaiancso@yahoo.com; Iliescu, Elena, E-mail: georgetaiancso@yahoo.com; Iancu, Rodica, E-mail: georgetaiancso@yahoo.com [National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, Magurele (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    This paper describes the results of qualification tests for {sup 192}Ir sealed sources, available in Testing and Nuclear Expertise Laboratory of National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' (I.F.I.N.-HH), Romania. These sources had to be produced in I.F.I.N.-HH and were tested in order to obtain the authorization from The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). The sources are used for gammagraphy procedures or in gammadefectoscopy equipments. Tests, measurement methods and equipments used, comply with CNCAN, AIEA and International Quality Standards and regulations. The qualification tests are: 1. Radiological tests and measurements: dose equivalent rate at 1 m; tightness; dose equivalent rate at the surface of the transport and storage container; external unfixed contamination of the container surface. 2. Mechanical and climatic tests: thermal shock; external pressure; mechanic shock; vibrations; boring; thermal conditions for storage and transportation. Passing all tests, it was obtained the Radiological Security Authorization for producing the {sup 192}Ir sealed sources. Now IFIN-HH can meet many demands for this sealed sources, as the only manufacturer in Romania.

  8. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed.

  9. Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Shankar B.; Rost, Martin R.; Doctor, Alan P.

    1994-07-01

    The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology, where sintered flakes of the thermistor are bonded to the substrate. The thin film technique permits a variety of device constructions and configurations. Detectors fabricated on heat-sunk ceramic substrates can withstand high operating temperatures and large incident optical power, in both pulsed and CW laser measurements. For dc or low frequency measurements, the films can be deposited onto a thermally isolated membrane with applications in motion sensing, gas detection, and temperature measurement. Utilizing advances in micromachining a 2D array of thermally isolated microbolometer sensors, integrated onto a silicon wafer containing readout circuitry may be achieved. This paper describes the construction of the sputtered film thermistor detectors, their operation, and applications.

  10. Satellites of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  11. Communication satellite technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  12. Improved global high resolution precipitation estimation using multi-satellite multi-spectral information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangi, Ali

    from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network -- Multi-Spectral Analysis (PERSIANN-MSA) the effectiveness of using multi-spectral data for precipitation estimation are examined. In comparison to the use of a single thermal infrared channel, using multi-spectral data has a potential to significantly improve rain detection and estimation skills; (3) a method proposed to integrate the previously developed cloud classification system (PERSIANNCCS) with PERSIANN-MSA. Through the integration, PERSIANN-MSA benefits from both cloud-patch classification capability as well as multi-spectral information to culminate the GEO-based precipitation estimation techniques; (4) finally, a new combination technique that incorporates multi-sensor information is developed. The technique is called REFAME, short for Rain Estimation using Forward Adjustedadvection of Microwave Estimates. REFAME allows more consistent integration of MWVIS/ IR information through hybrid advection and adjustment of MW precipitation rate along cloud motion streamlines obtained from a 2D cloud tracking algorithm using successive GEO/IR images. Evaluated over a range of spatial and temporal scales it is demonstrated that REFAME is a robust technique for real-time high resolution precipitation estimation using multi-satellite information.

  13. Thermosense XII; Proceedings of the International Conference on Thermal Sensing and Imaging Diagnostic Applications, Orlando, FL, Apr. 18-20, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semanovich, Sharon A.

    Various papers on thermal sensing and imaging diagnostic applications are presented. Individual topics addressed include: material property measurements with postprocessed thermal image data, recent advances in digital thermography for NDE, numerical modeling of thermographic NDT for graphite epoxy laminates, transient thermographic NDE of turbine blades, fault location in printed wiring boards using thermal imaging, dynamic thermal tomography, influence of temperature gradients on the measurement accuracy of IR imaging systems. Also discussed are: Spacelab-qualified IR imager for microgravity science applications, theoretical and experimental analysis of the modulation response of a sample IR imaging system, IR-visualized air turbulence, noise and artifact reduction in IR thermography, noise suppression in IR thermal-wave video images by real-time processing in synchronism with active stimulation of the target, hydrogen fire-detection using thermal imaging and its application to space launch vehicles, automated IR-weld seam control.

  14. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-07-19

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  15. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  16. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  17. Using FT-IR Spectroscopy to Elucidate the Structures of Ablative Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The composition and structure of an ablative polymer has a multifaceted influence on its thermal, mechanical and ablative properties. Understanding the molecular level information is critical to the optimization of material performance because it helps to establish correlations with the macroscopic properties of the material, the so-called structure-property relationship. Moreover, accurate information of molecular structures is also essential to predict the thermal decomposition pathways as well as to identify decomposition species that are fundamentally important to modeling work. In this presentation, I will describe the use of infrared transmission spectroscopy (FT-IR) as a convenient tool to aid the discovery and development of thermal protection system materials.

  18. Simultaneous assessment of Lagrangian strain and temperature fields by improved IR-DIC strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. G.; Liu, C. H.; Jiang, C.

    2017-07-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a novel digital image correlation strategy based on infrared imaging (IR-DIC) for realizing simultaneous assessment of Lagrangian strain and temperature fields. A major difficulty in the IR-DIC is the evolution of the thermal field during deformation that is unexpected in the image correlation. Two solutions are proposed to tackle this difficulty. The first solution is to utilize a high-pass filter to eliminate the variation part of the thermal signal, and the second solution is to employ an advanced metric, the mutual information, as the correlation criterion. Both methods are verified through a tensile test performed on a notched specimen. The estimated displacement and strain fields demonstrate well the desirable performance of the proposed methods. Thanks to the kinematic field assessment, the obtained thermal fields can be described in the Lagrangian coordinate system, thus the temperature evolution of the material points during deformation can be followed effectively.

  19. Holographic RG flows with nematic IR phases

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonini, Sera; Rong, Junchen; Sun, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We construct zero-temperature geometries that interpolate between a Lifshitz fixed point in the UV and an IR phase that breaks spatial rotations but preserves translations. We work with a simple holographic model describing two massive gauge fields coupled to gravity and a neutral scalar. Our construction can be used to describe RG flows in non-relativistic, strongly coupled quantum systems with nematic order in the IR. In particular, when the dynamical critical exponent of the UV fixed point is z=2 and the IR scaling exponents are chosen appropriately, our model realizes holographically the scaling properties of the bosonic modes of the quadratic band crossing model.

  20. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  1. Structural and Electrocatalytic Properties of PtIrCo/C Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Yin, Jun; Fang, Bin; Luo, Jin; Shao, Minhua; Protsailo, Lesia; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Chen, Yongsheng; Petkov, Valeri; Zhong, Chuan-Jian (Binghamton); (Penn); (UTC Power); (Toyota); (CMU)

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes the results of an investigation of the synthesis of PtIrCo nanoparticles (2-3 nm) for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction. The carbon-supported PtIrCo catalysts (PtIrCo/C) were thermally treated at temperatures ranging from 400 to 900 C. The size, composition, and atomic-scale structures of the PtIrCo/C catalysts were characterized for establishing their correlation with the electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction. The specific activity was found to increase by a factor of 3-5 for the PtIrCo/C catalysts in comparison with Pt/C catalysts. A correlation was identified between the specific activity and the nanoparticle's fcc-type lattice parameter. The specific activity increases whereas the fcc-type lattice parameter decreases with the thermal treatment temperature. This correlation was further substantiated by analyzing the interatomic spatial parameters in the trimetallic nanoparticles based on X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic and high-energy XRD experiments. Implications of these findings, along with the durability of the catalysts, to the design of active electrocatalysts were also discussed.

  2. Role of Satellite Sensors in Groundwater Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumitra Mukherjee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial as well as spectral resolution has a very important role to play in water resource management. It was a challenge to explore the groundwater and rainwater harvesting sites in the Aravalli Quartzite-Granite-Pegmatite Precambrian terrain of Delhi, India. Use of only panchromatic sensor data of IRS-1D satellite with 5.8-meter spatial resolution has the potential to infer lineaments and faults in this hard rock area. It is essential to identify the location of interconnected lineaments below buried pediment plains in the hard rock area for targeting sub-surface water resources. Linear Image Self Scanning sensor data of the same satellite with 23.5-meter resolution when merged with the panchromatic data has produced very good results in delineation of interconnected lineaments over buried pediment plains as vegetation anomaly. These specific locations of vegetation anomaly were detected as dark red patches in various hard rock areas of Delhi. Field investigation was carried out on these patches by resistivity and magnetic survey in parts of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU, Indira Gandhi national Open University, Research and Referral Hospital and Humayuns Tomb areas. Drilling was carried out in four locations of JNU that proved to be the most potential site with ground water discharge ranging from 20,000 to 30,000 liters per hour with 2 to 4 meters draw down. Further the impact of urbanization on groundwater recharging in the terrain was studied by generating Normalized difference Vegetation Index (NDVI map which was possible to generate by using the LISS-III sensor of IRS-1D satellite. Selection of suitable sensors has definitely a cutting edge on natural resource exploration and management including groundwater.

  3. SCD 02 thermal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Humberto Pontes

    1990-01-01

    The Satelite de Coleta de Dados (SCD) 02 (Data Collection Satellite) has the following characteristics: 115 kg weight, octagonal prism shape, 1 m diameter, and 0.67 m height. Its specified orbit is nearly circular, 700 km altitude, is inclined 25 deg with respect to the equator line, and has 100 min period. The electric power is supplied by eight solar panels installed on the lateral sides of the satellite. The equipment is located on the central (both faces) and lower (internal face) panels. The satellite is spin stabilized and its attitude control is such that during its lifetime, the solar aspect angle will vary between 80 and 100 deg with respect to its spin axis. Two critical cases were selected for thermal control design purposes: Hot case (maximum solar constant, solar aspect angle equal to 100 deg, minimum eclipse time and maximum internal heat dissipation); and a passive thermal design concept was achieved and the maximum and minimum equipment operating temperatures were obtained through a 109 node finite difference mathematical model.

  4. Improvement of stability of trivalent chromium electroplating of Ti based IrO2+Ta2O5 coating anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baosong; LIN An; GAN Fuxing

    2006-01-01

    The preparation process and properties of the thermally prepared Ti anodes coated with IrO2+Ta2O5 was studied. The structure and morphologies of the IrO2+Ta2O5 coatings were determined by XRD and SEM. Their electrochemical properties were studied by polarization curve and cyclic voltammetry. Trivalent chromium electroplating using Ti/IrO2+Ta2O5 anodes is carried out and the results were analyzed. Results show that this anode exhibits excellentelectrochemical activity and stability in sulfate electrolysis. The electrocatalytic activity is determined not only by the content of IrO2 but also the structure and morphology of the anode coatings. The electroplating results indicats that Ti/IrO2+Ta2O5 anodes have excellent capabilities and merits in improving the stability of trivalent chromium electroplating in sulfate system.

  5. Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Caged Structural Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Hida, K.; Kase, N.; Nakano, T.; Takeda, N.

    Thermal conductivity of Ca3Rh4Sn13 and Sr3Ir4Sn13 were measured in magnetic fields to reveal superconducting state. From magnetic susceptibility χ(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) measurements, superconducting transition temperature Tc of Ca3Rh4Sn13 and Sr3Ir4Sn13 is determined to be 8 and 5 K, respectively. Thermal conductivity κ(T) of Ca3Rh4Sn13 indicates that superconducting state is nodeless s-wave, because residual thermal conductivity κ0/T in zero magnetic field is very small. On the other hand, κ(T) of Sr3Ir4Sn13 in zero magnetic field suggests that superconductivity possesses nodal gap rather than full gap. Whether nodal superconducting gap exists or not still remains to be clarified, because there is a possibility that the achieving temperature is insufficient to discuss superconducting state.

  6. Composite Reflective Absorptive IR-Blocking Filters Embedded in Metamaterial Antireflection Coated Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, C. D.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Miller, K. H.; Page, L. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared (IR)-blocking filters are crucial for controlling the radiative loading on cryogenic systems and for optimizing the sensitivity of bolometric detectors in the far-IR. We present a new IR filter approach based on a combination of patterned frequency-selective structures on silicon and a thin (2575 micron thick) absorptive composite based on powdered reststrahlen absorbing materials. For a 300 K blackbody, this combination reflects approximately 50% of the incoming light and blocks greater than.99.8% of the total power with negligible thermal gradients and excellent low-frequency transmission. This allows a reduction in the IR thermal loading to negligible levels in a single cold filter. These composite filters are fabricated on silicon substrates, which provide excellent thermal transport laterally through the filter and ensure that the entire area of the absorptive filter stays near the bath temperature. A metamaterial antireflection coating cut into these substrates reduces in-band reflections to below 1%, and the in-band absorption of the powder mix is below 1% for signal bands below 750 GHz. This type of filter can be directly incorporated into silicon refractive optical elements.

  7. Near-IR Photoluminescence of C60().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikov, Dmitry V; Kern, Bastian; Kappes, Manfred M

    2017-10-05

    We have observed that C60(+) ions isolated in cryogenic matrices show distinct near-IR photoluminescence upon excitation in the near-IR range. By contrast, UV photoexcitation does not lead to measurable luminescence. Near-IR C60(+) photoluminescence is a one-photon process. The emission is mainly concentrated in one band and corresponds to (2)A1u ← (2)E1g relaxation. We present experimental data for the Stokes shift, power, and temperature dependencies as well as the quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence. Our findings may be relevant for astronomy, considering recent unequivocal assignment of five diffuse interstellar bands to near-IR absorption bands of C60(+).

  8. IR aperture measurement at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes MD 307, performed on August 27 2015, during which we measured with beam the global apertures at 6.5 TeV with IR1 and IR5 squeezed to β* =40 cm and a half crossing angle of 205 rad. The measurement technique involved opening collimators in steps, while inducing beam losses at each step, until the main loss location moved from the collimators to the global bottleneck in one of the triplets. Measurements were performed in both beams and planes, and each measurement gave the minimum triplet aperture over IR1 and IR5. The results are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous beam dump test was performed with all collimators moved in to so-called 2-σ retraction settings. This MD is one in a series meant to address various open points for the reach in β* in Run II.

  9. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  10. IR Optimization, DID and anti-DID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei; Maruyama, Takashi; /SLAC; Parker, Brett; /Brookhaven

    2006-02-03

    In this paper, we discuss optimization of the larger crossing angle Interaction Region of the Linear Collider, where specially shaped transverse field of the Detector Integrated Dipole can be reversed and adjusted to optimize trajectories of the low energy pairs, so that their majority would be directed into the extraction exit hole. This decreases the backscattering and makes background in 14mrad IR to be similar to background in 2mrad IR.

  11. Impact of Ir gate interfacial oxide layers on performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallo, Martin, E-mail: martin.vallo@savba.sk [Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Lalinský, Tibor; Dobročka, Edmund; Vanko, Gabriel [Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vincze, Andrej [International Laser Cente, Ilkovičova 3, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Rýger, Ivan [Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-02-15

    The impact of 15 nm thick Schottky gate contact layer based on conductive Ir oxides grown by thermal oxidation in O{sub 2} ambient at 500 °C for 1 and 10 min, respectively, on performance of circular high electron mobility transistor (C-HEMT) has been investigated. Besides the effects of the gate barrier height increase (∼0.32 eV) and gate leakage current decrease (2–4 orders) with the time of oxidation, the shift of both threshold voltage (∼1 V) and peak of transconductance (∼2 V) of the C-HEMT device towards the zero gate voltage has been introduced. X-ray diffraction and depth profiles of secondary ion mass spectroscopy are employed to analyze the microstructure and composition of the gate contacts. They revealed the mixture of Ir and Ir oxides (IrO, IrO{sub 2}) that have not been formed in the whole gate contact layer thickness. All results confirmed the oxidation proceeding from the top of the Ir gate contact layer up to the interface. A promise of Ir oxides based gate contact layers for design of thermally stable HEMT devices with an enhancement mode of operation could be available.

  12. Small pixel pitch MCT IR-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Rutzinger, S.; Wendler, J.

    2016-05-01

    It is only some years ago, since VGA format detectors in 15μm pitch, manufactured with AIM's MCT n-on-p LPE standard technology, have been introduced to replace TV/4 format detector arrays as a system upgrade. In recent years a rapid increase in the demand for higher resolution, while preserving high thermal resolution, compactness and low power budget is observed. To satisfy these needs AIM has realized first prototypes of MWIR XGA format (1024x768) detector arrays in 10μm pitch. They fit in the same compact dewar as 640x512, 15μm pitch detector arrays. Therefore, they are best suited for system upgrade purposes to benefit from higher spatial resolution and keep cost on system level low. By combining pitch size reduction with recent development progress in the fields of miniature cryocoolers, short dewars and high operating temperatures the way ahead to ultra-compact high performance MWIR-modules is prepared. For cost reduction MBE grown MCT on commercially available GaAs substrates is introduced at AIM. Recently, 640x512, 15μm pitch FPAs, grown with MBE have successfully passed long-term high temperature storage tests as a crucial step towards serial production readiness level for use in future products. Pitch size reduction is not limited to arrays sensitive in the MWIR, but is of great interest for high performance LWIR or 3rd Gen solutions. Some applications such as rotorcraft pilotage require superior spatial resolution in a compact design to master severe weather conditions or degraded visual environment such as brown-out. For these applications AIM is developing both LWIR as well as dual band detector arrays in HD-format (1280x720) with 12μm pitch. This paper will present latest results in the development of detector arrays with small pitch sizes of 10μm and 12μm at AIM, together with their usage to realize compact cooled IR-modules.

  13. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was

  14. Advanced thermal control for spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Robert; Parker, Kelsey

    2015-09-01

    In optical systems just like any other space borne system, thermal control plays an important role. In fact, most advanced designs are plagued with volume constraints that further complicate the thermal control challenges for even the most experienced systems engineers. Peregrine will present advances in satellite thermal control based upon passive heat transfer technologies to dissipate large thermal loads. This will address the use of 700 W/m K and higher conducting products that are five times better than aluminum on a specific basis providing enabling thermal control while maintaining structural support.

  15. General review of multispectral cooled IR development at CEA-Leti, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, F.; Marmonier, F.; Grangier, C.; Adelmini, L.; Gravrand, O.; Ballet, P.; Baudry, X.; Baylet, J.; Badano, G.; Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Bisotto, S.

    2017-02-01

    Multicolor detection capabilities, which bring information on the thermal and chemical composition of the scene, are desirable for advanced infrared (IR) imaging systems. This communication reviews intra and multiband solutions developed at CEA-Leti, from dual-band molecular beam epitaxy grown Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) photodiodes to plasmon-enhanced multicolor IR detectors and backside pixelated filters. Spectral responses, quantum efficiency and detector noise performances, pros and cons regarding global system are discussed in regards to technology maturity, pixel pitch reduction, and affordability. From MWIR-LWIR large band to intra MWIR or LWIR bands peaked detection, results underline the full possibility developed at CEA-Leti.

  16. Trends In Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  17. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  18. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  19. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  20. Matrix isolation studies with Fourier transform IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W.; Reedy, Gerald T.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the matrix-isolation techniques has advantages compared with the use of more conventional grating spectroscopy. Furthermore, the recent commercial availability of Fourier transform spectrometers has made FT-IR a practical alternative. Some advantages of the FT-IR spectrometer over the grating spectrometer are the result of the computerized data system that is a necessary part of the FT-IR spectrometer; other advantages are a consequence of the difference in optical arrangements and these represent the inherent advantages of the FT-IR method. In most applications with the matrix-isolation technique, the use of FT-IR spectroscopy results in either an improved signal-to-noise ratio or a shorter time for data collection compared with grating infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used in the laboratory to study several molecular species in low-temperature matrices. Some species have been produced by high-temperature vaporization from Knudsen cells and others by sputtering. By sputtering, Ar and Kr matrices have been prepared which contain U atoms, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, PuO/sub 2/, UN, or UN/sub 2/, depending upon the composition of the gas used to sputter as well as the identity of the metallic cathode. Infrared spectra of matrices containing these compounds are presented and discussed. (JRD)

  1. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  2. The Archimedes satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart C.; Shurvinton, William D.

    1992-03-01

    Archimedes is a satellite system conceived by the European Space Agency (ESA) to effectively serve the European market for Mobile Radio Services (MRS). This paper describes the requirements and technical design of the Archimedes satellite system. The underlying assumptions and trade-offs behind the design are detailed and the design is compared and contrasted against alternative design solutions, both technically and economically. A path forward for the development of the system is indicated.

  3. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  4. Satellite formation. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite formation model is extended to include evolution of planetary ring material and elliptic orbital motion. In this model the formation of the moon begins at a later time in the growth of the earth, and a significant fraction of the lunar material is processed through a circumterrestrial debris cloud where volatiles might have been lost. Thus, the chemical differences between the earth and moon are more plausibly accounted for. Satellites of the outer planets probably formed in large numbers throughout the growth of those planets. Because of rapid inward evolution of the orbits of small satellites, the present satellite systems represent only satellites formed in the last few percent of the growths of their primaries. The rings of Saturn and Uranus are most plausibly explained as the debris of satellites disrupted within the Roche limit. Because such a ring would collapse onto the planet in the course of any significant further accretion by the planet, the rings must have formed very near or even after the conclusion of accretion.

  5. Communication Satellite Payload Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) for Satellite Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Noman

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents Payload Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) for the test and measurement of communication satellite Payload at subsystem and system level. The main emphasis of this paper is to demonstrate the principle test equipment, instruments and the payload test matrix for an automatic test control. Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE)/ Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) requirements, functions and architecture for C-band and Ku-band payloads are presented in details along with their interface with satellite during different phases of satellite testing. It provides test setup, in a single rack cabinet that can easily be moved from payload assembly and integration environment to thermal vacuum chamber all the way to launch site (for pre-launch test and verification).

  6. Solar thermal collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranovitch, E.

    Thermal processes in solar flat plate collectors are described and evaluated analytically, and numerical models are presented for evaluating the performance of various designs. A flat plate collector consists of a black absorber plate which transfers absorbed heat to a fluid, a cover which limits thermal losses, and insulation to prevent backlosses. Calculated efficiencies for the collectors depend on the radiation absorbed, as well as IR losses due to natural convection, conduction, and radiation out of the collector. Formulations for the global emittance and heat transfer, as well as losses and their dependence on the Nusselt number and Grashof number are defined. Consideration is given to radiation transmission through transparent covers and Fresnel reflections at interfaces in the cover material. Finally, the performance coefficients for double-glazed and selective surface flat plate collectors are examined.

  7. CHINA LAUNCHES NEW SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  8. Thermal Design and Flight Validation for Solid-state Transmitter

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lei; Wen Yao-pu

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state transmitter with large power and high heat flux is a key equipment of an HJ-1-C satellite; therefore, it has a great influence on satellite thermal design. Thermal design ensures that the solid-state transmitter works well within the allowable temperature limits of the equipment. The solid-state transmitter thermal design and solved key problems are provided in accordance with the HJ-1-C characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of satellites on orbit was performed. Based on the tele...

  9. Liquid nitrogen cooling in IR thermography applied to steel specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L.; Ferrarini, G.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Maldague, X.

    2017-05-01

    Pulsed Thermography (PT) is one of the most common methods in Active Thermography procedures of the Thermography for NDT & E (Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation), due to the rapidity and convenience of this inspection technique. Flashes or lamps are often used to heat the samples in the traditional PT. This paper mainly explores exactly the opposite external stimulation in IR Thermography: cooling instead of heating. A steel sample with flat-bottom holes of different depths and sizes has been tested. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is sprinkled on the surface of the specimen and the whole process is captured by a thermal camera. To obtain a good comparison, two other classic NDT techniques, Pulsed Thermography and Lock-In Thermography, are also employed. In particular, the Lock-in method is implemented with three different frequencies. In the image processing procedure, the Principal Component Thermography (PCT) method has been performed on all thermal images. For Lock-In results, both Phase and Amplitude images are generated by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Results show that all techniques presented part of the defects while the LN2 technique displays the flaws only at the beginning of the test. Moreover, a binary threshold post-processing is applied to the thermal images, and by comparing these images to a binary map of the location of the defects, the corresponding Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are established and discussed. A comparison of the results indicates that the better ROC curve is obtained using the Flash technique with PCT processing method.

  10. IR DirectFET Extreme Environments Evaluation Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Martin; Mottiwala, Amin

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, International Rectifier (IR) introduced a new version of its DirectFET metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) packaging. The new version (referred to as 'Version 2') enhances device moisture resistance, makes surface mount (SMT) assembly of these devices to printed wiring boards (PWBs) more repeatable, and subsequent assembly inspection simpler. In the present study, the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), in collaboration with Stellar Microelectronics (Stellar), continued an evaluation of the DirectFET that they started together in 2006. The present study focused on comparing the two versions of the DirectFET and examining the suitability of the DirectFET devices for space applications. This study evaluated both versions of two DirectFET packaged devices that had both been shown in the 2006 study to have the best electrical and thermal properties: the IRF6635 and IRF6644. The present study evaluated (1) the relative electrical and thermal performance of both versions of each device, (2) the performance through high reliability testing, and (3) the performance of these devices in combination with a range of alternate solder alloys in the extreme thermal environments of deep space....

  11. Thermal Management Architecture for Future Responsive Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, D.; Zimbeck, W.; Kroliczek, E.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel thermal design architecture that enables satellites to be conceived, configured, launched, and operationally deployed very quickly. The architecture has been given the acronym SMARTS for Satellite Modular and Reconfigurable Thermal System and it involves four basic design rules: modest radiator oversizing, maximum external insulation, internal isothermalization and radiator heat flow modulation. The SMARTS philosophy is being developed in support of the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) initiative which seeks to drastically improve small satellite adaptability, deployability, and design flexibility. To illustrate the benefits of the philosophy for a prototypical multi-paneled small satellite, the paper describes a SMARTS thermal control system implementation that uses: panel-to-panel heat conduction, intra-panel heat pipe isothermalization, radiator heat flow modulation via a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) cold-biased loop heat pipe (LHP) and maximum external multi-layer insulation (MLI). Analyses are presented that compare the traditional "cold-biasing plus heater power" passive thermal design approach to the SMARTS approach. Plans for a 3-panel SMARTS thermal test bed are described. Ultimately, the goal is to incorporate SMARTS into the design of future ORS satellites, but it is also possible that some aspects of SMARTS technology could be used to improve the responsiveness of future NASA spacecraft. [22 CFR 125.4(b)(13) applicable

  12. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  13. Experimental Satellite 2 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Small satellite Experimental Satellite 2 (SY-2) was launched by LM-2C launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on Nov. 18, 2004. Later the satellite entered the preset sun-synchronous orbit, which is 700 kilometers above the earth. The launch was the eighthmission this year by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC), which aims to test the technology of the satellite, conduct survey and monitoring of the land and resources and geographical environment on a trial basis.

  14. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  15. The mid-IR silicon photonics sensor platform (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Lionel; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha M.

    2017-02-01

    Advances in integrated silicon photonics are enabling highly connected sensor networks that offer sensitivity, selectivity and pattern recognition. Cost, performance and the evolution path of the so-called `Internet of Things' will gate the proliferation of these networks. The wavelength spectral range of 3-8um, commonly known as the mid-IR, is critical to specificity for sensors that identify materials by detection of local vibrational modes, reflectivity and thermal emission. For ubiquitous sensing applications in this regime, the sensors must move from premium to commodity level manufacturing volumes and cost. Scaling performance/cost is critically dependent on establishing a minimum set of platform attributes for point, wearable, and physical sensing. Optical sensors are ideal for non-invasive applications. Optical sensor device physics involves evanescent or intra-cavity structures for applied to concentration, interrogation and photo-catalysis functions. The ultimate utility of a platform is dependent on sample delivery/presentation modalities; system reset, recalibration and maintenance capabilities; and sensitivity and selectivity performance. The attributes and performance of a unified Glass-on-Silicon platform has shown good prospects for heterogeneous integration on materials and devices using a low cost process flow. Integrated, single mode, silicon photonic platforms offer significant performance and cost advantages, but they require discovery and qualification of new materials and process integration schemes for the mid-IR. Waveguide integrated light sources based on rare earth dopants and Ge-pumped frequency combs have promise. Optical resonators and waveguide spirals can enhance sensitivity. PbTe materials are among the best choices for a standard, waveguide integrated photodetector. Chalcogenide glasses are capable of transmitting mid-IR signals with high transparency. Integrated sensor case studies of i) high sensitivity analyte detection in

  16. Multispectral thermal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Remote Sensing Sciences Group; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Corp., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Kay, R.R. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Monitoring Systems and Technology Center

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  17. Investigation on Satellite-borne High-power Solid-state Power Amplifier Technology and Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Xiao-po; Zhao Hai-yang; Xi Song-tao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research and development efforts of satellite-borne lumped solid-state transmitters, the design of a satellite-borne high-power microwave amplifier module is introduced. Focusing on satellite-borne applications, aspects of the high-power density thermal design, multipactor proof design, EMC design and so on, which are critical technologies for a solid-state power amplifier, are discussed. Subsequently, experiments are used to verify the concept.

  18. Investigation on Satellite-borne High-power Solid-state Power Amplifier Technology and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiao-po

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research and development efforts of satellite-borne lumped solid-state transmitters, the design of a satellite-borne high-power microwave amplifier module is introduced. Focusing on satellite-borne applications, aspects of the high-power density thermal design, multipactor proof design, EMC design and so on, which are critical technologies for a solid-state power amplifier, are discussed. Subsequently, experiments are used to verify the concept.

  19. Indian remote sensing satellites: Planned missions and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Jayaraman, V.; Rao, Mukund

    1996-02-01

    To cater the enhanced user demands, Indian Space Research Organisation is stepping a giant leap forward towards development of the state-of-the-art second generation Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, IRS-1C/1D following the successful design, launch and in-orbit performance of the first generation satellites, IRS-1A/1B. Characterised by improved spatial resolution, extended spectral bands, stereo-viewing and more frequent revisit capability, IRS-1C/1D are expected for launch during the timeframe of 1995-96/8. The IRS-1C and ID, which are identical, will have three major payloads. The Linear Imaging Spectral Scanner (LISS-III) in four spectral bands covering from 0.52 to 1.70 microns will have a spatial resolution of 23m along with a swath of 142 km in the visible and NIR spectral bands and a spatial resolution of 70m along with a swath of 148 km in the SWIR spectral band. The Panchromatic Camera (PAN) with a spectral band of 0.50 to 0.75 microns will have a spatial resolution of information on water stress, pest infestation and vegetation indices to arrive at better agricultural management practices, besides providing enhanced capabilities for arriving solutions for micro-level resource development and generation of digital terrain models. Having marked by the successful launch of IRS-P2 in 1994 through the indigenous development flight of PSLV, India is now poised to launch IRS-P3 satellite with unique payloads in the timeframe of 1995-1996 The IRS-P3 will carry three operational payloads viz., Wide Field Sensor (WiFS), Modular Opto-electronic Scanner (MOS) imaging spectrometer and an X-ray Astronomy payload. These payload mix of sensors will provide further capabilities for application studies related to vegetation dynamics, oceanography and X-ray astronomy. With the launch of these payloads, India will provide more effective and assured data services to the user community beyond the 90's.

  20. The order parameter symmetry in CeIrIn5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shakeripour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the mechanism of superconductivity in unconventional super onductors is one of the big challenges in the field of superconductivity. Based on the BCS theory, there is a direct relation between the pairing mechanism and the symmetry of the order parameter. Therefore, identification of the structure of the superconducting gap or the order parameter provides key information on the pairing mechanism. The s-wave conventional superconductors have full point symmetry of the crystal lattice, thus they have full gap symmetry around the Fermi surface. This leads to the exponential temperature dependence of many physical properties in the superconducting state at low temperature. However, the presence of nodes imposed by symmetry in the gap function of unconventional superconductors implies a different order parameter other than conventional s-wave, which may lead to a different pairing mechanism. Here, we show how thermal conductivity measurements in CeIrIn5 at very low temperatures detect the superconducting gap structure.

  1. Evaluation of wake detection probability of underwater vehicle by IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Wei; Chen, Xuan; Yang, Li; Jin, Fang-yuan

    2016-10-01

    The thermal or cold wake of the underwater vehicles will be formed at the sea surface in different region during sailing, then the underwater vehicles will be detected by airborne or space borne infrared detectors easily, which will imperil their security. A model between the detection probability and the Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of the detectors, and the temperature difference between the wake and the sea surface, etc., was established and the evaluation of detection probability in different discrimination levels and other parameters, such as time, location, atmosphere, sea, detector performance, wake temperature, etc., was realized, and a software named Wake Detection of Underwater Vehicle by Infrared (WDPUV-IR) was developed. The results showed that the detection probability to the wake with high detector performance or large temperature difference or short detection distance or low discrimination level was relatively high, but it was difficult to detect targets with small temperature difference and size when the atmospheric transmittance value was low.

  2. The effects of different solvents and excitation wavelength on the photophysical properties of two novel Ir(III) complexes based on phenylcinnoline ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Yang, Chaolong; Tong, Bihai; Zhang, Yunfei; Liang, Liyan; Lu, Mangeng

    2013-09-01

    Two novel cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes, Ir(pcl)2(pic) and Ir(pcl)2(fpic) (pcl: 3-phenylcinnoline, pic: picolinic acid, fpic: 5-fluoro-2-picolinic acid) were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis, PL, and MALDI-TOF. These two Ir-complexes geometry were predicted using the Sparkle/PM6 model and suggested to a chemical environment of very low symmetry around the Ir ions (C 1). The PL spectrum of Ir(pcl)2(pic) and Ir(pcl)2(fpic) indicated that these complex belonged to red light emission, and maximum emission wavelength located at 647 and 641 nm, respectively. Most importantly, the effects of different solvents on their photoluminescent properties were detailed investigated. The results indicated that the polarity of solvent played an important role for their emission spectra. With introducing fluoro group to the pyridyl ring, the maximum emission wavelength of Ir(pcl)2(fpic) was blue shifted about 6 nm, and the quantum yield was slightly higher than that of Ir(pcl)2(pic). In addition, the thermal properties of these two Ir-complexes were measured by TGA, and results indicated that they had relative good thermal properties.

  3. Resonant optical devices for IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G.; Li, Yuan; Raghu Srimathi, Indumathi; Woodward, Ryan H.; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Pung, Aaron J.; Richardson, Martin; Shah, Lawrence; Shori, Ramesh; Magnusson, Robert

    2013-03-01

    This paper highlights recent developments in resonant optical devices for infrared (IR) and mid-infrared (mid- IR) lasers. Sub-wavelength grating based resonant optical filters are introduced and their application in 2 μm thulium fiber laser and amplifier systems has been discussed. The paper focuses on applying such filtering techniques to 2.8 μm mid-IR fiber laser systems. A narrowband mid-IR Guided-Mode Resonance Filter (GMRF) was designed and fabricated using Hafnium(IV) Oxide film/quartz wafer material system. The fabricated GMRF was then integrated into an Erbium (Er)-doped Zr-Ba-La-Al-Na (ZBLAN) fluoride glass fiber laser as a wavelength selective feedback element. The laser operated at 2782 nm with a linewidth less than 2 nm demonstrating the viability of GMRF's for wavelength selection in the mid-IR. Furthermore, a GMRF of narrower linewidth based on Aluminum Oxide/quartz wafer material system is fabricated and tested in the same setup. The potentials and challenges with GMRFs will be discussed and summarized.

  4. Ir Thermographic Measurements of Temperatures and Heat Fluxes in Hypersonic Plasma Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, G.; Tortora, G.; del Vecchio, A.

    2005-02-01

    The technological development achieved in instruments and methodology concerning both flights and ground hypersonic experiment (employed in space plane planning) goes towards an updating and a standardization of the heat flux technical measurements. In fact, the possibility to simulate high enthalpy flow relative to reentry condition by hypersonic arc-jet facility needs devoted methods to measure heat fluxes. Aim of this work is to develop an experimental numerical technique for the evaluation of heat fluxes over Thermal Protection System (TPS) by means of InfraRed (IR) thermographic temperature measurements and a new heat flux sensor (IR-HFS). We tackle the numerical validation of IR-HFS, apply the same one to the Hyflex nose cap model and compare the obtained results with others ones obtained by others methodology.

  5. Proper depiction of monsoon depression through IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Mahajan; R M Khaladkar; S G Narkhedkar; Sathy Nair; P C Joshi; P K Pal

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, daily variations of satellite-derived geophysical parameters such as integrated water vapour (IWV), cloud liquid water content (CLW), sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind speed (SSW) have been studied for a case of monsoon depression that formed over the Bay of Bengal during 19th-24th August 2000. For this purpose, IRS P4 MSMR satellite data have been utilized over the domain equator- 25°N and 40°-100°E. An integrated approach of satellite data obtained from IRS-P4, METEOSAT-5 and INSAT was made for getting a signal for the development of monsoon depression over the Indian region. Variations in deep convective activity obtained through visible, infrared and OLR data at 06UTC was thoroughly analyzed for the complete life cycle of monsoon depression. Geophysical parameters obtained through IRS-P4 satellite data were compared with vorticity, convergence and divergence at 850 and 200 hPa levels generated through cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and water vapour wind vectors (WVWVs) obtained from METEOSAT-5 satellite. This comparison was made for finding proper consistency of geophysical parameters with dynamical aspects of major convective activity of the depression. From the results of this study it is revealed that there was strengthening of sea surface winds to the south of low-pressure area prior to the formation of depression. This indicated the possibility of increase in cyclonic vorticity in the lower troposphere. Hence, wind field at 850 hPa with satellite input of CMVs in objective analysis of wind field using optimum interpolation (OI) scheme was computed. Maximum cyclonic vorticity field at 850 hPa was obtained in the region of depression just one day before its formation. Similarly, with the same procedure maximum anticyclonic vorticity was observed at 200 hPa with WVWVs input. Consistent convergence and divergence at 850 and 200 hPa was noticed with respect to these vorticities. In association with these developments, we could

  6. Using IRS Products to Recover 7ETM+ Defective Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On May 31st, 2003, Landsat 7 faced an anomaly in the Scan Line Corrector (SLC normal operation. This malfunctioning of SLC caused the individual scan lines alternately overlap each other and consequently produce large gaps at the edges of the image. Regarding the unique specification of ETM+ sensor on board of Landsat-7 satellite such as its spectral bands in the shortwave IR and TIR region and its suitable spatial resolution which is ideal for most of the scientific researches, a technique for the reconstruction of the defected images due to the SLC malfunctioning, was built up. Due to the availability of IRS/1D LISS-III images for our region of interest i.e., southwest of Iran, it was decided to use these images to recover 7ETM+ products. The procedure in reconstructing the defected 7ETM+ images is divided in to two stages. In the first stage, after implementation of some preprocessing to both LISS-III and 7ETM+, a linear regression model between bands 3 and 4 of 7ETM+ and bands 2 and 3 of LISS-III was setup. This model is used to fill up the missing places in 7ETM+ defected image and produced two new images in bands 3 and 4. In the second stage, these two newly reconstructed images of 7ETM+ were used to recover images of 7ETM+ in other spectral bands. At this stage, two methods were introduced, one using linear relationship between band 3 and bands 1 and 2 and in the second method we introduced a planar relationship between bands 3 and 4 with each one of bands 5, 6 and 7. The models are applied to few images and are found to be fairly reliable. The primary and necessary conditions for applying these methods have been explained in detail.

  7. System design of the compact IR space imaging system MIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wonyong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Ree, Chang-Hee; Moon, Bongkon; Cha, Sang-Mok; Park, Sung-Joon; Park, Jang-Hyun; Nam, Uk-Won; Ka, Nung Hyun; Lee, Mi Hyun; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Duk-Hang; Yang, Sun Choel; Rhee, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Oh; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2010-07-01

    Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) is the main payload of the Korea Science and Technology Satellite-3 (STSAT-3), which is being developed by Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute (KASI). MIRIS is a small space telescope mainly for astronomical survey observations in the near infrared wavelengths of 0.9~2 μm. A compact wide field (3.67 x 3.67 degree) optical design has been studied using a 256 x 256 Teledyne PICNIC FPA IR sensor with a pixel scale of 51.6 arcsec. The passive cooling technique is applied to maintain telescope temperature below 200 K with a cold shutter in the filter wheel for accurate dark calibration and to reach required sensitivity, and a micro stirling cooler is employed to cool down the IR detector array below 100K in a cold box. The science mission of the MIRIS is to survey the Galactic plane in the emission line of Paschen-α (Paα, 1.88 μm) and to detect the cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation. Comparing the Paα map with the Hα data from ground-based surveys, we can probe the origin of the warm-ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy. The CIB is being suspected to be originated from the first generation stars of the Universe and we will test this hypothesis by comparing the fluctuations in I (0.9~1.2 um) and H (1.2~2.0 um) bands to search the red shifted Lyman cutoff signature. Recent progress of the MIRIS imaging system design will be presented.

  8. Correcting Errors in Catchment-Scale Satellite Rainfall Accumulation Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, D.; Crow, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    Streamflow forecasting in the poorly gauged or ungauged catchments is very difficult mainly due to the absence of the input forcing data for forecasting models. This challenge poses a threat to human safety and industry in the areas where proper warning system is not provided. Currently, a number of studies are in progress to calibrate streamflow models without relying on ground observations as an effort to construct a streamflow forecasting systems in the ungauged catchments. Also, recent advances in satellite altimetry and innovative application of the optical has enabled mapping streamflow rate and flood extent in the remote areas. In addition, remotely sensed hydrological variables such as the real-time satellite precipitation data, microwave soil moisture retrievals, and surface thermal infrared observations have the great potential to be used as a direct input or signature information to run the forecasting models. In this work, we evaluate a real-time satellite precipitation product, TRMM 3B42RT, and correct errors of the product using the microwave satellite soil moisture products over 240 catchments in Australia. The error correction is made by analyzing the difference between output soil moisture of a simple model forced by the TRMM product and the satellite retrievals of soil moisture. The real-time satellite precipitation products before and after the error correction are compared with the daily gauge-interpolated precipitation data produced by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The error correction improves overall accuracy of the catchment-scale satellite precipitation, especially the root mean squared error (RMSE), correlation, and the false alarm ratio (FAR), however, only a marginal improvement is observed in the probability of detection (POD). It is shown that the efficiency of the error correction is affected by the surface vegetation density and the annual precipitation of the catchments.

  9. Tuning the Graphene on Ir(111) adsorption regime by Fe/Ir surface-alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Jens; Sławińska, Jagoda; Abadia, Mikel; Rogero, Celia; Ortega, J. Enrique; Piquero-Zulaica, Ignacio; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Arnau, Andres; Iribas Cerdá, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    A combined scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory study of graphene on a Fe-Ir(111) alloy with variable Ir concentration is presented. Starting from an intercalated Fe layer between the graphene and Ir(111) surface we find that graphene-substrate interaction can be fine-tuned by Fe-Ir alloying at the interface. When a critical Ir-concentration close to 0.25 is reached in the Fe layer, the Dirac cone of graphene is largely restored and can thereafter be tuned across the Fermi level by further increasing the Ir content. Indeed, our study reveals an abrupt transition between a chemisorbed phase at small Ir concentrations and a physisorbed phase above the critical concentration. The latter phase is highly reminiscent of the graphene on the clean Ir(111) surface. Furthermore, the transition is accompanied by an inversion of the graphene’s induced magnetization due to the coupling with the Fe atoms from antiferromagnetic when chemisorbed to weakly ferromagnetic in the physisorption regime, with spin polarizations whose magnitude may be tuned with the amount of Fe content.

  10. Use of multiple in situ instruments and remote sensed satellite data for calibration tests at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Doumaz, Fawzi; Andres Diaz, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring natural hazards such as active volcanoes requires specific instruments to measure many parameters (gas emissions, surface temperatures, surface deformation etc.) to determine the activity level of a volcano. Volcanoes in most cases present difficult and dangerous environment for scientists who need to take in situ measurements. Remote Sensing systems on board of satellite permit to measure a large number of parameters especially during the eruptive events but still show large limits to monitor volcanic precursors and phenomena at local scale (gas species emitted by fumarole or summit craters degassing plumes and surface thermal changes of few degrees) for their specific risk. For such reason unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) mounting a variety of multigas sensors instruments (such as miniature mass spectrometer) or single specie sensors (such as electrochemical and IR sensors) allow a safe monitoring of volcanic activities. With this technology, it is possible to perform monitoring measurements of volcanic activity without risking the lives of scientists and personnel performing analysis during the field campaigns in areas of high volcanic activity and supporting the calibration and validation of satellite data measurements. These systems allowed the acquisition of real-time information such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2 contained in degassing plume and fumaroles, with GPS geolocation. The acquired data are both stored in the sensor and transmitted to a computer for real time viewing information. Information in the form of 3D concentration maps can be returned. The equipment used during the campaigns at Solfatara Volcano (in 2014, 2015 and 2016) was miniaturized instruments allowed measurements conducted either by flying drones over the fumarolic sites and by hand carrying into the fumaroles. We present the results of the field campaign held in different years at the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, near Naples, concerning measurements

  11. Design considerations for solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Leopold, L.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance characteristics of a conceptual solar power satellite (SPS) system with emphasis on the microwave power transmission system. The latest tradeoff studies on photovoltaic and thermal systems for converting solar energy into electricity at the satellite are reviewed. The microwave system, consisting of dc-RF amplifiers, a 1-km phased array, and a ground antenna/rectifier scheme is capable of delivering 5 GW of power to the commercial grid. The transmission efficiencies of smaller system sizes (down to 1 GW) are compared with that of the nominal 5 GW system. At present the frequency region of interest is the IMS (industrial, medical, and scientific) band at 2450 plus or minus 50 MHz. Economic and technical tradeoffs as a function of the microwave operating frequency are considered. Candidate dc-RF power converter tubes, including medium-power amplitrons, high-power klystrons, and low-power solid state amplifiers, are examined.

  12. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  13. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  14. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  15. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  16. AVS on satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang

    2005-07-01

    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  17. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  18. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archive

  19. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archive

  20. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  1. Progress on the use of satellite technology for gravity exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the technological progress on Chinese gravity exploration satellites is presented. Novel features such as ultra-stable structure, high accurate thermal control, drag-free and attitude control, micro-thrusters, aerodynamic configuration, the ability to perform micro-vibration analyses, microwave ranging system and mass center trimmer are described.

  2. RG flow of entanglement entropy to thermal entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing the holographic technique, we investigate how the entanglement entropy evolves along the RG flow. After defining a new generalized entanglement temperature which satisfies the thermodynamics-like law even in the IR regime, we show that the renormalized entanglement entropy and temperature in the IR limit approach to the thermal entropy and temperature of a real thermal system. Intriguingly, the thermalization of the IR entanglement entropy generally happens regardless of the detail of a dual field theory. We check such a universality for a two-dimensional CFT, a Lifshitz field theory, and a non-conformal field theory. In addition, we also show that for a two-dimensional scale invariant theory the first quantum correction to the IR entanglement entropy leads to a logarithmic term caused by the remnant of the short distance quantum correlation near the entangling surface.

  3. ISOCAM, the ISO's satellite infra-red camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, L.; Taride, S.

    1990-09-01

    Upon launch in 1993, the IR Space Observatory's 'ISOCAM' IR camera experiment will collect 2.5-5.5 and 4-17 micron astronomical data over an 18-month lifetime. On the basis of an open loop of superfluid He, ISOCAM's detectors, stepping motors, wheels, mechanisms, filters, lenses and primary mirror will all be cooled. The primary system design difficulties were encountered in the securing of low temperature stability for the detectors, as well as in the thermal control of high-inertia elements, and the cryogenic testing of the camera under spacelike conditions. Additional challenges were met in the development of such cryomechanical elements as stepping motors, ball bearings, and gears.

  4. The FLUKA Model of IR8

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2010-01-01

    The study of machine induced background (MIB), the radiation environment and beam dynamics of the LHC requires a detailed model of the machine tunnel, elements and electromagnetic fields. In this note, a specially created model of IR8 in FLUKA is described, including the tunnel, vacuum chambers, magnets, collimators, injection elements and shielding. The inclusion of all relevant machine elements in the LSS of IR8 results in a very flexible model suitable for a large variety of calculations and studies. The validation of the model is discussed, and some example applications described.

  5. Compressive sensing in the EO/IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehm, M E; Brady, D J

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the utility of compressive sensing (CS) to electro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) applications. We introduce the field through a discussion of historical antecedents and the development of the modern CS framework. Basic economic arguments (in the broadest sense) are presented regarding the applicability of CS to the EO/IR and used to draw conclusions regarding application areas where CS would be most viable. A number of experimental success stories are presented to demonstrate the overall feasibility of the approaches, and we conclude with a discussion of open challenges to practical adoption of CS methods.

  6. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  7. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  8. Oceanography from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  9. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  10. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  11. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  12. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used......Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...

  13. Ion irradiation of graphene on Ir(111): From trapping to blistering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Charlotte; Åhlgren, E. Harriet; Valerius, Philipp; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Arman, Mohammad A.; Kotakoski, Jani; Knudsen, Jan; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Michely, Thomas

    Graphene grown epitaxially on Ir(111) is irradiated with low energy noble gas ions and the processes induced by atomic collision and subsequent annealing are analyzed using scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron diffraction and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Upon room temperature ion irradiation graphene amorphizes and recovers its crystalline structure during annealing. The energetic noble gas projectiles are trapped with surprisingly high efficiency under the graphene cover up to extremely high temperatures beyond 1300K. The energy, angle, and ion species dependence of trapping are quantified. At elevated temperatures the trapped gas forms well developed and highly pressurized blisters under the graphene cover. We use molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations to elucidate the trapping mechanism and its thermal robustness. Similar trapping and blistering are observed after ion irradiation of a single layer of hexagonal boron nitride on Ir(111) and we speculate on the generality of the observed phenomena.

  14. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  15. Vertical profiles of heating derived from IR-based precipitation estimates during FGGE SOP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines a technique for retrieving from geostationary IR data the vertical profiles of heating and cooling due to moist diabatic processes. First, GOES IR imagery is used to estimate precipitation fields which are independent of fields inferred from residuals in heat budget analysis based on the FGGE level III-b data. Vertical distributions of the associated heating are then obtained using thermodynamic data from the level III-b analysis, one-dimensional cloud models, and the satellite-estimated precipitation. The technique was applied to infer heating in the South Pacific convergence zone during a portion of FGEE SOP-1, and the results were compared with heat-budget calculations made using the ECMWF analyses.

  16. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes exist.in order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  17. Mapping cultivable land from satellite imagery with clustering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, R. B.; Campos, A. M.; Combarro, E. F.; Canas, E. R.; Díaz, I.

    2016-07-01

    Open data satellite imagery provides valuable data for the planning and decision-making processes related with environmental domains. Specifically, agriculture uses remote sensing in a wide range of services, ranging from monitoring the health of the crops to forecasting the spread of crop diseases. In particular, this paper focuses on a methodology for the automatic delimitation of cultivable land by means of machine learning algorithms and satellite data. The method uses a partition clustering algorithm called Partitioning Around Medoids and considers the quality of the clusters obtained for each satellite band in order to evaluate which one better identifies cultivable land. The proposed method was tested with vineyards using as input the spectral and thermal bands of the Landsat 8 satellite. The experimental results show the great potential of this method for cultivable land monitoring from remote-sensed multispectral imagery.

  18. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  19. Infrared/microwave (IR/MW) micromirror array beam combiner design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi; Lv, Lijun; Jiang, Liwei; Wang, Xin; Li, Yanhong; Yu, Haiming; Feng, Xiaochen; Li, Qi; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhuo

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the design method of an infrared (IR)/microwave (MW) micromirror array type of beam combiner. The size of micromirror is in microscopic levels and comparable to MW wavelengths, so that the MW will not react in these dimensions, whereas the much shorter optical wavelengths will be reflected by them. Hence, the MW multilayered substrate was simplified and designed using transmission line theory. The beam combiner used an IR wavefront-division imaging technique to reflect the IR radiation image to the unit under test (UUT)'s pupil in a parallel light path. In addition, the boresight error detected by phase monopulse radar was analyzed using a moment-of method (MoM) and multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) acceleration technique. The boresight error introduced by the finite size of the beam combiner was less than 1°. Finally, in order to verify the wavefront-division imaging technique, a prototype of a micromirror array was fabricated, and IR images were tested. The IR images obtained by the thermal imager verified the correctness of the wavefront-division imaging technique.

  20. Thin film encapsulated 1D thermoelectric detector in an IR microspectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, H; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R F

    2010-01-01

    A thermopile-based detector array for use in a miniaturized Infrared (IR) spectrometer has been designed and fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The emphasis is on the optimal of the detector array at the system level, while considering the thermal design, the dimensional constraints of a design on a chip and the CMOS compatibility. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the Thermo-Electric (TE) elements at an as narrow as possible pitch, which is limited by processing cons...

  1. MEOS Microsatellite Earth Observation using Miniature Integrated-Optic IR Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman

    Our planetary atmosphere helps to regulate the Earth's thermal budget and the resulting global climate by controlling the energy balance between the incident solar radiation and the thermal emission to space from the Earth's atmosphere and surface. Certain atmospheric gases, most importantly H2 O vapour and CO2 , can absorb some of the Earth's emitted IR radiation and trap it in the atmosphere to provide an atmospheric greenhouse effect that currently adds about 38 K to the Earth's mean surface temperature. The associated greenhouse gas (GHG) and water cycles are a complex balance of interactions among surface ecosystems and atmospheric processes. The natural water and carbon cycles are being measurably disrupted by anthropogenic activities. Since the industrial revolution, significant anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases and aerosols have evolved, while natural sinks, such as forests and wetlands, are being destroyed. Changes in the land cover affect the balance of GHG sources and sinks, as well as the Albedo and resultant surface temperature. Water vapour, the most abundant GHG, is affected indirectly though the influence of aerosols on cloud formation and precipitation patterns, and directly through the influence of surface temperatures on the water evaporation rates. There is also positive feedback between the water and carbon cycles. For example, drought can result in desertification with subsequent release of stored carbon. It is clear that the common thread in all of these climate-related effects is the interaction between the surface ecosystems and the carbonand nitrogen-containing gases in the lower troposphere. Uptake of CO2 by growing vegetation, release of CH4 and N2 O by soil processes, and the effects of carbon and water cycle chemistry all interact strongly in a system that is both ex-tremely complex and poorly understood at the present time. In order to quantify these processes and provide a clearer prediction of their likely effects in the

  2. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝昌明

    2005-01-01

    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  3. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  4. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-24

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  5. Perception via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    of nearly specular reflections from most solar panels. Our primary purpose in presenting these two plots is to demonstrate the usefulness of...than a transformation for stars because the spectral energy distribution of satellites can change with phase angle and is subject to specular

  7. Creating Better Satellite Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  8. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  9. OMV With Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    This 1986 artist's concept shows the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) towing a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  10. Advances in satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  11. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  12. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...

  13. Interactive Response Systems (IRS) Socrative Application Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Bilge; Seker, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In globally developing education system, technology has made instructional improved in many ways. One of these improvements is the Interactive Response Systems (IRS) that are applied in classroom activities. Therefore, it is "smart" to focus on interactive response systems in learning environment. This study was conducted aiming to focus…

  14. Synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy: chemistry of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Bechtel, Hans A; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C

    2010-11-01

    Advanced analytical capabilities of synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy meet the demands of modern biological research for studying molecular reactions in individual living cells. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  15. Panel discussion: The future of IR astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Lawrence J.

    1995-01-01

    A panel discussion was held on the future of IR astronomy. The chairman gave a brief introduction to current planned programs for NASA and other space agencies, followed by short contributions from the six panel members on a variety of special topics. After that, a short question and answer session was held.

  16. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as possib

  17. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  18. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao;

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, in-situ synchrotron diffraction and hot-stage microscopy as well as room temperature optical microscopy. Melting...

  19. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  20. Jet Engine hot parts IR Analysis Procedure (J-EIRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal radiation analysis method called Jet Engine IR Analysis Procedure (J-EIRP) was developed to evaluate jet engine cavity hot parts source radiation. The objectives behind J-EIRP were to achieve the greatest accuracy in model representation and solution, while minimizing computer resources and computational time. The computer programs that comprise J-EIRP were selected on the basis of their performance, accuracy, and flexibility to solve both simple and complex problems. These programs were intended for use on a personal computer, but include the ability to solve large problems on a mainframe or supercomputer. J-EIRP also provides the user with a tool for developing thermal design experience and engineering judgment through analysis experimentation, while using minimal computer resources. A sample jet engine cavity analysis demonstrates the procedure and capabilities within J-EIRP, and is compared to a simplified method for approximating cavity radiation. The goal is to introduce the terminology and solution process used in J-EIRP and to provide insight into the radiation heat transfer principles used in this procedure.