WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite thermal image

  1. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  2. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  3. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  4. TIRCIS: thermal infrared compact imaging spectrometer for small satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul; Crites, Sarah; Garbeil, Harold; Wood, Mark; Pilger, Eric; Gabrieli, Andrea; Honniball, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm ♢ 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible. Measured signal-to-noise ratios range from peak values of 500:1 to 1500:1, for source temperature of 10 to 100°C.

  5. Thermal precursors in satellite images of the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Jonathan; Dean, Kenneson; Engle, Kevin; Izbekov, Pavel

    2002-07-01

    Shishaldin Volcano, Unimak Island Alaska, began showing signs of thermal unrest in satellite images on 9 February 1999. A thermal anomaly and small steam plume were detected at the summit of the volcano in short-wave thermal infrared AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) satellite data. This was followed by over 2 months of changes in the observed thermal character of the volcano. Initially, the thermal anomaly was only visible when the satellite passed nearly directly over the volcano, suggesting a hot source deep in the central crater obscured from more oblique satellite passes. The "zenith angle" needed to see the anomaly increased with time, presumably as the thermal source rose within the conduit. Based on this change, an ascent rate of ca. 14 m per day for the thermal source was estimated, until it reached the summit on around 21 March. It is thought that Strombolian activity began around this time. The precursory activity culminated in a sub-Plinian eruption on 19 April, ejecting ash to over 45,000 ft. (13,700 m). The thermal energy output through the precursory period was calculated based on geometric constraints unique to Shishaldin. These calculations show fluctuations that can be tied to changes in the eruptive character inferred from seismic records and later geologic studies. The remote location of this volcano made satellite images a necessary observation tool for this eruption. To date, this is the longest thermal precursory activity preceding a sub-Plinian eruption recorded by satellite images in the region. This type of thermal monitoring of remote volcanoes is central in the efforts of the Alaska Volcano Observatory to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruption, and mitigate their associated hazards to air-traffic and local residents.

  6. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  7. TIRCIS: Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Imaging Using a Small-Satellite Compliant Fourier-Transform Imaging Spectrometer, for Natural Hazard Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural hazards, including wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and, from the perspective of climate-related hazards, urban heat islands, could be better quantified via the routine availability of hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing data from orbit. However, no sensors are currently in operation that provide such data at high-to-moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat-class resolution). In this presentation we will describe a prototype instrument, developed using funding provided by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, that can make these important measurements. Significantly, the instrument has been designed such that its size, mass, power, and cost are consistent with its integration into small satellite platforms, or deployment as part of small satellite constellations. The instrument, TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data cubes. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. Neither the focal plane nor the optics need to be cooled, and the instrument has a mass of <10 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm. Although the prototype has four moving parts, this can easily be reduced to one. The current optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 90 spectral samples are possible, by varying the physical design of the interferometer. Our performance model indicates signal-to-noise ratios of the order of about 200 to 300:1. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the instrument design, fabrication, results from our initial laboratory characterization, and some of the application areas in which small-satellite-ready instruments such as TIRCIS could make a valuable contribution to the study of natural hazards.

  8. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  9. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  10. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  11. Multispectral thermal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Remote Sensing Sciences Group; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Corp., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Kay, R.R. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Monitoring Systems and Technology Center

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  12. Thermal Mapping Airborne Simulator for Small Satellite Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance, inexpensive, airborne simulator that will serve as the prototype for a small satellite based imaging system capable of mapping thermal anomalies...

  13. Contribution of ground surface altitude difference to thermal anomaly detection using satellite images: Application to volcanic/geothermal complexes in the Andes of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco J.; Lemus, Martín; Parada, Miguel A.; Benavente, Oscar M.; Aguilera, Felipe A.

    2012-09-01

    Detection of thermal anomalies in volcanic-geothermal areas using remote sensing methodologies requires the subtraction of temperatures, not provided by geothermal manifestations (e.g. hot springs, fumaroles, active craters), from satellite image kinetic temperature, which is assumed to correspond to the ground surface temperature. Temperatures that have been subtracted in current models include those derived from the atmospheric transmittance, reflectance of the Earth's surface (albedo), topography effect, thermal inertia and geographic position effect. We propose a model that includes a new parameter (K) that accounts for the variation of temperature with ground surface altitude difference in areas where steep relief exists. The proposed model was developed and applied, using ASTER satellite images, in two Andean volcanic/geothermal complexes (Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul Volcanic Complex and Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex) where field data of atmosphere and ground surface temperature as well as radiation for albedo calibration were obtained in 10 selected sites. The study area was divided into three zones (Northern, Central and Southern zones) where the thermal anomalies were obtained independently. K value calculated for night images of the three zones are better constrained and resulted to be very similar to the Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR) determined for a stable atmosphere (ELR > 7 °C/km). Using the proposed model, numerous thermal anomalies in areas of ≥ 90 m × 90 m were identified that were successfully cross-checked in the field. Night images provide more reliable information for thermal anomaly detection than day images because they record higher temperature contrast between geothermal areas and its surroundings and correspond to more stable atmospheric condition at the time of image acquisition.

  14. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  15. A compact thermal infrared imaging radiometer with high spatial resolution and wide swath for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kenji; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tanii, Jun; Kawanishi, Toneo; Ueno, Shinichi; Kuga, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study for the potential of a high spatial resolution and wide swath thermal infrared (TIR) imaging radiometer for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). The preliminary TIR imaging radiometer designs were performed. One is a panchromatic (mono-band) imaging radiometer (8-12μm) with a large format 2000 x 1000 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 15 μm. The other is a multiband imaging radiometer (8.8μm, 10.8μm, 11.4μm). This radiometer is employed separate optics and detectors for each wave band. It is based on the use of a 640 x 480 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 25 μm. The thermal time constant of an uncooled IR-FPA is approximately 10-16ms, and introduces a constraint to the satellite operation to achieve better signal-to-noise ratio, MTF and linearity performances. The study addressed both on-ground time-delayintegration binning and staring imaging solutions, although a staring imaging was preferred after trade-off. The staring imaging requires that the line of sight of the TIR imaging radiometer gazes at a target area during the acquisition time of the image, which can be obtained by rotating the satellite or a steering mirror around the pitch axis. The single band radiometer has been designed to yield a 30m ground sample distance over a 30km swath width from a satellite altitude of 500km. The radiometric performance, enhanced with staring imaging, is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.5K for a 300K ground scene. The multi-band radiometer has three spectral bands with spatial resolution of 50m and swath width of 24km. The radiometric performance is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.85K. We also showed some preliminary simulation results on volcano, desert/urban scenes, and wildfire.

  16. Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Panchal, V K; Kaur, Navdeep; Kundra, Harish

    2009-01-01

    Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researchers are always finding alternative strategies for satellite image classification so that they may be prepared to select the most appropriate technique for the feature extraction task in hand. This paper is focused on classification of the satellite image of a particular land cover using the theory of Biogeography based Optimization. The original BBO algorithm does not have the inbuilt property of clustering which is required during image classification. Hence modifications have been proposed to the original algorithm and...

  17. Geologic mapping using thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal radiance data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite has been used to measure surface reflectance data and to provide additional material composition information through remote sensing. The primary goal was to investigate the utility of HCMM data for geologic applications. Three techniques were used for displaying and combining thermal and visible near infrared (VNIR) data for two desert areas in southern California (Trona and Pisgah): color additive composites (CAC) for day and night IR and day VNIR, principal components, and calculation of thermal inertia images. The HCMM thermal data were more effective than Landsat data in producing separation of compositionally different areas including volcanic and intrusive rocks. The satellite CAC data produced an image for a 1 x 2 degree area, and the color picture was enlarged to a scale of 1:250,000. Playa composition, moisture content, presence of standing water, and vegetation cover were displayed in a variety of colors according to physical characteristics. Areas such as sand dunes were not distinguishable because of the coarse 500-mm HCMM resolution. HCMM thermal data have shown a new dimension to geologic remote sensing, and future satellite missions should allow the continued development of the thermal infrared data for geology.

  18. Automatic Cloud and Shadow Detection in Optical Satellite Imagery Without Using Thermal Bands—Application to Suomi NPP VIIRS Images over Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Parmes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In land monitoring applications, clouds and shadows are considered noise that should be removed as automatically and quickly as possible, before further analysis. This paper presents a method to detect clouds and shadows in Suomi NPP satellite’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite satellite images. The proposed cloud and shadow detection method has two distinct features when compared to many other methods. First, the method does not use the thermal bands and can thus be applied to other sensors which do not contain thermal channels, such as Sentinel-2 data. Secondly, the method uses the ratio between blue and green reflectance to detect shadows. Seven hundred and forty-seven VIIRS images over Fennoscandia from August 2014 to April 2016 were processed to train and develop the method. Twenty four points from every tenth of the images were used in accuracy assessment. These 1752 points were interpreted visually to cloud, cloud shadow and clear classes, then compared to the output of the cloud and shadow detection. The comparison on VIIRS images showed 94.2% correct detection rates and 11.1% false alarms for clouds, and respectively 36.1% and 82.7% for shadows. The results on cloud detection were similar to state-of-the-art methods. Shadows showed correctly on the northern edge of the clouds, but many shadows were wrongly assigned to other classes in some cases (e.g., to water class on lake and forest boundary, or with shadows over cloud. This may be due to the low spatial resolution of VIIRS images, where shadows are only a few pixels wide and contain lots of mixed pixels.

  19. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  20. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. (2005) proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...

  1. The influence of topographic structures on night-time surface temperatures: Evaluation of a satellite thermal image of the upper Rhine plain and the surrounding highlands. [Germany and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite data supplied the same information as aerial IR registrations with corresponding averaging for all studies requiring a survey of the thermal pattern within an area measuring 10 km x 10 km ore more, provided that sufficiently precise control points could be established for the purpose of geometric rectification in the surroundings of the area observed. Satellite thermal data are more comprehensive than aircraft data for studies on a regional, rather than a local scale, since airborne images often obscure the basic correlation in thermal patterns because of a variety of irrelevant topographical detail. The satellite data demonstrate the dependence of surface temperature on relief more clearly than comparable airborne imagery.

  2. Thermal deformations of a glass spherical satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, V. P.; Nenadovich, V. D.; Murashkin, V. V.; Sokolov, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the kind of the reflecting coating of a glass spherical satellite on thermal deformations caused by the solar irradiation is considered. Two types of coating deposited on one of the hemispheres are considered: aluminum with a protective layer of bakelite varnish and interference dielectric coating for two orientations of the satellite orbit. Structures of a multilayer dielectric coating and technologies of its deposition are described.

  3. Thermal imaging in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Ogorevc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Body temperature monitoring is one of the oldest and still one of the most basic diagnostic methods in medicine. In recent years thermal imaging has been increasingly used in measurements of body temperature for diagnostic purposes. Thermal imaging is non-invasive, non-contact method for measuring surface body temperature. Method is quick, painless and patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation or any other body burden.Application of thermal imaging in medicine: Pathological conditions can be indicated as hyper- or hypothermic patterns in many cases. Thermal imaging is presented as a diagnostic method, which can detect such thermal anomalies. This article provides an overview of the thermal imaging applications in various fields of medicine. Thermal imaging has proven to be a suitable method for human febrile temperature screening, for the detection of sites of fractures and infections, a reliable diagnostic tool in the detection of breast cancer and determining the type of skin cancer tumour. It is useful in monitoring the course of a therapy after spinal cord injury, in the detection of food allergies and detecting complications at hemodialysis and is also very effective at the course of treatment of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. With thermal imaging is possible to determine the degrees of burns and early detection of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot phenomenon. The most common and the oldest application of thermal imaging in medicine is the field of rheumatology.Recommendations for use and standards: Essential performance of a thermal imaging camera, measurement method, preparation of a patient and environmental conditions are very important for proper interpretation of measurement results in medical applications of thermal imaging. Standard for screening thermographs was formed for the human febrile temperature screening application.Conclusion: Based on presented examples it is shown that thermal imaging can

  4. Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal channels of Imager payload onboard INSAT-3D satellite using MODTRAN model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Pandya; D B Shah; H J Trivedi; S Panigrahy

    2011-02-01

    INSAT-3D is the new generation Indian satellite designed for improved Earth observations through two payloads – Imager and Sounder. Study was conducted with an aim of simulating satellite level signal over land in the infrared channels of the Imager payload using a radiative transfer model MODTRAN. Satellite level at-sensor radiance corresponding to all four infrared channels of INSAT-3D Imager payload is obtained using MODTRAN and sensitivity of at-sensor radiance was inferred as a function of input parameters namely, surface temperature, emissivity, view angle and atmospheric water vapour, which is helpful in understanding the signal simulation scheme needed for retrieving a very critical parameter namely, land surface temperature.

  5. ASTER Urgent Response to the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Science and Decision Support Gained From Frequent High-resolution, Satellite Thermal Infrared Imaging of Volcanic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. S.; Coombs, M.; Dehn, J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    Augustine Volcano, Alaska explosively erupted on January 11, 2006 after nearly eight months of increasing seismicity, deformation, gas emission, and small phreatic explosions. The volcano produced a total of 13 explosive eruptions during the last three weeks of January 2006. A new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows grew during February and March 2006. A series of 7 daytime and 15 nighttime Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) scenes were acquired in response to this new activity. This response was facilitated by a new ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system. The ASTER data provided several significant observations as a part of a much larger suite of real-time or near-real-time data from other satellite (AVHRR, MODIS), airborne (FLIR, visual, gas), and ground-based (seismometers, radiometers) sensors used at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). ASTER is well-suited to volcanic observations because of its 15-m to 90-m spatial resolution, its ability to be scheduled and point off-nadir, and its ability to collect visible-near infrared (VNIR) to thermal infrared (TIR) data during both the day and night. Aided by the volcano's high latitude (59.4°N) ASTER was able to provide frequent repeat imaging as short as one day between scenes with an average 6-day repeat during the height of activity. These data provided a time series of high-resolution VNIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR - detects temperatures from about 200°C to > 600°C averaged over a 30-m pixel), and TIR (detects temperatures up to about 100°C averaged over a 90-m pixel) data of the volcano and its eruptive products. Frequent satellite imaging of volcanoes is necessary to record rapid changes in activity and to avoid recurring cloud cover. Of the 22 ASTER scenes acquired between October 30, 2005 and May 30, 2006, the volcano was clear to partly cloudy in 13 scenes. The most useful pre-eruption ASTER Urgent Request image was acquired on December 20. These data

  6. THERMAL NEUTRON BACKSCATTER IMAGING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANIER,P.; FORMAN,L.; HUNTER,S.; HARRIS,E.; SMITH,G.

    2004-10-16

    Objects of various shapes, with some appreciable hydrogen content, were exposed to fast neutrons from a pulsed D-T generator, resulting in a partially-moderated spectrum of backscattered neutrons. The thermal component of the backscatter was used to form images of the objects by means of a coded aperture thermal neutron imaging system. Timing signals from the neutron generator were used to gate the detection system so as to record only events consistent with thermal neutrons traveling the distance between the target and the detector. It was shown that this time-of-flight method provided a significant improvement in image contrast compared to counting all events detected by the position-sensitive {sup 3}He proportional chamber used in the imager. The technique may have application in the detection and shape-determination of land mines, particularly non-metallic types.

  7. Enabling High Spectral Resolution Thermal Imaging from CubeSat and MicroSatellite Platforms Using Uncooled Microbolometers and a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.; Pilger, E. J.; Honniball, C.; Gabrieli, A.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. This is attributable to two factors. Firstly, earth emits less light than it reflects, reducing the signal available to measure in the TIR, and secondly, instruments designed to measure (and spectrally decompose) this signal are more complex, massive, and expensive than their VSWIR counterparts, largely due to the need to cryogenically cool the detector and optics. However, this measurement gap needs to be filled, as LWIR data provide fundamentally different information than VSWIR measurements. The TIRCIS instrument (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), developed at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data in the 8-14 micron spectral range. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite as part of the ORS-4 mission in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible (the accompanying image shows a quartz spectrum composed of 17 spectral samples). Our

  8. Forecasting Hurricane by Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. Y.

    Earth is an endanger planet. Severe weather, especially hurricanes, results in great disaster all the world. World Meteorology Organization and United Nations Environment Program established intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to offer warnings about the present and future disasters of the Earth. It is the mission for scientists to design warning system to predict the severe weather system and to reduce the damage of the Earth. Hurricanes invade all the world every year and made millions damage to all the people. Scientists in weather service applied satellite images and synoptic data to forecast the information for the next hours for warning purposes. Regularly, hurricane hits on Taiwan island directly will pass through her domain and neighbor within 10 hours. In this study, we are going to demonstrate a tricky hurricane NARI invaded Taiwan on September 16, 2000. She wandered in the neighborhood of the island more than 72 hours and brought heavy rainfall over the island. Her track is so tricky that scientists can not forecast her path using the regular method. Fortunately, all scientists in the Central Weather Bureau paid their best effort to fight against the tricky hurricane. Applying the new developed technique to analysis the satellite images with synoptic data and radar echo, scientists forecasted the track, intensity and rainfall excellently. Thus the damage of the severe weather reduced significantly.

  9. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  10. Thermal deformation analysis of the composite material satellite antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Controlling the thermal deformation is a crucial index for the design of the satellite antenna. To calculate and measure the satellite antenna's thermal deformation is also an important step for the design of satellite antenna. Based on the foundation of equivalent assumption, the thermal deformation of the parabolic satellite antenna was analyzed by the finite element method for different design project. The best design project that had the minimum of the thermal deformation could be obtained through changing the lay-angle, lay-layers and lay-thickness of each layer. Results show the asymmetry structure has the minimum of thermal deformation. This paper may provide useful information for the further investigation on the coupling of thermal-stress structure.

  11. Image based performance analysis of thermal imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D.; Repasi, E.

    2016-05-01

    Due to advances in technology, modern thermal imagers resemble sophisticated image processing systems in functionality. Advanced signal and image processing tools enclosed into the camera body extend the basic image capturing capability of thermal cameras. This happens in order to enhance the display presentation of the captured scene or specific scene details. Usually, the implemented methods are proprietary company expertise, distributed without extensive documentation. This makes the comparison of thermal imagers especially from different companies a difficult task (or at least a very time consuming/expensive task - e.g. requiring the execution of a field trial and/or an observer trial). For example, a thermal camera equipped with turbulence mitigation capability stands for such a closed system. The Fraunhofer IOSB has started to build up a system for testing thermal imagers by image based methods in the lab environment. This will extend our capability of measuring the classical IR-system parameters (e.g. MTF, MTDP, etc.) in the lab. The system is set up around the IR- scene projector, which is necessary for the thermal display (projection) of an image sequence for the IR-camera under test. The same set of thermal test sequences might be presented to every unit under test. For turbulence mitigation tests, this could be e.g. the same turbulence sequence. During system tests, gradual variation of input parameters (e. g. thermal contrast) can be applied. First ideas of test scenes selection and how to assembly an imaging suite (a set of image sequences) for the analysis of imaging thermal systems containing such black boxes in the image forming path is discussed.

  12. Structural High-resolution Satellite Image Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Gui-Song; YANG, WEN; Delon, Julie; Gousseau, Yann; Sun, Hong; Maître, Henri

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Satellite images with high spatial resolution raise many challenging issues in image understanding and pattern recognition. First, they allow measurement of small objects maybe up to 0.5 m, and both texture and geometrical structures emerge simultaneously. Second, objects in the same type of scenes might appear at different scales and orientations. Consequently, image indexing methods should combine the structure and texture information of images and comply with some i...

  13. Satellite imager calibration and validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The success or failure of any earth observation mission depends on the quality of its data. Data quality is assessed by determining the radiometric, spatial, spectral and geometric fidelity of the satellite sensor. The process is termed calval...

  14. Model-based satellite image fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Sveinsson, J. R.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed for pixel-level satellite image fusion derived directly from a model of the imaging sensor. By design, the proposed method is spectrally consistent. It is argued that the proposed method needs regularization, as is the case for any method for this problem. A framework for pixel...

  15. Statistical Design Model (SDM) of satellite thermal control subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshams, Mehran; Zabihian, Ehsan; Aarabi Chamalishahi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Satellites thermal control, is a satellite subsystem that its main task is keeping the satellite components at its own survival and activity temperatures. Ability of satellite thermal control plays a key role in satisfying satellite's operational requirements and designing this subsystem is a part of satellite design. In the other hand due to the lack of information provided by companies and designers still doesn't have a specific design process while it is one of the fundamental subsystems. The aim of this paper, is to identify and extract statistical design models of spacecraft thermal control subsystem by using SDM design method. This method analyses statistical data with a particular procedure. To implement SDM method, a complete database is required. Therefore, we first collect spacecraft data and create a database, and then we extract statistical graphs using Microsoft Excel, from which we further extract mathematical models. Inputs parameters of the method are mass, mission, and life time of the satellite. For this purpose at first thermal control subsystem has been introduced and hardware using in the this subsystem and its variants has been investigated. In the next part different statistical models has been mentioned and a brief compare will be between them. Finally, this paper particular statistical model is extracted from collected statistical data. Process of testing the accuracy and verifying the method use a case study. Which by the comparisons between the specifications of thermal control subsystem of a fabricated satellite and the analyses results, the methodology in this paper was proved to be effective. Key Words: Thermal control subsystem design, Statistical design model (SDM), Satellite conceptual design, Thermal hardware

  16. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.;

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  17. Low-Cost Satellite Infrared Imager Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2,297.00 10 MATLAB , Simulink , Symbolic Math Toolbox (2 ea @ £894) £1,788.00 11 MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox (2 ea at £192) £384.00 12 MATLAB ...Figure 1: MWIR and TIR satellite imagery. On the left is a BIRD image of forest fires on the Portuguese/ Spanish border3 and the image on right is...space-borne MWIR and TIR imagers, instrument engineers are continually evaluating advances in the miniaturization of detector technology. One

  18. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  19. Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    enable long-range imaging. In 2013, a major upgrade to the facility was completed, adding a millimeter - wave W-band radar capability to Haystack’s X...diameter antenna was completely rebuilt to provide a 100 μm root-mean-square (rms) surface accuracy to support operation at the 3 mm wave - length (W...electromagnetic wave propagation through the troposphere. − The signal processing system lev- eraged Lincoln Laboratory‘s Radar Open Systems

  20. Change detection in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonnessen, U.; Hofele, G.; Middelmann, W.

    2005-05-01

    Change detection plays an important role in different military areas as strategic reconnaissance, verification of armament and disarmament control and damage assessment. It is the process of identifying differences in the state of an object or phenomenon by observing it at different times. The availability of spaceborne reconnaissance systems with high spatial resolution, multi spectral capabilities, and short revisit times offer new perspectives for change detection. Before performing any kind of change detection it is necessary to separate changes of interest from changes caused by differences in data acquisition parameters. In these cases it is necessary to perform a pre-processing to correct the data or to normalize it. Image registration and, corresponding to this task, the ortho-rectification of the image data is a further prerequisite for change detection. If feasible, a 1-to-1 geometric correspondence should be aspired for. Change detection on an iconic level with a succeeding interpretation of the changes by the observer is often proposed; nevertheless an automatic knowledge-based analysis delivering the interpretation of the changes on a semantic level should be the aim of the future. We present first results of change detection on a structural level concerning urban areas. After pre-processing, the images are segmented in areas of interest and structural analysis is applied to these regions to extract descriptions of urban infrastructure like buildings, roads and tanks of refineries. These descriptions are matched to detect changes and similarities.

  1. Internal waves and vortices in satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Some recent papers proposed the use of the satellite images of Google Earth in teaching physics, in particular to see some behaviours of waves. Reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference are easy to be found in these satellite maps. Besides Google Earth, other sites exist, such as Earth Observatory or Earth Snapshot, suitable for illustrating the large-scale phenomena in atmosphere and oceans In this paper, we will see some examples for teaching surface and internal sea waves, and internal waves and the K\\'arm\\'an vortices in the atmosphere. Aim of this proposal is attracting the interest of students of engineering schools to the physics of waves.

  2. AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Herrald, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small (1-2 m) telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras. We are able to track satellites down to magnitude 10 with a Strehl in excess of 20% in median seeing.

  3. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  4. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchitta, B K; Ferguson, H M

    1986-11-28

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  5. A neuromorphic approach to satellite image understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Perakakis, Manolis

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing satellite imagery provides high altitude, top viewing aspects of large geographic regions and as such the depicted features are not always easily recognizable. Nevertheless, geoscientists familiar to remote sensing data, gradually gain experience and enhance their satellite image interpretation skills. The aim of this study is to devise a novel computational neuro-centered classification approach for feature extraction and image understanding. Object recognition through image processing practices is related to a series of known image/feature based attributes including size, shape, association, texture, etc. The objective of the study is to weight these attribute values towards the enhancement of feature recognition. The key cognitive experimentation concern is to define the point when a user recognizes a feature as it varies in terms of the above mentioned attributes and relate it with their corresponding values. Towards this end, we have set up an experimentation methodology that utilizes cognitive data from brain signals (EEG) and eye gaze data (eye tracking) of subjects watching satellite images of varying attributes; this allows the collection of rich real-time data that will be used for designing the image classifier. Since the data are already labeled by users (using an input device) a first step is to compare the performance of various machine-learning algorithms on the collected data. On the long-run, the aim of this work would be to investigate the automatic classification of unlabeled images (unsupervised learning) based purely on image attributes. The outcome of this innovative process is twofold: First, in an abundance of remote sensing image datasets we may define the essential image specifications in order to collect the appropriate data for each application and improve processing and resource efficiency. E.g. for a fault extraction application in a given scale a medium resolution 4-band image, may be more effective than costly

  6. Imaging artificial satellites: An observational challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Hill, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, as of the beginning of 2016 there are 1381 active satellites orbiting the Earth, and the United States' Space Surveillance Network tracks about 8000 manmade orbiting objects of baseball-size and larger. NASA estimates debris larger than 1 cm to number more than half a million. The largest ones can be seen by eye—unresolved dots of light that move across the sky in minutes. For most astrophotographers, satellites are annoying streaks that can ruin hours of work. However, capturing a resolved image of an artificial satellite can pose an interesting challenge for a student, and such a project can provide connections between objects in the sky and commercial and political activities here on Earth.

  7. Thermal rocketing and the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. LAGEOS is the most accurately tracked satellite in orbit. It is a totally passive, dense spherical satellite covered with 426 cube corner reflectors. Besides its great utility in measuring the Earth`s length of day and polar wobble, this satellite can be used to measure, for the first time, the general relativistic frame-dragging effect. Of the five dominant error sources in such an experiment, the largest one involves surface interaction of thermal forces (thermal rocketing) and its influence on the orbital nodal precession. The project objective was to enhance an already available theoretical model (computer code) developed at Los Alamos based on new optical-spin data obtained at the University of Maryland. The project objective was met and the enhanced code will serve as the new spin-dynamics model for future LAGEOS satellite missions.

  8. Monitoring of wetlands Ecosystems using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Gruszczynska, M.; Yesou, H.; Hoscilo, A.

    Wetlands are very sensitive ecosystems, functioning as habitat for many organisms. Protection and regeneration of wetlands has been the crucial importance in ecological research and in nature conservation. Knowledge on biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation retrieved from satellite images will enable us to improve monitoring of these unique areas, very often impenetrable. The study covers Biebrza wetland situated in the Northeast part of Poland and is considered as Ramsar Convention test site. The research aims at establishing of changes in biophysical parameters as the scrub encroachment, lowering of the water table, and changes of the farming activity caused ecological changes at these areas. Data from the optical and microwave satellite images collected for the area of Biebrza marshland ecosystem have been analysed and compared with the detailed soil-vegetation ground measurements conducted in conjunction with the overflights. Satellite data include Landsat ETM, ERS-2 ATSR and SAR, SPOT VEGETATION, ENVISAT MERIS and ASAR, and NOAA AVHRR. From the optical data various vegetation indices have been calculated, which characterize the vegetation surface roughness, its moisture conditions and stage of development. Landsat ETM image has been used for classification of wetlands vegetation. For each class of vegetation various moisture indices have been developed. Ground data collected include wet and dry biomass, LAI, vegetation height, and TDR soil moisture. The water cloud model has been applied for retrieval of soil vegetation parameters taking into account microwave satellite images acquired at VV, HV and HH polarisations at different viewing angles. The vegetation parameters have been used for to distinguish changes, which occurred at the area. For each of the vegetation class the soil moisture was calculated from microwave data using developed algorithms. Results of this study will help mapping and monitoring wetlands with the high spatial and temporal

  9. Identification of geostationary satellites using polarization data from unresolved images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Andy

    In order to protect critical military and commercial space assets, the United States Space Surveillance Network must have the ability to positively identify and characterize all space objects. Unfortunately, positive identification and characterization of space objects is a manual and labor intensive process today since even large telescopes cannot provide resolved images of most space objects. Since resolved images of geosynchronous satellites are not technically feasible with current technology, another method of distinguishing space objects was explored that exploits the polarization signature from unresolved images. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze visible-spectrum polarization data from unresolved images of geosynchronous satellites taken over various solar phase angles. Different collection geometries were used to evaluate the polarization contribution of solar arrays, thermal control materials, antennas, and the satellite bus as the solar phase angle changed. Since materials on space objects age due to the space environment, it was postulated that their polarization signature may change enough to allow discrimination of identical satellites launched at different times. The instrumentation used in this experiment was a United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Department of Physics system that consists of a 20-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope and a dual focal plane optical train fed with a polarizing beam splitter. A rigorous calibration of the system was performed that included corrections for pixel bias, dark current, and response. Additionally, the two channel polarimeter was calibrated by experimentally determining the Mueller matrix for the system and relating image intensity at the two cameras to Stokes parameters S0 and S1. After the system calibration, polarization data was collected during three nights on eight geosynchronous satellites built by various manufacturers and launched several years apart. Three pairs of the eight

  10. Developing Geostationary Satellite Imaging at Lowell Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lowell Observatory operates the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and owns & operates the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). This unique & necessary combination of facilities positions Lowell to develop a robust program of observing geostationary, GPS-plane, and other high-altitude (&1000mi) satellites. NPOI is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is supported by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates year-round in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and imaging technology development. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe geostationary satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, an ongoing program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted 1.0-m apertures feeding each beam line, and new near-infrared instrumentation on the back end. The large apertures will enable `at-will' observations of objects brighter than mK = 8:3 in the near-IR, corresponding to brighter than mV = 11:3 in the visible. At its core, the system is enabled by a `wavelength-baseline bootstrapping' approach discussed herein. A complementary pilot imaging study of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m DCT, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, is also outlined.

  11. Path planning on satellite images for unmanned surface vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe-Ming Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of autonomous surface vehicles has been a field of increasing research interest. There are two major areas in this field: control theory and path planning. This study focuses on path planning, and two objectives are discussed: path planning for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs and implementation of path planning in a real map. In this paper, satellite thermal images are converted into binary images which are used as the maps for the Finite Angle A * algorithm (FAA *, an advanced A * algorithm that is used to determine safer and suboptimal paths for USVs. To plan a collision-free path, the algorithm proposed in this article considers the dimensions of surface vehicles. Furthermore, the turning ability of a surface vehicle is also considered, and a constraint condition is introduced to improve the quality of the path planning algorithm, which makes the traveled path smoother. This study also shows a path planning experiment performed on a real satellite thermal image, and the path planning results can be used by an USV

  12. Embedded Implementation of VHR Satellite Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Balla-Arabé, Souleymane; Ginhac, Dominique; Yang, Fan

    2016-05-27

    Processing and analysis of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images provide a mass of crucial information, which can be used for urban planning, security issues or environmental monitoring. However, they are computationally expensive and, thus, time consuming, while some of the applications, such as natural disaster monitoring and prevention, require high efficiency performance. Fortunately, parallel computing techniques and embedded systems have made great progress in recent years, and a series of massively parallel image processing devices, such as digital signal processors or Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), have been made available to engineers at a very convenient price and demonstrate significant advantages in terms of running-cost, embeddability, power consumption flexibility, etc. In this work, we designed a texture region segmentation method for very high resolution satellite images by using the level set algorithm and the multi-kernel theory in a high-abstraction C environment and realize its register-transfer level implementation with the help of a new proposed high-level synthesis-based design flow. The evaluation experiments demonstrate that the proposed design can produce high quality image segmentation with a significant running-cost advantage.

  13. Magma extrusion during the Ubinas 2013–2014 eruptive crisis based on satellite thermal imaging (MIROVA) and ground-based monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Diego; Macedo, Orlando; Ramos, Domingo; Finizola, Anthony; Delle Donne, Dario; del Carpio, Jose; White, Randall A.; McCausland, Wendy; Centeno, Riky; Rivera, Marco; Apaza, Fredy; Ccallata, Beto; Chilo, Wilmer; Cigolini, Corrado; Laiolo, Marco; Lazarte, Ivonne; Machaca, Roger; Masias, Pablo; Ortega, Mayra; Puma, Nino; Taipe, Edú

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of mild gases emissions, the Ubinas volcano entered in a new eruptive phase on September 2nd, 2013. The MIROVA system (a space-based volcanic hot-spot detection system), allowed us to detect in near real time the thermal emissions associated with the eruption and provided early evidence of magma extrusion within the deep summit crater. By combining IR data with plume height, sulfur emissions, hot spring temperatures and seismic activity, we interpret the thermal output detected over Ubinas in terms of extrusion rates associated to the eruption. We suggest that the 2013–2014 eruptive crisis can be subdivided into three main phases: (i) shallow magma intrusion inside the edifice, (ii) extrusion and growing of a lava plug at the bottom of the summit crater coupled with increasing explosive activity and finally, (iii) disruption of the lava plug and gradual decline of the explosive activity. The occurrence of the 8.2 Mw Iquique (Chile) earthquake (365 km away from Ubinas) on April 1st, 2014, may have perturbed most of the analyzed parameters, suggesting a prompt interaction with the ongoing volcanic activity. In particular, the analysis of thermal and seismic datasets shows that the earthquake may have promoted the most intense thermal and explosive phase that culminated in a major explosion on April 19th, 2014.These results reveal the efficiency of space-based thermal observations in detecting the extrusion of hot magma within deep volcanic craters and in tracking its evolution. We emphasize that, in combination with other geophysical and geochemical datasets, MIROVA is an essential tool for monitoring remote volcanoes with rather difficult accessibility, like those of the Andes that reach remarkably high altitudes.

  14. System refinement for content based satellite image retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NourElDin Laban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a large increase in satellite generated data especially in the form of images. Hence intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by dozens of earth observing satellites, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. Content based satellite image retrieval (CBSIR approaches have mainly been driven so far by approaches dealing with traditional images. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that refines image retrieval process using the unique properties to satellite images. Our approach uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tiling sizes. Accordingly the system uses these multilevel features within a multilevel retrieval system that refines the retrieval process. Our multilevel refinement approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional one yielding enhanced precision and recall rates.

  15. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  16. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  17. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...... on a seven-year ERS-1 and a four-year ERS-2 time series, the long term stability is found to be sufficient to allow a single calibration covering the entire mission period. A descending and an ascending orbit tandem pair of the ESA calibration site on Flevoland, suitable for calibration of ERS SAR processors...

  18. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  19. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  20. Lossless image compression technique for infrared thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Lloyd G.; Kelly, Gary E.

    1992-07-01

    The authors have achieved a 6.5-to-one image compression technique for thermal images (640 X 480, 1024 colors deep). Using a combination of new and more traditional techniques, the combined algorithm is computationally simple, enabling `on-the-fly' compression and storage of an image in less time than it takes to transcribe the original image to or from a magnetic medium. Similar compression has been achieved on visual images by virtue of the feature that all optical devices possess a modulation transfer function. As a consequence of this property, the difference in color between adjacent pixels is a usually small number, often between -1 and +1 graduations for a meaningful color scheme. By differentiating adjacent rows and columns, the original image can be expressed in terms of these small numbers. A simple compression algorithm for these small numbers achieves a four to one image compression. By piggy-backing this technique with a LZW compression or a fixed Huffman coding, an additional 35% image compression is obtained, resulting in a 6.5-to-one lossless image compression. Because traditional noise-removal operators tend to minimize the color graduations between adjacent pixels, an additional 20% reduction can be obtained by preprocessing the image with a noise-removal operator. Although noise removal operators are not lossless, their application may prove crucial in applications requiring high compression, such as the storage or transmission of a large number or images. The authors are working with the Air Force Photonics Technology Application Program Management office to apply this technique to transmission of optical images from satellites.

  1. LARES Satellite Thermal Forces and a Test of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Matzner, Richard; Brooks, Jason; Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Penrose, Roger; Sindoni, Giampiero; Paris, Claudio; Khachatryan, Harutyun; Mirzoyan, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We summarize a laser-ranged satellite test of General Relativity, the measurement of the Earth's dragging of inertial frames, and then describe the modeling of an important perturbing effect, thermally induced forces, on the satellite. The frame dragging result is obtained by using about 3.5 years of laser-ranged observations of the LARES, LAGEOS, and LAGEOS 2 laser-ranged satellites together with the Earth gravity field model GGM05S produced by the space geodesy mission GRACE. It produces a result in agreement with the prediction of General Relativity: $\\mu = (0.994 \\pm 0.002) \\pm 0.05$, where $\\mu$ is the Earth's dragging of inertial frames normalized to its General Relativity value, 0.002 is the 1-sigma formal error and 0.05 is the estimated systematic error. The thermal force model assumes heat flow from the sun (visual) and from Earth (IR) to the satellite core and to the fused silica reflectors on the satellite, and reradiation into space. For a roughly current epoch (days 1460 - 1580 after launch) we c...

  2. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  3. AUTOMATIC APPROACH TO VHR SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kupidura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a proposition of a fully automatic classification of VHR satellite images. Unlike the most widespread approaches: supervised classification, which requires prior defining of class signatures, or unsupervised classification, which must be followed by an interpretation of its results, the proposed method requires no human intervention except for the setting of the initial parameters. The presented approach bases on both spectral and textural analysis of the image and consists of 3 steps. The first step, the analysis of spectral data, relies on NDVI values. Its purpose is to distinguish between basic classes, such as water, vegetation and non-vegetation, which all differ significantly spectrally, thus they can be easily extracted basing on spectral analysis. The second step relies on granulometric maps. These are the product of local granulometric analysis of an image and present information on the texture of each pixel neighbourhood, depending on the texture grain. The purpose of texture analysis is to distinguish between different classes, spectrally similar, but yet of different texture, e.g. bare soil from a built-up area, or low vegetation from a wooded area. Due to the use of granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology opening and closing, the results are resistant to the border effect (qualifying borders of objects in an image as spaces of high texture, which affect other methods of texture analysis like GLCM statistics or fractal analysis. Therefore, the effectiveness of the analysis is relatively high. Several indices based on values of different granulometric maps have been developed to simplify the extraction of classes of different texture. The third and final step of the process relies on a vegetation index, based on near infrared and blue bands. Its purpose is to correct partially misclassified pixels. All the indices used in the classification model developed relate to reflectance values, so the

  4. Automatic Approach to Vhr Satellite Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupidura, P.; Osińska-Skotak, K.; Pluto-Kossakowska, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a proposition of a fully automatic classification of VHR satellite images. Unlike the most widespread approaches: supervised classification, which requires prior defining of class signatures, or unsupervised classification, which must be followed by an interpretation of its results, the proposed method requires no human intervention except for the setting of the initial parameters. The presented approach bases on both spectral and textural analysis of the image and consists of 3 steps. The first step, the analysis of spectral data, relies on NDVI values. Its purpose is to distinguish between basic classes, such as water, vegetation and non-vegetation, which all differ significantly spectrally, thus they can be easily extracted basing on spectral analysis. The second step relies on granulometric maps. These are the product of local granulometric analysis of an image and present information on the texture of each pixel neighbourhood, depending on the texture grain. The purpose of texture analysis is to distinguish between different classes, spectrally similar, but yet of different texture, e.g. bare soil from a built-up area, or low vegetation from a wooded area. Due to the use of granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology opening and closing, the results are resistant to the border effect (qualifying borders of objects in an image as spaces of high texture), which affect other methods of texture analysis like GLCM statistics or fractal analysis. Therefore, the effectiveness of the analysis is relatively high. Several indices based on values of different granulometric maps have been developed to simplify the extraction of classes of different texture. The third and final step of the process relies on a vegetation index, based on near infrared and blue bands. Its purpose is to correct partially misclassified pixels. All the indices used in the classification model developed relate to reflectance values, so the preliminary step

  5. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)_Thermal Infared Sensor (TIRS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract:The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) are instruments onboard the Landsat 8 satellite, which was launched in February of...

  6. Thermal migration of water on the Galilean satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, N.G.; Pilcher, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    We have modeled the thermal migration of water on the Galilean satellites under the assumption of ballistic molecular trajectories. It is found that water migrating owing to solar radiation on an ice-covered satellite will build up in temperate latitudes, in general not reaching the poles. As much as 50 m of ice may have been lost by this process from the equatorial regions of Europa over the age of the solar system. The disappearance of patches of ice - for instance, the bright rays surrounding some impact craters - from the equatorial regions of Ganymede and Callisto may approach a value (the irreversible evaporation rate) three orders of magnitude larger than the net equatorial loss rate for ice-covered Europa. The presence of water ice pole caps on Ganymede extending to the latitudes at which thermal migration becomes important suggests that some process distributed an extensive, thin covering of water on the satellite, and that the equatorial regions were subsequently cleared by the thermal process.

  7. The use of thermal infrared images in geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal infrared image data can be used as an aid to geologic mapping. Broadband thermal data between 8 and 13 microns is used to measure surface temperature, from which surface thermal properties can be inferred. Data from aircraft multispectral scanners at Pisgah, California which include a broadband thermal channel along with several visible and near-IR spectral channels permit better discrimination between rock type units than the same data set without the thermal data. Data from the HCMM satellite and from aircraft thermal scanners also make it possible to monitor moisture changes in Death Valley, California. Multispectral data in the same 8-13 micron wavelength range can be used to discriminate between surface materials with different spectral emission characteristics, as demonstrated with both aircraft scanner and ground spectrometer data.

  8. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  9. Application of Geostatistical Simulation to Enhance Satellite Image Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thirulanambi, Rajkumar; Roy, David

    2004-01-01

    With the deployment of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites that provide daily, global imagery, there is increasing interest in defining the limitations of the data and derived products due to its coarse spatial resolution. Much of the detail, i.e. small fragments and notches in boundaries, is lost with coarse resolution imagery such as the EOS MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Higher spatial resolution data such as the EOS Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat and airborne sensor imagery provide more detailed information but are less frequently available. There are, however, both theoretical and analytical evidence that burn scars and other fragmented types of land covers form self-similar or self-affine patterns, that is, patterns that look similar when viewed at widely differing spatial scales. Therefore small features of the patterns should be predictable, at least in a statistical sense, with knowledge about the large features. Recent developments in fractal modeling for characterizing the spatial distribution of undiscovered petroleum deposits are thus applicable to generating simulations of finer resolution satellite image products. We will present example EOS products, analysis to investigate self-similarity, and simulation results.

  10. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of the thermal analysis and design of the Iodine Satellite (iSAT). The purpose of the iSAT spacecraft (SC) is to demonstrate the ability of the iodine Hall Thruster propulsion system throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the system for use on future satellites. The benefit of this propulsion system is that it uses a propellant, iodine, that is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. The spacecraft will also act as a bus for an earth observation payload, the Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Camera. Four phases of the mission, determined to either be critical to achieving requirements or phases of thermal concern, are modeled. The phases are the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) Change, Altitude Reduction, De-Orbit, and Science Phases. Each phase was modeled in a worst case hot environment and the coldest phase, the Science Phase, was also modeled in a worst case cold environment. The thermal environments of the spacecraft are especially important to model because iSAT has a very high power density. The satellite is the size of a 12 unit cubesat, and dissipates slightly more than 75 Watts of power as heat at times. The maximum temperatures for several components are above their maximum operational limit for one or more cases. The analysis done for the first Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC1) showed that many components were above or within 5 degrees Centigrade of their maximum operation limit. The battery is a component of concern because although it is not over its operational temperature limit, efficiency greatly decreases if it operates at the currently predicted temperatures. In the second Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC2), many steps were taken to mitigate the overheating of components, including isolating several high temperature components, removal of components, and rearrangement of systems. These changes have greatly increased the thermal margin available.

  11. Forming images with thermal neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanier, Peter E.; Forman, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Thermal neutrons passing through air have scattering lengths of about 20 meters. At further distances, the majority of neutrons emanating from a moderated source will scatter multiple times in the air before being detected, and will not retain information about the location of the source, except that their density will fall off somewhat faster than 1/r2. However, there remains a significant fraction of the neutrons that will travel 20 meters or more without scattering and can be used to create an image of the source. A few years ago, a proof-of-principle "camera" was demonstrated that could produce images of a scene containing sources of thermalized neutrons and could locate a source comparable in strength with an improvised nuclear device at ranges over 60 meters. The instrument makes use of a coded aperture with a uniformly redundant array of openings, analogous to those used in x-ray and gamma cameras. The detector is a position-sensitive He-3 proportional chamber, originally used for neutron diffraction. A neutron camera has many features in common with those designed for non-focusable photons, as well as some important differences. Potential applications include detecting nuclear smuggling, locating non-metallic land mines, assaying nuclear waste, and surveying for health physics purposes.

  12. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  13. Satellite image eavesdropping: a multidisciplinary science education project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, Jean-Michel [Association Projet Aurore, UFR-ST La Bouloie, 16, route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2005-11-01

    Amateur reception of satellite images gathers a wide number of concepts and technologies which makes it attractive as an educational tool. We here introduce the reception of images emitted from NOAA series low-altitude Earth-orbiting satellites. We tackle various issues including the identification and prediction of the pass time of visible satellites, the building of the radio-frequency receiver and antenna after modelling their radiation pattern, and then the demodulation of the resulting audio signal for finally displaying an image of the Earth as seen from space.

  14. Intelligent thermal imaging camera with network interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielewicz, Krzysztof M.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, a significant increase in usage of thermal imagining cameras can be observed in both public and commercial sector, due to the lower cost and expanding availability of uncooled microbolometer infrared radiation detectors. Devices present on the market vary in their parameters and output interfaces. However, all these thermographic cameras are only a source of an image, which is then analyzed in external image processing unit. There is no possibility to run users dedicated image processing algorithms by thermal imaging camera itself. This paper presents a concept of realization, architecture and hardware implementation of "Intelligent thermal imaging camera with network interface" utilizing modern technologies, standards and approach in one single device.

  15. Cooperative Tracking Using Multiple PTZ Thermal Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghao; Hu, Zhou; Li, Honghu; Fu, Shiqing

    2012-11-01

    A cooperative object tracking framework is proposed which shifts the priority of tracking by pose estimation based on registration between fields of view (FOVs) of different pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) thermal imagers, avoiding transferring the local features from one imager to another. When an object is selected for tracking, the related PTZ thermal imager tracks it using an improved particle filtering method, and estimates the pose of the imager simultaneously. Once the object enters an overlapping FOV of two imagers, the handoff thermal imager is activated immediately according to the spatial relationship built by pose estimation, and turns to tacking and pose estimation status. Meanwhile, the previous camera returns to waiting status for reactivation. Experiments are conducted to show the proposed framework is applicable to cooperative object tracking for PTZ thermal infrared imagers.

  16. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  17. Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) Payload Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, S.C.; Brock, B.C.; Bullington, D.M.; Byrd, D.A.; Claassen, P.J.; Decker, M.L.; Henson, T.D.; Kay, R.R.; Kidner, R.E.; Lanes, C.E.; Little, C.; Marbach, K.D.; Rackley, N.G.; Rienstra, J.L.; Smith, B.W.; Taplin, R.B.; Weber, P.G.

    1999-07-07

    MTI is a comprehensive research and development project that includes up-front modeling and analysis, satellite system design, fabrication, assembly and testing, on-orbit operations, and experimentation and data analysis. The satellite is designed to collect radiometrically calibrated, medium resolution imagery in 15 spectral bands ranging from 0.45 to 10.70 pm. The payload portion of the satellite includes the imaging system components, associated electronics boxes, and payload support structure. The imaging system includes a three-mirror anastigmatic off-axis telescope, a single cryogenically cooled focal plane assembly, a mechanical cooler, and an onboard calibration system. Payload electronic subsystems include image digitizers, real-time image compressors, a solid state recorder, calibration source drivers, and cooler temperature and vibration controllers. The payload support structure mechanically integrates all payload components and provides a simple four point interface to the spacecraft bus. All payload components have been fabricated and tested, and integrated.

  18. Velocity estimation of an airplane through a single satellite image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuxin Zhao; Gongjian Wen; Bingwei Hui; Deren Li

    2012-01-01

    The motion information of a moving target can be recorded in a single image by a push-broom satellite. A push-broom satellite image is composed of many image lines sensed at different time instants. A method to estimate the velocity of a flying airplane from a single image based on the imagery model of the linear push-broom sensor is proposed. Some key points on the high-resolution image of the plane are chosen to determine the velocity (speed and direction). The performance of the method is tested and verified by experiments using a WorldView-1 image.%The motion information of a moving target can be recorded in a single image by a push-broom satellite.A push-broom satellite image is composed of many image lines sensed at different time instants.A method to estimate the velocity of a flying airplane from a single image based on the imagery model of the linear push-broom sensor is proposed.Some key points on the high-resolution image of the plane are chosen to determine the velocity (speed and direction).The performance of the method is tested and verified by experiments using a WorldView-1 image.

  19. Satellite image collection modeling for large area hazard emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shufan; Hodgson, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Timely collection of critical hazard information is the key to intelligent and effective hazard emergency response decisions. Satellite remote sensing imagery provides an effective way to collect critical information. Natural hazards, however, often have large impact areas - larger than a single satellite scene. Additionally, the hazard impact area may be discontinuous, particularly in flooding or tornado hazard events. In this paper, a spatial optimization model is proposed to solve the large area satellite image acquisition planning problem in the context of hazard emergency response. In the model, a large hazard impact area is represented as multiple polygons and image collection priorities for different portion of impact area are addressed. The optimization problem is solved with an exact algorithm. Application results demonstrate that the proposed method can address the satellite image acquisition planning problem. A spatial decision support system supporting the optimization model was developed. Several examples of image acquisition problems are used to demonstrate the complexity of the problem and derive optimized solutions.

  20. Landsat TM and ETM+ Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2000-2001 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and...

  1. Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)...

  2. Spatial Cloud Detection and Retrieval System for Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Nasr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In last the decade we witnessed a large increase in data generated by earth observing satellites. Hence, intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by hundreds of earth receiving stations, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. One of the most important steps in earlier stages of satellite image processing is cloud detection. Satellite images having a large percentage of cloud cannot be used in further analysis. While there are many approaches that deal with different semantic meaning, there are rarely approaches that deal specifically with cloud detection and retrieval. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that spatially detect and retrieve clouds in satellite images using their unique properties .Our approach is developed as spatial cloud detection and retrieval system (SCDRS that introduce a complete framework for specific semantic retrieval system. It uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tile sizes using spatial and textural properties of cloud regions. Second, we retrieve our tiles using a parametric statistical approach within a multilevel refinement process. Our approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional ones yielding enhanced precision and recall rates in the same time it gives more precise detection of cloud coverage regions.

  3. Studying bio-thermal effects at and around MSW dumps using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Estimating negative impacts of MSW dumps on its surrounding environment is the key requirement for any remedial measures. This study has been undertaken to map bio-thermal effects of MSW dumping at and around dumping facilities (non-engineered) using satellite imagery for Faisalabad, Pakistan. Thirty images of Landsat 8 have been selected after validation for the accuracy of their observational details from April 2013 to October 2015. Land Surface Temperature (LST), NDVI, SAVI and MSAVI have been derived from these images through Digital Image Processing (DIP) and have been subjected to spatio-temporal analysis in GIS environment. MSW dump has been found with average temperature elevation of 4.3K and 2.78K from nearby agriculture land and urban settlement respectively. Vegetation health has been used as the bio-indicator of MSW effects and is implemented through NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI. Spatial analyses have been used to mark boundary of bio-thermally affected zone around dumped MSW and measure 700m. Seasonal fluctuations of elevated temperatures and boundary of the bio-thermally affected zones have also been discussed. Based on the direct relation found between vegetation vigor and the level of deterioration within the bio-thermally affected region, use of crops with heavy vigor is recommended to study MSW hazard influence using bio-indicators of vegetation health.

  4. Thermal imaging cameras characteristics and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ability to see through smoke and mist and the ability to use the variances in temperature to differentiate between targets and their backgrounds are invaluable in military applications and have become major motivators for the further development of thermal imagers. As the potential of thermal imaging is more clearly understood and the cost decreases, the number of industrial and civil applications being exploited is growing quickly. In order to evaluate the suitability of particular thermal imaging cameras for particular applications, it is important to have the means to specify and measur

  5. Wind Statistics Offshore based on Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Mouche, Alexis; Badger, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Ocean wind maps from satellites are routinely processed both at Risø DTU and CLS based on the European Space Agency Envisat ASAR data. At Risø the a priori wind direction is taken from the atmospheric model NOGAPS (Navel Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System) provided by the U.S. Navy......’s Master Environmental Library. At CLS the a priori wind direction is taken from the ECMWF (European Centre of Medium-range Weather Forecasting). It is also possible to use other sources of wind direction e.g. the satellite-based ASCAT wind directions as demonstrated by CLS. The wind direction has to known...

  6. Very high resolution satellite data: New challenges in image analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    with the exception that a ground-based view covers the entire optical range from 400 to 700 nm while satellite images will be wavelength-specific. Although the images will not surpass details observed by a human eye, they will, in principle, be comparable with aerial...

  7. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  8. Imaging acute thermal burns by photoacoustic microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao F.; Maslov, Konstantin; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    The clinical significance of a burn depends on the percentage of total body involved and the depth of the burn. Hence a noninvasive method that is able to evaluate burn depth would be of great help in clinical evaluation. To this end, photoacoustic microscopy is used to determine the depth of acute thermal burns by imaging the total hemoglobin concentration in the blood that accumulates along the boundaries of injuries as a result of thermal damage to the vasculature. We induce acute thermal ...

  9. Tomographic imaging and scanning thermal microscopy: thermal impedance tomography

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The application of tomographic imaging techniques developed for medical applications to the data provided by the scanning thermal microscope will give access to true three-dimensional information on the thermal properties of materials on a mm length scale. In principle, the technique involves calculating and inverting a sensitivity matrix for a uniform isotropic material, collecting ordered data at several modulation frequencies, and multiplying the inverse of the matrix with the data vector....

  10. Geospatial Visualization of Global Satellite Images with Vis-EROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standart, G. D.; Stulken, K. R.; Zhang, Xuesong; Zong, Ziliang

    2011-04-13

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey is currently managing and maintaining the world largest satellite images distribution system, which provides 24/7 free download service for researchers all over the globe in many areas such as Geology, Hydrology, Climate Modeling, and Earth Sciences. A large amount of geospatial data contained in satellite images maintained by EROS is generated every day. However, this data is not well utilized due to the lack of efficient data visualization tools. This software implements a method for visualizing various characteristics of the global satellite image download requests. More specifically, Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files are generated which can be loaded into an earth browser such as Google Earth. Colored rectangles associated with stored satellite scenes are painted onto the earth browser; and the color and opacity of each rectangle is varied as a function of the popularity of the corresponding satellite image. An analysis of the geospatial information obtained relative to specified time constraints provides an ability to relate image download requests to environmental, political, and social events.

  11. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station:Satellite-observed evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Tao; HUANG Yong; WANG Hong; SHI Chun-E; YANG Yuan-Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC), land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization is the main factor that affects the spatial-temporal distribution of thermal environment around meteorological stations. Moreover, the normalized LST and NDVI exhibit strong inverse correlations around meteorological stations, so the variability of LST can be monitored through evaluating the variability of NDVI. In addition, station-relocation plays an important role in improving representativeness of thermal environment. Notably, the environment representativeness was improved, but when using the data from the station to study climate change, the relocation-induced inhomogeneous data should be considered and adjusted. Consequently, controlling the scale and layout of the urban buildings and constructions around meteorological stations is an effective method to ameliorate observational thermal environment and to improve regional representativeness of station observation. The present work provides observational evidences that high resolution Landsat images can be used to evaluate the thermal environment of meteorological stations.

  12. Entropy-Based Block Processing for Satellite Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhyun Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is an important task in many computer vision applications such as fusion systems, 3D shape recovery and earth observation. Particularly, registering satellite images is challenging and time-consuming due to limited resources and large image size. In such scenario, state-of-the-art image registration methods such as scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT may not be suitable due to high processing time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on block processing via entropy to register satellite images. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using different real images. The comparative analysis shows that it not only reduces the processing time but also enhances the accuracy.

  13. High resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, W.R.; Hays, P.B.; Grassl, H.J.; Gell, D.A.; Burrage, M.D.; Marshall, A.R.; Ortland, D.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite has been providing measurements of the wind field in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere since November 1991. Examination of various calibration data indicates the instrument has remained remarkably stable since launch. The instrument has a thermal drift of about 30 m/s/{degree}C (slightly dependent on wavelength) and a long-term temporal drift that has amounted to about 80 m/s since launch. These effects are removed in the data processing leaving an uncertainty in the instrument stability of {minus}2 nVs. The temperature control of the instrument has improved significantly since launch as a new method was implemented. The initial temperature control held the instrument temperature at about {+-}1{degree}C. The improved method, which holds constant the temperature of the optical bench instead of the radiator, keeps the instrument temperature at about 0.2{degree}C. The calibrations indicate very little change in the sensitivity of the instrument. The detector response has shown no degradation and the optics have not changed their transmittance.

  14. Thermal light ghost imaging based on morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Shi, Jianhong; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    The quality of thermal light ghost imaging could be degraded by undersampling noise. This kind of noise is generated because of finite sampling, which could reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ghost imaging and submerge object information. In order to reduce the undersampling noise, we propose a thermal light ghost imaging scheme based on the morphology (GIM). In this scheme, the average size of the undersampling noise can be obtained by computing the second-order correlation function of the ghost imaging system. According to the average size of the undersampling noise, the corresponding structure element can be designed and used in the morphological filter; then, the GIM reconstructed image can be obtained. The experiment results show that the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the GIM reconstructed image can increased by 80% than that of conventional ghost imaging for the same number of measurements.

  15. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Yousif

    2011-12-01

    In this paper different printing systems were used to print an image of SPOT-4 satellite, caver part of Sharm Elshekh area, Sinai, Egypt, on the same type of paper as much as possible, especially in the photography. This step is followed by measuring the experimental data, and analyzed colors to determine the best printing systems for satellite image printing data. The laser system is the more printing system where produce a wider range of color and highest densities of ink and access much color detail. Followed by the offset system which it recorded the best dot gain. Moreover, the study shows that it can use the advantages of each method according to the satellite image color and quantity to be produced.

  16. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  17. Comparison of Satellite Image Enhancement Techniques in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Narasimhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison of various existing satellite image resolution enhancement techniques in wavelet domain is done. Each method is analysed quantitatively and visually. There are various wavelet domain based methods such as Wavelet Zero Padding, Dual Tree-Complex Wavelet Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Cycle Spinning and Undecimated Wavelet Transform. On the basis of analysis, the most efficient method is proposed. The algorithms take the low resolution image as the input image and then wavelet transformation using daubechies (db3 is used to decompose the input image into different sub band images containing high and low frequency component. Then these subband images along with the input image are interpolated followed by combining all these images to generate a new resolution enhanced image by an inverse process.

  18. Electrical Inspection Oriented Thermal Image Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Wang, Menglin; Gong, Xiaojin; Guo, Zhihong; Geng, Yujie; Bai, Demeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to access the quality of thermal images that are specially used in electrical inspection. In this application, no reference images are given for quality assessment. Therefore, we first analyze the characteristics for these thermal images. Then, four quantitative measurements, which are one-dimensional (1D) entropy, two-dimensional (2D) entropy, centrality, and No-Reference Structural Sharpness (NRSS), are investigated to measure the information content, the centrality for objects of interest, and the sharpness of images. Moreover, in order to provide a more intuitive measure for human operators, we assign each image with a discrete rate based on these quantitative measurements via the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. The proposed approach has been validated in a dataset composed of 2,336 images. Experiments show that our quality assessment results are consistent with subjective assessment.

  19. Infrared thermal imaging in connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (IRT) is a non-invasive, non-contact technique which allows one to measure and visualize infrared radiation. In medicine, thermal imaging has been used for more than 50 years in various clinical settings, including Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis. Imaging and quantification of surface body temperature provides an indirect measure of the microcirculation's overall performance. As such, IRT is capable of confirming the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon, and, with additional cold or heat challenge, of differentiating between the primary and secondary condition. In systemic sclerosis IRT has a potential role in assessing disease activity and monitoring treatment response. Despite certain limitations, thermal imaging can find a place in clinical practice, and with the introduction of small, low-cost infrared cameras, possibly become a part of routine rheumatological evaluation.

  20. Satellite Imaging with Adaptive Optics on a 1 M Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Copeland, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia, have been developing adaptive optic (AO) systems for space situational awareness applications. We report on the development and demonstration of an AO system for satellite imaging using a 1 m telescope. The system uses the orbiting object as a natural guide star to measure atmospheric turbulence, and a deformable mirror to provide an optical correction. The AO system utilised modern, high speed and low noise EMCCD technology on both the wavefront sensor and imaging camera to achieve high performance, achieving a Strehl ratio in excess of 30% at 870 nm. Images are post processed with lucky imaging algorithms to further improve the final image quality. We demonstrate the AO system on stellar targets and Iridium satellites, achieving a near diffraction limited full width at half maximum. A specialised realtime controller allows our system to achieve a bandwidth above 100 Hz, with the wavefront sensor and control loop running at 2 kHz. The AO systems we are developing show how ground-based optical sensors can be used to manage the space environment. AO imaging systems can be used for satellite surveillance, while laser ranging can be used to determine precise orbital data used in the critical conjunction analysis required to maintain a safe space environment. We have focused on making this system compact, expandable, and versatile. We are continuing to develop this platform for other space situational awareness applications such as geosynchronous satellite astrometry, space debris characterisation, satellite imaging, and ground-to-space laser communication.

  1. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from single thermal channel radiometer data onboard Kalpana satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Naveen R.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Mathur, Aloke K.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2011-06-01

    An atmospheric correction method has been applied on sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm using Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) single window channel radiance data onboard Kalpana satellite (K-SAT). The technique makes use of concurrent water vapour fields available from Microwave Imager onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMI) satellite. Total water vapour content and satellite zenith angle dependent SST retrieval algorithm has been developed using Radiative Transfer Model [MODTRAN ver3.0] simulations for Kalpana 10.5-12.5 μm thermal window channel. Retrieval of Kalpana SST (K-SST) has been carried out for every half-hourly acquisition of Kalpana data for the year 2008 to cover whole annual cycle of SST over Indian Ocean (IO). Validation of the retrieved corrected SST has been carried out using near-simultaneous observations of ship and buoys datasets covering Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and IO regions. A significant improvement in Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of K-SST with respect to buoy (1.50-1.02 K) and to ship datasets (1.41-1.19 K) is seen with the use of near real-time water vapour fields of TMI. Furthermore, comparison of the retrieved SST has also been carried out using near simultaneous observations of TRMM/TMI SST over IO regions. The analysis shows that K-SST has overall cold bias of 1.17 K and an RMSD of 1.09 K after bias correction.

  2. Simultaneous Fusion and Denoising of Panchromatic and Multispectral Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, Amr M.; Osman, Heba; Abbas, Alaa M.; Elkaffas, Saleh M.; El-Tobely, Tarek A.; Khamis, S.; Elhalawany, Mohamed E.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2012-12-01

    To identify objects in satellite images, multispectral (MS) images with high spectral resolution and low spatial resolution, and panchromatic (Pan) images with high spatial resolution and low spectral resolution need to be fused. Several fusion methods such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS), the discrete wavelet transform, the discrete wavelet frame transform (DWFT), and the principal component analysis have been proposed in recent years to obtain images with both high spectral and spatial resolutions. In this paper, a hybrid fusion method for satellite images comprising both the IHS transform and the DWFT is proposed. This method tries to achieve the highest possible spectral and spatial resolutions with as small distortion in the fused image as possible. A comparison study between the proposed hybrid method and the traditional methods is presented in this paper. Different MS and Pan images from Landsat-5, Spot, Landsat-7, and IKONOS satellites are used in this comparison. The effect of noise on the proposed hybrid fusion method as well as the traditional fusion methods is studied. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed hybrid method to the traditional methods. The results show also that a wavelet denoising step is required when fusion is performed at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  3. Image Dodging Algorithm for GF-1 Satellite WFV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Image dodging method is one of the important processes that determines whether the mosaicking image can be used for remote sensing quantitative application. GF-1 satellite is the first satellite in CHEOS (Chinese high-resolution earth observation system. WFV multispectral sensor is one of the instruments onboard GF-1 satellite which consist of four cameras to mosaic imaging. According to the characteristics of WFV sensor, this paper proposes an image dodging algorithm based on cross/inter-radiometric calibration method. First, the traditional cross calibration method is applied to obtain the calibration coefficients of one WFV camera. Then statistical analysis and simulation methods are adopted to build the correlation models of DN and TOA (top of atmosphere radiances between adjacent cameras. The proposed method can not only accomplish the radiation performance transfer, but also can fulfill the image dodging. The experimental results show the cross/inter-radiometric calibration coefficients in this paper can effectively eliminate the radiation inconsistency problem of the adjacent camera image which realizes the image dodging. So our proposed dodging method can provide an important reference for other similar sensor in future.

  4. Thermal imaging of Bi2212 THz oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, H.; Pyon, S. [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tamegai, T., E-mail: tamegai@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsujimoto, M.; Kakeya, I. [Department of Electric Science & Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Temperature distributions of Bi2212 mesas at low temperatures are measured. • Fluorescent thermal imaging (FTI) method is applied in the thermal imaging. • Obtained thermal images reveal non-uniformity of the temperature distribution. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (Bi2212) mesas are promising candidates for THz oscillators, which can fill the frequency range around “THz gap”. However, it is known that Bi2212 mesas show self-heating effects (hot spots) when the current is passed along the c-axis due to the low thermal conductivity in this direction. Although several previous studies reported the relation of the hot spot and THz emission, consistent answer has not been obtained yet. In order to address this issue, imaging of temperature distributions on Bi2212 mesas is expected to be very effective. Here, we set up fluorescent thermal imaging (FTI) method for visualizing the surface temperature distribution on the Bi2212 mesa. We have succeeded in observing hot spots in the Bi2212 mesa with high spatial resolution.

  5. Three attempts of earthquake prediction with satellite cloud images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guangmeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal anomalies detected from satellite data are widely reported. Nearly all the anomalies are reported after the quake. Here we report three earthquake predictions in Italy and Iran according to satellite cloud anomalies. These cloud anomalies usually show a linear pattern, stay there for hours and do not move with winds. According to these anomalies, we can give a rough estimation about impending earthquake activities. All the estimated dates and magnitudes are in good agreement with the earthquake facts, and the only unsatisfactory point is that the distance error is 100–300 km. Because the cloud anomaly is long, we can not reduce the distance error further. A possible way is to combine geophysical data and satellite data together to estimate the epicenter and this will increase the prediction accuracy.

  6. Classification of Pansharpened Urban Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, Frosti; Sveinsson, Johannes R.; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2012-01-01

    The classification of high resolution urban remote sensing imagery is addressed with the focus on classification of imagery that has been pansharpened by a number of different pansharpening methods. The pansharpening process introduces some spectral and spatial distortions in the resulting fused...... multispectral image, the amount of which highly varies depending on which pansharpening technique is used. In the majority of the pansharpening techniques that have been proposed, there is a compromise between the spatial enhancement and the spectral consistency. Here we study the effects of the spectral...... information from the panchromatic data. Random Forests (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) will be used as classifiers. Experiments are done for three different datasets that have been obtained by two different imaging sensors, IKONOS and QuickBird. These sensors deliver multispectral images that have four...

  7. Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard...

  8. Analytical models integrated with satellite images for optimized pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global field protection (GFP) was developed to protect and optimize pest management resources integrating satellite images for precise field demarcation with physical models of controlled release devices of pesticides to protect large fields. The GFP was implemented using a graphical user interf...

  9. Interferometric Imaging of Geostationary Satellites: Signal-to-Noise Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    and the extent to which they cover the necessary portions of the UV plane . Once the photon counting noise becomes smaller than the UV coverage noise, ad...satellites,” in Proc. SPIE 4091, Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras , S. R. Czyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D...SPIE 4091, Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras , S. R. Czyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, and P. S

  10. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been to implement a software system, that is able to create a 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D photographic images made from different positions. The height is determined from the disparity difference of the images. The general purpose of the system is mapping o......, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed....

  11. Detection of Perforators Using Smartphone Thermal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph T; Osmani, Omer; Skillman, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal imaging detects infrared radiation from an object, producing a thermogram that can be interpreted as a surrogate marker for cutaneous blood flow. To date, high-resolution cameras typically cost tens of thousands of dollars. The FLIR ONE is a smartphone-compatible miniature thermal imaging camera that currently retails at under $200. In a proof-of-concept study, patients and healthy volunteers were assessed with thermal imaging for (1) detecting and mapping perforators, (2) defining perforasomes, and (3) monitoring free flaps. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative thermograms can assist in the planning, execution, and monitoring of free flaps, and the FLIR ONE provides a low-cost adjunct that could be applied to other areas of burns and plastic surgery.

  12. The cradle of pyramids in satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    We propose the use of image processing to enhance the Google Maps of some archaeological areas of Egypt. In particular we analyse that place which is considered the cradle of pyramids, where it was announced the discovery of a new pyramid by means of an infrared remote sensing.

  13. An Image Matching Algorithm Integrating Global SRTM and Image Segmentation for Multi-Source Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel image matching method for multi-source satellite images, which integrates global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data and image segmentation to achieve robust and numerous correspondences. This method first generates the epipolar lines as a geometric constraint assisted by global SRTM data, after which the seed points are selected and matched. To produce more reliable matching results, a region segmentation-based matching propagation is proposed in this paper, whereby the region segmentations are extracted by image segmentation and are considered to be a spatial constraint. Moreover, a similarity measure integrating Distance, Angle and Normalized Cross-Correlation (DANCC, which considers geometric similarity and radiometric similarity, is introduced to find the optimal correspondences. Experiments using typical satellite images acquired from Resources Satellite-3 (ZY-3, Mapping Satellite-1, SPOT-5 and Google Earth demonstrated that the proposed method is able to produce reliable and accurate matching results.

  14. Satellite images analysis for shadow detection and building height estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasis, Gregoris; Stavrou, Stavros

    2016-09-01

    Satellite images can provide valuable information about the presented urban landscape scenes to remote sensing and telecommunication applications. Obtaining information from satellite images is difficult since all the objects and their surroundings are presented with feature complexity. The shadows cast by buildings in urban scenes can be processed and used for estimating building heights. Thus, a robust and accurate building shadow detection process is important. Region-based active contour models can be used for satellite image segmentation. However, spectral heterogeneity that usually exists in satellite images and the feature similarity representing the shadow and several non-shadow regions makes building shadow detection challenging. In this work, a new automated method for delineating building shadows is proposed. Initially, spectral and spatial features of the satellite image are utilized for designing a custom filter to enhance shadows and reduce intensity heterogeneity. An effective iterative procedure using intensity differences is developed for tuning and subsequently selecting the most appropriate filter settings, able to highlight the building shadows. The response of the filter is then used for automatically estimating the radiometric property of the shadows. The customized filter and the radiometric feature are utilized to form an optimized active contour model where the contours are biased to delineate shadow regions. Post-processing morphological operations are also developed and applied for removing misleading artefacts. Finally, building heights are approximated using shadow length and the predefined or estimated solar elevation angle. Qualitative and quantitative measures are used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method for both shadow detection and building height estimation.

  15. Upper atomosphere and Thermal control of the Super Low Altitude Test Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Super Low Altitude Test Satellite (SLATS) is an engineering test satellite currently under development in JAXA in an attempt to open a new frontier of space utilization on extremely low earth orbits. The altitude of SLATS orbit is around200km altitude. In this altitude, rarefied aerodynamics and high-density atomic oxygen effect on the thermal design of SLATS. The thermal control of SLATS was introduced in this paper. And, the equilibrium temperature on the bumper of SLATS was estimated w...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SATELLITE IMAGE PRE-PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sree Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are corrupted by noise in its acquisition and transmission. The removal of noise from the image by attenuating the high frequency image components, removes some important details as well. In order to retain the useful information and improve the visual appearance, an effective denoising and resolution enhancement techniques are required. In this research, Hybrid Directional Lifting (HDL technique is proposed to retain the important details of the image and improve the visual appearance. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT based interpolation technique is developed for enhancing the resolution of the denoised image. The performance of the proposed techniques are tested by Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (LANDSAT images, using the quantitative performance measure, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and computation time to show the significance of the proposed techniques. The PSNR of the HDL technique increases 1.02 dB compared to the standard denoising technique and the DWT based interpolation technique increases 3.94 dB. From the experimental results it reveals that newly developed image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques improve the image visual quality with rich textures.

  17. Stream Temperature Estimation From Thermal Infrared Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, R. N.; Kay, J. E.; Gillespie, A.; Naveh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Burges, S. J.; Booth, D. B.

    2001-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important water quality indicator in the Pacific Northwest where endangered fish populations are sensitive to elevated water temperature. Cold water refugia are essential for the survival of threatened salmon when events such as the removal of riparian vegetation result in elevated stream temperatures. Regional assessment of stream temperatures is limited by sparse sampling of temperatures in both space and time. If critical watersheds are to be properly managed it is necessary to have spatially extensive temperature measurements of known accuracy. Remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) imagery can be used to derive spatially distributed estimates of the skin temperature (top 100 nm) of streams. TIR imagery has long been used to estimate skin temperatures of the ocean, where split-window techniques have been used to compensate for atmospheric affects. Streams are a more complex environment because 1) most are unresolved in typical TIR images, and 2) the near-bank environment of stream corridors may consist of tall trees or hot rocks and soils that irradiate the stream surface. As well as compensating for atmospheric effects, key problems to solve in estimating stream temperatures include both subpixel unmixing and multiple scattering. Additionally, fine resolution characteristics of the stream surface such as evaporative cooling due to wind, and water surface roughness, will effect measurements of radiant skin temperatures with TIR devices. We apply these corrections across the Green River and Yakima River watersheds in Washington State to assess the accuracy of remotely sensed stream surface temperature estimates made using fine resolution TIR imagery from a ground-based sensor (FLIR), medium resolution data from the airborne MASTER sensor, and coarse-resolution data from the Terra-ASTER satellite. We use linear spectral mixture analysis to isolate the fraction of land-leaving radiance originating from unresolved streams. To compensate the

  18. Earth's thermal radiation sensors for attitude determination systems of small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertat, I.; Linhart, R.; Masopust, J.; Vobornik, A.; Dudacek, L.

    2017-07-01

    Satellite attitude determination is a complex process with expensive hardware and software and it could consume the most of resources (volume, mass, electric power), especially of small satellites as CubeSats. Thermal radiation infrared detectors could be one of useful sensors for attitude determination systems in such small satellites. Nowadays, these sensors are widely used in contact-less thermometers and thermo-cameras resulting in a low-cost technology. On low Earth orbits the infrared thermal sensors can be utilized for coarse attitude determination against a relative warm and close Earth's globe.

  19. Convolutional neural network features based change detection in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed El Amin, Arabi; Liu, Qingjie; Wang, Yunhong

    2016-07-01

    With the popular use of high resolution remote sensing (HRRS) satellite images, a huge research efforts have been placed on change detection (CD) problem. An effective feature selection method can significantly boost the final result. While hand-designed features have proven difficulties to design features that effectively capture high and mid-level representations, the recent developments in machine learning (Deep Learning) omit this problem by learning hierarchical representation in an unsupervised manner directly from data without human intervention. In this letter, we propose approaching the change detection problem from a feature learning perspective. A novel deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) features based HR satellite images change detection method is proposed. The main guideline is to produce a change detection map directly from two images using a pretrained CNN. This method can omit the limited performance of hand-crafted features. Firstly, CNN features are extracted through different convolutional layers. Then, a concatenation step is evaluated after an normalization step, resulting in a unique higher dimensional feature map. Finally, a change map was computed using pixel-wise Euclidean distance. Our method has been validated on real bitemporal HRRS satellite images according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results obtained confirm the interest of the proposed method.

  20. Infrared thermal imaging fundamentals, research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This richly illustrated hands-on guide is designed for researchers, teachers and practitioners. The huge selection of examples taken from science, basic teaching of physics, practical applications in industry and a variety of other disciplines spanning the range from medicine to volcano research allows readers to pick those that come closest to their own individual task at hand. Following a look at the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging, properties of the imaging systems, as well as basic and advanced methods, the book goes on to discuss IR imaging applications in teaching, research and indust

  1. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  2. Post eclipse thermal response of Uranian satellites with SINFONI: a status report .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.; Grundy, W.; Stansberry, J.; Tozzi, G. P.; Tanga, P.; Thuillot, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the status of a project to measure eclipse-induced changes in surface temperature on the major Uranian satellites. Such measurements enable a uniquely direct determination of the thermal inertia, a measure of the resistance to changes in surface temperature. Thermal inertia is a very se

  3. Post eclipse thermal response of Uranian satellites with SINFONI: a status report .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.; Grundy, W.; Stansberry, J.; Tozzi, G. P.; Tanga, P.; Thuillot, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the status of a project to measure eclipse-induced changes in surface temperature on the major Uranian satellites. Such measurements enable a uniquely direct determination of the thermal inertia, a measure of the resistance to changes in surface temperature. Thermal inertia is a very se

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF IMAGE QUALITY ON DIGITAL MAP GENERATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High resolution satellite images are widely used to produce and update a digital map since they became widely available. It is well known that the accuracy of digital map produced from satellite images is decided largely by the accuracy of geometric modelling. However digital maps are made by a series of photogrammetric workflow. Therefore the accuracy of digital maps are also affected by the quality of satellite images, such as image interpretability. For satellite images, parameters such as Modulation Transfer Function(MTF, Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR and Ground Sampling Distance(GSD are used to present images quality. Our previous research stressed that such quality parameters may not represent the quality of image products such as digital maps and that parameters for image interpretability such as Ground Resolved Distance(GRD and National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale(NIIRS need to be considered. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the image quality on accuracy of digital maps produced by satellite images. QuickBird, IKONOS and KOMPSAT-2 imagery were used to analyze as they have similar GSDs. We measured various image quality parameters mentioned above from these images. Then we produced digital maps from the images using a digital photogrammetric workstation. We analyzed the accuracy of the digital maps in terms of their location accuracy and their level of details. Then we compared the correlation between various image quality parameters and the accuracy of digital maps. The results of this study showed that GRD and NIIRS were more critical for map production then GSD, MTF or SNR.

  5. Panchromatic Satellite Image Classification for Flood Hazard Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the use of panchromatic (PAN satellite image data for flood hazard assessment with anaid of various digital image processing techniques. Two SPOT PAN satellite images covering part of the Nile River inEgypt were used to delineate the flood extent during the years 1997 and 1998 (before and after a high flood. Threeclassification techniques, including the contextual classifier, maximum likelihood classifier and minimum distanceclassifier, were applied to the following: 1 the original PAN image data, 2 the original PAN image data and grey-levelco-occurrence matrix texture created from the PAN data, and 3 the enhanced PAN image data using an edgesharpeningfilter. The classification results were assessed with reference to the results derived from manualdigitization and random checkpoints. Generally, the results showed improvement of the calculation of flood area whenan edge-sharpening filter was used. In addition, the maximum likelihood classifier yielded the best classificationaccuracy (up to 97% compared to the other two classifiers. The research demonstrates the benefits of using PANsatellite imagery as a potential data source for flood hazard assessment.

  6. The SUMO Ship Detector Algorithm for Satellite Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Greidanus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO is an algorithm for ship detection in satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. It has been developed over the course of more than 15 years, using a large amount of SAR images from almost all available SAR satellites operating in L-, C- and X-band. As validated by benchmark tests, it performs very well on a wide range of SAR image modes (from Spotlight to ScanSAR and resolutions (from 1–100 m and for all types and sizes of ships, within the physical limits imposed by the radar imaging. This paper describes, in detail, the algorithmic approach in all of the steps of the ship detection: land masking, clutter estimation, detection thresholding, target clustering, ship attribute estimation and false alarm suppression. SUMO is a pixel-based CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate detector for multi-look radar images. It assumes a K distribution for the sea clutter, corrected however for deviations of the actual sea clutter from this distribution, implementing a fast and robust method for the clutter background estimation. The clustering of detected pixels into targets (ships uses several thresholds to deal with the typically irregular distribution of the radar backscatter over a ship. In a multi-polarization image, the different channels are fused. Azimuth ambiguities, a common source of false alarms in ship detection, are removed. A reliability indicator is computed for each target. In post-processing, using the results of a series of images, additional false alarms from recurrent (fixed targets including range ambiguities are also removed. SUMO can run in semi-automatic mode, where an operator can verify each detected target. It can also run in fully automatic mode, where batches of over 10,000 images have successfully been processed in less than two hours. The number of satellite SAR systems keeps increasing, as does their application to maritime surveillance. The open data policy of the EU

  7. Satellite Thermal Infrared Earthquake Precursor to the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake in Sichuan, China, and its Analysis on Geo-dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lejun; GUO Jianfeng; LIU Jianhua; LU Zhenquan; LI Haibing; CAI Hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an interpretation and study of the satellite remote-sensing images of FY-2C thermal infrared 1st wave band (10.3-11.3 μm) designed in China, the authors found that there existed obvious and isolated satellite thermal infrared anomalies before the 5.12 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake. These anomalies had the following characteristics: (1) The precursor appeared rather early: on March 18, 2008, I.e., 55 days before the earthquake, thermal infrared anomalies began to occur; (2) The anomalies experienced quite many and complex evolutionary stages: the satellite thermal infrared anomalies might be divided into five stages, whose manifestations were somewhat different from each other. The existence of so many anomaly stages was probably observed for the first time in numerous cases of satellite thermal infrared research on earthquakes; (3) Each stage lasted quite a long time, with the longest one spanning 13 days; (4) An evident geothermal anomaly gradient was distributed along the Longmen seismic fracture zone, and such a phenomenon might also be discovered for the first time in satellite thermal infrared earthquake research. This discovery is therefore of great guiding and instructive significance in the study of the earthquake occurrence itself and the trend of the post-earthquake phenomena.

  8. Test Facility For Thermal Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Jean-Claude

    1981-10-01

    The test facility is designed to measure the main performances of thermal imaging systems : optical transfer function, minimum resolvable thermal difference, noise equivalent temperature difference and spectral response. The infrared sources are slits, MRTD four bar patterns or the output slit of a monochromator which are placed in the focal plane of two collimators. The response of the system can be measured either on the display using a photometer or in the video signal using a transient recorder. Most of the measurements are controlled by a minicomputer. Typical results are presented.

  9. Experimental research on thermoelectric cooler for imager camera thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing-ting; Kang, Ao-feng; Fu, Xin; Jiang, Shi-chen; Dong, Yao-hai

    2013-09-01

    Conventional passive thermal design failed to satisfy CCD's temperature requirement on a geostationary earth orbit satellite Imager camera because of the high power and low working temperature, leading to utilization of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) for heat dissipation. TEC was used in conjunction with the external radiator in the CCDs' thermal design. In order to maintain the CCDs at low working temperature, experimental research on the performance of thermoelectric cooler was necessary and the results could be the guide for the application of TEC in different conditions. The experimental system to evaluate the performance of TEC was designed and built, consisting of TEC, heat pipe, TEC mounting plate, radiator and heater. A series of TEC performance tests were conducted for domestic and oversea TECs in thermal vacuum environment. The effects of TEC's mounting, input power and heat load on the temperature difference of TEC's cold and hot face were explored. Results demonstrated that the temperature difference of TEC's cold and hot face was slightly increased when TEC's operating voltage reached 80% of rating voltage, which caused the temperature rise of TEC's hot face. It recommended TEC to operate at low voltage. Based on experiment results, thermal analysis indicated that the temperature difference of TEC's cold and hot face could satisfy the temperature requirement and still had surplus.

  10. METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE IMAGES IN GEOGRAPHY CLASSES: a didactic possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correia Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The satellite images are still largely unexplored as didactic resource in geography classes, particularly about meteorology. This article aims to contribute to the development of new methodologies of interpretation and understanding, beyond the construction of pedagogical practices involving meteorological satellite images, concepts and issues related to climate issues. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for the use of meteorological satellite images in the Teaching of Geography, aiming the promoting and the understanding of contents of air masses and fronts and climatic factors. RESUMO: As imagens de satélite ainda são pouco exploradas como recurso didático nas aulas de Geografia, principalmente aquelas relativas à meteorologia. Este artigo visa contribuir com o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de interpretação e compreensão, além da construção de práticas pedagógicas envolvendo imagens de satélite meteorológico, conceitos e temas ligados às questões climáticas. Seu objetivo é apresentar possibilidades de utilização das imagens de satélite meteorológico no Ensino de Geografia, visando à promoção e ao entendimento dos conteúdos de massas de ar e frentes e de elementos climáticos. Palavras chave

  11. Seeing is believing I: The use of thermal sensing from satellite imagery to predict crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, Potgieter A.; D, Rodriguez; B, Power; J, Mclean; P, Davis

    2014-02-01

    Volatility in crop production has been part of the Australian environment since cropping began with the arrival of the first European settlers. Climate variability is the main factor affecting crop production at national, state and local scales. At field level spatial patterns on yield production are also determined by spatially changing soil properties in interaction with seasonal climate conditions and weather patterns at critical stages in the crop development. Here we used a combination of field level weather records, canopy characteristics, and satellite information to determine the spatial performance of a large field of wheat. The main objective of this research is to determine the ability of remote sensing technologies to capture yield losses due to water stress at the canopy level. The yield, canopy characteristics (i.e. canopy temperature and ground cover) and seasonal conditions of a field of wheat (~1400ha) (-29.402° South and 149.508°, New South Wales, Australia) were continuously monitored during the winter of 2011. Weather and crop variables were continuously monitored by installing three automatic weather stations in a transect covering different positions and soils in the landscape. Weather variables included rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity, and crop characteristics included ground cover and canopy temperature. Satellite imagery Landsat TM 5 and 7 was collected at five different stages in the crop cycle. Weather variables and crop characteristics were used to calculate a crop stress index (CSI) at point and field scale (39 fields). Field data was used to validate a spatial satellite image derived index. Spatial yield data was downloaded from the harvester at the different locations in the field. We used the thermal band (land surface temperature, LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) bands from the MODIS (250 m for visible bands and 1km for thermal band) and a derived EVI from Landsat TM 7 (25 m for visible and

  12. Assessment of Satellite Images for Soil Salinity Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Sanaeinejad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the main environmental problems affecting extensive area in the world. There are some problems with traditional data collection methods for soil studies. Using the new methods and techniques such as remote sensing could overcome most of these problems. However using these data in areas with uncommon usages needed some researches to find the best calibration between the data and real situations in soil. This research was carried out using Landsat satellite images in Neyshabour area, North East of Iran. In order to prepare suitable learning samples for the image processing in this study, 300 locations were randomly selected in the area, among which 273 locations were finally selected as suitable surface soil samples. All samples were moved to laboratory and their electrical conductivity was measured. Six reflective bands of ETM+ satellite images taken from the study area in 2002 were used for the image processing analysis. Classification of different soil salinities was carried out using common algorithms of image classification based on the best composition bands and using statistical methods between soil salinity variables and digital numbers of the images to represent a suitable method. the research results showed that the reflective bands 7, 3, 4 and 1 are the best band composition for preparing the color composite images and for the classification of the salinity in this area. The highest coefficient of determination was R2=0.311 and R2=0.44 for saline and non-saline soil respectively using band 2 and 3 of the images at 5% significant level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the potential of ETM+ images for delineation and identification of different soil salinity are limited.

  13. Fully automated extraction and analysis of surface Urban Heat Island patterns from moderate resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, I.; Kiranoudis, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    Comparison of thermal patterns across different cities is hampered by the lack of an appropriate methodology to extract the patterns and characterize them. What is more, increased attention by the urban climate community has been expressed to assess the magnitude and dynamics of the surface Urban Heat Island effect and to identify environmental impacts of large cities and "megacities". Motivated by this need, we propose an innovative object-based image analysis procedure to extract thermal patterns for the quantitative analysis of satellite-derived land surface temperature maps. The spatial and thermal attributes associated with these objects are then calculated and used for the analyses of the intensity, the position and the spatial extent of SUHIs. The output eventually builds up and populates a database with comparable and consistent attributes, allowing comparisons between cities as well as urban climate studies. The methodology is demonstrated over the Greater Athens Area, Greece, with more than 3000 LST images acquired by MODIS over a decade being analyzed. The approach can be potentially applied to current and future (e.g. Sentinel-3) level-2 satellite-derived land surface temperature maps of 1km spatial resolution acquired over continental and coastal cities.

  14. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from single thermal channel radiometer data onboard Kalpana satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen R Shahi; Neeraj Agarwal; Aloke K Mathur; Abhijit Sarkar

    2011-06-01

    An atmospheric correction method has been applied on sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm using Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) single window channel radiance data onboard Kalpana satellite (K-SAT). The technique makes use of concurrent water vapour fields available from Microwave Imager onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMI) satellite. Total water vapour content and satellite zenith angle dependent SST retrieval algorithm has been developed using Radiative Transfer Model [MODTRAN ver3.0] simulations for Kalpana 10.5–12.5 m thermal window channel. Retrieval of Kalpana SST (K-SST) has been carried out for every half-hourly acquisition of Kalpana data for the year 2008 to cover whole annual cycle of SST over Indian Ocean (IO). Validation of the retrieved corrected SST has been carried out using near-simultaneous observations of ship and buoys datasets covering Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and IO regions. A significant improvement in Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of K-SST with respect to buoy (1.50–1.02 K) and to ship datasets (1.41–1.19 K) is seen with the use of near real-time water vapour fields of TMI. Furthermore, comparison of the retrieved SST has also been carried out using near simultaneous observations of TRMM/TMI SST over IO regions. The analysis shows that K-SST has overall cold bias of 1.17 K and an RMSD of 1.09 K after bias correction.

  15. Authentication Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis for Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf. K. Helmy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-band wavelet image content authentication scheme for satellite images by incorporating the principal component analysis (PCA. The proposed schemeachieves higher perceptual transparency and stronger robustness. Specifically, the developed watermarking scheme can successfully resist common signal processing such as JPEG compression and geometric distortions such as cropping. In addition, the proposed scheme can be parameterized, thus resulting in more security. That is, an attacker may not be able to extract the embedded watermark if the attacker does not know the parameter.In an order to meet these requirements, the host image is transformed to YIQ to decrease the correlation between different bands, Then Multi-band Wavelet transform (M-WT is applied to each channel separately obtaining one approximate sub band and fifteen detail sub bands. PCA is then applied to the coefficients corresponding to the same spatial location in all detail sub bands. The last principle component band represents an excellent domain forinserting the water mark since it represents lowest correlated features in high frequency area of host image.One of the most important aspects of satellite images is spectral signature, the behavior of different features in different spectral bands, the results of proposed algorithm shows that the spectral stamp for different features doesn't tainted after inserting the watermark.

  16. Satellite thermal monitoring of the 2010 - 2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano (Kamchatka) using MIROVA hot-spot detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimetti, Francesco; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Cigolini, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    After 81 years of rest, the Holocenic stratovolcano of Kizimen (Kamchatka, Russia) began a new eruptive phase on December 2010. The eruption was preceded by a year-long seismic unrest and fumarole activity, and persisted for 3 years showing a transition from explosive to effusive style. The initial explosive phase caused the partial disruption of the volcano summit and was followed by the effusion of andesitic lava flow along the eastern side of the edifice. Here we used an automatic hot-spot detection system named MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), in order to track the thermal evolution of the eruption and to understand the eruptive dynamic. MIROVA is based on the analysis IR images acquired by the MODIS sensor (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and is able to provide thermal maps (1 km resolution) and Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP, in Watt) time series in near real time (1-4 hours from satellite overpass). Each image with a thermal alert has been classified, distinguishing different quality level of the data based on cloud cover, viewing geometry and coherence with the VRP trend. The analysis of VRP variation show different thermal phases that have been correlated with independent observations of KVERT (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team). Finally, we show that the relation between total thermal energy radiated (VRE, in Joule) and erupted lava volume is consistent with the typical radiant density of an intermediate-silicic lava flow (Coppola et al., 2013).

  17. Thermal Imaging Processes of Polymer Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meth, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Laser induced thermal imaging (LITI) is a process whereby infrared radiation impinging on a coating on a donor film transfers that coating to a receiving film to produce a pattern. This talk describes how LITI patterning can print color filters for liquid crystal displays, and details the physical processes that are responsible for transferring the nanocomposite coating in a coherent manner that does not degrade its optical properties. Unique features of this process involve heating rates of 107 K/s, and cooling rates of 104 K/s, which implies that not all of the relaxation modes of the polymer are accessed during the imaging process. On the microsecond time scale, the polymer flow is forced by devolatilization of solvents, followed by deformation akin to the constrained blister test, and then fracture caused by differential thermal expansion. The unique combination of disparate physical processes demonstrates the gamut of physics that contribute to advanced material processing in an industrial setting.

  18. Thermal imaging of spin Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Shunsuke; Iguchi, Ryo; Hioki, Tomosato; Saitoh, Eiji; Uchida, Ken-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    The Peltier effect modulates the temperature of a junction comprising two different conductors in response to charge currents across the junction, which is used in solid-state heat pumps and temperature controllers in electronics. Recently, in spintronics, a spin counterpart of the Peltier effect was observed. The `spin Peltier effect' modulates the temperature of a magnetic junction in response to spin currents. Here we report thermal imaging of the spin Peltier effect; using active thermography technique, we visualize the temperature modulation induced by spin currents injected into a magnetic insulator from an adjacent metal. The thermal images reveal characteristic distribution of spin-current-induced heat sources, resulting in the temperature change confined only in the vicinity of the metal/insulator interface. This finding allows us to estimate the actual magnitude of the temperature modulation induced by the spin Peltier effect, which is more than one order of magnitude greater than previously believed.

  19. 15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thermal imaging camera reporting. 743... REPORTING § 743.3 Thermal imaging camera reporting. (a) General requirement. Exports of thermal imaging cameras must be reported to BIS as provided in this section. (b) Transactions to be reported. Exports...

  20. Thermal monitoring using an ASTER image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Domenica; Angelini, Maria Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    The research is focused on the study of the applicability of remote sensing techniques (specifically using ASTER data) for marine environmental analysis, relative to the determination of the surface temperatures. Using a multitemporal approach, two images (classified as level-1B), acquired in August 2000 and in 2005, were considered. The thermal maps were realized by means of the emissivity spectral normalization method, defining the thermal gradients in the area under investigation. The spatial and temporal anomalies related to the temperature distribution were highlighted; these anomalies represent an important parameter for the identification of probable groundwater pollution and soil contamination. To define the map of the surface temperature using thermal infrared ASTER channels, a numerical model dedicated to ASTER data was implemented during the experimentation. This model is based on the principle of interpolation of the type "least square interpolation (linear)," and it implies a reduction in the number of unknowns to obtain an acceptable solution to the problem. This experimental model has provided good results in the phase of implementation and in the tests on a synthetic image that were simulated in the laboratory. However, further verifications and modifications are necessary for the processing of real ASTER images.

  1. Nightfire method to track volcanic eruptions from multispectral satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Grigory; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first results of an application of the Nightfire hotspot algorithm towards volcano activity detection. Nightfire algorithm have been developed to play along with a Suomi-NPP polar satellite launched in 2011, which has a new generation multispectral VIIRS thermal sensor on board, to detect gas flares related to the upstream and downstream production of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously using of nighttime data in SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR sensor bands the algorithm is able to estimate the hotspot temperature, size and radiant heat. Four years of non-filtered observations have been accumulated in a spatio-temporal detection database, which currently totals 125 GB in size. The first part of this work presents results of retrospective cross-match of the detection database with the publicly available observed eruptions databases. The second part discusses how an approximate 3D shape of a lava lake could be modeled based on the apparent source size and satellite zenith angle. The third part presents the results of fusion Landsat-8 and Himawari-8 satellites data with the VIIRS Nightfire for several active volcanoes.

  2. Analysis of Galileo Style Geostationary Satellite Imaging: Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    obtained using only baselines longer than 8 m does not sample the short spacial frequencies, and the image reconstruction is not able to recover the...the long spacial frequencies sampled in a shorter baseline overlap the short spacial frequencies sampled in a longer baseline. This technique will

  3. Rapid Manufacturing of Reconfigurable Satellite Panels with Embedded Electronics, Embedded Thermal Devices, and Novel Structural Features

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Quinn; Stucker, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Satellite Manufacturing (CASM) at Utah State University has been investigating the use of new, advanced manufacturing technologies for the rapid manufacture of highly capable satellite panels. Using Ultrasonic Consolidation it is now possible to additively manufacture (a.k.a. rapid prototype) aluminum structures with embedded electronics, thermal devices, internal structural features, and fibers. CASM has built and tested embedded USB networks, electronic devices, ther...

  4. Modeling on thermally induced coupled micro-motions of satellite with complex flexible appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the characteristics of thermally induced coupled micro-motions more exactly, a numerical model is proposed for a satellite system consisting of a rigid body and the complex appendages. The coupled governing equations including the effects of transient temperature differences are formulated within the framework of the Lagrangian Method based on the finite element models of flexible structures. Meanwhile, the problem of coupling between attitude motions of rigid body and vibrations of flexible attachments are addressed with explicit expressions. Thermally induced micro-motions are examined in detail for a simple satellite with a large solar panel under the disturbance of thermal environment from earth shadow to sunlight area in the earth orbit. The results show that the thermal–mechanical performances of an on-orbit satellite can be well predicted by the proposed finite element model.

  5. Hot Stuff? Thermal Imaging Applied to Cryocrystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, E. H.

    2004-01-01

    In the past we have used thermal imaging techniques to visualize the cryocooling processes of macromolecular crystals. From these images it was clear that a cold wave progresses through a crystal starting at the face closest to the origin of the cold stream and ending at the point furthest away. During these studies we used large volume crystals, which were clearly distinguished fiom the loop holding them. These large crystals, originally grown for neutron diffiaction studies, were chosen deliberately to enhance the imaging. As an extension to this work, we present used thermal imaging to study small crystals, held in a cryo-loop, in the presence of vitrified mother liquor. The different d a r e d transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the mother liquor surrounding it are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast that makes the crystal visible. An application of this technology may be the determination of the exact location of small crystals in a cryo-loop. Data fkom initial tests in support of application development was recorded for lysozyme crystals and for bFGF/dna complex crystals, which were cryocooled and imaged in large loops, both with visible light mad with h i k e d rdi&tion. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution in the infiared spectrum, while in the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to make the crystal visible in the visible spectrum. These results suggest that the thermal imaging may be more sensitive than visual imaging for automated location of small crystals. However, further work on small crystals robotically mounted at SSRL did not clearly visualize those crystals. The depth of field of the camera proved to be limiting and a different cooling geometry was used, compared to the previous, successful experiments. Analysis to exploit multiple images to improve depth of field and experimental work to understand cooling geometry

  6. Thermal neutron imaging using microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, George W.; Pearson, James F.; Al-Horayess, O. S.; Feller, W. Bruce; Cook, Lee M.

    1993-02-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are compact electron multipliers of high gain, widely used for the high resolution imaging of charged particles and photons. In this paper, we consider the use of lead glass MCPs for the imaging of thermal neutrons. Two contrasting techniques are described. The first method involves direct neutron detection within a special channel plate structure containing lithium and/or boron. We review the constraints of glass chemistry on the attainable lithium oxide and boron oxide fractions and, hence, on the maximum neutron detection efficiency. The second method involves the detection, using MCPs of standard glass composition, of the internal conversion electrons from a thin gadolinium foil. We present the first measurements of the detection efficiency, pulse height resolution and imaging properties of a pulse-counting MCP/Gd detector system.

  7. NNIC—neural network image compressor for satellite positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Pavel; Lifshits, Feodor; Orion, Itzhak; Koren, Sion; Solomon, Alan D.; Mark, Shlomo

    2007-04-01

    We have developed an algorithm, based on novel techniques of data compression and neural networks for the optimal positioning of a satellite. The algorithm is described in detail, and examples of its application are given. The heart of this algorithm is the program NNIC—neural network image compressor. This program was developed for compression color and grayscale images with artificial neural networks (ANNs). NNIC applies three different methods for compression. Two of them are based on neural networks architectures—multilayer perceptron and kohonen network. The third is based on a widely used method of discrete cosine transform, the basis for the JPEG standard. The program also serves as a tool for determining numerical and visual quality parameters of compression and comparison between different methods. A number of advantages and disadvantages of the compression using ANNs were discovered in the course of the present research, some of them presented in this report. The thrust of the report is the discussion of ANNs implementation problems for modern platforms, such as a satellite positioning system that include intensive image flowing and processing.

  8. Maximizing the Use of Satellite Thermal Infrared Data for Advancing Land Surface Temperature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Q.; Fu, P.; Gao, F.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a crucial parameter in investigating environmental, ecological processes and climate change at various scales, and is also valuable in the studies of evapotranspiration, soil moisture conditions, surface energy balance, and urban heat islands. These studies require thermal infrared (TIR) images at both high temporal and spatial resolution to retrieve LST. However, currently, no single satellite sensors can deliver TIR data at both high temporal and spatial resolution. Thus, various algorithms/models have been developed to enhance the spatial or the temporal resolution of TIR data, but rare of those can enhance both spatial and temporal details. This paper presents a new data fusion algorithm for producing Landsat-like LST data by blending daily MODIS and periodic Landsat TM datasets. The original Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) was improved and modified for predicting thermal radiance and LST data by considering annual temperature cycle (ATC) and urban thermal landscape heterogeneity. The technique of linear spectral mixture analysis was employed to relate the Landsat radiance with the MODIS one, so that the temporal changes in radiance can be incorporated in the fusion model. This paper details the theoretical basis and the implementation procedures of the proposed data fusion algorithm, Spatio-temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm for Temperature mapping (SADFAT). A case study was conducted that predicted LSTs of five dates in 2005 from July to October in Los Angeles County, California. The results indicate that the prediction accuracy for the whole study area ranged from 1.3 K to 2 K. Like existing spatio-temporal data fusion models, the SADFAT method has a limitation in predicting LST changes that were not recorded in the MODIS and/or Landsat pixels due to the model assumption.

  9. An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, A L; Rodrigues, F A; Bruno, O M; Costa, L da F

    2009-01-01

    An entropy-based image segmentation approach is introduced and applied to color images obtained from Google Earth. Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image in order to locate different objects and regions of interest. The application to satellite images paves the way to automated monitoring of ecological catastrophes, urban growth, agricultural activity, maritime pollution, climate changing and general surveillance. Regions representing aquatic, rural and urban areas are identified and the accuracy of the proposed segmentation methodology is evaluated. The comparison with gray level images revealed that the color information is fundamental to obtain an accurate segmentation.

  10. Image Processing Technique for Automatic Detection of Satellite Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    satellites actifs et d’autres débris doivent être contrôlées. Dans ces cas, les paramètres orbitaux sont connus, mais après un certain temps cette...artéfacts de capteur (tel que des pixels morts, gradient de fond, bruit) et dégradation du signal (coulage, éblouissement, saturation, etc...Cette étude explique comment les artéfacts du capteur peuvent être corrigés, le fond de l’image enlevé et le bruit partiellement effacé. Puis, elle

  11. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  12. Theory of enhancing thermal imaging through fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae H.; Abbott, A. Lynn; Krapels, Keith A.; Szu, Harold H.

    2014-05-01

    Fire can overwhelm the field of view of a thermal imaging sensor with intensive radiation, and when presented to observers can cause important cues in the scene to go unnoticed due to the limited dynamic range of displays and of the human visual system. Here we propose a computational method, called software-defined camera (SDC), to improve the image quality for an un-cooled thermal imager seeing through fire that obscures lower-temperature objects in the background. To that end, we developed a novel theory for the arbitrary manipulation of optical radiation sources, which is based on rigorous application of Boltzmann's molecular thermodynamics. On this framework it is possible to formulate the problem of identification and selective removal/suppression of the optical radiation sources, and thus to design a blind source separation algorithm. Application of the developed theory should make it possible to design a low-cost specialty SDC that is able to see through high temperature fire for locating a relatively low temperature objects such as a human body.

  13. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  14. Study on thermal properties of Cd-Ni batteries for satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingang, Hu

    1995-06-01

    Empirical research was carried out on thermal properties associated with the use of Cd-Ni storage cells in satellite engineering. Introduction is made of measured cell thermal capacities as well as amounts of heat put out by systems. The systems in question possess the advantages of being simple and reliable. Measured results are given, and, in conjunction with that, comparisons are carried out with data from abroad.

  15. Facial expression recognition using thermal image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guotai; Song, Xuemin; Zheng, Fuhui; Wang, Peipei; Omer, Ashgan

    2005-01-01

    Facial expression recognition will be studied in this paper using mathematics morphology, through drawing and analyzing the whole geometry characteristics and some geometry characteristics of the interesting area of Infrared Thermal Imaging (IRTI). The results show that geometry characteristic in the interesting region of different expression are obviously different; Facial temperature changes almost with the expression at the same time. Studies have shown feasibility of facial expression recognition on the basis of IRTI. This method can be used to monitor the facial expression in real time, which can be used in auxiliary diagnosis and medical on disease.

  16. Satellite image based methods for fuels maps updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Benito, Alfonso; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Arbelo, Manuel; Gonzalez-Calvo, Alejandro; Moreno-Ruiz, Jose A.; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose R.

    2016-10-01

    Regular updating of fuels maps is important for forest fire management. Nevertheless complex and time consuming field work is usually necessary for this purpose, which prevents a more frequent update. That is why the assessment of the usefulness of satellite data and the development of remote sensing techniques that enable the automatic updating of these maps, is of vital interest. In this work, we have tested the use of the spectral bands of OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor on board Landsat 8 satellite, for updating the fuels map of El Hierro Island (Spain). From previously digitized map, a set of 200 reference plots for different fuel types was created. A 50% of the plots were randomly used as a training set and the rest were considered for validation. Six supervised and 2 unsupervised classification methods were applied, considering two levels of detail. A first level with only 5 classes (Meadow, Brushwood, Undergrowth canopy cover >50%, Undergrowth canopy cover <15%, and Xeric formations), and the second one containing 19 fuel types. The level 1 classification methods yielded an overall accuracy ranging from 44% for Parellelepided to an 84% for Maximun Likelihood. Meanwhile, level 2 results showed at best, an unacceptable overall accuracy of 34%, which prevents the use of this data for such a detailed characterization. Anyway it has been demonstrated that in some conditions, images of medium spatial resolution, like Landsat 8-OLI, could be a valid tool for an automatic upgrade of fuels maps, minimizing costs and complementing traditional methodologies.

  17. Airport runway detection in satellite images by Adaboost learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongur, Ugur; Halici, Ugur; Aytekin, Orsan; Ulusoy, Ilkay

    2009-09-01

    Advances in hardware and pattern recognition techniques, along with the widespread utilization of remote sensing satellites, have urged the development of automatic target detection systems in satellite images. Automatic detection of airports is particularly essential, due to the strategic importance of these targets. In this paper, a runway detection method using a segmentation process based on textural properties is proposed for the detection of airport runways, which is the most distinguishing element of an airport. Several local textural features are extracted including not only low level features such as mean, standard deviation of image intensity and gradient, but also Zernike Moments, Circular-Mellin Features, Haralick Features, as well as features involving Gabor Filters, Wavelets and Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis. Since the subset of the mentioned features, which have a role in the discrimination of airport runways from other structures and landforms, cannot be predicted trivially, Adaboost learning algorithm is employed for both classification and determining the feature subset, due to its feature selector nature. By means of the features chosen in this way, a coarse representation of possible runway locations is obtained. Promising experimental results are achieved and given.

  18. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  19. A data mining approach for sharpening satellite thermal imagery over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes which are at significant...

  20. Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. After digitization, a noise rejection filter was applied to data obtained by USGS aircraft. An albedo image was formed by combining three bands of visible data. Along with the day and nighttime thermal data, the albedo image was used to construct a relative thermal-inertia image. This image, registered to a topographic base, shows there are thermal property differences in the vicinity of the contact between the Fort Union and Wasatch formations in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

  1. Spatial, Temporal and Spectral Satellite Image Fusion via Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huihui

    Remote sensing provides good measurements for monitoring and further analyzing the climate change, dynamics of ecosystem, and human activities in global or regional scales. Over the past two decades, the number of launched satellite sensors has been increasing with the development of aerospace technologies and the growing requirements on remote sensing data in a vast amount of application fields. However, a key technological challenge confronting these sensors is that they tradeoff between spatial resolution and other properties, including temporal resolution, spectral resolution, swath width, etc., due to the limitations of hardware technology and budget constraints. To increase the spatial resolution of data with other good properties, one possible cost-effective solution is to explore data integration methods that can fuse multi-resolution data from multiple sensors, thereby enhancing the application capabilities of available remote sensing data. In this thesis, we propose to fuse the spatial resolution with temporal resolution and spectral resolution, respectively, based on sparse representation theory. Taking the study case of Landsat ETM+ (with spatial resolution of 30m and temporal resolution of 16 days) and MODIS (with spatial resolution of 250m ~ 1km and daily temporal resolution) reflectance, we propose two spatial-temporal fusion methods to combine the fine spatial information of Landsat image and the daily temporal resolution of MODIS image. Motivated by that the images from these two sensors are comparable on corresponding bands, we propose to link their spatial information on available Landsat- MODIS image pair (captured on prior date) and then predict the Landsat image from the MODIS counterpart on prediction date. To well-learn the spatial details from the prior images, we use a redundant dictionary to extract the basic representation atoms for both Landsat and MODIS images based on sparse representation. Under the scenario of two prior Landsat

  2. CLOUD DETECTION OF OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012 uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate

  3. Cloud Detection of Optical Satellite Images Using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012) uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate the detection

  4. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  5. Enhanced facial recognition for thermal imagery using polarimetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan P; Yuffa, Alex J; Videen, Gorden W

    2014-07-01

    We present a series of long-wave-infrared (LWIR) polarimetric-based thermal images of facial profiles in which polarization-state information of the image-forming radiance is retained and displayed. The resultant polarimetric images show enhanced facial features, additional texture, and details that are not present in corresponding conventional thermal imagery. It has been generally thought that conventional thermal imagery (MidIR or LWIR) could not produce the detailed spatial information required for reliable human identification due to the so-called "ghosting" effect often seen in thermal imagery of human subjects. By using polarimetric information, we are able to extract subtle surface features of the human face, thus improving subject identification. Polarimetric image sets considered include the conventional thermal intensity image, S0, the two Stokes images, S1 and S2, and a Stokes image product called the degree-of-linear-polarization image.

  6. Satellite and Ground Based Thermal Observation of the 2014 Effusive Eruption at Stromboli Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Zakšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As specifically designed platforms are still unavailable at this point in time, lava flows are usually monitored remotely with the use of meteorological satellites. Generally, meteorological satellites have a low spatial resolution, which leads to uncertain results. This paper presents the first long term satellite monitoring of active lava flows on Stromboli volcano (August–November 2014 at high spatial resolution (160 m and relatively high temporal resolution (~3 days. These data were retrieved by the small satellite Technology Experiment Carrier-1 (TET-1, which was developed and built by the German Aerospace Center (DLR. The satellite instrument is dedicated to high temperature event monitoring. The satellite observations were accompanied by field observations conducted by thermal cameras. These provided short time lava flow dynamics and validation for satellite data. TET-1 retrieved 27 datasets over Stromboli during its effusive activity. Using the radiant density approach, TET-1 data were used to calibrate the MODVOLC data and estimate the time averaged lava discharge rate. With a mean output rate of 0.87 m3/s during the three-month-long eruption, we estimate the total erupted volume to be 7.4 × 106 m3.

  7. Building damage scale proposal from VHR satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Constantin; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Cotrufo, Silvana; Boccardo, Piero

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards have a huge impact in terms of economic losses, affected and killed people. Current exploitation of remote sensed images play a fundamental role in the delineation of damages generated by catastrophic events. Institutions like the United Nations and the European Commission designed services that provide information about the impact of disasters rapidly. One of the approach currently used to carry out the damage assessment is based on very high resolution remote sensing imagery (including both aerial and satellite platforms). One of the main focus of the responders, especially in case of events like earthquakes, is on buildings and infrastructures. As far as the buildings are concerned, to date international standard guidelines that provide essential information on how to assess building damages using VHR images still does not exist. The aim of this study is to develop a building damage scale tailored for analyses based on VHR vertical imagery and to propose a standard for the related interpretation guidelines. The task is carried out by comparing the current scales used for damage assessment by the main satellite based emergency mapping services. The study will analyze the datasets produced after the Ecuador (April 2016) and Central Italy(August and October 2016) earthquakes. The results suggest that by using VHR remotely sensed images it is not possible to directly use damage classification scales addressing structural damages (e.g the 5 grades proposed by EMS-98). A fine-tuning of existing damage classes is therefore required and the adoption of an internationally agreed standard should be encouraged, to streamline the use of SEM products generated by different services.

  8. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  9. Application of remote sensing to thermal pollution analysis. [satellite sea surface temperature measurement assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, H. W.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Sengupta, S.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical model development program for near-field thermal plume discharge and far field general circulation in coastal regions is being carried on at the University of Miami Clean Energy Research Institute. The objective of the program is to develop a generalized, three-dimensional, predictive model for thermal pollution studies. Two regions of specific application of the model are the power plants sites at the Biscayne Bay and Hutchinson Island area along the Florida coastline. Remote sensing from aircraft as well as satellites are used in parallel with in situ measurements to provide information needed for the development and verification of the mathematical model. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to identify problems and limitations of the presently available satellite data and to develop methods for enhancing and enlarging thermal infrared displays for mesoscale sea surface temperature measurements.

  10. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  11. Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm Oriented Dynamic Tasks for Imaging Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.

  12. Urban Land Use Change Detection Using Multisensor Satellite Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jin-Song; WANG Ke; LI Jun; DENG Yan-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Due to inappropriate planning and management, accelerated urban growth and tremendous loss in land, especially cropland, have become a great challenge for sustainable urban development in China, especially in developed urban area in the coastal regions; therefore, there is an urgent need to effectively detect and monitor the land use changes and provide accurate and timely information for planning and management. In this study a method combining principal component analysis (PCA) of multiseusor satellite images from SPOT (systeme pour l'observation de la terre or earth observation satellite)-5 muttispectral (XS) and Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) panchromatic (PAN) data, and supervised classification was used to detect and analyze the dynamics of land use changes in the city proper of Hangzhou. The overall accuracy of the land use change detection was 90.67% and Kappa index was 0.89. The results indicated that there was a considerable land use change (10.03% of the total area) in the study area from 2001 to 2003, with three major types of land use conversions: from cropland into bnilt-up land, construction site, and water area (fish pond). Changes from orchard land into built-up land were also detected. The method described in this study is feasible and useful for detecting rapid land use change in the urban area.

  13. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Hugo; Jongerden, Joost; van Etten, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite images for verification of witness reports collected by human rights groups. The Turkish army was reported to be burning forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against guerrilla uprising. This paper concludes that satellite images are useful to validate witness reports of forest fires. Even though the use of this technology for human rights groups will depend on some feasibility factors such as prices, access and expertise, the images proved to be key for analysis of spatial aspects of conflict and valuable for reconstructing a more trustworthy picture.

  14. A System to Detect Residential Area in Multispectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfallah Bouraoui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new solution to extract complex structures from High-Resolution (HR remote-sensing images. We propose to represent shapes and there relations by using region adjacency graphs. They are generated automatically from the segmented images. Thus, the nodes of the graph represent shape like houses, streets or trees, while arcs describe the adjacency relation between them. In order to be invariant to transformations such as rotation and scaling, the extraction of objects of interest is done by combining two techniques: one based on roof color to detect the bounding boxes of houses, and one based on mathematical morphology notions to detect streets. To recognize residential areas, a model described by a regular language is built. The detection is achieved by looking for a path in the region adjacency graph, which can be recognized as a word belonging to the description language. Our algorithm was tested with success on images from the French satellite SPOT 5 representing the urban area of Strasbourg (France at different spatial resolution.

  15. Dsm Based Orientation of Large Stereo Satellite Image Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2012-07-01

    High resolution stereo satellite imagery is well suited for the creation of digital surface models (DSM). A system for highly automated and operational DSM and orthoimage generation based on CARTOSAT-1 imagery is presented, with emphasis on fully automated georeferencing. The proposed system processes level-1 stereo scenes using the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) universal sensor model. The RPC are derived from orbit and attitude information and have a much lower accuracy than the ground resolution of approximately 2.5 m. In order to use the images for orthorectification or DSM generation, an affine RPC correction is required. In this paper, GCP are automatically derived from lower resolution reference datasets (Landsat ETM+ Geocover and SRTM DSM). The traditional method of collecting the lateral position from a reference image and interpolating the corresponding height from the DEM ignores the higher lateral accuracy of the SRTM dataset. Our method avoids this drawback by using a RPC correction based on DSM alignment, resulting in improved geolocation of both DSM and ortho images. Scene based method and a bundle block adjustment based correction are developed and evaluated for a test site covering the nothern part of Italy, for which 405 Cartosat-1 Stereopairs are available. Both methods are tested against independent ground truth. Checks against this ground truth indicate a lateral error of 10 meters.

  16. Identifying potential solar power generation sites using satellite apt images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawz-Ul-Haq, K. R.; Siddiqui, Z. R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, satellite APT images have been used to study cloud-cover over Pakistan, so as to determine those areas which have the least frequency of cloudiness. Such areas are likely to receive maximum insolation, and have been shown on a contour map of Pakistan. It is observed that more than half of Pakistan is highly sunny, and has many promising areas for establishing large scale solar electric power generation stations. It is further observed that, some of the productive mineral-rich areas in remote parts, such as Chagai, are highly cloud-free, therefore, it may be possible to meet their mining needs through solar energy. Thus Pakistan, on the threshold of industrialization, has high prospects of obtaining `clean' energy, free of greenhouse gases.

  17. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  18. Satellite Image Security Improvement by Combining DWT-DCT Watermarking and AES Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naida.H.Nazmudeen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the large-scale research in space sciences and technologies, there is a great demand of satellite image security system for providing secure storage and transmission of satellite images. As the demand to protect the sensitive and valuable data from satellites has increased and hence proposed a new method for satellite image security by combining DWT-DCT watermarking and AES encryption. Watermarking techniques developed for multimedia data cannot be directly applied to the satellite images because here the analytic integrity of the data, rather than perceptual quality, is of primary importance. To improve performance, combine discrete wavelet transform (DWT with another equally powerful transform; the discrete cosine transform (DCT. The combined DWT-DCT watermarking algorithm’s imperceptibility was better than the performance of the DWT approach. Modified decision based unsymmetrical trimmed median filter (MDBUTMF algorithm is proposed for the restoration of satellite images that are highly corrupted by salt and pepper noise. Satellite images desire not only the watermarking for copyright protection but also encryption during storage and transmission for preventing information leakage. Hence this paper investigates the security and performance level of joint DWT-DCT watermarking and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES for satellite imagery. Theoretical analysis can be done by calculating PSNR and MSE. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme, which fulfils the strict requirements concerning alterations of satellite images.

  19. Satellite image analysis for surveillance, vegetation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, D Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18

    Recently, many studies have provided abundant evidence to show the trend of tree mortality is increasing in many regions, and the cause of tree mortality is associated with drought, insect outbreak, or fire. Unfortunately, there is no current capability available to monitor vegetation changes, and correlate and predict tree mortality with CO{sub 2} change, and climate change on the global scale. Different survey platforms (methods) have been used for forest management. Typical ground-based forest surveys measure tree stem diameter, species, and alive or dead. The measurements are low-tech and time consuming, but the sample sizes are large, running into millions of trees, covering large areas, and spanning many years. These field surveys provide powerful ground validation for other survey methods such as photo survey, helicopter GPS survey, and aerial overview survey. The satellite imagery has much larger coverage. It is easier to tile the different images together, and more important, the spatial resolution has been improved such that close to or even higher than aerial survey platforms. Today, the remote sensing satellite data have reached sub-meter spatial resolution for panchromatic channels (IKONOS 2: 1 m; Quickbird-2: 0.61 m; Worldview-2: 0.5 m) and meter spatial resolution for multi-spectral channels (IKONOS 2: 4 meter; Quickbird-2: 2.44 m; Worldview-2: 2 m). Therefore, high resolution satellite imagery can allow foresters to discern individual trees. This vital information should allow us to quantify physiological states of trees, e.g. healthy or dead, shape and size of tree crowns, as well as species and functional compositions of trees. This is a powerful data resource, however, due to the vast amount of the data collected daily, it is impossible for human analysts to review the imagery in detail to identify the vital biodiversity information. Thus, in this talk, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges to use high resolution satellite imagery and

  20. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images with TV-based Edge Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2007-01-01

    Several widely used methods have been proposed for fusing high resolution panchromatic data and lower resolution multi-channel data. However, many of these methods fail to maintain the spectral consistency of the fused high resolution image, which is of high importance to many of the applications...... based on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. [1] proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...... in a statistically meaningful way and was called spectral consistent panshapening (SCP). In this paper we improve this framework for satellite image fusion by introducing a better image prior, via data-dependent image smoothing. The dependency is obtained via total variation edge detection method....

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL PROFILE AND GRANULOMETRIC MAPS IN EXTRACTION OF BUILDINGS IN VHR SATELLITE IMAGES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kupidura Przemysław; Skulimowska Monika

    2015-01-01

    ...: the morphological profile, and granulometric maps in detecting buildings on satellite images. It briefly explains the theoretical basis for granulometric analysis of image and compares two methods used in research...

  2. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  3. Visir-Sat - a Prospective Micro-Satellite Based Multi-Spectral Thermal Mission for Land Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, G.; Menz, G.; Heinemann, S.; Hartmann, M.; Oertel, D.

    2015-04-01

    Current space-borne thermal infrared satellite systems aimed at land surface remote sensing retain some significant deficiencies, in particular in terms of spatial resolution, spectral coverage, number of imaging bands and temperature-emissivity separation. The proposed VISible-to-thermal IR micro-SATellite (VISIR-SAT) mission addresses many of these limitations, providing multi-spectral imaging data with medium-to-high spatial resolution (80m GSD from 800 km altitude) in the thermal infrared (up to 6 TIR bands, between 8 and 11μm) and in the mid infrared (1 or 2 MIR bands, at 4μm). These MIR/TIR bands will be co-registered with simultaneously acquired high spatial resolution (less than 30 m GSP) visible and near infrared multi-spectral imaging data. To enhance the spatial resolution of the MIR/TIR multi-spectral imagery during daytime, data fusion methods will be applied, such as the Multi-sensor Multi-resolution Technique (MMT), already successfully tested over agricultural terrain. This image processing technique will make generation of Land Surface Temperature (LST) EO products with a spatial resolution of 30 x 30 m2 possible. For high temperature phenomena such as vegetation- and peat-fires, the Fire Disturbance Essential Climate Variables (ECV) "Active fire location" and "Fire Radiative Power" will be retrieved with less than 100 m spatial resolution. Together with the effective fire temperature and the spatial extent even for small fire events the innovative system characteristics of VISIR-SAT go beyond existing and planned IR missions. The comprehensive and physically high-accuracy products from VISIR-SAT (e.g. for fire monitoring) may synergistically complement the high temperature observations of Sentinel-3 SLSTR in a unique way. Additionally, VISIR-SAT offers a very agile sensor system, which will be able to conduct intelligent and flexible pointing of the sensor's line-of-sight with the aim to provide global coverage of cloud free imagery every 5

  4. HyTES: Thermal Imaging Spectrometer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Realmuto, Vincent; Lamborn, Andy; Paine, Chris; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). It is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson optical configuration. First low altitude test flights are scheduled for later this year. HyTES uses a compact 7.5-12 micrometer m hyperspectral grating spectrometer in combination with a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) and grating based spectrometer. The Dyson design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). Cooling requirements are minimized due to the single monolithic prism-like grating design. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal science-grade imaging spectroscopy solution for high altitude, lighter-than-air (HAA, LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The QWIP sensor allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity which allows for near 100mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. The QWIP's repeatability and uniformity will be helpful for data integrity since currently an onboard calibrator is not planned. A calibration will be done before and after eight hour flights to gage any inconsistencies. This has been demonstrated with lab testing. Further test results show adequate NEDT, linearity as well as applicable earth science emissivity target results (Silicates, water) measured in direct sunlight.

  5. Mapping soil heterogeneity using RapidEye satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Eerens, Herman; Dong, Qinghan; Gobin, Anne; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of BELCAM, a project funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO), researchers from UCL, ULg, CRA-W and VITO aim to set up a collaborative system to develop and deliver relevant information for agricultural monitoring in Belgium. The main objective is to develop remote sensing methods and processing chains able to ingest crowd sourcing data, provided by farmers or associated partners, and to deliver in return relevant and up-to-date information for crop monitoring at the field and district level based on Sentinel-1 and -2 satellite imagery. One of the developments within BELCAM concerns an automatic procedure to detect soil heterogeneity within a parcel using optical high resolution images. Such heterogeneity maps can be used to adjust farming practices according to the detected heterogeneity. This heterogeneity may for instance be caused by differences in mineral composition of the soil, organic matter content, soil moisture or soil texture. Local differences in plant growth may be indicative for differences in soil characteristics. As such remote sensing derived vegetation indices may be used to reveal soil heterogeneity. VITO started to delineate homogeneous zones within parcels by analyzing a series of RapidEye images acquired in 2015 (as a precursor for Sentinel-2). Both unsupervised classification (ISODATA, K-means) and segmentation techniques were tested. Heterogeneity maps were generated from images acquired at different moments during the season (13 May, 30 June, 17 July, 31 August, 11 September and 1 November 2015). Tests were performed using blue, green, red, red edge and NIR reflectances separately and using derived indices such as NDVI, fAPAR, CIrededge, NDRE2. The results for selected winter wheat, maize and potato fields were evaluated together with experts from the collaborating agricultural research centers. For a few fields UAV images and/or yield measurements were available for comparison.

  6. Object-based illumination normalization for multi-temporal satellite images in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Zhang, Ye; Tian, Shu; Yan, Yiming

    2016-09-01

    Multi-temporal satellite images acquisition with different illumination conditions cause radiometric difference to have a huge effect on image quality during remote sensing image processing. In particular, image matching of satellite stereo images with great difference between acquisition dates is very difficult for the high-precision DSM generation in the field of satellite photogrammetry. Therefore, illumination normalization is one of the greatest application technology to eliminate radiometric difference for image matching and other image applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel method of object-based illumination normalization to improve image matching of different temporal satellite stereo images in urban area. Our proposed method include two main steps: 1) the object extraction 2) multi-level illumination normalization. Firstly, we proposed a object extraction method for the same objects extraction among the multi-temporal satellite images, which can keep the object structural attribute. Moreover, the multi-level illumination normalization is proposed by combining gradient domain method and singular value decomposition (SVD) according to characteristic information of relevant objects. Our proposed method has great improvement for the illumination of object area to be benefit for image matching in urban area with multiple objects. And the histogram similarity parameter and matching rate are used for illumination consistency quantitative evaluation. The experiments have been conducted on different satellite images with different acquisition dates in the same urban area to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate a good performance by comparing other methods.

  7. Satellite Image Time Series Decomposition Based on EEMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-long Kong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite Image Time Series (SITS have recently been of great interest due to the emerging remote sensing capabilities for Earth observation. Trend and seasonal components are two crucial elements of SITS. In this paper, a novel framework of SITS decomposition based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD is proposed. EEMD is achieved by sifting an ensemble of adaptive orthogonal components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs. EEMD is noise-assisted and overcomes the drawback of mode mixing in conventional Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD. Inspired by these advantages, the aim of this work is to employ EEMD to decompose SITS into IMFs and to choose relevant IMFs for the separation of seasonal and trend components. In a series of simulations, IMFs extracted by EEMD achieved a clear representation with physical meaning. The experimental results of 16-day compositions of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI time series with disturbance illustrated the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approach to monitoring tasks, such as applications for the detection of abrupt changes.

  8. The Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS) will follow in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10keV band. These capabilities will enable major advances in many of the most active areas of astrophysics, including (i) mapping event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the determination of supermassive black hole (SMBH) spins through monitoring of gravitationally-microlensed quasars; (ii) dramatically deepening our understanding of AGN feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters out to high-z through the direct imaging of AGN winds and the interaction of jets with the hot interstellar/intracluster medium; (iii) understanding the fueling of AGN by probing hot flows inside of the SMBH sphere of influence; (iv) obtaining geometric distance measurements using dust scattering halos. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS will be enormously synergistic with LSST, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS is enabled by breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, building on recent developments in the semiconductor industry. Here, we describe the straw-man concept for AXIS, some of the high profile science that this observatory will address, and how you can become involved.

  9. Evaluation of Infrared Images by Using a Human Thermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    thermal environmental history have been recorded. In this case, the thermal environmental history could be estimated from the behavior of a subject... environmental history and physiological condition history. An advantage of the evaluation of IR images using the thermal model is to provide

  10. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  11. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  12. Using Satellite Images for Wireless Network Planing in Baku City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojamanov, M.; Ismayilov, J.

    2013-04-01

    It is a well known fact that the Information-Telecommunication and Space research technologies are the fields getting much more benefits from the achievements of the scientific and technical progress. In many cases, these areas supporting each other have improved the conditions for their further development. For instance, the intensive development in the field of the mobile communication has caused the rapid progress of the Space research technologies and vice versa.Today it is impossible to solve one of the most important tasks of the mobile communication as Radio Frecance planning without the 2D and 3D digital maps. The compiling of such maps is much more efficient by means of the space images. Because the quality of the space images has been improved and developed, especially at the both spectral and spatial resolution points. It has been possible to to use 8 Band images with the spatial resolution of 50 sm. At present, in relation to the function 3G of mobile communications one of the main issues facing mobile operator companies is a high-precision 3D digital maps. It should be noted that the number of mobile phone users in the Republic of Azerbaijan went forward other Community of Independent States Countries. Of course, using of aerial images for 3D mapping would be optimal. However, depending on a number of technical and administrative problems aerial photography cannot be used. Therefore, the experience of many countries shows that it will be more effective to use the space images with the higher resolution for these issues. Concerning the fact that the mobile communication within the city of Baku has included 3G function there were ordered stereo images wih the spatial resolution of 50 cm for the 150 sq.km territory occupying the central part of the city in order to compile 3D digital maps. The images collected from the WorldView-2 satellite are 4-Band Bundle(Pan+MS1) stereo images. Such kind of imagery enable to automatically classificate some required

  13. First Satellite Imaging of Auroral Pulsations by the Fast Auroral Imager on e-POP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, A.; Cogger, L.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report the first satellite imaging of auroral pulsations by the Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) onboard the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite. The near-infrared camera of FAI is capable of providing up to two auroral images per second, ideal for investigation of pulsating auroras. The auroral pulsations were observed within the auroral bulge formed during a substorm interval on 2014 February 19. This first satellite view of these pulsations from FAI reveals that (1) several pulsating auroral channels (PACs) occur within the auroral bulge, (2) periods of the intensity pulsations span over one decade within the auroral bulge, and (3) there is no apparent trend of longer pulsation periods associated with higher latitudes for these PACs. Although PACs resemble in some respect stable pulsating auroras reported previously but they have several important differences in characteristics.PACs are not embedded in or emerging from omega bands or torches and are located at significant distances from the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval, unlike the characteristics of stable pulsating auroras.

  14. Prototype Videodisk-Based Part-Task Thermal Imaging Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner, Michael S.; Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Thermal images, or infrared images, are representations of the world based on heat, instead of visible light. Research has shown that the resulting thermal image results in perceptual differences leading to difficulties in interpretation (e.g., the determination of slope angle, concavity/convexity), or increased identification latencies. A joint research project between the United States (NASA and U.S. Army) and Israel (Ministry of Defense and Israel Air Force) has resulted in the development of a prototype part-task trainer for the acquisition of perceptual skills associated with thermal imaging usage. This prototype system is videodisk-based under computer control, using recordings of thermal images. A lesson section introduces declarative knowledge, in which the basic physics and heuristics of thermal imagery are taught. An exercise section teaches procedural knowledge, with the user viewing dynamic, actual imagery, with an interactive detection/location determination task. The general philosophy and design of the trainer will be demonstrated.

  15. Estimate Landslide Volume with Genetic Algorithms and Image Similarity Method from Single Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting-To

    2013-04-01

    It is important to acquire the volume of landslide in short period of time. For hazard mitigation and also emergency response purpose, the traditional method takes much longer time than expected. Due to the weather limit, traffic accessibility and many regulations of law, it take months to handle these process before the actual carry out of filed work. Remote sensing imagery can get the data as long as the visibility allowed, which happened only few day after the event. While traditional photometry requires a stereo pairs images to produce the post event DEM for calculating the change of volume. Usually have to wait weeks or even months for gathering such data, LiDAR or ground GPS measurement might take even longer period of time with much higher cost. In this study we use one post event satellite image and pre-event DTM to compare the similarity between these by alter the DTM with genetic algorithms. The outcome of smartest guess from GAs shall remove or add exact values of height at each location, which been converted into shadow relief viewgraph to compare with satellite image. Once the similarity threshold been make then the guessing work stop. It takes only few hours to finish the entire task, the computed accuracy is around 70% by comparing to the high resolution LiDAR survey at a landslide, southern Taiwan. With extra GCPs, the estimate accuracy can improve to 85% and also within few hours after the receiving of satellite image. Data of this demonstration case is a 5 m DTM at 2005, 2M resolution FormoSat optical image at 2009 and 5M LiDAR at 2010. The GAs and image similarity code is developed on Matlab at windows PC.

  16. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  17. Land surface thermal characterization of Asian-pacific region with Japanese geostationary satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tamura, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant indicator of energy balance at the Earth's surface. It is required for a wide variety of climate, hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical studies. Although LST is highly variable both temporally and spatially, it is impossible for polar-orbiting satellite to detect hourly changes in LST, because the satellite is able to only collect data of the same area at most twice a day. On the other hand, geostationary satellite is able to collect hourly data and has a possibility to monitor hourly changes in LST, therefore hourly measurements of geostationary satellite enables us to characterize detailed thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and improve our understanding of the surface energy balance. Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) is a Japanese geostationary satellite launched in 2005 and covers Asia-Pacific region. MTSAT provides hourly data with 5 bands including two thermal infrared (TIR) bands in the 10.5-12.5 micron region. In this research, we have developed a methodology to retrieve hourly LST from thermal infrared data of MTSAT. We applied Generalized Split-window (GSW) equation to estimate LST from TIR data. First, the brightness temperatures measured at sensor on MTSAT was simulated by radiative transfer code (MODTRAN), and the numerical coefficients of GSW equation were optimized based on the simulation results with non-linear minimization algorithm. The standard deviation of derived GSW equation was less than or equal to 1.09K in the case of viewing zenith angle lower than 40 degree and 1.73K in 60 degree. Then, spatial distributions of LST have been mapped optimized GSW equation with brightness temperatures of MTSAT IR1 and IR2 and emissivity map from MODIS product. Finally, these maps were validated with MODIS LST product (MOD11A1) over four Asian-pacific regions such as Bangkok, Tokyo, UlanBator and Jakarta , It is found that RMSE of these regions were 4.57K, 2.22K, 2.71K and 3.92K

  18. Validation of Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Satellite Products for Coral Bleaching Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Heron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite monitoring of thermal stress on coral reefs has become an essential component of reef management practice around the world. A recent development by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Watch (NOAA CRW program provides daily global monitoring at 5 km resolution—at or near the scale of most coral reefs. In this paper, we introduce two new monitoring products in the CRW Decision Support System for coral reef management: Regional Virtual Stations, a regional synthesis of thermal stress conditions, and Seven-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST Trend, describing recent changes in temperature at each location. We describe how these products provided information in support of management activities prior to, during and after the 2014 thermal stress event in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using in situ survey data from this event, we undertake the first quantitative comparison between 5 km satellite monitoring products and coral bleaching observations. Analysis of coral community characteristics, historical temperature conditions and thermal stress revealed a strong influence of coral biodiversity in the patterns of observed bleaching. This resulted in a model based on thermal stress and generic richness that explained 97% of the variance in observed bleaching. These findings illustrate the importance of using local benthic characteristics to interpret the level of impact from thermal stress exposure. In an era of continuing climate change, accurate monitoring of thermal stress and prediction of coral bleaching are essential for stakeholders to direct resources to the most effective management actions to conserve coral reefs.

  19. Spatio-temporal multi-modality ontology for indexing and retrieving satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    MESSOUDI, Wassim; FARAH, Imed Riadh; SAHEB ETTABAA, Karim; Ben Ghezala, Henda; SOLAIMAN, Basel

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents spatio-temporal multi-modality ontology for indexing and retrieving satellite images in the high level to improve the quality of the system retrieval and to perform semantic in the retrieval process.Our approach is based on three modules: (1) regions and features extraction, (2) ontological indexing and (3) semantic image retrieval. The first module allows extracting regions from the satellite image using the fuzzy c-means FCM) segmentation algorith...

  20. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, F

    2015-01-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable to the wider...

  1. Design Considerations, Modeling and Analysis for the Multispectral Thermal Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Cooke, B.J.; Smith, B.W.; Weber, P.G.

    1999-02-01

    The design of remote sensing systems is driven by the need to provide cost-effective, substantive answers to questions posed by our customers. This is especially important for space-based systems, which tend to be expensive, and which generally cannot be changed after they are launched. We report here on the approach we employed in developing the desired attributes of a satellite mission, namely the Multispectral Thermal Imager. After an initial scoping study, we applied a procedure which we call: "End-to-end modeling and analysis (EEM)." We began with target attributes, translated to observable signatures and then propagated the signatures through the atmosphere to the sensor location. We modeled the sensor attributes to yield a simulated data stream, which was then analyzed to retrieve information about the original target. The retrieved signature was then compared to the original to obtain a figure of merit: hence the term "end-to-end modeling and analysis." We base the EEM in physics to ensure high fidelity and to permit scaling. As the actual design of the payload evolves, and as real hardware is tested, we can update the EEM to facilitate trade studies, and to judge, for example, whether components that deviate from specifications are acceptable.

  2. Region of Interest Detection Based on Histogram Segmentation for Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadtikornthaweeyot, Warinthorn; Tatnall, Adrian R. L.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution satellite imaging is considered as the outstanding applicant to extract the Earth's surface information. Extraction of a feature of an image is very difficult due to having to find the appropriate image segmentation techniques and combine different methods to detect the Region of Interest (ROI) most effectively. This paper proposes techniques to classify objects in the satellite image by using image processing methods on high-resolution satellite images. The systems to identify the ROI focus on forests, urban and agriculture areas. The proposed system is based on histograms of the image to classify objects using thresholding. The thresholding is performed by considering the behaviour of the histogram mapping to a particular region in the satellite image. The proposed model is based on histogram segmentation and morphology techniques. There are five main steps supporting each other; Histogram classification, Histogram segmentation, Morphological dilation, Morphological fill image area and holes and ROI management. The methods to detect the ROI of the satellite images based on histogram classification have been studied, implemented and tested. The algorithm is be able to detect the area of forests, urban and agriculture separately. The image segmentation methods can detect the ROI and reduce the size of the original image by discarding the unnecessary parts.

  3. Detecting Anomaly Regions in Satellite Image Time Series Based on Sesaonal Autocorrelation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.-G.; Tang, P.; Zhou, M.

    2016-06-01

    Anomaly regions in satellite images can reflect unexpected changes of land cover caused by flood, fire, landslide, etc. Detecting anomaly regions in satellite image time series is important for studying the dynamic processes of land cover changes as well as for disaster monitoring. Although several methods have been developed to detect land cover changes using satellite image time series, they are generally designed for detecting inter-annual or abrupt land cover changes, but are not focusing on detecting spatial-temporal changes in continuous images. In order to identify spatial-temporal dynamic processes of unexpected changes of land cover, this study proposes a method for detecting anomaly regions in each image of satellite image time series based on seasonal autocorrelation analysis. The method was validated with a case study to detect spatial-temporal processes of a severe flooding using Terra/MODIS image time series. Experiments demonstrated the advantages of the method that (1) it can effectively detect anomaly regions in each of satellite image time series, showing spatial-temporal varying process of anomaly regions, (2) it is flexible to meet some requirement (e.g., z-value or significance level) of detection accuracies with overall accuracy being up to 89% and precision above than 90%, and (3) it does not need time series smoothing and can detect anomaly regions in noisy satellite images with a high reliability.

  4. DETECTING ANOMALY REGIONS IN SATELLITE IMAGE TIME SERIES BASED ON SESAONAL AUTOCORRELATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-G. Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly regions in satellite images can reflect unexpected changes of land cover caused by flood, fire, landslide, etc. Detecting anomaly regions in satellite image time series is important for studying the dynamic processes of land cover changes as well as for disaster monitoring. Although several methods have been developed to detect land cover changes using satellite image time series, they are generally designed for detecting inter-annual or abrupt land cover changes, but are not focusing on detecting spatial-temporal changes in continuous images. In order to identify spatial-temporal dynamic processes of unexpected changes of land cover, this study proposes a method for detecting anomaly regions in each image of satellite image time series based on seasonal autocorrelation analysis. The method was validated with a case study to detect spatial-temporal processes of a severe flooding using Terra/MODIS image time series. Experiments demonstrated the advantages of the method that (1 it can effectively detect anomaly regions in each of satellite image time series, showing spatial-temporal varying process of anomaly regions, (2 it is flexible to meet some requirement (e.g., z-value or significance level of detection accuracies with overall accuracy being up to 89% and precision above than 90%, and (3 it does not need time series smoothing and can detect anomaly regions in noisy satellite images with a high reliability.

  5. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of High-Resolution Satellite ZY-3 TLC Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Heng; Ying, Shen

    2017-05-07

    Super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction is a technique used to recover a high-resolution image using the cumulative information provided by several low-resolution images. With the help of SR techniques, satellite remotely sensed images can be combined to achieve a higher-resolution image, which is especially useful for a two- or three-line camera satellite, e.g., the ZY-3 high-resolution Three Line Camera (TLC) satellite. In this paper, we introduce the application of the SR reconstruction method, including motion estimation and the robust super-resolution technique, to ZY-3 TLC images. The results show that SR reconstruction can significantly improve both the resolution and image quality of ZY-3 TLC images.

  6. Improving multispectral satellite image compression using onboard subpixel registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Mathieu; Camarero, Roberto; Isnard, Maxime; Poulet, Christophe; Perret, Jokin

    2013-09-01

    Future CNES earth observation missions will have to deal with an ever increasing telemetry data rate due to improvements in resolution and addition of spectral bands. Current CNES image compressors implement a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed by a bit plane encoding (BPE) but only on a mono spectral basis and do not profit from the multispectral redundancy of the observed scenes. Recent CNES studies have proven a substantial gain on the achievable compression ratio, +20% to +40% on selected scenarios, by implementing a multispectral compression scheme based on a Karhunen Loeve transform (KLT) followed by the classical DWT+BPE. But such results can be achieved only on perfectly registered bands; a default of registration as low as 0.5 pixel ruins all the benefits of multispectral compression. In this work, we first study the possibility to implement a multi-bands subpixel onboard registration based on registration grids generated on-the-fly by the satellite attitude control system and simplified resampling and interpolation techniques. Indeed bands registration is usually performed on ground using sophisticated techniques too computationally intensive for onboard use. This fully quantized algorithm is tuned to meet acceptable registration performances within stringent image quality criteria, with the objective of onboard real-time processing. In a second part, we describe a FPGA implementation developed to evaluate the design complexity and, by extrapolation, the data rate achievable on a spacequalified ASIC. Finally, we present the impact of this approach on the processing chain not only onboard but also on ground and the impacts on the design of the instrument.

  7. Satellite Image Processing for Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashoka Vanjare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, urban growth of Bangalore region is analyzed and discussed by using multi-temporal and multi-spectral Landsat satellite images. Urban growth analysis helps in understanding the change detection of Bangalore region. The change detection is studied over a period of 39 years and the region of interest covers an area of 2182 km2. The main cause for urban growth is the increase in population. In India, rapid urbanization is witnessed due to an increase in the population, continuous development has affected the existence of natural resources. Therefore observing and monitoring the natural resources (land use plays an important role. To analyze changed detection, researcher’s use remote sensing data. Continuous use of remote sensing data helps researchers to analyze the change detection. The main objective of this study is to monitor land cover changes of Bangalore district which covers rural and urban regions using multi-temporal and multi-sensor Landsat - multi-spectral scanner (MSS, thematic mapper (TM, Enhanced Thematic mapper plus (ETM+ MSS, TM and ETM+ images captured in the years 1973, 1992, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011. Temporal changes were determined by using maximum likelihood classification method. The classification results contain four land cover classes namely, built-up, vegetation, water and barren land. The results indicate that the region is densely developed which has resulted in decrease of water and vegetation regions. The continuous transformation of barren land to built-up region has affected water and vegetation regions. Generally, from 1973 to 2011 the percentage of urban region has increased from 4.6% to 25.43%, mainly due to urbanization.

  8. Thermal imaging as a biometrics approach to facial signature authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, A M; Goryawala, M; Wang, Jin; Barreto, A; Andrian, J; Rishe, N; Adjouadi, M

    2013-01-01

    A new thermal imaging framework with unique feature extraction and similarity measurements for face recognition is presented. The research premise is to design specialized algorithms that would extract vasculature information, create a thermal facial signature and identify the individual. The proposed algorithm is fully integrated and consolidates the critical steps of feature extraction through the use of morphological operators, registration using the Linear Image Registration Tool and matching through unique similarity measures designed for this task. The novel approach at developing a thermal signature template using four images taken at various instants of time ensured that unforeseen changes in the vasculature over time did not affect the biometric matching process as the authentication process relied only on consistent thermal features. Thirteen subjects were used for testing the developed technique on an in-house thermal imaging system. The matching using the similarity measures showed an average accuracy of 88.46% for skeletonized signatures and 90.39% for anisotropically diffused signatures. The highly accurate results obtained in the matching process clearly demonstrate the ability of the thermal infrared system to extend in application to other thermal imaging based systems. Empirical results applying this approach to an existing database of thermal images proves this assertion.

  9. Thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging from vehicle-carried instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Adams, Paul M.; McAfee, John; Salisbury, John

    2002-09-01

    Stand-off identification in the field using thermal infrared spectrometers (hyperspectral) is a maturing technique for gases and aerosols. However, capabilities to identify solid-phase materials on the surface lag substantially, particularly for identification in the field without benefit of ground truth (e.g. for "denied areas"). Spectral signatures of solid phase materials vary in complex and non-intuitive ways, including non-linear variations with surface texture, particle size, and intimate mixing. Also, in contrast to airborne or satellite measurements, reflected downwelling radiance strongly affects the signature measured by field spectrometers. These complex issues can confound interpretations or cause a misidentification in the field. Problems that remain particularly obstinate are (1) low ambiguity identification when there is no accompanying ground truth (e.g. measurements of denied areas, or Mars surface by the 2003 Mars lander spectrometer); (2) real- or near real-time identification, especially when a low ambiguity answer is critical; (3) identification of intimate mixtures (e.g. two fine powders mixed together) and targets composed of very small particles (e.g. aerosol fallout dust, some tailings); and (4) identification of non-diffuse targets (e.g. smooth coatings such as paint and desert varnish), particularly when measured at a high emission angle. In most studies that focus on gas phase targets or specific manmade targets, the solid phase background signatures are called "clutter" and are thrown out. Here we discuss our field spectrometer images measured of test targets that were selected to include a range of particle sizes, diffuse, non-diffuse, high, and low reflectance materials. This study was designed to identify and improve understanding of the issues that complicate stand-off identification in the field, with a focus on developing identification capabilities to proceed without benefit of ground truth. This information allows both improved

  10. Imaging-Duration Embedded Dynamic Scheduling of Earth Observation Satellites for Emergent Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Niu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel two-stage dynamic scheduling of earth observation satellites to provide emergency response by making full use of the duration of the imaging task execution. In the first stage, the multiobjective genetic algorithm NSGA-II is used to produce an optimal satellite imaging schedule schema, which is robust to dynamic adjustment as possible emergent events occur in the future. In the second stage, when certain emergent events do occur, a dynamic adjusting heuristic algorithm (CTM-DAHA is applied to arrange new tasks into the robust imaging schedule. Different from the existing dynamic scheduling methods, the imaging duration is embedded in the two stages to make full use of current satellite resources. In the stage of robust satellite scheduling, total task execution time is used as a robust indicator to obtain a satellite schedule with less imaging time. In other words, more imaging time is preserved for future emergent events. In the stage of dynamic adjustment, a compact task merging strategy is applied to combine both of existing tasks and emergency tasks into a composite task with least imaging time. Simulated experiments indicate that the proposed method can produce a more robust and effective satellite imaging schedule.

  11. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen

    2014-11-01

    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  12. Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dim, J. R.; T. Y. Nakajima; T. Takamura; Kikuchi, N

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity) are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI) satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from ...

  13. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites: simulation, image reconstruction, and shadow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis M.; Hunt, Bobby R.; Sheppard, David G.

    2016-09-01

    Shadow imaging is a technique to obtain highly resolved silhouettes of resident space objects (RSOs) which would otherwise be unattainable using conventional terrestrial based imaging approaches. This is done by post processing the measured irradiance pattern (shadow) cast onto the Earth as the RSO occults a star. The research presented here focuses on shadow imaging of geosynchronous (GEO) satellites with near stationary orbits approximately 36,000 km from the Earth. Shadows pertaining to a set of diverse observing scenarios are simulated and used as inputs to a Fresnel based phase retrieval algorithm. Spatial resolution limits are evaluated and correlated to signal to noise (SNR) metrics. Resolvable feature sizes of less than 1 m are shown to be readily achievable using foreseeable observing scenarios. Initial output from a shadow prediction tool indicates that there are, on average, over 1000 shadows on the Earth on any given time from a single GEO satellite for stars brighter than mv=10. Shadow ground track uncertainties are correlated to stellar astrometric errors. Global and localized shadow track maps are presented demonstrating a high feasibility for future shadow collections.

  14. Identification of reduced-order thermal therapy models using thermal MR images: theory and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ran; Skliar, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we develop and validate a method to identify computationally efficient site- and patient-specific models of ultrasound thermal therapies from MR thermal images. The models of the specific absorption rate of the transduced energy and the temperature response of the therapy target are identified in the reduced basis of proper orthogonal decomposition of thermal images, acquired in response to a mild thermal test excitation. The method permits dynamic reidentification of the treatment models during the therapy by recursively utilizing newly acquired images. Such adaptation is particularly important during high-temperature therapies, which are known to substantially and rapidly change tissue properties and blood perfusion. The developed theory was validated for the case of focused ultrasound heating of a tissue phantom. The experimental and computational results indicate that the developed approach produces accurate low-dimensional treatment models despite temporal and spatial noises in MR images and slow image acquisition rate.

  15. Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two night-time thermal images of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming distinctly show a major thermal feature. This feature is substantially coincident with a drainage divide and the southward facing slope appears cooler, suggesting a lower thermal inertia. An initial examination of regional geologic maps provides no clear evidence to suggest what type of geologic feature or structure may be present, although it can be noted that its northeastern end passes directly through Lead, South Dakota where the Homestake Gold Mine is located.

  16. Adaptive bimaterial lattices to mitigate thermal expansion mismatch stresses in satellite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Marina M.; Steeves, Craig A.

    2015-08-01

    Earth-orbiting satellites regularly pass from sunlight to shade and back; these transitions are typically accompanied by significant temperature changes. When adjoining parts of a satellite that are made of different materials are subjected to large temperature changes, thermal mismatch stresses arise that are a function of the temperature change and the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between the two materials. These thermal stresses are linked to undesirable deformation and, through long-term cycling, fatigue and failure of the structure. This paper describes a type of anisotropic lattice that can serve as a stress-free adaptor between two materials, eliminating thermal mismatch stresses and their concomitant consequences. The lattices consist of planar nonidentical anisotropic bimaterial cells, each designed based on a virtual triangle. Physically the cells consist of a triangle made of material with higher CTE surrounded by a hexagon made of material with lower CTE. Different skew angles of the hexagon make a particular cell and the whole lattice anisotropic. The cells can be designed and combined in a lattice in such a way that one edge of the lattice has CTE that coincides with the CTE of the first part of the structure (substrate 1), while the other edge of the lattice has CTE equal to the CTE of the second part of the structure (substrate 2). If all joints between the parts of each cell, neighbouring cells, and the lattice and the substrates are pinned, the whole structure will be free of thermal stresses. This paper will discuss the fundamental principles governing such lattices, their refinement for special circumstances, and opportunities for improving the structural performance of the lattices. This will be presented coupled to a rational strategy for lattice design.

  17. Satellite image blind restoration based on surface fitting and multivariate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-bing; YANG Shi-zhi; WANG Xian-hua; QIAO Yan-li

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the blurring effect from atmosphere and camera system in the satellite imaging a blind image restoration algo-rithm is proposed which includes the modulation transfer function (MTF) estimation and the image restoration. In the MTF estimation stage, based on every degradation process of satellite imaging-chain, a combined parametric model of MTF is given and used to fit the surface of normalized logarithmic amplitude spectrum of degraded image. In the image restoration stage, a maximum a posteriori (MAP) based edge-preserving image restoration method is presented which introduces multivariate Laplacian model to characterize the prior distribution of wavelet coefficients of original image. During the image restoration, in order to avoid solving high nonlinear equations, optimization transfer algorithm is adopted to decom-pose the image restoration procedure into two simple steps: Landweber iteration and wavelet thresholding denoising. In the numerical experiment, the satellite image restoration results from SPOT-5 and high resolution camera (HR) of China & Brazil earth resource satellite (CBERS-02B) ane compared, and the proposed algorithm is superior in the image edge preservation and noise inhibition.

  18. A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-02-01

    A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

  19. A study on quality and availability of COCTS images of HY- 1 satellite by simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑菁; 毛天明; 潘德炉

    2002-01-01

    Hy-1 is a first China's ocean color satellite which will be launched as a piggyback satellite on FY- 1 satellite using Long March rocket. On the satellite there are two sensors: one is the China's ocean color and temperature scanner (COCTS), the other is CCD coastal zone imager (CZI).The COCTS is considered to be a main sensor to play a key role. In order to understand the characteristics of future ocean color images observed, a simulation and evaluation study on the quality and availability of the COCTS image has been done. First, the simulation models are introduced briefly, and typical simulated cases of radiance images at visible bands are introduced, in which the radiance distribution is based on geographic location, the satellite orbital parameters and sensor properties, the simulated method to evaluate the image quality and availability is developed by using the characteristics of image called the complex signal noise ratio ( CSNR ). Meanwhile, a series of the CSNR images are generated from the simulated radiance components for different cases, which can be used to evaluate the quality and availability of the COCTS images before the HY - 1 is placed in orbit. Finally, the quality and availability of the COCTS images are quantitatively analyzed with the simulated CSNR data. The results will be beneficial to all scientists who are in charge of the COCTS mission and to those who plan to use the data from the COCTS.

  20. Segmentation techniques for extracting humans from thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian detection system for underground mine vehicles is being developed that requires the segmentation of people from thermal images in underground mine tunnels. A number of thresholding techniques are outlined and their performance on a...

  1. Automated thermal mapping techniques using chromatic image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal imaging techniques are introduced using a chromatic image analysis system and temperature sensitive coatings. These techniques are used for thermal mapping and surface heat transfer measurements on aerothermodynamic test models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Measurements are made on complex vehicle configurations in a timely manner and at minimal expense. The image analysis system uses separate wavelength filtered images to analyze surface spectral intensity data. The system was initially developed for quantitative surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors but was found useful in interpreting phase change paint and liquid crystal data as well.

  2. Resolution and noise in ghost imaging with classical thermal light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jing; Han Shen-Sheng; Yan Yi-Jing

    2006-01-01

    The resolution and classical noise in ghost imaging with a classical thermal light are investigated theoretically. For ghost imaging with a Gaussian Schell model source, the dependences of the resolution and noise on the spatial coherence of the source and the aperture in the imaging system are discussed and demonstrated by using numerical simulations.The results show that an incoherent source and a large aperture will lead to a good image quality and small noise.

  3. Urban thermal environment and its biophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2013-10-01

    In frame of global warming, the field of urbanization and urban thermal environment are important issues among scientists all over the world. This paper investigated the influences of urbanization on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on satellite remote sensing imagery Landsat TM/ETM+, time series MODIS Terra/Aqua data and IKONOS acquired during 1990 - 2012 period. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of Landsat TM/ETM+, from MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. Results indicated that the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during two decades investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  4. Near-field thermal imaging of nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, A.; Wischnath, U. F.; Welker, J.; Huth, O.; Rüting, F.; Biehs, S.-A.

    2008-11-01

    We show that a near-field scanning thermal microscope, which essentially detects the local density of states of the thermally excited electromagnetic modes at nanometer distances from some material, can be employed for nanoscale imaging of structures on that material's surface. This finding is explained theoretically by an approach which treats the surface structure perturbatively.

  5. Infrared Thermal Imaging as a Tool in University Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a valuable tool in physics education at the university level. It can help to visualize and thereby enhance understanding of physical phenomena from mechanics, thermal physics, electromagnetism, optics and radiation physics, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. We report on its use as lecture demonstrations, student…

  6. a Diagnostic Approach to Obtaining Planetary Boundary Layer Winds Using Satellite-Derived Thermal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Carol Lynn

    The feasibility of using satellite-derived thermal data to generate realistic synoptic-scale winds within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is examined. Diagnostic "modified Ekman" wind equations from the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) Boundary Layer Model are used to compute winds at seven levels within the PBL transition layer (50 m to 1600 m AGL). Satellite-derived winds based on 62 predawn (0921 GMT 19 April 1979) TIROS-N soundings are compared to similarly-derived wind fields based on 39 AVE-SESAME II rawinsonde (RAOB) soundings taken 2 h later. Actual wind fields are also used as a basis for comparison. Qualitative and statistical comparisons show that the Ekman winds from both sources are in very close agreement, with an average vector correlation coefficient of 0.815. Best results are obtained at 300 m AGL. Satellite winds tend to be slightly weaker than their RAOB counterparts and exhibit a greater degree of cross-isobaric flow. The modified Ekman winds show a significant improvement over geostrophic values at levels nearest the surface. Horizontal moisture divergence, moisture advection, velocity divergence and relative vorticity are computed at 300 m AGL using satellite-derived winds and moisture data. Results show excellent agreement with corresponding RAOB-derived values. Areas of horizontal moisture convergence, velocity convergence, and positive vorticity are nearly coincident and align in regions which later develop intense convection. Vertical motion at 1600 m AGL is computed using stepwise integration of the satellite winds through the PBL. Values and patterns are similar to those obtained using the RAOB-derived winds. Regions of maximum upward motion correspond with areas of greatest moisture convergence and the convection that later develops.

  7. Thermal imaging for current D&S priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Robert; Parsons, John F.

    2012-11-01

    Supplying thermal imagers for today's operational needs requires flexibility, responsiveness and ever reducing costs. This paper will use the latest thermal imager development in the Catherine range from Thales UK to address the technical interactions with such issues as modularity, re-use, regions of deployment and supply chain management. All this is in the context of the increasingly public operations and the pressures on validating performance especially when weapon aiming is involved.

  8. Image-guided thermal ablation with MR-based thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingming; Sun, Ziqi; Ng, Chin K

    2017-06-01

    Thermal ablation techniques such as radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and laser have been used as minimally invasive strategies for the treatment of variety of cancers. MR thermometry methods are readily available for monitoring thermal distribution and deposition in real time, leading to decrease of incidents of normal tissue damage around targeted lesion. HIFU and laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) are the two widely accepted tumor ablation techniques because of their compatibility with MR systems. MRI provides multiple temperature dependent parameters for thermal imaging, such as signal intensity, T1, T2, diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer, proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS, including phase imaging and spectroscopy) as well as frequency shift of temperature sensitive contrast agents. Absolute temperature mapping techniques, including both spectroscopic imaging using metabolites as a reference and phase imaging using fat as a reference, are immune to susceptibility effects and are not dependent on phase differences. These techniques are intrinsically more reliable than relative temperature measurement by phase mapping methods. If the limitation of low temporal and spatial resolution could be overcome, these methods may be preferred for MR-guided thermal ablation systems. As of today, the most popular MR thermal imaging method applied in tumor thermal ablation surgery is, however, still PRFS based phase mapping technique, which only provides relative temperature change and is prone to motion artifacts.

  9. Feature Extraction in Sequential Multimedia Images: with Applications in Satellite Images and On-line Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Li

    Multimedia data is increasingly important in scientific discovery and people's daily lives. Content of massive multimedia is often diverse and noisy, and motion between frames is sometimes crucial in analyzing those data. Among all, still images and videos are commonly used formats. Images are compact in size but do not contain motion information. Videos record motion but are sometimes too big to be analyzed. Sequential images, which are a set of continuous images with low frame rate, stand out because they are smaller than videos and still maintain motion information. This thesis investigates features in different types of noisy sequential images, and the proposed solutions that intelligently combined multiple features to successfully retrieve visual information from on-line videos and cloudy satellite images. The first task is detecting supraglacial lakes above ice sheet in sequential satellite images. The dynamics of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet deeply affect glacier movement, which is directly related to sea level rise and global environment change. Detecting lakes above ice is suffering from diverse image qualities and unexpected clouds. A new method is proposed to efficiently extract prominent lake candidates with irregular shapes, heterogeneous backgrounds, and in cloudy images. The proposed system fully automatize the procedure that track lakes with high accuracy. We further cooperated with geoscientists to examine the tracked lakes and found new scientific findings. The second one is detecting obscene content in on-line video chat services, such as Chatroulette, that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions. A big problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. Because of various obscene content and unstable qualities of videos capture by home web-camera, detecting misbehaving users is a highly challenging task. We propose SafeVchat, which is the first solution that achieves satisfactory

  10. NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series provides continuous measurements of the atmosphere and surface over the Western Hemisphere....

  11. NEPR World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  12. Crater Relaxation and Stereo Imaging of the Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Beyer, R. A.; Nimmo, F.; Roberts, J. H.; Robuchon, G.

    2010-12-01

    Crater relaxation has been used as a probe of subsurface temperature structure for over thirty years, both on terrestrial bodies and icy satellites. We are developing and testing two independent methods for processing stereo pairs to produce digital elevation models, to address how crater relaxation depends on crater diameter, geographic location, and stratigraphic position on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Our topographic profiles will then serve as input into two numerical models, one viscous and one viscoelastic, to allow us to probe the subsurface thermal profiles and relaxation histories of these satellites. We are constructing stereo topography from Galileo and Cassini image pairs using the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (Moratto et al. 2010), an automated stereogrammetry tool designed for processing planetary imagery captured from orbiting and landed robotic explorers on other planets. We will also be using the commercial program SOCET SET from BAE Systems (Miller and Walker 1993; 1995). Qualitatively, it is clear that there are large spatial variations in the degree of crater relaxation among Jupiter’s and Saturn’s satellites. However, our use of stereo topography will allow quantitative measures of crater relaxation (e.g. depth:diameter ratio or equivalent) to be derived. Such measures are essential to derive quantitative estimates of the heat fluxes responsible for this relaxation. Estimating how surface heat flux has varied with time provides critical constraints on satellite thermal (and orbital) evolution. Craters undergo viscous relaxation over time at a rate that depends on the temperature gradient and crater scale. We are investigating how the near-surface satellite heat flux varied in time and space, based on our crater relaxation observations. Once we have crater profiles from our DEMs, we use them as input to two theoretical approaches: a relatively simple (viscous) numerical model in which time-varying heat fluxes can be included, and

  13. Imaging thermal fields in nonlinear photoacoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshurko, V. B.

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the shape of a photoacoustic response in systems with a temperature-dependent thermal expansion coefficient (thermononlinear case) represents a wavelet transform of the spatial distribution of heat sources.

  14. Design of a nano-satellite demonstrator of an infrared imaging space interferometer: the HyperCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Vives, Sébastien; Rakotonimbahy, Eddy; Sarkar, Tanmoy; Tasnim Ava, Tanzila; Baccichet, Nicola; Savini, Giorgio; Swinyard, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The construction of a kilometer-baseline far infrared imaging interferometer is one of the big instrumental challenges for astronomical instrumentation in the coming decades. Recent proposals such as FIRI, SPIRIT, and PFI illustrate both science cases, from exo-planetary science to study of interstellar media and cosmology, and ideas for construction of such instruments, both in space and on the ground. An interesting option for an imaging multi-aperture interferometer with km baseline is the space-based hyper telescope (HT) where a giant, sparsely populated primary mirror is constituted of several free-flying satellites each carrying a mirror segment. All the segments point the same object and direct their part of the pupil towards a common focus where another satellite, containing recombiner optics and a detector unit, is located. In Labeyrie's [1] original HT concept, perfect phasing of all the segments was assumed, allowing snap-shot imaging within a reduced field of view and coronagraphic extinction of the star. However, for a general purpose observatory, image reconstruction using closure phase a posteriori image reconstruction is possible as long as the pupil is fully non-redundant. Such reconstruction allows for much reduced alignment tolerances, since optical path length control is only required to within several tens of wavelengths, rather than within a fraction of a wavelength. In this paper we present preliminary studies for such an instrument and plans for building a miniature version to be flown on a nano satellite. A design for recombiner optics is proposed, including a scheme for exit pupil re-organization, is proposed, indicating the focal plane satellite in the case of a km-baseline interferometer could be contained within a 1m3 unit. Different options for realization of a miniature version are presented, including instruments for solar observations in the visible and the thermal infrared and giant planet observations in the visible, and an

  15. An Image-Based Sensor System for Autonomous Rendez-Vous with Uncooperative Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Miravet, Carlos; Krouch, Eloise; del Cura, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper are described the image processing algorithms developed by SENER, Ingenieria y Sistemas to cope with the problem of image-based, autonomous rendez-vous (RV) with an orbiting satellite. The methods developed have a direct application in the OLEV (Orbital Life Extension Extension Vehicle) mission. OLEV is a commercial mission under development by a consortium formed by Swedish Space Corporation, Kayser-Threde and SENER, aimed to extend the operational life of geostationary telecommunication satellites by supplying them control, navigation and guidance services. OLEV is planned to use a set of cameras to determine the angular position and distance to the client satellite during the complete phases of rendez-vous and docking, thus enabling the operation with satellites not equipped with any specific navigational aid to provide support during the approach. The ability to operate with un-equipped client satellites significantly expands the range of applicability of the system under development, compar...

  16. Automatic target recognition using polarization-sensitive thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Cornell S. L.; Sadjadi, Firooz A.; Ferris, David D., Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The performance of automatic target recognition (ATR) systems using thermal infrared images is limited by the low contrast in intensity for terrestrial scenes. We are developing a thermal imaging technique where, in each image pixel, a combination of intensity and polarization data is captured simultaneously. In this paper, we demonstrate, using synthetic polarization images, that a combination of intensity and polarization data will significantly improve the performance of detection and classification functions in an ATR system. The images were generated using a ray tracing computer program, modified to calculate the polarization characteristics of thermal radiation emitted from surfaces. We developed novel polarization- sensitive target edge detection, segmentation, and recognition algorithms. A set of performance metrics for the evaluation showed that, for large ranges of viewing elevation and aspect angles, using a combination of polarization and intensity data significantly improves the performance of the algorithms over using only the intensity data.

  17. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  18. An airborne thematic thermal infrared and electro-optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhong; Shu, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS) and its potential applications. ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of advanced Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) - a broadband Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) and a four (4) band Multispectral Electro-Optical Sensor (MEOS) to approximate Landsat ETM+ bands 1,2,3,4, and 6, and LDCM bands 2,3,4,5, and 10+11. The airborne TIRS is 3-axis stabilized payload capable of providing 3D photogrammetric images with a 1,850 pixel swathwidth via pushbroom operation. MEOS has a total of 116 million simultaneous sensor counts capable of providing 3 cm spatial resolution multispectral orthophotos for continuous airborne mapping. ATTIREOIS is a complete standalone and easy-to-use portable imaging instrument for light aerial vehicle deployment. Its miniaturized backend data system operates all ATTIREOIS imaging sensor components, an INS/GPS, and an e-Gimbal™ Control Electronic Unit (ECU) with a data throughput of 300 Megabytes/sec. The backend provides advanced onboard processing, performing autonomous raw sensor imagery development, TIRS image track-recovery reconstruction, LWIR/VNIR multi-band co-registration, and photogrammetric image processing. With geometric optics and boresight calibrations, the ATTIREOIS data products are directly georeferenced with an accuracy of approximately one meter. A prototype ATTIREOIS has been configured. Its sample LWIR/EO image data will be presented. Potential applications of ATTIREOIS include: 1) Providing timely and cost-effective, precisely and directly georeferenced surface emissive and solar reflective LWIR/VNIR multispectral images via a private Google Earth Globe to enhance NASA's Earth science research capabilities; and 2) Underflight satellites to support satellite measurement calibration and validation observations.

  19. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V

    2013-09-01

    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters.

  20. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  1. Cassini Imaging of Auroral Emissions on the Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.; McEwen, A.; Porco, C.

    2001-05-01

    Cassini captured several sequences of images showing Io, Europa and Ganymede while the moons were eclipsed by Jupiter. Io was the best studied of the satellites, with 4 eclipses successfully recorded. Earlier eclipse imaging by Galileo (Geissler et al., Science 295, 870-874) had shown colorful atmospheric emissions from Io and raised questions concerning their temporal variability and the identity of the emitting species. With its high data rate and numerous filter combinations, Cassini was able to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge of Io's visible aurorae. Io's bright equatorial glows were detected at previously unknown wavelengths and were also seen in motion. One eclipse took place on 12/29/2000 while Io was far from the plasma torus center. The pair of equatorial glows near the sub-Jupiter and anti-Jupiter points appeared about equal in brightness and changed little in location or intensity over a two hour period. Io crossed the plasma torus center during the next eclipse on 1/01/2001, as it passed through System III magnetic longitudes from 250 to 303 degrees. The equatorial glows were seen to shift in latitude during this eclipse, tracking the tangent points of the jovian magnetic field lines. This behaviour is similar to that observed for ultraviolet and other atomic emissions, and confirms that these visible glows are powered by Birkeland currents connecting Io and Jupiter. The eclipse on 1/05/2001 provided the best spectral measurements of the aurorae. The equatorial glows were detected at near ultraviolet wavelengths, consistent with their interpretation as molecular SO2 emissions. More than 100 kR were recorded in the ISS UV3 filter (300-380 nm) along with a similar intensity in BL1 (290-500 nm), comparable to Galileo estimates. At least 50 kR were detected in UV2 images (265-330 nm). No detection was made in UV1 (235-280 nm), allowing us to place an upper limit of about 100 kR. A new detection of the equatorial glows was made in the IR1 band (670

  2. Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Lee, Jae-Hak; Kang, Yong Q

    2006-03-01

    The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28 degrees C in summer and 12 degrees C in winter. The DeltaT varied from 2 to 4 degrees C in winter and 2 degrees C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9 degrees C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5 degrees C during the flood tides and 3.5 degrees C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from

  3. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles L.; Costin, Laurence S.; Smith, Jody L.; Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  4. USING OF THE MULTITEMPORAL THERMAL INFRARED SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR NATURAL AREAS MAPPING (CASE OF MENDELEEV VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors examine the mountain group of Mendeleev volcano situated on the Kunashir island, Kuril archipelago, Russia. Ground observations were led to examine the vegetation cover of the area as well as its typical landscapes. The other type of used data is Landsat imagery. Images were combined into multitemporal thermal infrared and multispectral pictures, which were classified to reveal the heterogeneity of the study area. Ground observations and comparison of the classification results with landscape map derive that the multitemporal thermal infrared image classification result describes better the vegetation cover structure of the area and particularity of its typical landscapes distribution. It leads to the proposition that miltitemporal thermal infrared imagery can be used to refine landscape and vegetation cover contours. 

  5. Quantitative thermal diffusivity imaging of disbonds in thermal protective coatings using inductive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D. M.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    An inductive heating technique for making thermal diffusivity images of disbonds between thermal protective coatings and their substrates is presented. Any flaw in the bonding of the coating and the substrate shows as an area of lowered values in the diffusivity image. The benefits of the inductive heating approach lie in its ability to heat the conductive substrate without directly heating the dielectric coating. Results are provided for a series of samples with fabricated disbonds, for a range of coating thicknesses.

  6. Multi-Mode GF-3 Satellite Image Geometric Accuracy Verification Using the RPC Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoyang; Zhang, Guo; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Ruishan; Deng, Mingjun; Xu, Kai

    2017-09-01

    The GaoFen-3 (GF-3) satellite is the first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging satellite with a resolution up to 1 m in China. It is also the only SAR satellite of the High-Resolution Earth Observation System designed for civilian use. There are 12 different imaging models to meet the needs of different industry users. However, to use SAR satellite images for related applications, they must possess high geometric accuracy. In order to verify the geometric accuracy achieved by the different modes of GF-3 images, we analyze the SAR geometric error source and perform geometric correction tests based on the RPC model with and without ground control points (GCPs) for five imaging modes. These include the spotlight (SL), ultra-fine strip (UFS), Fine Strip I (FSI), Full polarized Strip I (QPSI), and standard strip (SS) modes. Experimental results show that the check point residuals are large and consistent without GCPs, but the root mean square error of the independent checkpoints for the case of four corner control points is better than 1.5 pixels, achieving a similar level of geometric positioning accuracy to that of international satellites. We conclude that the GF-3 satellite can be used for high-accuracy geometric processing and related industry applications.

  7. Satellite Image Edge Detection for Population Distribution Pattern Identification using Levelset with Morphological Filtering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsiti; Munandar, T. A.; Suhendar, A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Rohendi, D.

    2017-03-01

    Population distribution pattern is directly related with economic gap of a region. Analysis of population distribution pattern is usually performed by studying statistical data on population. This study aimed to analyze population distribution pattern using image analysis concept, i.e. using satellite images. Levelset and morphological image filtering methods were used to analyze images to see distribution pattern. The research result showed that Levelset and morphological image filtering could remove a lot of noises in analysis result images and form object edge contours very clearly. The detected object contours were used as references to recognize population distribution pattern based on satellite image analysis. The pattern made based on the research result didn’t show optimal result because Levelset performed image segmentation based on the contours of the analyzed objects. Other segmentation methods should be combined with it to produce clearer population distribution pattern.

  8. Synthetic vision using polarization-sensitive thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Cornell S. L.; Fleming, David L.; Harvey, W. A.; Torok, E. J.; Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1996-05-01

    Landing of aircraft in inclement weather and taxiing operation in the presence of copious obstacles is a major issues in air traffic control for both military and civilian aviation. Onboard sensors are needed to penetrate smoke, fog, and haze and to provide enough resolution for the automated detection and recognition of runways and obstacles. The performance of automatic target recognition (ATR) systems using thermal infrared (FLIR) images is limited by the low contrast in intensity for terrestrial scenes. We are developing a thermal imaging technique where, in each image pixel, a combination of intensity and polarization data is captured simultaneously. Images of polarization have useful contrast for different surface orientations. This contrast should facilitate image segmentation and classification of objects. In this paper, we will describe a combination of two innovative technologies: a polarization-sensitive thermal imaging sensor and a suite of polarimetric specific automatic object detection and recognition algorithms. The sensor has been able to capture polarization data from thermal emissions of automobiles. Surface orientations can be measured in the same image frame as temperature distribution. For the evaluation of the algorithms a set of performance metrics will be defined. We will discuss our evaluation of the algorithms on synthetic images as would be captured with the polarization-sensitive sensor. We will compare the polarimetric specific ATR performance with the performance of conventional FLIR-based ATR.

  9. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, van Jaap J.; Baal, van Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; Heijden, van der Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the ap

  10. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes that are at significantly finer spatial scales. Consequently, thermal sharpening techniques have been developed to sharpen TIR imagery to shortwave band pixel resolutions, which are often fine enough for field-scale applications. A classic thermal sharpening technique, TsHARP, uses a relationship between land surface temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI developed empirically at the TIR pixel resolution and applied at the NDVI pixel resolution. However, recent studies show that unique relationships between temperature and NDVI may only exist for a limited class of landscapes, with mostly green vegetation and homogeneous air and soil conditions. To extend application of thermal sharpening to more complex conditions, a new data mining sharpener (DMS technique is developed. The DMS approach builds regression trees between TIR band brightness temperatures and shortwave spectral reflectances based on intrinsic sample characteristics. A comparison of sharpening techniques applied over a rainfed agricultural area in central Iowa, an irrigated agricultural region in the Texas High Plains, and a heterogeneous naturally vegetated landscape in Alaska indicates that the DMS outperformed TsHARP in all cases. The artificial box-like patterns in LST generated by the TsHARP approach are greatly reduced using the DMS scheme, especially for areas containing irrigated crops, water bodies, thin clouds or terrain. While the DMS technique can provide fine resolution TIR imagery, there are limits to the sharpening ratios that can be reasonably implemented. Consequently, sharpening techniques cannot replace actual thermal band imagery at fine resolutions or missions that

  11. Autonomous Sub-Pixel Satellite Track Endpoint Determination for Space Based Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L M

    2011-03-07

    An algorithm for determining satellite track endpoints with sub-pixel resolution in spaced-based images is presented. The algorithm allows for significant curvature in the imaged track due to rotation of the spacecraft capturing the image. The motivation behind the subpixel endpoint determination is first presented, followed by a description of the methodology used. Results from running the algorithm on real ground-based and simulated spaced-based images are shown to highlight its effectiveness.

  12. Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

  13. The Fundamentals of Thermal Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-10

    of Small Craft in Destin, Florida Coastal Waters for Maritime Search and Rescue," F. Zegel, W. Stump, S. Rodak , and P. Stamoulas, NV&EOL Report, July...74 (Unclassified). 2-4 "Thermal Signature Measurements of Four US Army Field Portable Power Generators," S. Rodak , F. Zegel and W. Stump, NV&EOL

  14. Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, S K; Lawson, S A

    2013-08-01

    An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples.

  15. Chromatic Image Analysis For Quantitative Thermal Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromatic image analysis system (CIAS) developed for use in noncontact measurements of temperatures on aerothermodynamic models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Based on concept of temperature coupled to shift in color spectrum for optical measurement. Video camera images fluorescence emitted by phosphor-coated model at two wavelengths. Temperature map of model then computed from relative brightnesses in video images of model at those wavelengths. Eliminates need for intrusive, time-consuming, contact temperature measurements by gauges, making it possible to map temperatures on complex surfaces in timely manner and at reduced cost.

  16. Fusion of Night Vision and Thermal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    A, mapA ]=imread(fullfile(path_nv, img_nv)); % read image and stores in matrix A [a1,a2,a3]= size(A...If image is rgb format convert to grayscale if isequal(a3,3) G1 = rgb2gray(A); [A, mapA ] = gray2ind(G1,256... mapA ]=imread(fullfile(path_nv, img_nv)); % read image and stores in matrix A [a1,a2,a3]= size(A

  17. Thermal image filtering by bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Bogdan-Mihai; Vizireanu, Constantin-Radu; Fratu, Octavian; Mara, Constantin; Vizireanu, Dragos-Nicolae; Preda, Radu; Gavriloaia, Gheorghe

    2015-02-01

    The abnormal function of cells can be detected by anatomic or physiological registrations. Most of modern approaches, as ultrasound, RMN or CT, show anatomic parametric modifications of tissues or organs. They highlight areas with a larger diameter 1 cm. In the case of skin or superficial cancers, local temperature is different, and it can be put out by thermal imager. Medical imaging is a leading role in modern diagnosis for abnormal or normal tissues or organs. Some information has to be improved for a better diagnosis by reducing or removing some unwanted information like noise affecting image texture. The traditional technologies for medical image enhancement use spatial or frequency domain methods, but whole image processing will hide both partial and specific information for human signals. A particular kind of medical images is represented by thermal imaging. Recently, these images were used for skin or superficial cancers diagnosis, but very clear outlines of certain alleged affected areas need to be shown. Histogram equalization cannot highlights the edges and control the effects of enhancement. A new filtering method was introduced by Huang by using the empirical mode decomposition, EMD. An improved filtering method for thermal images, based on EMD, is presented in this paper, and permits to analyze nonlinear and non-stationary data by the adaptive decomposition into intrinsic mode surfaces. The results, evaluated by SNR ratios, are compared with other filtering methods.

  18. An Autonomous System to Take Angular Thermal-Infrared Measurements for Validating Satellite Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Niclòs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous system for field land surface temperature (LST measurements taken at different observation angles was developed to be deployed easily at any conventional meteorological tower station. The system permits ground-truth data to be acquired on a continuous basis, and angularly scans land and sky hemispheres with a single thermal-infrared (TIR radiometer. This paper describes the autonomous angular system and the methodology to assess ground-truth LST and relative-to-nadir emissivity data from system measurements. Ground-truth LSTs were used to validate satellite-retrieved LST products at two experimental sites (rice crop and shrubland areas. The relative-to-nadir emissivity values were used to analyze the anisotropy of surface emissive properties over thermally-homogeneous covers. The EOS-MODIS MOD11_L2/MYD11_L2 LST product was evaluated and shown to work within expected uncertainties (<2.0 K when tested against the system data. A slight underestimation of around −0.15 K was observed, which became greater for the off-nadir observation angles at the shrubland site. The system took angular measurements for the different seasonal homogeneous covers at the rice crop site. These measurements showed emissivity angular anisotropies, which were in good agreement with previously published data. The dual-view ENVISAT-AATSR data reproduced them, and revealed that the system data collected for thermally-homogeneous surfaces could be used to test future satellite TIR sensors with multi-angular or bi-angular capabilities, like the forthcoming SLSTR on board Copernicus Sentinel-3A.

  19. Wildfire monitoring using satellite images, ontologies and linked geospatial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyzirakos, K.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Garbis, G.; Nikolaou, C.; Bereta, K.; Papoutsis, I.; Herekakis, T.; Michail, D.; Koubarakis, M.; Kontoes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing technologies have allowed us to send an ever-increasing number of satellites in orbit around Earth. As a result, Earth Observation data archives have been constantly increasing in size in the last few years, and have become a valuable source of data for many scientific and

  20. Remote sensing place : Satellite images as visual spatial imaginaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David

    How do people come to know the world? How do they get a sense of place and space? Arguably, one of the ways in which they do this is through the practice of remote sensing, among which satellite imagery is one of the most widespread and potent tools of engaging, representing and constructing space.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  2. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  3. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC 3D BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION FROM THERMAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maset

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of 3D building reconstruction from thermal infrared (TIR images. We show that a commercial Computer Vision software can be used to automatically orient sequences of TIR images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and to generate 3D point clouds, without requiring any GNSS/INS data about position and attitude of the images nor camera calibration parameters. Moreover, we propose a procedure based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm to create a model that combines high resolution and geometric accuracy of RGB images with the thermal information deriving from TIR images. The process can be carried out entirely by the aforesaid software in a simple and efficient way.

  4. Photogrammetric 3d Building Reconstruction from Thermal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maset, E.; Fusiello, A.; Crosilla, F.; Toldo, R.; Zorzetto, D.

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of 3D building reconstruction from thermal infrared (TIR) images. We show that a commercial Computer Vision software can be used to automatically orient sequences of TIR images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and to generate 3D point clouds, without requiring any GNSS/INS data about position and attitude of the images nor camera calibration parameters. Moreover, we propose a procedure based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to create a model that combines high resolution and geometric accuracy of RGB images with the thermal information deriving from TIR images. The process can be carried out entirely by the aforesaid software in a simple and efficient way.

  5. Experimental design for the evaluation of high-T(sub c) superconductive thermal bridges in a sensor satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine P.; Lee, Kasey M.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared sensor satellites, which consist of cryogenic infrared sensor detectors, electrical instrumentation, and data acquisition systems, are used to monitor the conditions of the earth's upper atmosphere in order to evaluate its present and future changes. Currently, the electrical connections (instrumentation), which act as thermal bridges between the cryogenic infrared sensor and the significantly warmer data acquisition unit of the sensor satellite system, constitute a significant portion of the heat load on the cryogen. As a part of extending the mission life of the sensor satellite system, the researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) are evaluating the effectiveness of replacing the currently used manganin wires with high-temperature superconductive (HTS) materials as the electrical connections (thermal bridges). In conjunction with the study being conducted at NASA-LaRC, the proposed research is to design a space experiment to determine the thermal savings on a cryogenic subsystem when manganin leads are replaced by HTS leads printed onto a substrate with a low thermal conductivity, and to determine the thermal conductivities of HTS materials. The experiment is designed to compare manganin wires with two different types of superconductors on substrates by determining the heat loss by the thermal bridges and providing temperature measurements for the estimation of thermal conductivity. A conductive mathematical model has been developed and used as a key tool in the design process and subsequent analysis.

  6. Thermal Imaging Performance of TIR Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takehiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Demura, Hirohide; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Sakatani, Naoya; Horikawa, Yamato; Senshu, Hiroki; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2017-07-01

    The thermal infrared imager (TIR) is a thermal infrared camera onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. TIR will perform thermography of a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and estimate its surface physical properties, such as surface thermal emissivity ɛ , surface roughness, and thermal inertia Γ, through remote in-situ observations in 2018 and 2019. In prelaunch tests of TIR, detector calibrations and evaluations, along with imaging demonstrations, were performed. The present paper introduces the experimental results of a prelaunch test conducted using a large-aperture collimator in conjunction with TIR under atmospheric conditions. A blackbody source, controlled at constant temperature, was measured using TIR in order to construct a calibration curve for obtaining temperatures from observed digital data. As a known thermal emissivity target, a sandblasted black almite plate warmed from the back using a flexible heater was measured by TIR in order to evaluate the accuracy of the calibration curve. As an analog target of a C-type asteroid, carbonaceous chondrites (50 mm × 2 mm in thickness) were also warmed from the back and measured using TIR in order to clarify the imaging performance of TIR. The calibration curve, which was fitted by a specific model of the Planck function, allowed for conversion to the target temperature within an error of 1°C (3σ standard deviation) for the temperature range of 30 to 100°C. The observed temperature of the black almite plate was consistent with the temperature measured using K-type thermocouples, within the accuracy of temperature conversion using the calibration curve when the temperature variation exhibited a random error of 0.3 °C (1σ ) for each pixel at a target temperature of 50°C. TIR can resolve the fine surface structure of meteorites, including cracks and pits with the specified field of view of 0.051°C (328 × 248 pixels). There were spatial distributions with a temperature variation of 3°C at the setting

  7. Thermal Imaging Performance of TIR Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takehiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Demura, Hirohide; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Sakatani, Naoya; Horikawa, Yamato; Senshu, Hiroki; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2017-03-01

    The thermal infrared imager (TIR) is a thermal infrared camera onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. TIR will perform thermography of a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and estimate its surface physical properties, such as surface thermal emissivity ɛ , surface roughness, and thermal inertia Γ, through remote in-situ observations in 2018 and 2019. In prelaunch tests of TIR, detector calibrations and evaluations, along with imaging demonstrations, were performed. The present paper introduces the experimental results of a prelaunch test conducted using a large-aperture collimator in conjunction with TIR under atmospheric conditions. A blackbody source, controlled at constant temperature, was measured using TIR in order to construct a calibration curve for obtaining temperatures from observed digital data. As a known thermal emissivity target, a sandblasted black almite plate warmed from the back using a flexible heater was measured by TIR in order to evaluate the accuracy of the calibration curve. As an analog target of a C-type asteroid, carbonaceous chondrites ( 50 mm × 2 mm in thickness) were also warmed from the back and measured using TIR in order to clarify the imaging performance of TIR. The calibration curve, which was fitted by a specific model of the Planck function, allowed for conversion to the target temperature within an error of 1 ∘C ( 3σ standard deviation) for the temperature range of 30 to 100 ∘C. The observed temperature of the black almite plate was consistent with the temperature measured using K-type thermocouples, within the accuracy of temperature conversion using the calibration curve when the temperature variation exhibited a random error of 0.3 ∘C ( 1σ ) for each pixel at a target temperature of 50 ∘C. TIR can resolve the fine surface structure of meteorites, including cracks and pits with the specified field of view of 0.051∘ ( 328 × 248 pixels). There were spatial distributions with a temperature variation of 3

  8. All sky imaging observations in visible and infrared waveband for validation of satellite cloud and aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Daren; Huo, Juan; Zhang, W.; Liu, J.

    A series of satellite sensors in visible and infrared wavelengths have been successfully operated on board a number of research satellites, e.g. NOAA/AVHRR, the MODIS onboard Terra and Aqua, etc. A number of cloud and aerosol products are produced and released in recent years. However, the validation of the product quality and accuracy are still a challenge to the atmospheric remote sensing community. In this paper, we suggest a ground based validation scheme for satellite-derived cloud and aerosol products by using combined visible and thermal infrared all sky imaging observations as well as surface meteorological observations. In the scheme, a visible digital camera with a fish-eye lens is used to continuously monitor the all sky with the view angle greater than 180 deg. The digital camera system is calibrated for both its geometry and radiance (broad blue, green, and red band) so as to a retrieval method can be used to detect the clear and cloudy sky spatial distribution and their temporal variations. A calibrated scanning thermal infrared thermometer is used to monitor the all sky brightness temperature distribution. An algorithm is developed to detect the clear and cloudy sky as well as cloud base height by using sky brightness distribution and surface temperature and humidity as input. Based on these composite retrieval of clear and cloudy sky distribution, it can be used to validate the satellite retrievals in the sense of real-simultaneous comparison and statistics, respectively. What will be presented in this talk include the results of the field observations and comparisons completed in Beijing (40 deg N, 116.5 deg E) in year 2003 and 2004. This work is supported by NSFC grant No. 4002700, and MOST grant No 2001CCA02200

  9. The First Historic Eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from Thermal and UV Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealing, C. R.; Carn, S. A.; Harris, A. J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In June 2011, the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, took place at the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia. This eruption was the largest in what could be considered an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence, and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study were limited. The purpose of this study is to explore the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement using predominantly free, publicly available satellite data. We use MODIS and OMI data to examine rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission, and quantify the amount of erupted products. We also examine published images from other satellites, such as ALI and SEVIRI in order to understand the temporal evolution of the eruption. Synthesizing these data, we then attempt to infer the mechanisms through which the eruption progressed. Examination of satellite data reveals a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This was followed by a period of rapid effusion, producing a ~17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ~22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. This eruption of Nabro continued for nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. This type of work highlights the effectiveness and importance of accessible satellite remote sensing data for the study of active volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  10. Higher resolution satellite remote sensing and the impact on image mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Allen H.; Thormodsgard, June M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of civil land remote sensing satellite data are presenting new opportunities for image mapping applications. The U.S. Geological Survey's experimental satellite image mapping program is evolving toward larger scale image map products with increased information content as a result of improved image processing techniques and increased resolution. Thematic mapper data are being used to produce experimental image maps at 1:100,000 scale that meet established U.S. and European map accuracy standards. Availability of high quality, cloud-free, 30-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper sensor, along with 10-meter ground resolution panchromatic and 20-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the recently launched French SPOT satellite, present new cartographic and image processing challenges. The need to fully exploit these higher resolution data increases the complexity of processing the images into large-scale image maps. The removal of radiometric artifacts and noise prior to geometric correction can be accomplished by using a variety of image processing filters and transforms. Sensor modeling and image restoration techniques allow maximum retention of spatial and radiometric information. An optimum combination of spectral information and spatial resolution can be obtained by merging different sensor types. These processing techniques are discussed and examples are presented. 

  11. Higher resolution satellite remote sensing and the impact on image mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Allen H.; Thormodsgard, June M.

    Recent advances in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of civil land remote sensing satellite data are presenting new opportunities for image mapping applications. The U.S. Geological Survey's experimental satellite image mapping program is evolving toward larger scale image map products with increased information content as a result of improved image processing techniques and increased resolution. Thematic mapper data are being used to produce experimental image maps at 1:100,000 scale that meet established U.S. and European map accuracy standards. Availability of high quality, cloud-free, 30-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper sensor, along with 10-meter ground resolution panchromatic and 20-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the recently launched French SPOT satellite, present new cartographic and image processing challenges. The need to fully exploit these higher resolution data increases the complexity of processing the images into large-scale image maps. The removal of radiometric artifacts and noise prior to geometric correction can be accomplished by using a variety of image processing filters and transforms. Sensor modeling and image restoration techniques allow maximum retention of spatial and radiometric information. An optimum combination of spectral information and spatial resolution can be obtained by merging different sensor types. These processing techniques are discussed and examples are presented.

  12. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION OF COVERAGE CATALOGUES OF ASTER SATELLITE IMAGE FOR URBAN AREAS OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  13. Pyroelectric sensor arrays for detection and thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Penetration of uncooled (room temperature operation) thermal detector arrays into high volume commercial products depends on very low cost technology linked to high volume production. A series of innovative and revolutionary developments is now allowing arrays based on bulk pyroelectric ceramic material to enter the consumer marketplace providing everything from sophisticated security and people monitoring devices to hand held thermal imagers and visual IR thermometers for preventative maintenance and building inspection. Although uncooled resistive microbolometer detector technology has captured market share in higher cost thermal imager products we describe a pyroelectric ceramic technology which does not need micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and vacuum packaging to give good performance. This is a breakthrough for very low cost sensors and imagers. Recent developments in a variety of products based on pyroelectric ceramic arrays are described and their performance and applicability compared and contrasted with competing technologies.

  14. THERMAL IMAGING STUDY OF SCALAR TRANSPORT IN SHALLOW WAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Dong-fang; CHONG K. J. Y.; THUSYANTHANN. I.; TANG Hong-wu

    2012-01-01

    The thermal imaging technique relies on the usage of infrared signal to detect the temperature field.Using temperature as a flow tracer,thermography is used to investigate the scalar transport in the shallow-water wake generated by an emergent circular cylinder.Thermal imaging is demonstrated to be a good quantitative flow visualization technique for studying turbulent mixing phenomena in shallow waters.A key advantage of the thermal imaging method over other scalar measurement techniques,such as the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Planar Concentration Analysis (PCA) methods,is that it involves a very simple experimental setup.The dispersion characteristics captured with this technique are found to be similar to past studies with traditional measurement techniques.

  15. The Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS): the future of hyperspectral satellite sensors. Imagery of Oostende coastal and inland waters

    OpenAIRE

    B. De Mol; Ruddick, K

    2004-01-01

    The gap between airborne imaging spectroscopy and traditional multi spectral satellite sensors is decreasing thanks to a new generation of satellite sensors of which CHRIS mounted on the small and low-cost PROBA satellite is the prototype. Although image acquisition and analysis are still in a test phase, the high spatial and spectral resolution and pointability have proved their potential. Because of the high resolution small features, which were before only visible on airborne images, becom...

  16. Adaptive Optics for Satellite and Debris Imaging in LEO and GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, M.; Bennet, F.; Zovaro, A.; Riguat, F.; Piatrou, P.; Korkiakoski, V.; Smith, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University has developed and Adaptive Optics (AO) system for satellite and debris imaging in low Earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary orbit (GEO). In LEO the size, shape and orientation of objects will be measured with resolution of 50 cm for objects at 800 km range at an 800 nm imaging wavelength. In GEO satellite position will be measured using precision astrometry of nearby stars. We use an AO system with a deformable mirror (DM) of 277 actuators and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 2 kHz. Imaging is performed at a rate of >30 Hz to reduce image blur due to tip-tilt and rotation. We use two imaging modes; a high resolution mode to obtain Nyquist sampled images and a acquisition mode with 75 arcsecond field of view to aid in finding targets.

  17. Biomass prediction model in maize based on satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Herbei; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of crops by satellite techniques is very useful in the context of precision agriculture, regarding crops management and agricultural production. The present study has evaluated the interrelationship between maize biomass production and satellite indices (NDVI and NDBR) during five development stages (BBCH code), highlighting different levels of correlation. Biomass production recorded was between 2.39±0.005 t ha-1 (12-13 BBCH code) and 51.92±0.028 t ha-1 (83-85 BBCH code), in relation to vegetation stages studied. Values of chlorophyll content ranged from 24.1±0.25 SPAD unit (12-13 BBCH code) to 58.63±0.47 SPAD unit (71-73 BBCH code), and the obtained satellite indices ranged from 0.035641±0.002 and 0.320839±0.002 for NDVI indices respectively 0.035095±0.034 and 0.491038±0.018 in the case of NDBR indices. By regression analysis it was possible to obtain predictive models of biomass in maize based on the satellite indices, in statistical accurate conditions. The most accurate prediction was possible based on NDBR index (R2 = 0.986, F = 144.23, p<0.001, RMSE = 1.446), then based on chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.834, F = 16.14, p = 0.012, RMSE = 6.927) and NDVI index (R2 = 0.682, F = 3.869, p = 0.116, RMSE = 12.178).

  18. Updating Object for GIS Database Information Using High Resolution Satellite Images: a Case Study Zonguldak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, M.; Arca, D.; Bayik, Ç.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays Geographic Information Systems (GIS) uses Remote Sensing (RS) data for a lot of applications. One of the application areas is the updating of the GIS database using high resolution imagery. In this context high resolution satellite imagery data is very important for many applications areas today's and future. And also, high resolution satellite imagery data will be used in many applications for different purposes. Information systems needs to high resolution imagery data for updating. Updating is very important component for the any of the GIS systems. One of this area will be updated and kept alive GIS database information. High resolution satellite imagery is used with different data base which serve map information via internet and different aims of information systems applications in future topographic and cartographic information systems will very important in our country in this sense use of the satellite images will be unavoidable. In this study explain to how is acquired to satellite images and how is use this images in information systems for object and roads. Firstly, pan-sharpened two of the IKONOS's images have been produced by fusion of high resolution PAN and MS images using PCI Geomatica v9.1 software package. Automatic object extraction has been made using eCognition v4.0.6. On the other hand, these objects have been manually digitized from high resolution images using ArcGIS v9.3. software package. Application section of in this study, satellite images data will be compared each other and GIS objects and road database. It is also determined which data is useful in Geographic Information Systems. Finally, this article explains that integration of remote sensing technology and GIS applications.

  19. Night vision imaging system design, integration and verification in spacecraft vacuum thermal test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Gong, Zhe; Li, Xiyuan; Pei, Yifei; Bai, Tingzhu; Zhen, Haijing

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of spacecraft vacuum thermal test are to characterize the thermal control systems of the spacecraft and its component in its cruise configuration and to allow for early retirement of risks associated with mission-specific and novel thermal designs. The orbit heat flux is simulating by infrared lamp, infrared cage or electric heater. As infrared cage and electric heater do not emit visible light, or infrared lamp just emits limited visible light test, ordinary camera could not operate due to low luminous density in test. Moreover, some special instruments such as satellite-borne infrared sensors are sensitive to visible light and it couldn't compensate light during test. For improving the ability of fine monitoring on spacecraft and exhibition of test progress in condition of ultra-low luminous density, night vision imaging system is designed and integrated by BISEE. System is consist of high-gain image intensifier ICCD camera, assistant luminance system, glare protect system, thermal control system and computer control system. The multi-frame accumulation target detect technology is adopted for high quality image recognition in captive test. Optical system, mechanical system and electrical system are designed and integrated highly adaptable to vacuum environment. Molybdenum/Polyimide thin film electrical heater controls the temperature of ICCD camera. The results of performance validation test shown that system could operate under vacuum thermal environment of 1.33×10-3Pa vacuum degree and 100K shroud temperature in the space environment simulator, and its working temperature is maintains at 5° during two-day test. The night vision imaging system could obtain video quality of 60lp/mm resolving power.

  20. Satellite Imagery Cadastral Features Extractions using Image Processing Algorithms: A Viable Option for Cadastral Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Babawuro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are used for feature extraction among other functions. They are used to extract linear features, like roads, etc. These linear features extractions are important operations in computer vision. Computer vision has varied applications in photogrammetric, hydrographic, cartographic and remote sensing tasks. The extraction of linear features or boundaries defining the extents of lands, land covers features are equally important in Cadastral Surveying. Cadastral Surveying is the cornerstone of any Cadastral System. A two dimensional cadastral plan is a model which represents both the cadastral and geometrical information of a two dimensional labeled Image. This paper aims at using and widening the concepts of high resolution Satellite imagery data for extracting representations of cadastral boundaries using image processing algorithms, hence minimizing the human interventions. The Satellite imagery is firstly rectified hence establishing the satellite imagery in the correct orientation and spatial location for further analysis. We, then employ the much available Satellite imagery to extract the relevant cadastral features using computer vision and image processing algorithms. We evaluate the potential of using high resolution Satellite imagery to achieve Cadastral goals of boundary detection and extraction of farmlands using image processing algorithms. This method proves effective as it minimizes the human demerits associated with the Cadastral surveying method, hence providing another perspective of achieving cadastral goals as emphasized by the UN cadastral vision. Finally, as Cadastral science continues to look to the future, this research aimed at the analysis and getting insights into the characteristics and potential role of computer vision algorithms using high resolution satellite imagery for better digital Cadastre that would provide improved socio economic development.

  1. Object Based and Pixel Based Classification Using Rapideye Satellite Imager of ETI-OSA, Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Oluwafunmilayo Makinde; Ayobami Taofeek Salami; James Bolarinwa Olaleye; Oluwapelumi Comfort Okewusi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out to find an appropriate method to classify the remote sensing data. Traditional classification approaches are all pixel-based, and do not utilize the spatial information within an object which is an important source of information to image classification. Thus, this study compared the pixel based and object based classification algorithms using RapidEye satellite image of Eti-Osa LGA, Lagos. In the object-oriented approach, the image was segmented to homog...

  2. Influence of topography on lava flow quantification from satellite thermal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakšek, Klemen; Pick, Leonie; Coppola, Diego; Hort, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Satellite images are an accessible data source for monitoring the heat emission from lava flows during effusive eruptions. Their evaluation regarding the size of a flow and volcanic radiant power (VRP) assists the hazard assessment. VRP is a most important parameter for estimation of lava discharge rate. Thus it is important to correct its value for all possible systematic influences. As several volcanoes have steep slopes, we propose a simple topographic correction of VRP observations. It is based on the corrected size of a pixel area. The proposed correction was first tested in a laboratory experiment, where we simulated a volcanic feature by an electrical heating alloy of 0.5 mm diameter installed on a plywood panel. Two thermographic cameras record images of the artificial heat source in wavebands comparable to those available from satellite data. The influence of the slope was in the laboratory setup reduced by a factor of five. The correction algorithm has been applied also to MODIS data of Etna's 2008-2009 eruption. The time series of corrected results contain significantly less noise than the original data.

  3. Developing an efficient technique for satellite image denoising and resolution enhancement for improving classification accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaswamy, Sree Sharmila; Kadarkarai, Ramar; Thangaswamy, Sree Renga Raja

    2013-01-01

    Satellite images are corrupted by noise during image acquisition and transmission. The removal of noise from the image by attenuating the high-frequency image components removes important details as well. In order to retain the useful information, improve the visual appearance, and accurately classify an image, an effective denoising technique is required. We discuss three important steps such as image denoising, resolution enhancement, and classification for improving accuracy in a noisy image. An effective denoising technique, hybrid directional lifting, is proposed to retain the important details of the images and improve visual appearance. The discrete wavelet transform based interpolation is developed for enhancing the resolution of the denoised image. The image is then classified using a support vector machine, which is superior to other neural network classifiers. The quantitative performance measures such as peak signal to noise ratio and classification accuracy show the significance of the proposed techniques.

  4. Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Weak snow of interest to avalanche forecasting often forms and changes as thin layers. Thermometers, the current field technology for measuring the temperature gradients across such layers – and for thus estimating the expected vapour flux and future type of crystal metamorphism – are difficult to use at distances shorter than 1 cm. In contrast, a thermal imager can provide thousands of simultaneous temperature measurements across small distances with better accuracy. However, a thermal imager only senses the exposed surface, complicating its methods for access and accuracy of buried temperatures. This paper presents methods for exposing buried layers on pit walls and using a thermal imager to measure temperatures on these walls, correct for lens effects with snow, adjust temperature gradients, adjust time exposed, and calculate temperature gradients over millimetre distances. We find lens error on temperature gradients to be on the order of 0.03 °C between image centre and corners. We find temperature gradient change over time to usually decrease – as expected with atmospheric equalization as a strong effect. Case studies including thermal images and visual macro photographs of crystals, collected during the 2010–2011 winter, demonstrate large temperature differences over millimetre-scale distances that are consistent with observed kinetic metamorphism. Further study is needed to use absolute temperatures independently of supporting gradient data.

  5. Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Weak snow of interest to avalanche forecasting often forms and changes as thin layers. Thermometers, the current field technology for measuring the temperature gradients across such layers – and for thus estimating the expected vapour flux and future type of crystal metamorphism – are difficult to use at distances shorter than 1 cm. In contrast, a thermal imager can provide thousands of simultaneous temperature measurements across small distances with better accuracy. However, a thermal imager only senses the exposed surface, complicating its methods for access and accuracy with respect to buried temperatures. This paper presents methods for exposing buried layers on pit walls and using a thermal imager to measure temperatures on these walls, correct for lens effects, adjust temperature gradients adjust time exposed, and calculate temperature gradients over millimetre distances. We find lens error on temperature gradients to be on the order of 0.03 °C between image centre and corners. We find temperature gradient change over time to usually decrease – as expected with atmospheric equalization as a strong effect. Case studies including thermal images and visual macro photographs of crystals, collected during the 2010–2011 winter, demonstrate large temperature differences over millimetre-scale distances that are consistent with observed kinetic metamorphism.

  6. Automatic Open Space Area Extraction and Change Detection from High Resolution Urban Satellite Images

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithm to find out the open space area from the high resolution urban satellite imagery, and to detect changes from the extracted open space area during the period 2003, 2006 and 2008. This automatic extraction and change detection algorithm uses some filters, segmentation and grouping that are applied on satellite images. The resultant images may be used to calculate the total available open space area and the built up area. It may also be used to compare the difference between present and past open space area using historical urban satellite images of that same projection, which is an important geo spatial data management application.

  7. Influence of probe-sample temperature difference on thermal mapping contrast in scanning thermal microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak-Bałata, Anna; Juszczyk, Justyna; Trefon-Radziejewska, Dominika; Bodzenta, Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of a temperature difference through a probe-sample contact on thermal contrast in Scanning Thermal Microscopy imaging. A variety of combinations of temperature differences in the probe-sample system were first analyzed based on an electro-thermal finite element model. The numerical analysis included cooling the sample, as well as heating the sample and the probe. Due to the simplicity in the implementation, experimental verification involved modifying the standard imaging technique by heating the sample. Experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 298 K and 328 K. Contrast in thermal mapping was improved for a low probe current with a heated sample.

  8. Land cover mapping based on random forest classification of multitemporal spectral and thermal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisavi, Vahid; Homayouni, Saeid; Yazdi, Ahmad Maleknezhad; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Thematic mapping of complex landscapes, with various phenological patterns from satellite imagery, is a particularly challenging task. However, supplementary information, such as multitemporal data and/or land surface temperature (LST), has the potential to improve the land cover classification accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, in order to map land covers, we evaluated the potential of multitemporal Landsat 8's spectral and thermal imageries using a random forest (RF) classifier. We used a grid search approach based on the out-of-bag (OOB) estimate of error to optimize the RF parameters. Four different scenarios were considered in this research: (1) RF classification of multitemporal spectral images, (2) RF classification of multitemporal LST images, (3) RF classification of all multitemporal LST and spectral images, and (4) RF classification of selected important or optimum features. The study area in this research was Naghadeh city and its surrounding region, located in West Azerbaijan Province, northwest of Iran. The overall accuracies of first, second, third, and fourth scenarios were equal to 86.48, 82.26, 90.63, and 91.82%, respectively. The quantitative assessments of the results demonstrated that the most important or optimum features increase the class separability, while the spectral and thermal features produced a more moderate increase in the land cover mapping accuracy. In addition, the contribution of the multitemporal thermal information led to a considerable increase in the user and producer accuracies of classes with a rapid temporal change behavior, such as crops and vegetation.

  9. Factors that affect print quality in thermal dye transfer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel J. P.; McInerney, Elizabeth

    1995-04-01

    Thermal dye transfer (TDT) imaging has established itself as the state- of-the-art process for high quality, continuous tone, nonimpact printing. Imaging quality from this process rivals conventional silver halide photography and exceeds other nonimpact printing technologies. Because this output appears to be virtually indistinguishable from photographic prints, there has been an expectation that all the quality attributes of silver halide photography are embodied in a TDT print. However, there are many significant differences that affect output quality between these two technologies. These differences are primarily in color gamut, print artifacts, Dmin, grain/sharpness, and image stability. The range of colors reproducible by a color, hard copy device, known as its color gamut, is dictated primarily by the image- forming dyes used by the device. The size and shape of a device's gamut is controlled by the spectral density distributions of these image forming dyes, the Dmin of the receiver base, the Dmax of each dye, the amount of light scatter, and the spectral distribution of the viewing illuminant. The spectral density distributions of dyes also have an impact on illuminant sensitivity, which is a predictor of how much the color balance of a print will change with a change in illuminant. By determining and then using characteristic curves for various image- forming dyes, we have been able to calculate and compare the color gamuts and illuminant sensitivity of TDT imaging with other technologies (color monitor and silver halide photography, for example). The differences we have found can have a significant impact on output quality, depending upon the application. Compared to conventional photography, thermal dye transfer prints have traditionally had inferior light stability and resistance to damage from fingerprints. In addition, thermal dye transfer prints have been aggressively attacked by plasticized polyvinyl chloride sheets and folders commonly found in

  10. [Monitoring the thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant using satellite remote sensing data: modeling, and validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhao, Li-Min; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Wu, Chuan-Qing; Li, Jia-Guo; Shi, Ji-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant is a small-scale human activity, mornitoring of which requires high-frequency and high-spatial remote sensing data. The infrared scanner (IRS), on board of HJ-1B, has an infrared channel IRS4 with 300 m and 4-days as its spatial and temporal resolution. Remote sensing data aquired using IRS4 is an available source for mornitoring thermal plume. Retrieval pattern for coastal sea surface temperature (SST) was built to monitor the thermal plume from nuclear power plant. The research area is located near Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), where synchronized validations were also implemented. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data was interpolated spatially and temporally. The interpolated data as well as surface weather conditions were subsequently employed into radiative transfer model for the atmospheric correction of IRS4 thermal image. A look-up-table (LUT) was built for the inversion between IRS4 channel radiance and radiometric temperature, and a fitted function was also built from the LUT data for the same purpose. The SST was finally retrieved based on those preprocessing procedures mentioned above. The bulk temperature (BT) of 84 samples distributed near GNPS was shipboard collected synchronically using salinity-temperature-deepness (CTD) instruments. The discrete sample data was surface interpolated and compared with the satellite retrieved SST. Results show that the average BT over the study area is 0.47 degrees C higher than the retrieved skin temperature (ST). For areas far away from outfall, the ST is higher than BT, with differences less than 1.0 degrees C. The main driving force for temperature variations in these regions is solar radiation. For areas near outfall, on the contrary, the retrieved ST is lower than BT, and greater differences between the two (meaning > 1.0 degrees C) happen when it gets closer to the outfall. Unlike the former case, the convective heat

  11. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Peter, Maria; Langer, Moritz; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD) in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1-2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2-3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of -0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures are modeled for the eastern part, which is an

  12. Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Dim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from satellite observations and those simulated by atmospheric models are compared. The models studied are the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM and the National Center for Environmental Protection/Department Of Energy (NCEP/DOE. The satellite observations are from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Terra/MODIS satellite. The simulations performed are obtained through a forward radiative transfer calculation procedure. The resulting radiances are transformed into the upper tropospheric brightness temperature (UTBT and relative humidity (UTRH. The discrepancies between the simulated data and the observations are analyzed. These analyses show that both the NICAM and the NCEP/DOE simulated UTBT and UTRH have comparable distribution patterns. However the simulations’ differences with the observations are generally lower with the NCEP/DOE than with the NICAM. The NCEP/DOE model outputs very often overestimate the UTBT and therefore present a drier upper troposphere. The impact of the lower troposphere instability (dry convection on the upper tropospheric moisture and the consequences on the models’ results are evaluated through a thunderstorm and moisture predictor (the K-stability index. The results obtained show a positive relation between the instability and the root mean square error (RMSE: observation versus models. The study of the impact of convective clouds shows that the area covered by these clouds increases with the

  13. Multifunctional Inorganic Nanoparticles: Recent Progress in Thermal Therapy and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondareddy Cherukula

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided therapies can be a useful tool to diagnose and treat the diseased tissue and they offer therapy and imaging using a single nanostructure. The present review mainly focuses on recent advances in the field of thermal therapy and imaging integrated with multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles. The main heating sources for heat-induced therapies are the surface plasmon resonance (SPR in the near infrared region and alternating magnetic fields (AMFs. The different families of inorganic nanoparticles employed for SPR- and AMF-based thermal therapies and imaging are described. Furthermore, inorganic nanomaterials developed for multimodal therapies with different and multi-imaging modalities are presented in detail. Finally, relevant clinical perspectives and the future scope of inorganic nanoparticles in image-guided therapies are discussed.

  14. Gemini Planet Imager Observational Calibrations VIII: Characterization and Role of Satellite Spots

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jason J; Graham, James R; Savransky, Dmitry; Ingraham, Patrick J; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Patience, Jennifer; De Rosa, Robert J; Bulger, Joanna; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall D; Thomas, Sandrine J; Sadakuni, Naru; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Pueyo, Laurent; Marois, Christian; Oppenheimer, Ben R; Kalas, Paul; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) combines extreme adaptive optics, an integral field spectrograph, and a high performance coronagraph to directly image extrasolar planets in the near-infrared. Because the coronagraph blocks most of the light from the star, it prevents the properties of the host star from being measured directly. Instead, satellite spots, which are created by diffraction from a square grid in the pupil plane, can be used to locate the star and extract its spectrum. We describe the techniques implemented into the GPI Data Reduction Pipeline to measure the properties of the satellite spots and discuss the precision of the reconstructed astrometry and spectrophotometry of the occulted star. We find the astrometric precision of the satellite spots in an $H$-band datacube to be $0.05$ pixels and is best when individual satellite spots have a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of $> 20$. In regards to satellite spot spectrophotometry, we find that the total flux from the satellite spots is stable to $\\sim 7\\...

  15. Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance (MAPTIP): Synopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Jensen, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The MAPTIP (Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance) experiment was organised as part of a project to assess atmospheric effects on the performance of electro-optical sensor systems in coastal areas. The main issue was the detection and identification of targets. The experiment took

  16. Infrared Thermal Imaging System on a Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Feng Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time.

  17. Coherent imaging with pseudo-thermal incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatti, A.; Bache, Morten; Magatti, D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate experimentally fundamental properties of coherent ghost imaging using spatially incoherent beams generated from a pseudo-thermal source. A complementarity between the coher- ence of the beams and the correlation between them is demonstrated by showing a complementarity between ghos...

  18. Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance (MAPTIP): Synopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Jensen, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The MAPTIP (Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance) experiment was organised as part of a project to assess atmospheric effects on the performance of electro-optical sensor systems in coastal areas. The main issue was the detection and identification of targets. The experiment took

  19. GPU Accelerated Automated Feature Extraction From Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Phani Tejaswi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The availability of large volumes of remote sensing data insists on higher degree of automation in featureextraction, making it a need of thehour. Fusingdata from multiple sources, such as panchromatic,hyperspectraland LiDAR sensors, enhances the probability of identifying and extracting features such asbuildings, vegetation or bodies of water by using a combination of spectral and elevation characteristics.Utilizing theaforementioned featuresin remote sensing is impracticable in the absence ofautomation.Whileefforts are underway to reduce human intervention in data processing, this attempt alone may notsuffice. Thehuge quantum of data that needs to be processed entailsaccelerated processing to be enabled.GPUs, which were originally designed to provide efficient visualization,arebeing massively employed forcomputation intensive parallel processing environments. Image processing in general and hence automatedfeatureextraction, is highly computation intensive, where performance improvements have a direct impacton societal needs. In this context, an algorithm has been formulated for automated feature extraction froma panchromatic or multispectral image based on image processing techniques.Two Laplacian of Guassian(LoGmasks were applied on the image individually followed by detection of zero crossing points andextracting the pixels based on their standard deviationwiththe surrounding pixels. The two extractedimages with different LoG masks were combined together which resulted in an image withthe extractedfeatures and edges.Finally the user is at liberty to apply the image smoothing step depending on the noisecontent in the extracted image.The image ispassed through a hybrid median filter toremove the salt andpepper noise from the image.This paper discusses theaforesaidalgorithmforautomated featureextraction, necessity of deployment of GPUs for thesame;system-level challenges and quantifies thebenefits of integrating GPUs in such environment. The

  20. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration of wetlands vegetation habitats retrieved from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Budzynska, M.; Kowalik, W.; Turlej, K.

    2010-08-01

    The research has been carried out in Biebrza Ramsar Convention test site situated in the N-E part of Poland. Data from optical and microwave satellite images have been analysed and compared to the detailed soil-vegetation ground truth measurements conducted during the satellite overpasses. Satellite data applied for the study include: ENVISAT.ASAR, ENVISAT.MERIS, ALOS.PALSAR, ALOS.AVNIR-2, ALOS.PRISM, TERRA.ASTER, and NOAA.AVHRR. Optical images have been used for classification of wetlands vegetation habitats and vegetation surface roughness expressed by LAI. Also, heat fluxes have been calculated using NOAA.AVHRR data and meteorological data. Microwave images have been used for the assessment of soil moisture. For each of the classified wetlands vegetation habitats the relationship between soil moisture and backscattering coefficient has been examined, and the best combination of microwave variables (wave length, incidence angle, polarization) has been used for mapping and monitoring of soil moisture. The results of this study give possibility to improve models of water cycle over wetlands ecosystems by adding information about soil moisture and surface heat fluxes derived from satellite images. Such information is very essential for better protection of the European sensitive wetland ecosystems. ENVISAT and ALOS images have been obtained from ESA for AO ID 122 and AOALO.3742 projects.

  1. Detecting aircrafts from satellite images using saliency and conical pyramid based template representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIK BANERJEE; NITIN GUPTA; SUKHENDU DAS; PINAKI ROY CHOWDHURY; L K SINHA

    2016-10-01

    Automatic target localization in satellite images still remains as a challenging problem in the field of computer vision. The issues involved in locating targets in satellite images are viewpoint, spectral (intensity) and scale variations. Diversity in background texture and target clutter also adds up to the complexity of the problem of localizing aircrafts in satellite images. Failure of modern feature extraction and object detection methods highlight the complexity of the problem. In the proposed work, pre-processing techniques, viz.denoising and contrast enhancement, are first used to improve the quality of the images. Then, the concept of unsupervised saliency is used to detect the potential regions of interest, which reduces the search space. Parts from the salient regions are further processed using clustering and morphological processing to get the probable regions of isolated aircraft targets. Finally, a novel conical pyramid based framework for template representation of the target samples is proposed for matching. Experimental results shown on a few satellite images exhibit the superior performance of the proposed methods.

  2. Optimization of post-classification processing of high-resolution satellite image: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Rencai; DONG; Jiajia; WU; Gang; DENG; Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    The application of remote sensing monitoring techniques plays a crucial role in evaluating and governing the vast amount of ecological construction projects in China. However, extracting information of ecological engineering target through high-resolution satellite image is arduous due to the unique topography and complicated spatial pattern on the Loess Plateau of China. As a result, enhancing classification accuracy is a huge challenge to high-resolution image processing techniques. Image processing techniques have a definitive effect on image properties and the selection of different parameters may change the final classification accuracy during post-classification processing. The common method of eliminating noise and smoothing image is majority filtering. However, the filter function may modify the original classified image and the final accuracy. The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and accurate post-processing technique for acquiring information of soil and water conservation engineering, on the Loess Plateau of China, using SPOT image with 2.5 rn resolution. We argue that it is vital to optimize satellite image filtering parameters for special areas and purposes, which focus on monitoring ecological construction projects. We want to know how image filtering influences final classified results and which filtering kernel is optimum. The study design used a series of window sizes to filter the original classified image, and then assess the accuracy of each output map and image quality. We measured the relationship between filtering window size and classification accuracy, and optimized the post-processing techniques of SPOT5satellite images. We conclude that (1) smoothing with the majority filter is sensitive to the information accuracy of soil and water conservation engineering, and (2) for SPOT5 2.5 m image, the 5×5 pixel majority filter is most suitable kernel for extracting information of ecological construction sites in the Loess Plateau of

  3. Effect of satellite formations and imaging modes on global albedo estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; Miller, David W.; de Weck, Olivier L.

    2016-05-01

    We confirm the applicability of using small satellite formation flight for multi-angular earth observation to retrieve global, narrow band, narrow field-of-view albedo. The value of formation flight is assessed using a coupled systems engineering and science evaluation model, driven by Model Based Systems Engineering and Observing System Simulation Experiments. Albedo errors are calculated against bi-directional reflectance data obtained from NASA airborne campaigns made by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer for the seven major surface types, binned using MODIS' land cover map - water, forest, cropland, grassland, snow, desert and cities. A full tradespace of architectures with three to eight satellites, maintainable orbits and imaging modes (collective payload pointing strategies) are assessed. For an arbitrary 4-sat formation, changing the reference, nadir-pointing satellite dynamically reduces the average albedo error to 0.003, from 0.006 found in the static referencecase. Tracking pre-selected waypoints with all the satellites reduces the average error further to 0.001, allows better polar imaging and continued operations even with a broken formation. An albedo error of 0.001 translates to 1.36 W/m2 or 0.4% in Earth's outgoing radiation error. Estimation errors are found to be independent of the satellites' altitude and inclination, if the nadir-looking is changed dynamically. The formation satellites are restricted to differ in only right ascension of planes and mean anomalies within slotted bounds. Three satellites in some specific formations show average albedo errors of less than 2% with respect to airborne, ground data and seven satellites in any slotted formation outperform the monolithic error of 3.6%. In fact, the maximum possible albedo error, purely based on angular sampling, of 12% for monoliths is outperformed by a five-satellite formation in any slotted arrangement and an eight satellite formation can bring that error down four fold to 3%. More than

  4. Experimental exploration to thermal infrared imaging for detecting the transient process of solid impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis and the comparison of stress pattern analysis by thermal emission (SPATE) and remote sensing rock mechanics (RSRM), the idea to detect the transient process of solid impact with thermal infrared (TIR) imaging technology is introduced. By means of TVS-8100MKII T IR imaging system, which has high recording speed, high space distinguishability and high temperature sensibility, TIR imaging experiments on free falling steel ball impacting on marble, granite, concrete, steel, organic-glass and wood plate are conducted. It was discovered that: (i) the target's TIR temperature increases remarkably after impact; (ii) when ball's size is not changed, the variation amplitude of target's TIR temperature proportionally increases with the ball's potential energy or falling height; (iii) the variation amplitude of target's TIR temperature is involved with the material type and the surface glabrous condition of the target, and the amplitudes are in order as concrete, unpolished marble, steel plate, wood plate, polished granite, polished marble and organic-glass plate; and (iv) the TIR radiation of fragile targets decreases gradually after impact, while there is delayed TIR radiation strengthening for plastic target. It is deduced that once the relational runctions and technical parameters, which are involved with certain impact body and target material, are set up through experimental study, the remote detection and back analysis based on TIR imaging for the transient process of solid impact will be no problem. Besides, there is also important scientific meaning for the omen mechanics study and satellite TIR detection and prediction for structural earthquake.

  5. Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

  6. Digital image processing for the earth resources technology satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, P. M.; Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of digital processing of the large volumes of multispectral image data that are expected to be received from the ERTS program. Correction of geometric and radiometric distortions are discussed and a byte oriented implementation is proposed. CPU timing estimates are given for a System/360 Model 67, and show that a processing throughput of 1000 image sets per week is feasible.

  7. Pre-processing Algorithm for Rectification of Geometric Distortions in Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Panigrahi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of algorithms have been reported to process and remove geometric distortions in satellite images. Ortho-correction, geometric error correction, radiometric error removal, etc are a few important examples. These algorithm require supplementary meta-information of the satellite images such as ground control points and correspondence, sensor orientation details, elevation profile of the terrain, etc to establish corresponding transformations. In this paper, a pre-processing algorithm has been proposed which removes systematic distortions of a satellite image and thereby removes the blank portion of the image. It is an input-to-output mapping of image pixels, where the transformation computes the coordinate of each output pixel corresponding to the input pixel of an image. The transformation is established by the exact amount of scaling, rotation and translation needed for each pixel in the input image so that the distortion induced during the recording stage is corrected.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.174-179, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.421

  8. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  9. A fast and automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongshun; He, Hui; Xiao, Hongyu; Huang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fast and fully automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images. First, the overlapped rectangle is computed according to geographical locations of the reference and mosaic images and feature points on both the reference and mosaic images are extracted by a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm only from the overlapped region. Then, the RANSAC method is used to match feature points of both images. Finally, the two images are fused into a seamlessly panoramic image by the simple linear weighted fusion method or other method. The proposed method is implemented in C++ language based on OpenCV and GDAL, and tested by Worldview-2 multispectral images with a spatial resolution of 2 meters. Results show that the proposed method can detect feature points efficiently and mosaic images automatically.

  10. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  11. Probable satellite thermal infrared anomaly before the Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake on January 10, 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper used the thermal infrared data of the satellite NOAA-AAVHRR of the north part of North China (113°~119° E, 38°~42° N), and processed the remote sensing data through radiation adjustment, geometric adjustment and so on by the software "The Monitoring and Fast Process System of Earthquake Precursor Thermal Infrared Anomaly", inversed the earth surface temperature. Some disturbances effect had been excluded, and thermal infrared temperature anomaly had been extracted by the picture difference method. The Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake is used as the example in the paper, so that in the paper thermal infrared characteristics on time-space before earthquake and the relationship between the anomaly and the earthquake prediction have been summarized.Within more than ten days before the Zhangbei earthquake, the thermal infrared anomaly had emerged widely along Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and the anomalous region seemed like a belt and it is also consistent with the tectonic background there; the anomaly expanded from the outside toward the earthquake focus, but the focus lay at the edge of the thermal infrared region. So it is possible to explore a new anomaly observation method for earthquake prediction by observing and studying the satellite thermal infrared anomaly before big earthquakes happen.

  12. Computational imaging from non-uniform degradation of staggered TDI thermal infrared imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Jian Guo; Shi, Yan; Chen, Wangli; Qin, Qianqing; Zhang, Zijian

    2015-09-21

    For the Time Delay Integration (TDI) staggered line-scanning thermal infrared imager, a Computational Imaging (CI) approach is developed to achieve higher spatial resolution images. After a thorough analysis of the causes of non-uniform image displacement and degradation for multi-channel staggered TDI arrays, the study aims to approach one-dimensional (1D) sub-pixel displacement estimation and superposition of images from time-division multiplexing scanning lines. Under the assumption that a thermal image is 2D piecewise C(2) smooth, a sparse-and-smooth deconvolution algorithm with L1-norm regularization terms combining the first and second order derivative operators is proposed to restore high frequency components and to suppress aliasing simultaneously. It is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, with simulation and airborne thermal infrared images, that this is a state-of-the-art practical CI method to reconstruct clear images with higher frequency components from raw thermal images that are subject to instantaneous distortion and blurring.

  13. Multiangle Bistatic SAR Imaging and Fusion Based on BeiDou-2 Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BSAR based on the Global Navigation Service System (GNSSBSAR uses navigation satellites as radar transmitters, which are low in cost. However, GNSS-BSAR images have poor resolution and low Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR. In this paper, a multiangle observation and data processing strategy are presented based on BeiDou-2 navigation satellite imagery, from which twenty-six BSAR images in different configurations are obtained. A region-based fusion algorithm using region of interest segmentation is proposed, and a high-quality fusion image is obtained. The results reveal that the multiangle imaging method can extend the applications of GNSS-BSAR.

  14. Wave Period and Coastal Bathymetry Estimations from Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo, Celine; Melgani, Farid

    2016-08-01

    We present an approach for wave period and coastal water depth estimation. The approach based on wave observations, is entirely independent of ancillary data and can theoretically be applied to SAR or optical images. In order to demonstrate its feasibility we apply our method to more than 50 Sentinel-1A images of the Hawaiian Islands, well-known for its long waves. Six wave buoys are available to compare our results with in-situ measurements. The results on Sentinel-1A images show that half of the images were unsuitable for applying the method (no swell or wavelength too small to be captured by the SAR). On the other half, 78% of the estimated wave periods are in accordance with buoy measurements. In addition, we present preliminary results of the estimation of the coastal water depth on a Landsat-8 image (with characteristics close to Sentinel-2A). With a squared correlation coefficient of 0.7 for ground truth measurement, this approach reveals promising results for monitoring coastal bathymetry.

  15. Thermalnet: a Deep Convolutional Network for Synthetic Thermal Image Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Gorbatsevich, V. S.; Mizginov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks have dramatically changed the landscape of the modern computer vision. Nowadays methods based on deep neural networks show the best performance among image recognition and object detection algorithms. While polishing of network architectures received a lot of scholar attention, from the practical point of view the preparation of a large image dataset for a successful training of a neural network became one of major challenges. This challenge is particularly profound for image recognition in wavelengths lying outside the visible spectrum. For example no infrared or radar image datasets large enough for successful training of a deep neural network are available to date in public domain. Recent advances of deep neural networks prove that they are also capable to do arbitrary image transformations such as super-resolution image generation, grayscale image colorisation and imitation of style of a given artist. Thus a natural question arise: how could be deep neural networks used for augmentation of existing large image datasets? This paper is focused on the development of the Thermalnet deep convolutional neural network for augmentation of existing large visible image datasets with synthetic thermal images. The Thermalnet network architecture is inspired by colorisation deep neural networks.

  16. Attitude motion compensation for imager on Fengyun-4 geostationary meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wang; Dai, Shoulun; Dong, Yaohai; Shen, Yili; Song, Xiaozheng; Wang, Tianshu

    2017-09-01

    A compensation method is used in Chinese Fengyun-4 satellite to counteracting the line-of-sight influence by attitude motion during imaging. The method is acted on-board by adding the compensation amount to the instrument scanning control circuit. The mathematics simulation and the three-axis air-bearing test results show that the method works effectively.

  17. Collection of road traffic information from satellite images and digital map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    There have been many reports on the analysis of the Earth's surface by remote sensing. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic information, and we have been studying methods of collecting traffic information by remote sensing. To collect traffic information, sensors installed on the roadside are frequently used. However, methods using sensors only collect information around the positions of the sensors. In this study, we attempt to solve this problem by using satellite images, which have recently become increasingly available. We propose a method of collecting traffic information over a large area using satellite images as well as three-dimensional digital maps. We assess traffic conditions by computing the number of edges of vehicles per road section as follows. First, the edges of vehicles are detected in satellite images. During this processing, three-dimensional digital maps are used to increase the accuracy of vehicle edge detection. The number of vehicles per road section, which is computed from the number of edges of vehicles, is computed and referred to as the vehicle density. Traffic conditions can be assessed from the vehicle density and are considered useful for collecting information on traffic congestion. In this study, we experimentally confirm that congested roads can be extracted from satellite images by our method.

  18. Vegetation Cover Change in Yellowstone National Park Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Results from Landsat satellite image analysis since 1987 in all unburned areas (since the 1880s) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) showed that consistent decreases in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been strongly dependent on periodic variations in peak annual snow water equivalents (SWE).

  19. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wieland; Massimiliano Pittore

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS) and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos) multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognitio...

  20. Mapping land cover from satellite images: A basic, low cost approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elifrits, C. D.; Barney, T. W.; Barr, D. J.; Johannsen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive methodologies developed for mapping general land cover and land use categories from LANDSAT images are reported. One methodology, a stepwise, interpretive, direct tracing technique was developed through working with university students from different disciplines with no previous experience in satellite image interpretation. The technique results in maps that are very accurate in relation to actual land cover and relative to the small investment in skill, time, and money needed to produce the products.

  1. Extraction of DTM from Satellite Images Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a way to generate a Digital Terrain Model (dtm) from a Digital Surface Model (dsm) and multi spectral images (including the Near Infrared (nir) color band). An Artificial Neural Network (ann) is used to pre-classify the dsm and multi spectral images. This in turn is used to filter the dsm to a dtm. The use of an ann as a classifier provided good results. Additionally, the addition of the nir color band resulted in an improvement of the accuracy of the classifier. Using th...

  2. Buildings Research using Infrared Imaging Radiometers with Laboratory Thermal Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Brent; Arasteh, Dariush

    1999-01-12

    Infrared thermal imagers are used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study heat transfer through components of building thermal envelopes. Two thermal chambers maintain steady-state heat flow through test specimens under environmental conditions for winter heating design. Infrared thermography is used to map surface temperatures on the specimens' warm side. Features of the quantitative thermography process include use of external reference emitters, complex background corrections, and spatial location markers. Typical uncertainties in the data are {+-} 0.5 C and 3 mm. Temperature controlled and directly measured external reference emitters are used to correct data from each thermal image. Complex background corrections use arrays of values for background thermal radiation in calculating temperatures of self-viewing surfaces. Temperature results are used to validate computer programs that predict heat flow including Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) conduction simulations and conjugate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results are also used to study natural convection surface heat transfer. Example data show the distribution of temperatures down the center line of an insulated window.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging research in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and satellite-based networking implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourette, Matthew T; Siebert, James E; Barto, Robert J; Marable, Kenneth L; Muyepa, Anthony; Hammond, Colleen A; Potchen, Michael J; Kampondeni, Samuel D; Taylor, Terrie E

    2011-08-01

    As part of an NIH-funded study of malaria pathogenesis, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging research facility was established in Blantyre, Malaŵi to enhance the clinical characterization of pediatric patients with cerebral malaria through application of neurological MR methods. The research program requires daily transmission of MR studies to Michigan State University (MSU) for clinical research interpretation and quantitative post-processing. An intercontinental satellite-based network was implemented for transmission of MR image data in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, research data collection, project communications, and remote systems administration. Satellite Internet service costs limited the bandwidth to symmetrical 384 kbit/s. DICOM routers deployed at both the Malaŵi MRI facility and MSU manage the end-to-end encrypted compressed data transmission. Network performance between DICOM routers was measured while transmitting both mixed clinical MR studies and synthetic studies. Effective network latency averaged 715 ms. Within a mix of clinical MR studies, the average transmission time for a 256 × 256 image was ~2.25 and ~6.25 s for a 512 × 512 image. Using synthetic studies of 1,000 duplicate images, the interquartile range for 256 × 256 images was [2.30, 2.36] s and [5.94, 6.05] s for 512 × 512 images. Transmission of clinical MRI studies between the DICOM routers averaged 9.35 images per minute, representing an effective channel utilization of ~137% of the 384-kbit/s satellite service as computed using uncompressed image file sizes (including the effects of image compression, protocol overhead, channel latency, etc.). Power unreliability was the primary cause of interrupted operations in the first year, including an outage exceeding 10 days.

  4. Thermal Infrared Imager on Hayabusa2: Science and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2015-04-01

    Thermal Infrared Imager TIR was developed and calibrated for Haya-busa2 asteroid explorer, aiming at the investigation of thermo-physical properties of C-class near-Earth sub-km sized asteroid (162173) 1999JU3. TIR is based on the 2D micro-bolometer array with germani-um lens to image the surface of asteroid in 8 to 12 μm wavelength (1), measuring the thermal emission off the asteroid surface. Its field of view is 16° x 12° with 328 x 248 pixels. At least 40 (up to 100) images will be taken during asteroid rotation once a week, mainly from the Home Position which is about 20km sunward from asteroid surface. Therefore TIR will image the whole asteroid with spatial resolution of scien-tific objectives of TIR include the mapping of asteroid surface condi-tions (regional distribution of thermal inertia), since the surface physical conditions are strongly correlated with thermal inertia. It is so informa-tive on understanding the re-accretion or surface sedimentation process-es of the asteroid to be the current form. TIR data will be used for searching for those sites having the typical particle size of 1mm for best sample collection, and within the proper thermal condition for space-craft safe operation. After launch of Hayabusa2, TIR has been tested successfully, covering from -100 to 150 °C using a single parameter settings (2). This implies that TIR is actually able to map the surface other than the sunlit areas. Performance of TIR was found basically the same as those in the pre-launch test, when the temperature of TIR is well controlled. References: (1) Fukuhara T. et al., (2011) Earth Planet. Space 63, 1009-1018; (2) Okada T. et al., (2015) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 46, #1331.

  5. Simultaneous hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of satellite images through combined data sampling and anisotropic triangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [PNNL

    2010-10-21

    The automatic detection, recognition , and segmentation of object classes in remote sensed images is of crucial importance for scene interpretation and understanding. However, it is a difficult task because of the high variability of satellite data. Indeed, the observed scenes usually exhibit a high degree of complexity, where complexity refers to the large variety of pictorial representations of objects with the same semantic meaning and also to the extensive amount of available det.ails. Therefore, there is still a strong demand for robust techniques for automatic information extraction and interpretation of satellite images. In parallel, there is a growing interest in techniques that can extract vector features directly from such imagery. In this paper, we investigate the problem of automatic hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of multispectral satellite images. We propose a new algorithm composed of the following steps: (i) a non-uniform sampling scheme extracting most salient pixels in the image, (ii) an anisotropic triangulation constrained by the sampled pixels taking into account both strength and directionality of local structures present in the image, (iii) a polygonal grouping scheme merging, through techniques based on perceptual information , the obtained segments to a smaller quantity of superior vectorial objects. Besides its computational efficiency, this approach provides a meaningful polygonal representation for subsequent image analysis and/or interpretation.

  6. 3D mapping from high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, D.; Georgopoulos, A.; Sarakenos, A.; Paraschou, Ch.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years 3D information has become more easily available. Users' needs are constantly increasing, adapting to this reality and 3D maps are in more demand. 3D models of the terrain in CAD or other environments have already been common practice; however one is bound by the computer screen. This is why contemporary digital methods have been developed in order to produce portable and, hence, handier 3D maps of various forms. This paper deals with the implementation of the necessary procedures to produce holographic 3D maps and three dimensionally printed maps. The main objective is the production of three dimensional maps from high resolution aerial and/or satellite imagery with the use of holography and but also 3D printing methods. As study area the island of Antiparos was chosen, as there were readily available suitable data. These data were two stereo pairs of Geoeye-1 and a high resolution DTM of the island. Firstly the theoretical bases of holography and 3D printing are described, and the two methods are analyzed and there implementation is explained. In practice a x-axis parallax holographic map of the Antiparos Island is created and a full parallax (x-axis and y-axis) holographic map is created and printed, using the holographic method. Moreover a three dimensional printed map of the study area has been created using 3dp (3d printing) method. The results are evaluated for their usefulness and efficiency.

  7. Automatic Detection of Clouds and Shadows Using High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Detecting clouds and their shadows is one of the primaries steps to perform when processing satellite images because they may alter the quality of some products such as large-area orthomosaics. The main goal of this paper is to present the automatic method developed at IGN-France for detecting clouds and shadows in a sequence of satellite images. In our work, surface reflectance orthoimages are used. They were processed from initial satellite images using a dedicated software. The cloud detection step consists of a region-growing algorithm. Seeds are firstly extracted. For that purpose and for each input ortho-image to process, we select the other ortho-images of the sequence that intersect it. The pixels of the input ortho-image are secondly labelled seeds if the difference of reflectance (in the blue channel) with overlapping ortho-images is bigger than a given threshold. Clouds are eventually delineated using a region-growing method based on a radiometric and homogeneity criterion. Regarding the shadow detection, our method is based on the idea that a shadow pixel is darker when comparing to the other images of the time series. The detection is basically composed of three steps. Firstly, we compute a synthetic ortho-image covering the whole study area. Its pixels have a value corresponding to the median value of all input reflectance ortho-images intersecting at that pixel location. Secondly, for each input ortho-image, a pixel is labelled shadows if the difference of reflectance (in the NIR channel) with the synthetic ortho-image is below a given threshold. Eventually, an optional region-growing step may be used to refine the results. Note that pixels labelled clouds during the cloud detection are not used for computing the median value in the first step; additionally, the NIR input data channel is used to perform the shadow detection, because it appeared to better discriminate shadow pixels. The method was tested on times series of Landsat 8 and Pl

  8. Automatic cloud detection for high resolution satellite stereo images and its application in terrain extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng; Hu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Lulin; Tao, Pengjie; Lu, Luping

    2016-11-01

    The automatic extraction of terrain from high-resolution satellite optical images is very difficult under cloudy conditions. Therefore, accurate cloud detection is necessary to fully use the cloud-free parts of images for terrain extraction. This paper addresses automated cloud detection by introducing an image matching based method under a stereo vision framework, and the optimization usage of non-cloudy areas in stereo matching and the generation of digital surface models (DSMs). Given that clouds are often separated from the terrain surface, cloudy areas are extracted by integrating dense matching DSM, worldwide digital elevation model (DEM) (i.e., shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM)) and gray information from the images. This process consists of the following steps: an image based DSM is firstly generated through a multiple primitive multi-image matcher. Once it is aligned with the reference DEM based on common features, places with significant height differences between the DSM and the DEM will suggest the potential cloud covers. Detecting cloud at these places in the images then enables precise cloud delineation. In the final step, elevations of the reference DEM within the cloud covers are assigned to the corresponding region of the DSM to generate a cloud-free DEM. The proposed approach is evaluated with the panchromatic images of the Tianhui satellite and has been successfully used in its daily operation. The cloud detection accuracy for images without snow is as high as 95%. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly improve the usage of the cloudy panchromatic satellite images for terrain extraction.

  9. Topic Modelling for Object-Based Unsupervised Classification of VHR Panchromatic Satellite Images Based on Multiscale Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a key prerequisite for object-based classification. However, it is often difficult, or even impossible, to determine a unique optimal segmentation scale due to the fact that various geo-objects, and even an identical geo-object, present at multiple scales in very high resolution (VHR satellite images. To address this problem, this paper presents a novel unsupervised object-based classification for VHR panchromatic satellite images using multiple segmentations via the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA model. Firstly, multiple segmentation maps of the original satellite image are produced by means of a common multiscale segmentation technique. Then, the LDA model is utilized to learn the grayscale histogram distribution for each geo-object and the mixture distribution of geo-objects within each segment. Thirdly, the histogram distribution of each segment is compared with that of each geo-object using the Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence measure, which is weighted with a constraint specified by the mixture distribution of geo-objects. Each segment is allocated a geo-object category label with the minimum KL divergence. Finally, the final classification map is achieved by integrating the multiple classification results at different scales. Extensive experimental evaluations are designed to compare the performance of our method with those of some state-of-the-art methods for three different types of images. The experimental results over three different types of VHR panchromatic satellite images demonstrate the proposed method is able to achieve scale-adaptive classification results, and improve the ability to differentiate the geo-objects with spectral overlap, such as water and grass, and water and shadow, in terms of both spatial consistency and semantic consistency.

  10. Building identification from very high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Stephane

    Urbanisation still remains one of the main problems worldwide. The extent and rapidity of the urban growth induce a number of socio-economic and environmental conflicts everywhere. In order to reduce these problems, urban planners need to integrate spatial information in planning tools. Actually high expectations are made on Very High Spatial Resolution imagery (VHSR). These high-spatial resolution images are available at a reasonable price and due to short revisit periods, they offer a high degree of actuality. However, interpretation methods seem not to be adapted to this new type of images. The aim of our study is to develop a new method for semi-automatic building extraction with VHSR. The different steps performed to achieve our objective are each presented in a chapter. In the first chapter, the general context of our research is described with the definition of our objective. After a short historical review of urbanisation, we focus on urban growth and associated problems. In the following we discuss the possible contributions of geography to reduce these problems. After discussing concepts, theories and methodologies of geographical analysis in urban areas, we present existing general urban planning tools. Finally, we show the special interest of our study that is due to a growing need to integrate spatial information in these decision support tools. In the second chapter we verify the possibility of reaching our objective by analysing the technical characteristics of the images, the noise and the distortions which affect the images. Quality and interpretability of the studied image is analysed in order to show the capacity of these image to represent urban objects as close to reality as possible. The results confirm the potential of VHSR Imagery for urban objects analysis. The third chapter deal with the preliminary steps necessary for the elaboration of our method of building extraction. First, we evaluate the quality of the Sherbrooke Ikonos image

  11. SHADOW DETECTION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTON SATELLITE IMAGE USING GRABCUT SEGMENTATION AND RATIO-BAND ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. S. M. Kadhim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Resolution (VHR satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour, the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates

  12. Modifications of the heliostat procedures for irradiance estimates from satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.G.; Costanzo, Claudio; Heinemann, Detlev [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 8 - Physik

    1996-03-01

    Images taken by geostationary satellites may be used to estimate solar irradiance fluxes at the earth`s surface. The Heliostat method is a widely applied procedure for this task. It is based on the empirical correlation between a satellite derived cloud index and the irradiance at the ground. Modifications to this procedure that may reduce the temporal variability of the correlation are presented. The modified method may open the way to the use of a generic relation of cloud index and global irradiance. (author)

  13. An Investigation on Water Quality of Darlik Dam Drinking Water using Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Darlik Dam supplies 15% of the water demand of Istanbul Metropolitan City of Turkey. Water quality (WQ in the Darlik Dam was investigated from Landsat 5 TM satellite images of the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 in order to determine land use/land cover changes in the watershed of the dam that may deteriorate its WQ. The images were geometrically and atmospherically corrected for WQ analysis. Next, an investigation was made by multiple regression analysis between the unitless planetary reflectance values of the first four bands of the June 2005 Landsat TM image of the dam and WQ parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, total dissolved matter, turbidity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen, measured at satellite image acquisition time at seven stations in the dam. Finally, WQ in the dam was studied from satellite images of the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 by pattern recognition techniques in order to determine possible water pollution in the dam. This study was compared to a previous study done by the authors in the Küçükçekmece water reservoir, also in Istanbul City.

  14. Fast segmentation of satellite images using SLIC, WebGL and Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; Gorelick, Noel; Eisemann, Elmar; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a parallel geospatial processing platform, which harmonizes access to petabytes of freely available satellite images. It provides a very rich API, allowing development of dedicated algorithms to extract useful geospatial information from these images. At the same time, modern GPUs provide thousands of computing cores, which are mostly not utilized in this context. In the last years, WebGL became a popular and well-supported API, allowing fast image processing directly in web browsers. In this work, we will evaluate the applicability of WebGL to enable fast segmentation of satellite images. A new implementation of a Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) algorithm using GPU shaders will be presented. SLIC is a simple and efficient method to decompose an image in visually homogeneous regions. It adapts a k-means clustering approach to generate superpixels efficiently. While this approach will be hard to scale, due to a significant amount of data to be transferred to the client, it should significantly improve exploratory possibilities and simplify development of dedicated algorithms for geoscience applications. Our prototype implementation will be used to improve surface water detection of the reservoirs using multispectral satellite imagery.

  15. Improving Sediment Transport Prediction by Assimilating Satellite Images in a Tidal Bay Model of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color data into a numerical model to improve sediment transport prediction in a tide-dominated bay in Hong Kong, Deep Bay. Two sea surface sediment datasets delineated from satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS were assimilated into a coastal ocean model of the bay for one tidal cycle. It was found that remote sensing sediment information enhanced the sediment transport model ability by validating the model results with in situ measurements. Model results showed that root mean square errors of forecast sediment both at the surface layer and the vertical layers from the model with satellite sediment assimilation are reduced by at least 36% over the model without assimilation.

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL PROFILE AND GRANULOMETRIC MAPS IN EXTRACTION OF BUILDINGS IN VHR SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupidura Przemysław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the analysis of possibilities of using granulometric analysis methods: the morphological profile, and granulometric maps in detecting buildings on satellite images. It briefly explains the theoretical basis for granulometric analysis of image and compares two methods used in research. Tests were carried out on a fragment of QuickBird satellite scene – pansharpened multispectral image. 8 variants of classification differing in terms of the data and the model of classification were compared. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the different options for classification based on the analysis factor kappa values and omission and commission errors. The results indicate the significant potential of the proposed methods, and analysis of the observed imperfections allows to specify the possible fields of their development

  17. The Critical Need for Future Mid-Resolution Thermal Infrared Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.

    2006-12-01

    Eight future applications of data from mid-resolution thermal infrared satellite sensors are suggested, from least to most significant as follows: 8. Map thin ice unsafe for ice-fishing in the Great Lakes as a warning to winter fishermen; 7. Map ammonia plumes to locate large ammonia stockpiles (Homeland Security) and to monitor concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs); 6. Map types of surface algae in ocean, lakes, and rivers, especially those containing surface diatoms; 5. Monitor urban heat islands to determine the cooling affects of painting visibly dark surfaces with bright paints or coatings; 4. Map rock-types and soil-types of non- vegetated regions world-wide, a task which ASTER cannot complete in its current lifetime; 3. Detect surface warming of rocks under increased stress and pressure as an earthquake precursor; 2. Map pollutant gases, especially sulfur dioxide, which is important both for smokestack monitoring and volcanic eruption precursors; 1. Map methane escape into the atmosphere from methane clathrate destabilization as a key warning of imminent and drastic temperature rises in the troposphere. Each of these applications will be briefly discussed and past examples will be given for most of them.

  18. Very High Resolution Satellite Image Classification Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a detailed step-by-step method for classification of very high resolution urban satellite images (VHRSI into specific classes such as road, building, vegetation, etc., using fuzzy logic. In this study, object-based image analysis is used for image classification. The main problems in high resolution image classification are the uncertainties in the position of object borders in satellite images and also multiplex resemblance of the segments to different classes. In order to solve this problem, fuzzy logic is used for image classification, since it provides the possibility of image analysis using multiple parameters without requiring inclusion of certain thresholds in the class assignment process. In this study, an inclusive semi-automatic method for image classification is offered, which presents the configuration of the related fuzzy functions as well as fuzzy rules. The produced results are compared to the results of a normal classification using the same parameters, but with crisp rules. The overall accuracies and kappa coefficients of the presented method stand higher than the check projects.

  19. Thermal imaging to detect physiological indicators of stress in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Carl B.; Skipper, Julie A.; Petkie, Douglas T.

    2013-05-01

    Real-time, stand-off sensing of human subjects to detect emotional state would be valuable in many defense, security and medical scenarios. We are developing a multimodal sensor platform that incorporates high-resolution electro-optical and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras and a millimeter-wave radar system to identify individuals who are psychologically stressed. Recent experiments have aimed to: 1) assess responses to physical versus psychological stressors; 2) examine the impact of topical skin products on thermal signatures; and 3) evaluate the fidelity of vital signs extracted from thermal imagery and radar signatures. Registered image and sensor data were collected as subjects (n=32) performed mental and physical tasks. In each image, the face was segmented into 29 non-overlapping segments based on fiducial points automatically output by our facial feature tracker. Image features were defined that facilitated discrimination between psychological and physical stress states. To test the ability to intentionally mask thermal responses indicative of anxiety or fear, subjects applied one of four topical skin products to one half of their face before performing tasks. Finally, we evaluated the performance of two non-contact techniques to detect respiration and heart rate: chest displacement extracted from the radar signal and temperature fluctuations at the nose tip and regions near superficial arteries to detect respiration and heart rates, respectively, extracted from the MWIR imagery. Our results are very satisfactory: classification of physical versus psychological stressors is repeatedly greater than 90%, thermal masking was almost always ineffective, and accurate heart and respiration rates are detectable in both thermal and radar signatures.

  20. Two-dimensional fruit ripeness estimation using thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2013-06-01

    Some green fruits do not change their color from green to yellow when being ripe. As a result, ripeness estimation via color and fluorescent analytical approaches cannot be applied. In this article, we propose and show for the first time how a thermal imaging camera can be used to two-dimensionally classify fruits into different ripeness levels. Our key idea relies on the fact that the mature fruits have higher heat capacity than the immature ones and therefore the change in surface temperature overtime is slower. Our experimental proof of concept using a thermal imaging camera shows a promising result in non-destructively identifying three different ripeness levels of mangoes Mangifera indica L.

  1. Occupancy Analysis of Sports Arenas Using Thermal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anders; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system for automatic analysis of the occupancy of sports arenas. By using a thermal camera for image capturing the number of persons and their location on the court are found without violating any privacy issues. The images are binarised with an automatic threshold method....... Reflections due to shiny surfaces are eliminated by analysing symmetric patterns. Occlusions are dealt with through a concavity anal- ysis of the binary regions. The system is tested in five different sports arenas, for more than three full weeks altogether. These tests showed that after a short...

  2. Review of thermal imaging systems in composite defect detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Iagoba; Venegas, Pablo; Vega, Laura; Lopez, Ion; Vollheim, Birgit; Krausz, Lennard; Georges, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging technologies are widely used at present in many industrial areas, while being nowadays more and more employed in R&D&i activities. This article focuses on the comparison of the results obtained with commercially available non-experimental infrared (IR) cameras in the field of non-destructive defect detection. One of the cameras belongs to the FLIR SC5000 series, which is a medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) camera, and the other two cameras are from the high-end ImageIR series ...

  3. Temporal ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal speckle light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, Fabrice; Phan Huy, Kien; Denis, Séverine; Lantz, Eric; Moreau, Paul-Antoine

    2017-02-01

    We report ghost imaging of a single non-reproducible temporal signal with kHz resolution by using pseudo-thermal speckle light patterns and a single detector array with a million of pixels working without any temporal resolution. A set of speckle patterns is generated deterministically at a sampling rate of tens kHz, multiplied by the temporal signal and time integrated in a single shot by the camera. The temporal information is retrieved by computing the spatial intensity correlations between this time integrated image and each speckle pattern of the set.

  4. Temporal ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal speckle light

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, Fabrice; Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Denis, Severine; Lantz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We report ghost imaging of a single non-reproducible temporal signal in the range of tens kHz by using pseudo-thermal speckle light patterns and a single detector array with a million of pixels working without any temporal resolution. A set of speckle patterns is generated deterministically at radio-frequency rate, multiplied by the temporal signal and time integrated in a single shot by the camera. The temporal information is retrieved by computing the spatial intensity correlations between this time integrated image and each speckle pattern of the set.

  5. Review of thermal imaging systems in composite defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Aldave, I.; Venegas Bosom, P.; Vega González, L.; López de Santiago, I.; Vollheim, B.; Krausz, L.; Georges, M.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal imaging technologies are widely used at present in many industrial areas, while being nowadays more and more employed in R&D&i activities. This article focuses on the comparison of the results obtained with commercially available non-experimental infrared (IR) cameras in the field of non-destructive defect detection. One of the cameras belongs to the FLIR SC5000 series, which is a Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) camera, and the other two cameras are from the high-end ImageIR series manufactured by InfraTec GmbH: the ImageIR 8300 also belongs to the class of MWIR cameras and the ImageIR 8800 is a Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) camera. The comparative study is carried out by means of inspecting three different calibrated and induced defect samples with these three cameras using similar excitation sources, so that the configuration and lay out of the tests are comparable with each other. Additionally, after every inspection, a mathematical post-processing is applied to the resulting raw thermal images in order to enhance the detection of defects present in the samples.

  6. Monitoring of thermal therapy based on shear modulus changes: II. Shear wave imaging of thermal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Bastien; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickael

    2011-08-01

    The clinical applicability of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for noninvasive therapy is currently hampered by the lack of robust and real-time monitoring of tissue damage during treatment. The goal of this study is to show that the estimation of local tissue elasticity from shear wave imaging (SWI) can lead to a precise mapping of the lesion. HIFU treatment and monitoring were respectively performed using a confocal setup consisting of a 2.5-MHz single element transducer focused at 34 mm on ex vivo samples and an 8-MHz ultrasound diagnostic probe. Ultrasound-based strain imaging was combined with shear wave imaging on the same device. The SWI sequences consisted of 2 successive shear waves induced at different lateral positions. Each wave was created with pushing beams of 100 μs at 3 depths. The shear wave propagation was acquired at 17,000 frames/s, from which the elasticity map was recovered. HIFU sonications were interleaved with fast imaging acquisitions, allowing a duty cycle of more than 90%. Thus, elasticity and strain mapping was achieved every 3 s, leading to real-time monitoring of the treatment. When thermal damage occurs, tissue stiffness was found to increase up to 4-fold and strain imaging showed strong shrinkages that blur the temperature information. We show that strain imaging elastograms are not easy to interpret for accurate lesion characterization, but SWI provides a quantitative mapping of the thermal lesion. Moreover, the concept of shear wave thermometry (SWT) developed in the companion paper allows mapping temperature with the same method. Combined SWT and shear wave imaging can map the lesion stiffening and temperature outside the lesion, which could be used to predict the eventual lesion growth by thermal dose calculation. Finally, SWI is shown to be robust to motion and reliable in vivo on sheep muscle.

  7. Detection and classification of stress using thermal imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kan; Yuen, Peter; Chen, Tong; Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark; Oxford, William; Piper, Jonathan; Thomas, Francis; Lightman, Stafford

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports how Electro-Optics (EO) technologies such as thermal and hyperspectral [1-3] imaging methods can be used for the detection of stress remotely. Emotional or physical stresses induce a surge of adrenaline in the blood stream under the command of the sympathetic nerve system, which, cannot be suppressed by training. The onset of this alleviated level of adrenaline triggers a number of physiological chain reactions in the body, such as dilation of pupil and an increased feed of blood to muscles etc. The capture of physiological responses, specifically the increase of blood volume to pupil, have been reported by Pavlidis's pioneer thermal imaging work [4-7] who has shown a remarkable increase of skin temperature in the periorbital region at the onset of stress. Our data has shown that other areas such as the forehead, neck and cheek also exhibit alleviated skin temperatures dependent on the types of stressors. Our result has also observed very similar thermal patterns due to physical exercising, to the one that induced by other physical stressors, apparently in contradiction to Pavlidis's work [8]. Furthermore, we have found patches of alleviated temperature regions in the forehead forming patterns characteristic to the types of stressors, dependent on whether they are physical or emotional in origin. These stress induced thermal patterns have been seen to be quite distinct to the one resulting from having high fever.

  8. Detecting drought stress in longan tree using thermal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Winai Wiriya-Alongko

    2013-01-01

    Thailand is the world’s number-one producer of longan fruit. In general, longan production takes place during the dry season under irrigation. Recently, more attention has been given to water-efficient irrigation. Water stress detection by thermal imaging, which is a non-invasive and rapid assessment method, may be an interesting tool for improved irrigation planning. In this study, four potted longan trees were subjected to water stress. Stress responses in terms of stomatal resistance (rs) ...

  9. Refinement of thermal imager minimum resolvable temperature difference calculating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobrodov, V. G.; Mykytenko, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Calculating methods, which accurately predict minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD), are of significant interest for many years. The article deals with improvement the accuracy of determining the thermal imaging system MRTD by elaboration the visual perception model. We suggest MRTD calculating algorithm, which is based on a reliable approximation of the human visual system modulation transfer function (MTF) proposed by N. Nill. There was obtained a new expression for the bandwidth evaluation, which is independent of angular size of the Foucault bar target.

  10. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  11. Parallel algorithms of relative radiometric correction for images of TH-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Tingtao; Cheng, Jiasheng; Yang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    The first generation of transitive stereo-metric satellites in China, TH-1 Satellite, is able to gain stereo images of three-line-array with resolution of 5 meters, multispectral images of 10 meters, and panchromatic high resolution images of 2 meters. The procedure between level 0 and level 1A of high resolution images is so called relative radiometric correction (RRC for short). The processing algorithm of high resolution images, with large volumes of data, is complicated and time consuming. In order to bring up the processing speed, people in industry commonly apply parallel processing techniques based on CPU or GPU. This article firstly introduces the whole process and each step of the algorithm - that is in application - of RRC for high resolution images in level 0; secondly, the theory and characteristics of MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) parallel programming techniques is briefly described, as well as the superiority for parallel technique in image processing field; thirdly, aiming at each step of the algorithm in application and based on MPI+OpenMP hybrid paradigm, the parallelizability and the strategies of parallelism for three processing steps: Radiometric Correction, Splicing Pieces of TDICCD (Time Delay Integration Charge-Coupled Device) and Gray Level Adjustment among pieces of TDICCD are deeply discussed, and furthermore, deducts the theoretical acceleration rates of each step and the one of whole procedure, according to the processing styles and independence of calculation; for the step Splicing Pieces of TDICCD, two different strategies of parallelism are proposed, which are to be chosen with consideration of hardware capabilities; finally, series of experiments are carried out to verify the parallel algorithms by applying 2-meter panchromatic high resolution images of TH-1 Satellite, and the experimental results are analyzed. Strictly on the basis of former parallel algorithms, the programs in the experiments

  12. Evaluating thermal image sharpening over irrigated crops in a desert environment

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides spatially and temporally distributed data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Multi-spectral platforms, including Landsat and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), acquire imagery in the visible to shortwave infrared and thermal infrared (TIR) domain at resolutions ranging from 30 to 1000 m. Land-surface temperature (LST) derived from TIR satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. As a result, several techniques for thermal sharpening have been developed. In this study, the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique is applied over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The DMS approach sharpens TIR imagery using finer resolution shortwave spectral reflectances and functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. In this study, the DMS is applied to Landsat 8 data (100m TIR resolution), which is scaled up to 240m, 480m, and 960m in order to assess the accuracy of the DMS technique in arid irrigated farming environments for different sharpening ratios. Furthermore, the scaling done on Landsat 8 data is consistent with the resolution of MODIS products. Potential enhancements to DMS are investigated including the use of ancillary terrain data. Finally, the impact of using sharpened LST, as input to a two-source energy balance model, on simulated ET will be evaluated. The ability to accurately monitor field-scale changes in vegetation cover, crop conditions and surface fluxes, are of main importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly

  13. Cuckoo search algorithm based satellite image contrast and brightness enhancement using DWT-SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, A K; Soni, V; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a new contrast enhancement approach which is based on Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm and DWT-SVD for quality improvement of the low contrast satellite images. The input image is decomposed into the four frequency subbands through Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and CS algorithm used to optimize each subband of DWT and then obtains the singular value matrix of the low-low thresholded subband image and finally, it reconstructs the enhanced image by applying IDWT. The singular value matrix employed intensity information of the particular image, and any modification in the singular values changes the intensity of the given image. The experimental results show superiority of the proposed method performance in terms of PSNR, MSE, Mean and Standard Deviation over conventional and state-of-the-art techniques. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical-thermal light-tissue interactions during photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Taylor; Wang, Quanzeng; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has grown rapidly as a biomedical imaging technique in recent years, with key applications in cancer diagnosis and oximetry. In spite of these advances, the literature provides little insight into thermal tissue interactions involved in PAI. To elucidate these basic phenomena, we have developed, validated, and implemented a three-dimensional numerical model of tissue photothermal (PT) response to repetitive laser pulses. The model calculates energy deposition, fluence distributions, transient temperature and damage profiles in breast tissue with blood vessels and generalized perfusion. A parametric evaluation of these outputs vs. vessel diameter and depth, optical beam diameter, wavelength, and irradiance, was performed. For a constant radiant exposure level, increasing beam diameter led to a significant increase in subsurface heat generation rate. Increasing vessel diameter resulted in two competing effects - reduced mean energy deposition in the vessel due to light attenuation and greater thermal superpositioning due to reduced thermal relaxation. Maximum temperatures occurred either at the surface or in subsurface regions of the dermis, depending on vessel geometry and position. Results are discussed in terms of established exposure limits and levels used in prior studies. While additional experimental and numerical study is needed, numerical modeling represents a powerful tool for elucidating the effect of PA imaging devices on biological tissue.

  15. 3D thermal medical image visualization tool: Integration between MRI and thermographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Chagas Paz, André Augusto; Sanches, Ionildo Jóse; Nohama, Percy; Gamba, Humberto Remigio

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction using different images modalities require registration techniques that are, in general, based on the stacking of 2D MRI/CT images slices. In this way, the integration of two different imaging modalities: anatomical (MRI/CT) and physiological information (infrared image), to generate a 3D thermal model, is a new methodology still under development. This paper presents a 3D THERMO interface that provides flexibility for the 3D visualization: it incorporates the DICOM parameters; different color scale palettes at the final 3D model; 3D visualization at different planes of sections; and a filtering option that provides better image visualization. To summarize, the 3D thermographc medical image visualization provides a realistic and precise medical tool. The merging of two different imaging modalities allows better quality and more fidelity, especially for medical applications in which the temperature changes are clinically significant.

  16. Thermally-Induced Chemistry and the Jovian Icy Satellites: A Laboratory Study of the Formation of Sulfur Oxyanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that magnetospheric radiation in the Jovian system drives reaction chemistry in ices at temperatures relevant to Europa and other icy satellites. Here we present new results on thermally-induced reactions at 50-100 K in solid H2O-SO2 mixtures, reactions that take place without the need for a high-radiation environment. We find that H2O and SO2 react to produce sulfur Oxyanions, such as bisulfite, that as much as 30% of the SO2 can be consumed through this reaction, and that the products remain in the ice when the temperature is lowered, indicating that these reactions are irreversible. Our results suggest that thermally-induced reactions can alter the chemistry at temperatures relevant to the icy satellites in the Jovian system.

  17. Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Udi; Harrington, James; Ben-David, Moshe; Bledt, Carlos; Syzonenko, Nicholas; Gannot, Israel

    2010-09-01

    There has been very little work done in the past to extend the wavelength range of fiber image bundles to the IR range. This is due, in part, to the lack of IR transmissive fibers with optical and mechanical properties analogous to the oxide glass fibers currently employed in the visible fiber bundles. Our research is aimed at developing high-resolution hollow-core coherent IR fiber bundles for transendoscopic infrared imaging. We employ the hollow glass waveguide (HGW) technology that was used successfully to make single-HGWs with Ag/AgI thin film coatings to form coherent bundles for IR imaging. We examine the possibility of developing endoscopic systems to capture thermal images using hollow waveguide fiber bundles adjusted to the 8-10?mum spectral range and investigate the applicability of such systems. We carried out a series of measurements in order to characterize the optical properties of the fiber bundles. These included the attenuation, resolution, and temperature response. We developed theoretical models and simulation tools that calculate the light propagation through HGW bundles, and which can be used to calculate the optical properties of the fiber bundles. Finally, the HGW fiber bundles were used to transmit thermal images of various heated objects; the results were compared with simulation results. The experimental results are encouraging, show an improvement in the resolution and thermal response of the HGW fiber bundles, and are consistent with the theoretical results. Nonetheless, additional improvements in the attenuation of the bundles are required in order to be able to use this technology for medical applications.

  18. Image processing with the radial Hilbert transform of photo-thermal imaging for carious detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of heat transfer in biological bodies has many diagnostic and therapeutic applications involving either raising or lowering of temperature, and often requires precise monitoring of the spatial distribution of thermal histories that are produced during a treatment protocol. The present paper therefore aims to design and implementation of laser therapeutic and imaging system used for carious tracking and drilling by develop a mathematical algorithm using Hilbert transform for edge detection of photo-thermal imaging. photothermal imaging has the ability to penetrate and yield information about an opaque medium well beyond the range of conventional optical imaging. Owing to this ability, Q- switching Nd:YAG laser at wavelength 1064 nm has been extensively used in human teeth to study the sub-surface deposition of laser radiation. The high absorption coefficient of the carious rather than normal region rise its temperature generating IR thermal radiation captured by high resolution thermal camera. Changing the pulse repetition frequency of the laser pulses affects the penetration depth of the laser, which can provide three-dimensional (3D) images in arbitrary planes and allow imaging deep within a solid tissue.

  19. Scanning Nanospin Ensemble Microscope for Nanoscale Magnetic and Thermal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetienne, Jean-Philippe; Lombard, Alain; Simpson, David A; Ritchie, Cameron; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2016-01-13

    Quantum sensors based on solid-state spins provide tremendous opportunities in a wide range of fields from basic physics and chemistry to biomedical imaging. However, integrating them into a scanning probe microscope to enable practical, nanoscale quantum imaging is a highly challenging task. Recently, the use of single spins in diamond in conjunction with atomic force microscopy techniques has allowed significant progress toward this goal, but generalization of this approach has so far been impeded by long acquisition times or by the absence of simultaneous topographic information. Here, we report on a scanning quantum probe microscope which solves both issues by employing a nanospin ensemble hosted in a nanodiamond. This approach provides up to an order of magnitude gain in acquisition time while preserving sub-100 nm spatial resolution both for the quantum sensor and topographic images. We demonstrate two applications of this microscope. We first image nanoscale clusters of maghemite particles through both spin resonance spectroscopy and spin relaxometry, under ambient conditions. Our images reveal fast magnetic field fluctuations in addition to a static component, indicating the presence of both superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles. We next demonstrate a new imaging modality where the nanospin ensemble is used as a thermometer. We use this technique to map the photoinduced heating generated by laser irradiation of a single gold nanoparticle in a fluid environment. This work paves the way toward new applications of quantum probe microscopy such as thermal/magnetic imaging of operating microelectronic devices and magnetic detection of ion channels in cell membranes.

  20. Modeling of solar irradiance using satellite images and direct terrestrial measurements with PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukhov, Igor; Schakhramanyan, Michael; Strebkov, Dmitry; Tikhonov, Anton; Vignola, Frank

    2009-08-01

    A simple, affordable and efficient multifaceted system with technical software programs, "Kosmos 3M", was developed for taking images of the Earth from NOAA satellites and for handling this images and analyzing many geographical and meteorological parameters. Technical software programs have been developed that utilize the "Kosmos 3M" Receiver system. Basic capabilities of the multifaceted "Kosmos 3M" system include: receiving signal from NOAA satellites; digital processing of space images with geographical fixing, superposition of maps of cities and coordinate grid; finding of geographical coordinates at any point of space image; finding of temperature of underlying surface at given points; finding of albedo (reflection coefficient) at any point of space image; finding of upper boundary of clouds (cloudiness); forecasting of dangerous weather phenomena; defining wind fields in cyclones; precipitations forecast; measuring distances between given points; measuring surfaces (areas); and forming of electronic library of images of the Earth. Work is underway to use the "Kosmos 3M" cloudiness images to estimate the incident solar radiation values for evaluating terrestrial solar energy performance in real time. Such kind of system would have a wide variety of uses from the classroom to the field.

  1. Determination of the Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Lands using Multi-temporal Satellite Sensor Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the history, agricultural activities have been performed close to urban areas. Main reason behind this phenomenon is the need of fast marketing of the agricultural production to urban residents and financial provision. Thus, using the areas nearby cities for agricultural activities brings out advantage of easy transportation of productions and fast marketing. For decades, heavy migration to cities has directly and negatively affected natural grasslands, forests and agricultural lands. This pressure has caused agricultural lands to be changed into urban areas. Dense urbanization causes increase in impervious surfaces, heat islands and many other problems in addition to destruction of agricultural lands. Considering the negative impacts of urbanization on agricultural lands and natural resources, a periodic monitoring of these changes becomes indisputably important. At this point, satellite images are known to be good data sources for land cover / use change monitoring with their fast data acquisition, large area coverages and temporal resolution properties. Classification of the satellite images provides thematic the land cover / use maps of the earth surface and changes can be determined with GIS based analysis multi-temporal maps. In this study, effects of heavy urbanization over agricultural lands in Istanbul, metropolitan city of Turkey, were investigated with use of multi-temporal Landsat TM satellite images acquired between 1984 and 2011. Images were geometrically registered to each other and classified using supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Resulting thematic maps were exported to GIS environment and destructed agricultural lands by urbanization were determined using spatial analysis.

  2. Direct Geolocation of Satellite Images with the EO-CFI Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Eduardo; Prado, Elena; Estebanez, Monica; Martin, Ana I.; Gonzalez, Malena

    2016-08-01

    The INTA Remote Sensing Laboratory has implemented a tool for the direct geolocation of satellite images. The core of the tool is a C code based on the "Earth Observation Mission CFI SW" from ESA. The tool accepts different types of inputs for satellite attitude (euler angles, quaternions, default attitude models). Satellite position can be provided either in ECEF or ECI coordinates. The line of sight of each individual detector is imported from an external file or is generated by the tool from camera parameters. Global DEM ACE2 is used to define ground intersection of the LOS.The tool has been already tailored for georeferencing images from the forthcoming Spanish Earth Observation mission SEOSat/Ingenio, and for the camera APIS onboard the INTA cubesat OPTOS. The next step is to configure it for the geolocation of Sentinel 2 L1b images.The tool has been internally validated by different means. This validation shows that the tool is suitable for georeferencing images from high spatial resolution missions. As part of the validation efforts, a code for simulating orbital info for LEO missions using EO-CFI has been produced.

  3. Detection of Burn Area and Severity with MODIS Satellite Images and Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Kavzoglu, T.; Tonbul, H.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of forest fires and implications are one of the most important natural disasters all over the world. Statistical data observed that forest fires had a variable structure in the last century in Turkey, but correspondingly the population growth amount of forest fires and burn area increase widely in recent years. Depending on this, erosion, landslides, desertification and mass loss come into existence. In addition; after forest fires, renewal of forests and vegetation are very important for land management. Classic methods used for detection of burn area and severity requires a long and challenging process due to time and cost factors. Thanks to advanced techniques used in the field of Remote Sensing, burn area and severity can be determined with high detail and precision. The purpose of this study based on blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectradiometer) satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques together, thus detect burn area and severity absolutely. In this context, spatial autocorrelation statistics like Moran's I and Get is-Ord Local Gi indexes were used to measure and analyze to burned area characteristics. Prefire and postfire satellite images were used to determine fire severity depending on spectral indexes corresponding to biomass loss and carbon emissivity intensities. Satellite images have used for identification of fire damages and risks in terms of fire management for a long time. This study was performed using prefire and postfire satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques to determining and analyzing forest fires in Antalya, Turkey region which serious fires occurred. In this context, this approach enables the characterization of distinctive texture of burned area and helps forecasting more precisely. Finally, it is observed that mapping of burned area and severity could be performed from local scale to national scale. Key Words: Spatial autocorrelation, MODIS, Fire, Burn Severity

  4. Foodstuff Survey Around a Major Nuclear Facility with Test of Satellite Image Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-07-16

    'A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken SC. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of SRS center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined in two ways: by the usual process of assuming uniform crop distribution in each county on the basis of agricultural statistics reported by state agencies, and by analysis of two LANDSAT TM images obtained in May and September. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the Site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption. For four food crops, the amounts per section based on county agricultural statistics prorated by area were compared with the amounts per section based on satellite image analysis. The median ratios of the former to the latter were 0.6 - 0.7, suggesting that the two approaches are comparable but that satellite image analysis gave consistently higher amounts. Use of satellite image analysis is recommended on the basis of these findings to obtain site-specific, as compared to area-averaged, information on crop locations in conjunction with radionuclide pathway modelling. Some improvements in technique are suggested for satellite image application to characterize additional crops.'

  5. Options for using Landsat and RapidEye satellite images aiming the water productivity assessments in mixed agro-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    For water productivity (WP) assessments, the SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm for evapotranspiration (ET) and the Monteith's light use efficiency (LUE) model for biomass production (BIO), were applied to Landsat and RapidEye satellite images, in the Brazilian semiarid region, inside the dry season of 2011, in a mixture of irrigated and rainfed agro-ecosystems. Firstly, with the Landsat image, the methodology from which the surface temperature (T0) is derived as a residue in the radiation balance was tested. Low differences were detected, being Landsat ET with the thermal band averaged 0.9 +/- 1.5 mm d-1, while without it the mean value was 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm d-1. The corresponding Landsat BIO values were respectively 28 +/- 59 and 28 +/- 58 kg ha-1 d-1, resulting in mean WP of 1.3 +/- 1.3 kg m-3, in both cases. After having confidence on the residual methodology for retrieving T0 it was applied to the RapidEye image, resulting in average pixel values for ET, BIO and WP of 0.6 +/- 1.5 mm d-1, 26 +/- 58 kg ha-1 d-1 and 0.9 +/- 1.3 kg m-3, representing 75%, 93% and 69% of the Landsat ones obtained without the thermal band. In addition, the Surface Resistance Algorithm (SUREAL) was used to classify the agro-ecosystems into irrigated crops and natural vegetation by using the RapidEye image. The incremental values for ET, BIO and WP in 2011 were 2.0 +/- 1.3 mm d-1, 88 +/- 87 kg ha d-1 and 2.5 +/- 0.6 kg m-3, respectively, as a result of the replacement of the natural species by crops.

  6. Monitoring Thermal Activity of Eastern Anatolian Volcanoes Using MODIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, Caner; Ulusoy, Inan

    2014-05-01

    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument is used for imaging atmosphere, land and ocean with 36 bands. Both AQUA and TERRA platforms acquire 2 images daily (daytime and nighttime). Low temperature anomalies on volcanoes comprise important clues. Low temperature anomalies on Holocene volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia were investigated for these clues using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) images. A total of 16800 daily LST images dated between 2001 and 2012 have been processed using a code written in IDL (Interactive Data Language). Factors like shadow, ice/snow and clouds that are affecting the reflectance data are masked. The mask is derived from MODIS reflectance data state image. Various LST images are calculated: Two nested region of interest (ROI) windows (square/rectangular) have been selected on the images. First is the bigger window, which covers the whole area of the volcano (Total volcano area). Second one is a smaller window which circumference the summit (crater and/or caldera) of the volcano (Summit cone) where thermal output is generally higher when compared to the flanks. Two data sets have been calculated using the ROI's for each volcano. The first set contains daytime and nighttime raw data without any correction. The second set contains topographically corrected images; daytime images are corrected using Cosine and Minnaert methods and nighttime images are corrected using three step normalization method. Calculated surface temperatures (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean) are plotted annually. On Nemrut Volcano as an example, maximum and minimum temperatures are between 26.31oC and -44.87oC on nighttime data for twelve years period. Temperature difference between total volcano area ROI and summit cone ROI are calculated (ΔT). High ΔT indicates that there is an increase of temperature at the summit cone when compared to the total volcano area. STA/LTA (Short Term Average/Long Term Average) filter was applied to maximum temperature and

  7. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  8. Image and Processing Models for Satellite Detection in Images Acquired by Space-based Surveillance-of-Space Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    software. Résumé …..... Dans le cadre de la surveillance de l’espace, les objets spatiaux connus en orbite (OSO), i.e., satellites actifs ou débris...SAPPHIRE et NEOSSat. Ce document contient des modèles qui décrivent la formation des images et le processus d’acquisition de capteurs , basés au sol ou dans

  9. Contrail frequency over Europe from NOAA-satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gayler

    Full Text Available Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods September 1979 - December 1981 and September 1989 - August 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 °N (of almost 2% and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2% in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1% in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods, which are separated by one decade, shows there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are found preferentially in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which usually last for more than a day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed.

  10. Contrail frequency over Europe from NOAA-satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, S.; Betancor, M.; Gayler, V.; Graßl, H.

    1994-10-01

    Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods September 1979 - December 1981 and September 1989 - August 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 °N (of almost 2%) and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2%) in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1%) in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods, which are separated by one decade, shows there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are found preferentially in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which usually last for more than a day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed.

  11. Nanoscale thermal imaging of dissipation in quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbertal, D.; Cuppens, J.; Shalom, M. Ben; Embon, L.; Shadmi, N.; Anahory, Y.; Naren, H. R.; Sarkar, J.; Uri, A.; Ronen, Y.; Myasoedov, Y.; Levitov, L. S.; Joselevich, E.; Geim, A. K.; Zeldov, E.

    2016-11-01

    Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics that distinguish quantum from classical phenomena. In particular, in condensed matter physics, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Yet the microscopic behaviour of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the micrometre scale. Although nanoscale thermometry has gained much recent interest, existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for the study of quantum systems and are also unsuitable for the low-temperature operation that is required. Here we report a nano-thermometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device with a diameter of less than 50 nanometres that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette: it provides scanning cryogenic thermal sensing that is four orders of magnitude more sensitive than previous devices—below 1 μK Hz-1/2. This non-contact, non-invasive thermometry allows thermal imaging of very low intensity, nanoscale energy dissipation down to the fundamental Landauer limit of 40 femtowatts for continuous readout of a single qubit at one gigahertz at 4.2 kelvin. These advances enable the observation of changes in dissipation due to single-electron charging of individual quantum dots in carbon nanotubes. They also reveal a dissipation mechanism attributable to resonant localized states in graphene encapsulated within hexagonal boron nitride, opening the door to direct thermal imaging of nanoscale dissipation processes in quantum matter.

  12. Nanoscale thermal imaging of dissipation in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbertal, D; Cuppens, J; Shalom, M Ben; Embon, L; Shadmi, N; Anahory, Y; Naren, H R; Sarkar, J; Uri, A; Ronen, Y; Myasoedov, Y; Levitov, L S; Joselevich, E; Geim, A K; Zeldov, E

    2016-11-17

    Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics that distinguish quantum from classical phenomena. In particular, in condensed matter physics, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Yet the microscopic behaviour of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the micrometre scale. Although nanoscale thermometry has gained much recent interest, existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for the study of quantum systems and are also unsuitable for the low-temperature operation that is required. Here we report a nano-thermometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device with a diameter of less than 50 nanometres that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette: it provides scanning cryogenic thermal sensing that is four orders of magnitude more sensitive than previous devices-below 1 μK Hz(-1/2). This non-contact, non-invasive thermometry allows thermal imaging of very low intensity, nanoscale energy dissipation down to the fundamental Landauer limit of 40 femtowatts for continuous readout of a single qubit at one gigahertz at 4.2 kelvin. These advances enable the observation of changes in dissipation due to single-electron charging of individual quantum dots in carbon nanotubes. They also reveal a dissipation mechanism attributable to resonant localized states in graphene encapsulated within hexagonal boron nitride, opening the door to direct thermal imaging of nanoscale dissipation processes in quantum matter.

  13. Detection of Convective Initiation Using Meteorological Imager Onboard Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite Based on Machine Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangsun Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As convective clouds in Northeast Asia are accompanied by various hazards related with heavy rainfall and thunderstorms, it is very important to detect convective initiation (CI in the region in order to mitigate damage by such hazards. In this study, a novel approach for CI detection using images from Meteorological Imager (MI, a payload of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS, was developed by improving the criteria of the interest fields of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Areas (RDCA derivation algorithm, an official CI detection algorithm for Multi-functional Transport SATellite-2 (MTSAT-2, based on three machine learning approaches—decision trees (DT, random forest (RF, and support vector machines (SVM. CI was defined as clouds within a 16 × 16 km window with the first detection of lightning occurrence at the center. A total of nine interest fields derived from visible, water vapor, and two thermal infrared images of MI obtained 15–75 min before the lightning occurrence were used as input variables for CI detection. RF produced slightly higher performance (probability of detection (POD of 75.5% and false alarm rate (FAR of 46.2% than DT (POD of 70.7% and FAR of 46.6% for detection of CI caused by migrating frontal cyclones and unstable atmosphere. SVM resulted in relatively poor performance with very high FAR ~83.3%. The averaged lead times of CI detection based on the DT and RF models were 36.8 and 37.7 min, respectively. This implies that CI over Northeast Asia can be forecasted ~30–45 min in advance using COMS MI data.

  14. GNSS Carrier Phase Integer Ambiguity Resolution with Camera and Satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Ambiguity Resolution is the key to high precision position and attitude determination with GNSS. However, ambiguity resolution of kinematic receivers becomes challenging in environments with substantial multipath, limited satellite availability and erroneous cycle slip corrections. There is a need for other sensors, e.g. inertial sensors that allow an independent prediction of the position. The change of the predicted position over time can then be used for cycle slip detection and correction. In this paper, we provide a method to improve the initial ambiguity resolution for RTK and PPP with vision-based position information. Camera images are correlated with geo-referenced aerial/ satellite images to obtain an independent absolute position information. This absolute position information is then coupled with the GNSS and INS measurements in an extended Kalman filter to estimate the position, velocity, acceleration, attitude, angular rates, code multipath and biases of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. The camera and satellite images are matched based on some characteristic image points (e.g. corners of street markers). We extract these characteristic image points from the camera images by performing the following steps: An inverse mapping (homogenous projection) is applied to transform the camera images from the driver's perspective to bird view. Subsequently, we detect the street markers by performing (a) a color transformation and reduction with adaptive brightness correction to focus on relevant features, (b) a subsequent morphological operation to enhance the structure recognition, (c) an edge and corner detection to extract feature points, and (d) a point matching of the corner points with a template to recognize the street markers. We verified the proposed method with two low-cost u-blox LEA 6T GPS receivers, the MPU9150 from Invensense, the ASCOS RTK corrections and a PointGrey camera. The results show very precise and seamless position and attitude

  15. Prospecting for geothermal energy through satellite based thermal data: Review and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Howari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal investors need to be confident with the methods and results of exploration programs. Also cutting the upfront cost of geothermal exploration will further encourage investors to consider investment in this emerging clean energy field. Hence, it is of paramount importance to improve prospecting techniques in order to explore where economic concentrations of geothermal energy are to be expected.  The current study evaluates different approaches for downscaling thermal data from remote sensing images together with factors in surface and subsurface environment. The paper discusses case studies, the challenge and the way forward for geothermal prospecting as well as practical solutions to discrepancy that faces the mapping and documentation of spatial geothermal anomalies.  It also discusses main criteria that should be considered while prospecting for geothermal energy.

  16. Fusion between Satellite and Geophysical images in the study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Tsokas, G. N.; Petrou, M.; Maggidis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work various image fusion techniques are used between one satellite (Quickbird) and one geophysical (electric resistivity) image to create various combinations with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant images provide more information about possible buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is located in mainland Greece near the city of Boetia at the acropolis of Gla. The acropolis was built on a flat-topped bedrock outcrop at the north-eastern edge of the Kopais basin. When Kopais was filled with water, Glas was emerging as an island. At the end of 14th century the two palaces of Thebes and Orchomenos jointly utilized a large scale engineering project in order to transform the Kopais basin into a fertile plain. They used the acropolis to monitor the project, and as a warehouse to storage the harvest. To examine the Acropolis for potential archaeological remnants we use one Quickbird satellite image that covers the surrounding area of Gla. The satellite image includes one panchromatic (8532x8528 pixels) and one multispectral (2133x2132 pixels) image, collected on 30th of August 2011, covering an area of 20 square kilometers. On the other hand, geophysical measurements were performed using the electric resistivity method to the south west part of the Acropolis. To combine these images we investigate mean-value fusion, wavelets fusion, and curvelet fusion. In the cases of wavelet and curvelet fusion we apply as the fusion criterion the maximum frequency rule. Furthermore, the two original images, and excavations near the area suggest that the dominant orientations of the buried features are north-south and east-west. Therefore, in curvelet fusion method, in curvelet domain we enhance the image details along these specific orientations, additionally to the fusion. The resultant fused images succeed to map linear and rectangular features that were not easily visible in the original images

  17. Persistent scatterers detection on synthetic aperture radar images acquired by Sentinel-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dǎnişor, Cosmin; Popescu, Anca; Datcu, Mihai

    2016-12-01

    Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PS-InSAR) has become a popular method in remote sensing because of its capability to measure terrain deformations with very high accuracy. It relies on multiple Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions, to monitor points with stable proprieties over time, called Persistent Scatterers (PS)[1]. These points are unaffected by temporal decorrelation, therefore by analyzing their interferometric phase variation we can estimate the scene's deformation rates within a given time interval. In this work, we apply two incoherent detection algorithms to identify Persistent Scatterers candidates in the city of Focșani, Romania. The first method studies the variation of targets' intensities along the SAR acquisitions and the second method analyzes the spectral proprieties of the scatterers. The algorithms were implemented on a dataset containing 11 complex images of the region covering Buzău, Brăila and Focșani cities. Images were acquired by Sentinel-1 satellite in a time span of 5 months, from October 2014 to February 2015. The processing chain follows the requirements imposed by the new C-band SAR images delivered by the Sentinel-1 satellite (launched in April 2014) imaging in Interferometric Wide (IW) mode. Considering the particularities of the TOPS (Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans in Azimuth) imaging mode[2], special requirements had to be considered for pre-processing steps. The PS detection algorithms were implemented in Gamma RS program, a software which contains various function packages dedicated to SAR images focalization, analysis and processing.

  18. A data mining based approach to predict spatiotemporal changes in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, W.; Farah, I. R.; Ettabaa, K. Saheb; Solaiman, B.; Ghézala, H. Ben

    2011-06-01

    The interpretation of remotely sensed images in a spatiotemporal context is becoming a valuable research topic. However, the constant growth of data volume in remote sensing imaging makes reaching conclusions based on collected data a challenging task. Recently, data mining appears to be a promising research field leading to several interesting discoveries in various areas such as marketing, surveillance, fraud detection and scientific discovery. By integrating data mining and image interpretation techniques, accurate and relevant information (i.e. functional relation between observed parcels and a set of informational contents) can be automatically elicited. This study presents a new approach to predict spatiotemporal changes in satellite image databases. The proposed method exploits fuzzy sets and data mining concepts to build predictions and decisions for several remote sensing fields. It takes into account imperfections related to the spatiotemporal mining process in order to provide more accurate and reliable information about land cover changes in satellite images. The proposed approach is validated using SPOT images representing the Saint-Denis region, capital of Reunion Island. Results show good performances of the proposed framework in predicting change for the urban zone.

  19. Effects of rubber shock absorber on the flywheel micro vibration in the satellite imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changcheng; Mu, Deqiang; Jia, Xuezhi; Li, Zongxuan

    2016-12-01

    When a satellite is in orbit, its flywheel will generate micro vibration and affect the imaging quality of the camera. In order to reduce this effect, a rubber shock absorber is used, and a numerical model and an experimental setup are developed to investigate its effect on the micro vibration in the study. An integrated model is developed for the system, and a ray tracing method is used in the modeling. The spot coordinates and displacements of the image plane are obtained, and the modulate transfer function (MTF) of the system is calculated. A satellite including a rubber shock absorber is designed, and the experiments are carried out. Both simulation and experiments results show that the MTF increases almost 10 %, suggesting the rubber shock absorber is useful to decrease the flywheel vibration.

  20. A Low-Complexity UEP Methodology Demonstrated on a Turbo-Encoded Wavelet Image Satellite Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemi Eric

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizing high-quality digital image transmission via a satellite link, while optimizing resource distribution and minimizing battery consumption, is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology to optimize a turbo-encoded wavelet-based satellite downlink progressive image transmission system with unequal error protection (UEP techniques. To achieve that goal, we instantiate a generic UEP methodology onto the system, and demonstrate that the proposed solution has little impact on the average performance, while greatly reducing the run-time complexity. Based on a simple design-time distortion model and a low-complexity run-time algorithm, the provided solution can dynamically tune the system's configuration to any bitrate constraint or channel condition. The resulting system outperforms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, a state-of-the-art, fine-tuned equal error protection (EEP solution by as much as 2 dB.

  1. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  2. Investigation of Interpolation for Solar Irradiation in Non-Observed Point Based on Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Fujisawa, Sei; Seki, Tomomichi

    Penetrating the Photovoltaic Power Generation System (PV) on an enormous scale over a next decade has some crucial problems which affect on, for example, power grid stabilization and operation including existing power stations for electric power utilities. It would be therefore important for future operation to estimate power output generated by PV in advance. We focus on interpolation using observed solar irradiation (SI) and brightness of pixel on a satellite visible image for estimating SI even in non-observed point. Our results by single regression analysis between observed SI and brightness on a satellite image as cloudiness show that a shift of highest determination coefficient on each hour would represent solar movement and this higher determination coefficient would indicate a position which SI and cloud would cross. Finally assessment of error in this interpolation shows enough accuracy at least in daytime period, which is important for electricity utilities.

  3. Digital elevation model and satellite images an assessment of soil erosion potential in the Pcinja catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milevski Ivica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pcinja is large left tributary of Vardar River (135 km long, 2877,3 km2 catchment’s area, which drainages surface waters from northeastern Macedonia, and small part of southeastern Serbia. Because of suitable physical-geographic factors (geology, terrain morphology, climate, hydrology, vegetation coverage, soil composition, and high human impact, some parts of the catchment’s suffer significant erosion process. For this reason, it is necessary to research properly spatial distribution of erosion, then influence of physical and anthropogenic factors for the intensity of soil erosion, related erosion landforms (with morphology, genesis, evolution, soil erosion protection etc.. Earlier researches in the area have been performed generally with combination of cartographic and classic field analysis. But in last decades, there are new possibilities available like satellite images and digital elevation models. In this work has been presented the methodology of utilization of satellite images and DEM for erosion research, with analysis and comparisons of outcome data.

  4. A novel super resolution scheme to acquire and process satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dong-yu; Su, Xiao-feng; Lin, Jian-chun; Wang, Gan-quan; Kuang, Ding-bo

    2013-09-01

    Geosynchronous satellite has obvious limitations for the weight and the scale of payloads, and large aperture optical system is not permitted. The optical diffraction limit of small aperture optical system has an adverse impact on the resolution of the acquired images. Therefore, how to get high resolution images using super-resolution technique with the acquired low resolution images becomes a popular problem investigated by researchers. Here, we present a novel scheme to acquire low resolution images and process them to achieve a high resolution image. Firstly, to acquire low resolution images, we adopt a special arrangement pattern of four CCD staggered arrays on the focal plane in the remote sensing satellite framework .These four CCD linear arrays are parallelized with a 0.25√2 pixel shift along the CCD direction and a 1.25 pixel shift along the scanning direction. The rotation angle between the two directions is 45 degree. The tilting sampling mode and the special arrangement pattern allow the sensor to acquire images with a smaller sampling interval which can give the resolution a greater enhancement. Secondly, to reconstruct a high resolution image of pretty good quality with a magnification factor 4, we propose a novel algorithm based on the iterative-interpolation super resolution algorithm (IISR) and the new edge-directed interpolation algorithm (NEDI). The new algorithm makes a critical improvement to NEDI and introduces it into the multi-frame interpolation in IISR. The algorithm can preserve the edges well and requires a relatively small number of low-resolution images to achieve better reconstruction accuracy .In the last part of the paper, we carry out a simulation experiment, and use MSE as the quality measure. The results demonstrate that our new scheme substantially improves the image resolution with both better quantitative quality and visual quality compared with some previous normal methods.

  5. Plant species discrimination using emissive thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Gilles; Gerhards, Max; Schlerf, Martin; Hecker, Christoph; Udelhoven, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination of plant species in the optical reflective domain is somewhat limited by the similarity of their reflectance spectra. Spectral characteristics in the visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) consist of combination bands and overtones of primary absorption bands, situated in the Thermal Infrared (TIR) region and therefore resulting in broad spectral features. TIR spectroscopy is assumed to have a large potential for providing complementary information to VSWIR spectroscopy. So far, in the TIR, plants were often considered featureless. Recently and following advances in sensor technology, plant species were discriminated based on specific emissivity signatures by Ullah et al. (2012) using directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR) measurements in the laboratory. Here we examine if an accurate discrimination of plant species is equally possible using emissive thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy, an explicit spatial technique that is faster and more flexible than non-imaging measurements. Hyperspectral thermal infrared images were acquired in the 7.8⿿11.56 μm range at 40 nm spectral resolution (@10 μm) using a TIR imaging spectrometer (Telops HyperCam-LW) on seven plants each, of eight different species. The images were radiometrically calibrated and subjected to temperature and emissivity separation using a spectral smoothness approach. First, retrieved emissivity spectra were compared to laboratory reference spectra and then subjected to species discrimination using a random forest classifier. Second, classification results obtained with emissivity spectra were compared to those obtained with VSWIR reflectance spectra that had been acquired from the same leaf samples. In general, the mean emissivity spectra measured by the TIR imaging spectrometer showed very good agreement with the reference spectra (average Nash-Sutcliffe-Efficiency Index = 0.64). In species discrimination, the resulting accuracies for emissivity spectra are highly dependent on

  6. Quantitative measurements of Jupiter, Saturn, their rings and satellites made from Voyager imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. A.; Bunker, A. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft cameras use selenium-sulfur slow scan vidicons to convert focused optical images into sensible electrical signals. The vidicon-generated data thus obtained are the basis of measurements of much greater precision than was previously possible, in virtue of their superior linearity, geometric fidelity, and the use of in-flight calibration. Attention is given to positional, radiometric, and dynamical measurements conducted on the basis of vidicon data for the Saturn rings, the Saturn satellites, and the Jupiter atmosphere.

  7. IoSiS: a radar system for imaging of satellites in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirousek, M.; Anger, S.; Dill, S.; Schreiber, E.; Peichl, M.

    2017-05-01

    Space debris nowadays is one of the main threats for satellite systems especially in low earth orbit (LEO). More than 700,000 debris objects with potential to destroy or damage a satellite are estimated. The effects of an impact often are not identifiable directly from ground. High-resolution radar images are helpful in analyzing a possible damage. Therefor DLR is currently developing a radar system called IoSiS (Imaging of Satellites in Space), being based on an existing steering antenna structure and our multi-purpose high-performance radar system GigaRad for experimental investigations. GigaRad is a multi-channel system operating at X band and using a bandwidth of up to 4.4 GHz in the IoSiS configuration, providing fully separated transmit (TX) and receive (RX) channels, and separated antennas. For the observation of small satellites or space debris a highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) is mounted close to the TX antenna feed. For the experimental phase IoSiS uses a 9 m TX and a 1 m RX antenna mounted on a common steerable positioner. High-resolution radar images are obtained by using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) techniques. The guided tracking of known objects during overpass allows here wide azimuth observation angles. Thus high azimuth resolution comparable to the range resolution can be achieved. This paper outlines technical main characteristics of the IoSiS radar system including the basic setup of the antenna, the radar instrument with the RF error correction, and the measurement strategy. Also a short description about a simulation tool for the whole instrument and expected images is shown.

  8. Estimating Advective Near-surface Currents from Ocean Color Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    K., Arnone, R.A., et al. (2014). Forecasting the ocean’s optical environment using the BioCast system. Oceanography , 27, 46–57. 14 H. Yang et al...satellite images 0602435N 73-9358-09-5 Haoping Yang, Robert Arnone, Jason Jolliff Naval Research Laboratory Oceanography Division Stennis Space Center...U.S. East and Gulf coasts. The MCC calculation is validated in a series of Bio- Optical Forecasting (BioCast) experiments with predetermined synthetic

  9. Optimizing the Attitude Control of Small Satellite Constellations for Rapid Response Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Given the increasingly accurate attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, small spacecraft now have the ability to slew and point within few minutes of notice. In spite of hardware development in CubeSats at the payload (e.g. NASA InVEST) and subsystems (e.g. Blue Canyon Technologies), software development for tradespace analysis in constellation design (e.g. Goddard's TAT-C), planning and scheduling development in single spacecraft (e.g. GEO-CAPE) and aerial flight path optimizations for UAVs (e.g. NASA Sensor Web), there is a gap in open-source, open-access software tools for planning and scheduling distributed satellite operations in terms of pointing and observing targets. This paper will demonstrate results from a tool being developed for scheduling pointing operations of narrow field-of-view (FOV) sensors over mission lifetime to maximize metrics such as global coverage and revisit statistics. Past research has shown the need for at least fourteen satellites to cover the Earth globally everyday using a LandSat-like sensor. Increasing the FOV three times reduces the need to four satellites, however adds image distortion and BRDF complexities to the observed reflectance. If narrow FOV sensors on a small satellite constellation were commanded using robust algorithms to slew their sensor dynamically, they would be able to coordinately cover the global landmass much faster without compensating for spatial resolution or BRDF effects. Our algorithm to optimize constellation satellite pointing is based on a dynamic programming approach under the constraints of orbital mechanics and existing attitude control systems for small satellites. As a case study for our algorithm, we minimize the time required to cover the 17000 Landsat images with maximum signal to noise ratio fall

  10. A thermal inertia model for soil water content retrieval using thermal and multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, A.; Minacapilli, M.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; D'Asaro, F.

    2010-10-01

    Soil moisture is difficult to quantify because of its high spatial variability. Consequently, great efforts have been undertaken by the research community to develop practical remote sensing approaches to estimate the spatial distribution of surface soil moisture over large areas and with high spatial detail. Many methodologies have been developed using remote sensing data acquiring information in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Conventional field measurement techniques (including gravimetric and time-domain reflectometry) are point-based, involve on-site operators, are time expensive and, in any case, do not provide exhaustive information on the spatial distribution of soil moisture because it strongly depends on pedology, soil roughness and vegetation cover. The technological development of imaging sensors acquiring in the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR), renewed the research interest in setting up remote sensed based techniques aimed to retrieve soil water content variability in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SPA). In this context different approaches have been widely applied at regional scale throughout synthetic indexes based on VIS, NIR and TIR spectral bands. A laboratory experiment has been carried out to verify a physically based model based on the remote estimation of the soil thermal inertia, P, to indirectly retrieve the soil surface water content, θ. The paper shows laboratory retrievals using simultaneously a FLIR A320G thermal camera, a six bands customized TETRACAM MCA II (Multiple Camera Array) multispectral camera working in the VIS/NIR part of the spectrum. Using these two type of sensors a set of VIS/NIR and TIR images were acquired as the main input dataset to retrieve the spatial variability of the thermal inertia values. Moreover, given that the accuracy of the proposed approach strongly depends on the accurate estimation of the soil thermal conductivity, a Decagon Device KD2 PRO thermal

  11. A Bayesian approach for solar resource potential assessment using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguet, L.; Atif, J.

    2014-03-01

    The need for a more sustainable and more protective development opens new possibilities for renewable energy. Among the different renewable energy sources, the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by solar photovoltaic (PV) technology seems to be the most promising and represents a technically viable solution to energy demands. But implantation and deployment of PV energy need solar resource data for utility planning, accommodating grid capacity, and formulating future adaptive policies. Currently, the best approach to determine the solar resource at a given site is based on the use of satellite images. However, the computation of solar resource (non-linear process) from satellite images is unfortunately not straightforward. From a signal processing point of view, it falls within non-stationary, non-linear/non-Gaussian dynamical inverse problems. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach combining satellite images and in situ data. We propose original observation and transition functions taking advantages of the characteristics of both the involved type of data. A simulation study of solar irradiance is carried along with this method and a French Guiana solar resource potential map for year 2010 is given.

  12. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  13. Potential application of Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracker on satellite images for automatic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tasneem; Singh, Dharmendra; Raman, Balasubramanian

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring agricultural areas is still a very challenging task. Various models and methodologies have been developed for monitoring the agricultural areas with satellite images, but their practical applicability is limited due to the complexity in processing and dependence on a priori information. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility of the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracker, which is generally useful for tracking objects in video images, for monitoring agricultural areas. The KLT tracker was proposed to deal with the problem of image registration, but the use of the KLT tracker in satellite images for land cover monitoring is rarely reported. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) data has been used to identify and track the agricultural areas. The tracked pixels were compared with the agriculture pixels obtained from a decision tree algorithm and both results are closely matched. An image differencing change detection technique has been applied after KLT tracker implementation to observe the "change" and "no change" pixels in agricultural areas. It is observed that two kinds of changes are being detected. The areas where agriculture was not there earlier, but now is present, the changes are called positive changes. In the areas where agriculture was present earlier, but now is not present, those changes are referred to as negative changes. Unchanged areas retrieved from both the images are labeled as "no change" pixels. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that it uses a simplified version of the KLT tracker to efficiently select and track the agriculture features on the basis of their spatial information and does not require a priori information every time.

  14. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  15. Automated Astrometric Analysis of Satellite Observations using Wide-field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuljan, J.; Kay, J.

    2016-09-01

    An observational trial was conducted in the South Island of New Zealand from 24 to 28 February 2015, as a collaborative effort between the United Kingdom and New Zealand in the area of space situational awareness. The aim of the trial was to observe a number of satellites in low Earth orbit using wide-field imaging from two separate locations, in order to determine the space trajectory and compare the measurements with the predictions based on the standard two-line elements. This activity was an initial step in building a space situational awareness capability at the Defence Technology Agency of the New Zealand Defence Force. New Zealand has an important strategic position as the last land mass that many satellites selected for deorbiting pass before entering the Earth's atmosphere over the dedicated disposal area in the South Pacific. A preliminary analysis of the trial data has demonstrated that relatively inexpensive equipment can be used to successfully detect satellites at moderate altitudes. A total of 60 satellite passes were observed over the five nights of observation and about 2600 images were collected. A combination of cooled CCD and standard DSLR cameras were used, with a selection of lenses between 17 mm and 50 mm in focal length, covering a relatively wide field of view of 25 to 60 degrees. The CCD cameras were equipped with custom-made GPS modules to record the time of exposure with a high accuracy of one millisecond, or better. Specialised software has been developed for automated astrometric analysis of the trial data. The astrometric solution is obtained as a two-dimensional least-squares polynomial fit to the measured pixel positions of a large number of stars (typically 1000) detected across the image. The star identification is fully automated and works well for all camera-lens combinations used in the trial. A moderate polynomial degree of 3 to 5 is selected to take into account any image distortions introduced by the lens. A typical RMS

  16. Nanoscale thermal imaging of dissipation in quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Halbertal, Dorri; Shalom, Moshe Ben; Embon, Lior; Shadmi, Nitzan; Anahory, Yonathan; Naren, HR; Sarkar, Jayanta; Uri, Aviram; Ronen, Yuval; Myasoedov, Yury; Levitov, Leonid; Joselevich, Ernesto; Geim, Andre Konstantin; Zeldov, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical, and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics distinguishing quantum and classical phenomena. In condensed matter physics, in particular, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information, or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Despite its vital importance the microscopic behavior of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because the latter is not a readily measureable quantity on the microscale. Although nanoscale thermometry is gaining much recent interest, the existing thermal imaging methods lack the necessary sensitivity and are unsuitable for low temperature operation required for study of quantum systems. Here we report a superconducting quantum interference nano-thermometer device with sub 50 nm diameter that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette and provides scanning cryogenic thermal se...

  17. Detecting drought stress in longan tree using thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Wiriya-Alongko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is the world’s number-one producer of longan fruit. In general, longan production takes place during the dry season under irrigation. Recently, more attention has been given to water-efficient irrigation. Water stress detection by thermal imaging, which is a non-invasive and rapid assessment method, may be an interesting tool for improved irrigation planning. In this study, four potted longan trees were subjected to water stress. Stress responses in terms of stomatal resistance (rs and leaf water potential (LWP were monitored and compared with a non-stressed control. Based on thermal imaging, the crop water stress index (CWSI was determined throughout the experiment for all trees and correlations with classical parameters were investigated. A field experiment was also carried out with 20 field-grown longan trees, either subjected to water stress treatment or serving as controls; trees were monitored for rs, LWP and CWSI. Under controlled conditions there was a high correlation between CWSI and both rs and LWP during the entire experimental period. In the field experiment it was found that CWSI was best correlated with rs when images were taken from the shaded side of the leaves. A threshold value of 0.7 for CWSI is proposed to distinguish between stressed and non-stressed longan trees.

  18. Thermal wave imaging techniques for inspection of plywood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Venkata Nagarjuna, P.; Ravi, Dadda; Amarnath, Muniyappa

    2012-06-01

    Infrared non-destructive testing and evaluation (IRNDT&E) is an emerging approach for materials characterization due to its capability to test wide variety of solid materials such as metals, composites and semiconductors of industrial interest. Further it supports thorough inspection and evaluation by its unique remote and fast and whole field testing capabilities. Wood is one of the most commonly used house hold building material it has both structural and decorative applications. It is used both in natural and processed form like ply wood, veneer, ply-board etc. Defects like knots, worm track, delaminations, glue smear etc. influences its in-service capabilities. Even though various non-destructive methods such as optical, ultrasonic and radiography are commonly used to inspect wooden materials, infrared imaging has its own advantage due to its safe, whole field inspection capabilities. This paper describes the applicability of the transient thermal wave imaging (TWI) method for inspection of ply wood. This paper highlights applicability of transient pulsed thermal imaging approach for finding out the hidden defects. Capability of the proposed method and its defect detection capabilities have been highlighted through experimental results.

  19. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow

  20. True Color Images of the Earth created with the Geostationary Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Maximilian

    2013-04-01

    One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With geostationary satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type images from geostationary satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) true colour composite images will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6μm), NIR008 (0.8μm) and NIR016 (1.6μm). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false colour composite images of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true colour images. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting images satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-coloured, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such images are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false colour composite images. The images can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.

  1. TESIS experiment on XUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bogachev, S. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Pertsov, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

    We present a brief description of new complex of space telescopes and spectrographs, TESIS, which will be placed aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The complex is intended for high-resolution imaging observation of full Sun in the coronal spectral lines and in the spectral lines of the solar transition region. TESIS will be launched at the end of 2007 - early of 2008. About 25 % of the daily TESIS images will be free for use and for downloading from the TESIS data center that is planned to open 2 months before the TESIS launching at http://www.tesis.lebedev.ru

  2. Accelerating Satellite Image Based Large-Scale Settlement Detection with GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlolla, Dilip Reddy [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Weaver, Jeanette E [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision algorithms for image analysis are often computationally demanding. Application of such algorithms on large image databases\\---- such as the high-resolution satellite imagery covering the entire land surface, can easily saturate the computational capabilities of conventional CPUs. There is a great demand for vision algorithms running on high performance computing (HPC) architecture capable of processing petascale image data. We exploit the parallel processing capability of GPUs to present a GPU-friendly algorithm for robust and efficient detection of settlements from large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery. Feature descriptor generation is an expensive, but a key step in automated scene analysis. To address this challenge, we present GPU implementations for three different feature descriptors\\-- multiscale Historgram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) Contrast and local pixel intensity statistics. We perform extensive experimental evaluations of our implementation using diverse and large image datasets. Our GPU implementation of the feature descriptor algorithms results in speedups of 220 times compared to the CPU version. We present an highly efficient settlement detection system running on a multiGPU architecture capable of extracting human settlement regions from a city-scale sub-meter spatial resolution aerial imagery spanning roughly 1200 sq. kilometers in just 56 seconds with detection accuracy close to 90\\%. This remarkable speedup gained by our vision algorithm maintaining high detection accuracy clearly demonstrates that such computational advancements clearly hold the solution for petascale image analysis challenges.

  3. Search for astronomical sites suitable for infrared observations using GOES satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducati, Jorge R.; Feijo, Eleandro S.

    2003-04-01

    Images from GOES satellite were used to develop a method to search for sites suitable to astronomical observations in the infrared. An area of study located in the Peruvian Andes was chosen, with altitudes above 2500 m. Forty-three images from the GOES meteorological satellite in channels 3, 4 and 5 were used. The GOES images, spanning an 11-day period, in each channel, were combined to produced images expressing the surface visibility in each channel. Atmospheric turbulence could be estimated from the variation of visibility over six-hour periods, with one image per hour. As criteria to classify sites on the Andes, we combined information on altitude, visibility of the surface in the infrared, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, and atmospheric turbulence. Results of this new method showed that the region of Moquegua, in South Peru, is to be preferred in surveys for astronomical sites. Comparisons with results from other investigators, which used other approaches, indicated that this methodology can produce valid results and can be applied to studies covering larger periods. The general results of this study indicate that the method is valid and can effectively be used as an important resource in surveys for infrared astronomical sites.

  4. Search for astronomical sites suitable for infrared observations using goes satellite images release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducati, J. R.; Feijó, E.

    2003-08-01

    Astronomical sites are traditionally found after studies performed over many years, including preliminary selection of places based in general information on climate, clear skies and logistical adequacy. It follows extensive "in situ" monitoring of seeing and cloudiness. Theses procedures are long and expensive, and alternatives can be looked for. In this study, images from GOES meteorological satellite were used to develop a method to search for sites suitable to astronomical observations in the infrared. An area of study located in the Peruvian Andes was chosen, with altitudes above 2500 m. 43 images from the GOES meteorological satellite in chanels 3, 4 and 5 were used. The GOES images, spanning a 11-day period, in each channel, were combined to produced images expressing the surface visibility in each channel. Atmospheric turbulence could be estimated from the variation of visibility over six-hour periods, with one image per hour. As criteria to classify sites on the Andes, we combined information on altitude, visibility of the surface in the infrared, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, and atmospheric turbulence. Results of this new method showed that the region of Moquegua, in South Peru, is to be preferred in surveys for astronomical sites. Comparisons with results from other investigators, which used other approaches, indicated that this methodology produces valid results and can be used to studies spanning larger periods. The general results of this study indicate that the method can efectively be used as an important resource in surveys for infrared astronomical sites

  5. a New Algorithm for Void Filling in a Dsm from Stereo Satellite Images in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib Bafghi, Z.; Tian, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    Digital Surface Models (DSM) derived from stereo-pair satellite images are the main sources for many Geo-Informatics applications like 3D change detection, object classification and recognition. However since occlusion especially in urban scenes result in some deficiencies in the stereo matching phase, these DSMs contain some voids. In order to fill the voids a range of algorithms have been proposed, mainly including interpolation alone or along with auxiliary DSM. In this paper an algorithm for void filling in DSM from stereo satellite images has been developed. Unlike common previous approaches we didn't use any external DSM to fill the voids. Our proposed algorithm uses only the original images and the unfilled DSM itself. First a neighborhood around every void in the unfilled DSM and its corresponding area in multispectral image is defined. Then it is analysed to extract both spectral and geometric texture and accordingly to assign labels to each cell in the voids. This step contains three phases comprising shadow detection, height thresholding and image segmentation. Thus every cell in void has a label and is filled by the median value of its co-labelled neighbors. The results for datasets from WorldView-2 and IKONOS are shown and discussed.

  6. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR VOID FILLING IN A DSM FROM STEREO SATELLITE IMAGES IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gharib Bafghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Surface Models (DSM derived from stereo-pair satellite images are the main sources for many Geo-Informatics applications like 3D change detection, object classification and recognition. However since occlusion especially in urban scenes result in some deficiencies in the stereo matching phase, these DSMs contain some voids. In order to fill the voids a range of algorithms have been proposed, mainly including interpolation alone or along with auxiliary DSM. In this paper an algorithm for void filling in DSM from stereo satellite images has been developed. Unlike common previous approaches we didn’t use any external DSM to fill the voids. Our proposed algorithm uses only the original images and the unfilled DSM itself. First a neighborhood around every void in the unfilled DSM and its corresponding area in multispectral image is defined. Then it is analysed to extract both spectral and geometric texture and accordingly to assign labels to each cell in the voids. This step contains three phases comprising shadow detection, height thresholding and image segmentation. Thus every cell in void has a label and is filled by the median value of its co-labelled neighbors. The results for datasets from WorldView-2 and IKONOS are shown and discussed.

  7. Surveillance of waste disposal activity at sea using satellite ocean color imagers: GOCI and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Yang, Dong Beom; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sung Ryull; Chung, Hee Woon; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang Soo; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Park, Young-Je; Moon, Jeong-Eon

    2012-09-01

    Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e.g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships.

  8. Imager-to-radiometer inflight cross calibration: RSP radiometric comparison with airborne and satellite sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. McCorkel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a method to compare the radiometric calibration between a radiometer and imagers hosted on aircraft and satellites. The radiometer is the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP that takes multi-angle, photo-polarimetric measurements in several spectral channels. The RSP measurements used in this work were coincident with measurements made by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS, which was on the same aircraft. These airborne measurements were also coincident with an overpass of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI. First we compare the RSP and OLI radiance measurements to AVIRIS since the spectral response of the multispectral instruments can be used to synthesize a spectrally equivalent signal from the imaging spectrometer data. We then explore a method that uses AVIRIS as a transfer between RSP and OLI to show that radiometric traceability of a satellite-based imager can be used to calibrate a radiometer despite differences in spectral channel sensitivities. This calibration transfer shows agreement within the uncertainty of both the various instruments for most spectral channels.

  9. Near-surface Thermal Infrared Imaging of a Mixed Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, D. M.; Helliker, B. R.; Richardson, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of an organism's temperature is of basic physiological importance and therefore necessary for ecosystem modeling, yet most models derive leaf temperature from energy balance arguments or assume it is equal to air temperature. This is because continuous, direct measurement of leaf temperature outside of a controlled environment is difficult and rarely done. Of even greater challenge is measuring leaf temperature with the resolution required to understand the underlying energy balance and regulation of plant processes. To measure leaf temperature through the year, we have mounted a high-resolution, thermal infrared camera overlooking the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest. The camera is co-located with an eddy covariance system and a suite of radiometric sensors. Our camera measures longwave thermal infrared (λ = 7.5-14 microns) using a microbolometer array. Suspended in the canopy within the camera FOV is a matte black copper plate instrumented with fine wire thermocouples that acts as a thermal reference for each image. In this presentation, I will discuss the challenges of continuous, long-term field operation of the camera, as well as measurement sensitivity to physical and environmental parameters. Based on this analysis, I will show that the uncertainties in converting radiometric signal to leaf temperature are well constrained. The key parameter for minimizing uncertainty is the emissivity of the objects being imaged: measuring the emissivity to within 0.01 enables leaf temperature to be calculated to within 0.5°C. Finally, I will present differences in leaf temperature observed amongst species. From our two-year record, we characterize high frequency, daily, and seasonal thermal signatures of leaves and crowns, in relation to environmental conditions. Our images are taken with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to quantify the preferential heating of sunlit portions of the canopy and the cooling effect of wind gusts. Future work will

  10. Infrared thermal imaging of rat somatosensory cortex with whisker stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Ooi, Yasuhiro; Seki, Junji

    2012-04-01

    The present study aims to validate the applicability of infrared (IR) thermal imaging for the study of brain function through experiments on the rat barrel cortex. Regional changes in neural activity within the brain produce alterations in local thermal equilibrium via increases in metabolic activity and blood flow. We studied the relationship between temperature change and neural activity in anesthetized rats using IR imaging to visualize stimulus-induced changes in the somatosensory cortex of the brain. Sensory stimulation of the vibrissae (whiskers) was given for 10 s using an oscillating whisker vibrator (5-mm deflection at 10, 5, and 1 Hz). The brain temperature in the observational region continued to increase significantly with whisker stimulation. The mean peak recorded temperature changes were 0.048 ± 0.028, 0.054 ± 0.036, and 0.097 ± 0.015°C at 10, 5, and 1 Hz, respectively. We also observed that the temperature increase occurred in a focal spot, radiating to encompass a larger region within the contralateral barrel cortex region during single-whisker stimulation. Whisker stimulation also produced ipsilateral cortex temperature increases, which were localized in the same region as the pial arterioles. Temperature increase in the barrel cortex was also observed in rats treated with a calcium channel blocker (nimodipine), which acts to suppress the hemodynamic response to neural activity. Thus the location and area of temperature increase were found to change in accordance with the region of neural activation. These results indicate that IR thermal imaging is viable as a functional quantitative neuroimaging technique.

  11. Estimation of the energy release and thermal properties of ejected clasts from explosive eruptions using a thermal imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Cárdenas-Sánchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal images were obtained at Popocatépetl, central Mexico, during the period of high lava-dome destruction activity between 1998 and 2002. Similarly, thermal cameras have operated at Colima volcano, western Mexico during episodes of similar explosive activity in 2005 and 2007. We have developed a method to estimate the relative thermal energy release among explosions, and the degree of conversion into mechanical energy spent in the fragmentation of the ejecta, based on the cooling rate inferred from successive thermal images obtained immediately after each explosion. The thermal imaging cameras were located at about 11 km from the crater at Popocatépetl, and at about 6 km from the crater at Colima. The selected explosions threw significant amounts of hot debris on the volcano flanks. The cooling rate was then measured on selected pixels of the thermal images, and compared with different possible distributions of fragment sizes considering weighted averages of fragments in the pixels. The optimal fitting of fragment distributions reveals the degree of fragmentation of individual explosions, and along with a model for the cooling process, permitted to estimate the relative thermal energy release on the area covered by the image. Additionally, the results indicate that the radiative thermal conductivity plays a significant role on the outer shell of the fragments, suggesting a free mean path of thermal infrared photons that may reach several millimeters or even a few centimeters.

  12. Inspection of calandria front area of Wolsung NPP using technique of mapping thermal infrared image into CCD image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Seung Ho [Advance Robotics Teams, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-15

    This paper describes the enhanced inspection performance of a thermal infrared camera for monitoring abnormal conditions of calandria reactor area of Wolsung nuclear power plant. Thermal infrared camera have poor image qualities compared to commercial CCD cameras, as in contrast, brightness, and resolution. To compensate the poor image quality problems associated with the thermal infrared camera, the technique of mapping thermal infrared image into real ccd image is proposed. The mobile robot KAEROT/m2, loaded with sensor head system at the mast, is entered to monitor leakage of heavy water and thermal abnormality of the calandria reactor area in overhaul period. The sensor head system is composed of thermal infrared camera and ccd camera in parallel. When thermal abnormality on observation points and areas of calandria reactor area is occurred, unusual hot image taken from thermal infrared camera is superimposed on real CCD image. In this inspection experiment, more accurate positions of thermal abnormalities on calandria reactor area can be estimated by using technique of mapping thermal infrared image into CCD image, which include characters arranged in MPOQ order.

  13. SATURNʼS INNER SATELLITES: ORBITS, MASSES, AND THE CHAOTIC MOTION OF ATLAS FROM NEW CASSINI IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Nicholas J; Renner, Stéfan; Murray, Carl D; Evans, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    We present numerically derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem...

  14. Human detection for underground autonomous mine vehicles using thermal imaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available precludes its use in a GPS deprived underground environment. RFID tags are popular for collision avoidance systems owing to their very low false alarm rates. Each miner has an RFID tag embedded in their cap-lamp. A transmitter mounted on the vehicle... by the objects being imaged, in this case people. The long wavelength (7-14 ?m) of thermal IR allows it to penetrate dust and smoke [6]. The IR spectrum can be divided into four main regions. The main regions are near- infrared, short-wavelength, mid...

  15. Multifractal analysis of satellite images. (Polish Title: Multifraktalna analiza zobrazowan satelitarnych)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, A.; Krupiński, M.; Drzewiecki, W.; Aleksandrowicz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Research presented in this paper is focused on the efficiency assessment of multifractal description as a tool for Image Information Mining. Large datasets of very high spatial resolution satellite images (WorldView-2 and EROS-A) have been analysed. The results have confirmed the superiority of multifractals as global image descriptors in comparison to monofractals. Moreover, their usefulness in image classification by using decision trees classifiers was confirmed, also in comparison with textural features. Filtration process preceding fractal and multifractal features estimations was also proved to improve classification results. Additionally, airborne hyperspectral data have been initially analysed. Fractal dimension shows high potential for the description of hyperspectral data. To summarise all conducted tests indicate the usefulness of multifractal formalism in various aspects of remote sensing. Prepared methodology can be further developed and used for more specific tasks, for example in change detection or in the description of hyperspectal data complexity.

  16. Retrieval of SO2 from thermal infrared satellite measurements: correction procedures for the effects of volcanic ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corradini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous presence of SO2 and ash in a volcanic plume can lead to a significant error in the SO2 column abundance retrieval when multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR data are used. The ash particles within the plume with effective radii from 1 to 10 μm reduce the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA radiance in the entire TIR spectral range, including the channels used for SO2 retrieval. The net effect is a significant SO2 overestimation. In this work the interference of ash is discussed and two correction procedures for satellite SO2 volcanic plume retrieval in the TIR spectral range are developed to achieve an higher computational speed and a better accuracy. The ash correction can be applied when the sensor spectral range includes the 7.3 and/or 8.7 μm SO2 absorption bands, and the split window bands centered around 11 and 12 μm required for ash retrieval. This allows the possibility of simultaneous estimation of both volcanic SO2 and ash in the same data set. The proposed ash correction procedures have been applied to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements. Data collected during the 24 November 2006 Mt. Etna eruption have been used to illustrate the technique. The SO2 and ash estimation is carried out by using a best weighted least squares fit method and the Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD procedures, respectively. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT needed for the SO2 column abundance and the ash retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. The results show the importance of the ash correction on SO2 retrievals at 8.7 μm, where the corrected SO2 column abundance values are less than 50% of the uncorrected values. The ash correction on SO2 retrieval at 7.3 μm is much less important and only significant for low SO2 column abundances. Results also show that the simplified and faster correction procedure

  17. Retrieval of SO2 from thermal infrared satellite measurements: correction procedures for the effects of volcanic ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Prata

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous presence of SO2 and ash in a volcanic plume can lead to a significant error in the SO2 columnar abundance retrieval when multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR data are used. The ash particles within the plume with effective radii (from 1 to 10 μm reduce the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA radiance in the entire TIR spectral range, including the channels used for SO2 retrieval. The net effect is a significant SO2 overestimation. In this work the interference of ash is discussed and two correction procedures for satellite SO2 volcanic plume retrieval in the TIR spectral range are developed to achieve an higher computation speed and a better accuracy. The ash correction can be applied when the sensor spectral range includes the 7.3 and/or 8.7 μm SO2 absorption bands, and the split window bands centered around 11 and 12 μm required for ash retrieval. This allows the possibility of a simultaneous estimation of both volcanic SO2 and ash in the same data set. The proposed ash correction procedures have been applied to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements. Data collected during the 24 November 2006 Mt. Etna eruption have been used to illustrate the technique. The SO2 and ash estimations are carried out by using a least squares fit method and the Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD procedures, respectively. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT needed for the SO2 columnar abundance and the ash retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. The results show the importance of the ash correction on SO2 retrieval at 8.7 μm – the SO2 columnar abundance corrected by the ash influence is less than one half of the values retrieved without the correction. The ash correction on SO2 retrieval at 7.3 μm is much less important and only significant for low SO2 columnar abundances. Results also show that the simplified and

  18. Tree detection in orchards from VHR satellite images using scale-space theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahour, Milad; Tolpekin, Valentyn; Stein, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on extracting reliable and detailed information from very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images for the detection of individual trees in orchards. The images contain detailed information on spectral and geometrical properties of trees. Their scale level, however, is insufficient for spectral properties of individual trees, because adjacent tree canopies interlock. We modeled trees using a bell shaped spectral profile. Identifying the brightest peak was challenging due to sun illumination effects caused 1 by differences in positions of the sun and the satellite sensor. Crown boundary detection was solved by using the NDVI from the same image. We used Gaussian scale-space methods that search for extrema in the scale-space domain. The procedures were tested on two orchards with different tree types, tree sizes and tree observation patterns in Iran. Validation was done using reference data derived from an UltraCam digital aerial photo. Local extrema of the determinant of the Hessian corresponded well to the geographical coordinates and the size of individual trees. False detections arising from a slight asymmetry of trees were distinguished from multiple detections of the same tree with different extents. Uncertainty assessment was carried out on the presence and spatial extents of individual trees. The study demonstrated how the suggested approach can be used for image segmentation for orchards with different types of trees. We concluded that Gaussian scale-space theory can be applied to extract information from VHR satellite images for individual tree detection. This may lead to improved decision making for irrigation and crop water requirement purposes in future studies.

  19. Best period for high spatial resolution satellite images for the detection of marks of buried structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kaimaris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in sensor technology in recent decades led to the creation of ground, air and space imaging systems, whose data can be used in archaeological studies. Greece is one of the lucky areas that are rich in archaeological heritage. The detection of prehistoric/historic undiscovered constructions on satellite images or aerial photos is a complex and complicated matter. These marks are not visible from the ground, they can, however, be traced on satellite or aerial images, because of the differences in tone and texture. These differences appear as crop, soil and shadow marks. Undoubtedly, the detection of buried structures requires a suitable spatial resolution image, taken under appropriate meteorological conditions and during the best period of the vegetation growing cycle. According to the pertinent literature, detecting covered memorials may be achieved either accidentally or, usually, after a systematic investigation based on historical narratives. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that facilitate or hinder the detection of buried structures through high spatial resolution satellite imagery. In this study, pan sharpened images from the QuickBird-2 satellite were used, of a spatial resolution of 0.60-0.70 m. This study concerns the detection of marks of the ancient Via Egnatia, from the ancient Amphipolis to Philippi (Eastern Macedonia, Greece. We studied different types of vegetation in the region and their phenological cycle. Taking into account the vegetation phenological cycle of the study area as well as the meteorological data, four pan sharpened QuickBird-2 images of a spatial resolution of 0.60–0.70 m. were used, during four different seasons. By processing the four images, we can determine the one acquired during the most appropriate conditions for the detection of buried structures. The application of this methodology in the study area had positive results, and not only was the main purpose of this

  20. Effect of nanofluid on thermal performance of heat pipe with two evaporators; application to satellite equipment cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaei, P. R.; Shahryari, M.

    2015-06-01

    A study on the behavior of nanofluid in a cylindrical heat pipe with two heat sources is performed to analyze the nanofluid application in heat-dissipating satellite equipment cooling. Pure water, Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids are used as working fluids. An analytical modeling is presented to predict the wall temperature profile for the heat pipe assuming saturated vapor and conduction heat transfer for porous media and wall, respectively. The effects of particle concentration levels (φ=0 (distilled water), 2, 4, and 8%), particle diameters (dp=10, 20, and 40 nm) on the local wall temperature, heat transfer coefficient, thermal resistance, and the size of the heat pipe are investigated. It is observed that the better wall temperature uniformity can be achieved using nanofluid which results in lower temperature difference between evaporators and condenser sections. Results reveal that applying nanoparticle with smaller size and higher concentration level increases heat transfer coefficient remarkably by reducing thermal resistance of saturated porous media. It is also found that the presence of nanoparticles in water can lead to a reduction in weight of heat pipe, and thus satellite, under nearly identical condition. The findings of this paper prove the potential of nanofluid in satellite equipment cooling application.

  1. Differential Spatio-temporal Multiband Satellite Image Clustering using K-means Optimization With Reinforcement Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Erlyn Wina Rachmawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestration is one of the crucial issues in Indonesia because now Indonesia has world's highest deforestation rate. In other hand, multispectral image delivers a great source of data for studying spatial and temporal changeability of the environmental such as deforestration area. This research present differential image processing methods for detecting nature change of deforestration. Our differential image processing algorithms extract and indicating area automatically. The feature of our proposed idea produce extracted information from multiband satellite image and calculate the area of deforestration by years with calculating data using temporal dataset. Yet, multiband satellite image consists of big data size that were difficult to be handled for segmentation. Commonly, K- Means clustering is considered to be a powerfull clustering algorithm because of its ability to clustering big data. However K-Means has sensitivity of its first generated centroids, which could lead into a bad performance. In this paper we propose a new approach to optimize K-Means clustering using Reinforcement Programming in order to clustering multispectral image. We build a new mechanism for generating initial centroids by implementing exploration and exploitation knowledge from Reinforcement Programming. This optimization will lead a better result for K-means data cluster. We select multispectral image from Landsat 7 in past ten years in Medawai, Borneo, Indonesia, and apply two segmentation areas consist of deforestration land and forest field. We made series of experiments and compared the experimental results of K-means using Reinforcement Programming as optimizing initiate centroid and normal K-means without optimization process. Keywords: Deforestration, Multispectral images, landsat, automatic clustering, K-means.

  2. Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin, Eric; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Cavarroc, Celine; Sterzik, Michael F.

    2008-07-01

    The phase A study of a mid infrared imager and spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), called METIS, was endorsed in May 2008. Two key science drivers of METIS are: a) direct thermal imaging of exo-planets and b) characterization of circumstellar discs from the early proto-planetary to the late debris phase. Observations in the 10μm atmospheric window (N band) require a contrast ratio between stellar light and emitted photons from the exo-planet or the disc of ~ 105. At shorter wavelengths the contrast between star and reflected light from the planet-disc system exceeds >~ 107 posing technical challenges. By means of end-to-end detailed simulations we demonstrate that the superb spatial resolution of a 42m telescope in combination with stellar light rejection methods such as coronagraphic or differential imaging will allow detections at 10μm for a solar type system down to a star-planet separation of 0.1" and a mass limit for irradiated planets of 1 Jupiter (MJ) mass. In case of self-luminous planets observations are possible further out e.g. at the separation limit of JWST of ~ 0.7", METIS will detect planets >~5MJ. This allows to derive a census of all such exo-planets by means of thermal imaging in a volume limited sample of up to 6pc. In addition, METIS will provide the possibility to study the chemical composition of atmospheres of exo-planets using spectroscopy at moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 100) for the brightest targets. Based on detailed performance and sensitivity estimates, we demonstrate that a mid-infrared instrument on an ELT is perfectly suited to observe gravitationally created structures such as gaps in proto- and post- planetary discs, in a complementary way to space missions (e.g. JWST, SOFIA) and ALMA which can only probe the cold dust emission further out.

  3. Thermal imaging method to visualize a hidden painting thermally excited by far infrared radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, T.; Wang, X.; Chabane, A.; Pawelko, R.; Guida, G.; Serio, B.; Hervé, P.

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of hidden painting is a major issue for cultural heritage. In this paper, a non-destructive active infrared thermographic technique was considered to reveal paintings covered by a lime layer. An extended infrared spectral range radiation was used as the excitation source. The external long wave infrared energy source delivered to the surface is then propagated through the material until it encounters a painting zone. Due to several thermal effects, the sample surface then presents non-uniformity patterns. Using a high sensitive infrared camera, the presence of covered pigments can thus be highlighted by the analysis of the non-stationary phenomena. Reconstituted thermal contrast images of mural samples covered by a lime layer are shown.

  4. Evidences of volcanic unrest on high-temperature fumaroles by satellite thermal monitoring: The case of Santa Ana volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J. E.; Cigolini, C.; Escobar, D.; Funes, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Henriquez, B.; Hernandez, A.; Montalvo, F.; Olmos, R.; Ripepe, M.; Finizola, A.

    2017-06-01

    On October 1st, 2005, Santa Ana volcano (El Salvador) underwent a VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption after approximately one century of rest. Casualties and damages to some of the local infrastructures and surrounding plantations were followed by the evacuation of the nearby communities. The analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data reveals that the main explosion was preceded by a one-year-long thermal unrest, associated to the development of a fumaroles field, located at the western rim of the summit crater lake. By combining space-based thermal flux and ground-based measurements (seismicity, sulfur emissions and lake temperatures), we suggest that the activity observed at Santa Ana between 2004 and 2005 was driven by the gradual intrusion of an undegassed magma body at a very shallow depth. Magma injection induced thermal anomalies associated with sustained degassing from the fumaroles field and promoted the interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal system and the overlying water table. This process culminated into the VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption of October 2005 that strongly modified the shallow structure of the crater area. The subsequent three-years-long activity resulted from self-sealing of the fracture system and by the opening of a new fracture network directly connecting the deeper hydrothermal system with the crater lake. Our results show that satellite-based thermal data allow us to detect the expansion of the high-temperature fumarolic field. This may precede an explosive eruption and/or a lava dome extrusion. In particular, we show that thermal records can be analyzed with other geochemical (i.e. SO2 emissions) and geophysical (seismicity) data to track a shallow magmatic intrusion interacting with the surrounding hydrothermal system. This provides a remarkable support for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, particularly in remote areas where permanent ground data acquisition is hazardous, expensive

  5. An anti-image interference quadrature IF architecture for satellite receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Weidong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals span a wide range of frequency, wireless signals coming from other communication systems may be aliased and appear as image interference. In quadrature intermediate frequency (IF receivers, image aliasing due to in-phase and quadrature (I/Q channel mismatches is always a big problem. I/Q mismatches occur because of gain and phase imbalances between quadrature mixers and capacitor mismatches in analog-to-digital converters (ADC. As a result, the dynamic range and performance of a receiver are severely degraded. In this paper, several popular receiver architectures are summarized and the image aliasing problem is investigated in detail. Based on this analysis, a low-IF architecture is proposed for a single-chip solution and a novel and feasible anti-image algorithm is investigated. With this anti-image digital processing, the image reject ratio (IRR can reach approximately above 50 dB, which relaxes image rejection specific in front-end circuit designs and allows cheap and highly flexible analog front-end solutions. Simulation and experimental data show that the anti-image algorithm can work effectively, robustly, and steadily.

  6. An anti-image interference quadrature IF architecture for satellite receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Weidong; Lu Xiaochun; He Chengyan; James Torley

    2014-01-01

    Since Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals span a wide range of frequency, wireless signals coming from other communication systems may be aliased and appear as image interference. In quadrature intermediate frequency (IF) receivers, image aliasing due to in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) channel mismatches is always a big problem. I/Q mismatches occur because of gain and phase imbalances between quadrature mixers and capacitor mismatches in ana-log-to-digital converters (ADC). As a result, the dynamic range and performance of a receiver are severely degraded. In this paper, several popular receiver architectures are summarized and the image aliasing problem is investigated in detail. Based on this analysis, a low-IF architecture is pro-posed for a single-chip solution and a novel and feasible anti-image algorithm is investigated. With this anti-image digital processing, the image reject ratio (IRR) can reach approximately above 50 dB, which relaxes image rejection specific in front-end circuit designs and allows cheap and highly flexible analog front-end solutions. Simulation and experimental data show that the anti-image algorithm can work effectively, robustly, and steadily.

  7. A Framework for Satellite Image Enhancement Using Quantum Genetic and Weighted IHS+Wavelet Fusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. HAMED

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available this paper examined the applicability of quantum genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems posed by satellite image enhancement techniques, particularly super-resolution, and fusion. We introduce a framework starting from reconstructing the higher-resolution panchromatic image by using the subpixel-shifts between a set of lower-resolution images (registration, then interpolation, restoration, till using the higher-resolution image in pan-sharpening a multispectral image by weighted IHS+Wavelet fusion technique. For successful super-resolution, accurate image registration should be achieved by optimal estimation of subpixel-shifts. Optimal-parameters blind restoration and interpolation should be performed for the optimal quality higher-resolution image. There is a trade-off between spatial and spectral enhancement in image fusion; it is difficult for the existing methods to do the best in both aspects. The objective here is to achieve all combined requirements with optimal fusion weights, and use the parameters constraints to direct the optimization process. QGA is used to estimate the optimal parameters needed for each mathematic model in this framework “Super-resolution and fusion.” The simulation results show that the QGA-based method can be used successfully to estimate automatically the approaching parameters which need the maximal accuracy, and achieve higher quality and efficient convergence rate more than the corresponding conventional GA-based and the classic computational methods.

  8. Post launch calibration and testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United State's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  9. Utilizing Chinese high-resolution satellite images for inspection of unauthorized constructions in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeRen; WANG Mi; HU Fen

    2009-01-01

    After Beijing wins the bit to host the 29th Olympic Games, in order to manifest the technical support advantages and capabilities of the autonomously-developed RS and GIS based change detection techniques in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, and from the standpoints of executing new city planning, relieving the traffic congestion as well as maintaining the historic features, an automatic satellite monitoring system has been studied and established to accomplish the mission of unauthorized construction inspection within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing city quarterly, by adopting the CBERS-2 satellite images and combining technologies of GIS, GPS, etc. This article discusses the applicable procedures and key issues when utilizing such Chinese satellite images and relevant techniques to discover the illegal constructions, and introduces the monitoring system from both the design and implementation aspects; additionally, some typical application cases in the practice of the system are also illustrated. The monitoring system can timely supply abundant information to facilitate the policy-making of relevant planning departments, thus providing consolidate technical support to eliminate the illegal constructing behaviors in the blossom. During the five years' excellent performance, it has helped China save large amounts of expenditures for processing of unauthorized constructed buildings.

  10. Image-processing techniques in precisely measuring positions of Saturn and its satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Qingyu; (彭青玉)

    2003-01-01

    After overcoming the deficiencies of previous image-processing techniques, a novel technique based on the edge-detection of Saturnian ring is developed to precisely measure Saturn's position. Furthermore, the scattering light (i.e. halo light) of Saturn and its ring is removed effectively based on its center symmetry. Therefore, we have much more opportunities to accurately measure the positions of Mimas and Enceladus-- two satellites very close to the Saturn. Experimental tests with 127 frames of CCD images obtained on the 1-meter telescope at the Yunnan Observatory over three nights show that the geometric center of the Saturnian ring and its 4 satellites (Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Titan) have the same positional precision, and the standard error for a single observation is less than ±0.05 arcsec. It is believed that these new techniques would have important impetus to the positional measurement of both Saturn by using a CCD meridian instrument and its faint satellites by using a long focal length telescope.

  11. Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: animal experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Geimer, Shireen D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-03-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) uses focused ultrasound beams to ablate localized tumors noninvasively. Multiple clinical trials using HIFU treatment of liver, kidney, breast, pancreas and brain tumors have been conducted, while monitoring the temperature distribution with various imaging modalities such as MRI, CT and ultrasound. HIFU has achieved only minimal acceptance partially due to insufficient guidance from the limited temperature monitoring capability and availability. MR proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift thermometry is currently the most effective monitoring method; however, it is insensitive in temperature changes in fat, susceptible to motion artifacts, and is high cost. Exploiting the relationship between dielectric properties (i.e. permittivity and conductivity) and tissue temperature, in vivo dielectric property distributions of tissue during heating were reconstructed with our microwave tomographic imaging technology. Previous phantom studies have demonstrated sub-Celsius temperature accuracy and sub-centimeter spatial resolution in microwave thermal imaging. In this paper, initial animal experiments have been conducted to further investigate its potential. In vivo conductivity changes inside the piglet's liver due to focused ultrasound heating were observed in the microwave images with good correlation between conductivity changes and temperature.

  12. A graph-based approach to detect spatiotemporal dynamics in satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttler, Fabio; Ienco, Dino; Nin, Jordi; Teisseire, Maguelonne; Poncelet, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Enhancing the frequency of satellite acquisitions represents a key issue for Earth Observation community nowadays. Repeated observations are crucial for monitoring purposes, particularly when intra-annual process should be taken into account. Time series of images constitute a valuable source of information in these cases. The goal of this paper is to propose a new methodological framework to automatically detect and extract spatiotemporal information from satellite image time series (SITS). Existing methods dealing with such kind of data are usually classification-oriented and cannot provide information about evolutions and temporal behaviors. In this paper we propose a graph-based strategy that combines object-based image analysis (OBIA) with data mining techniques. Image objects computed at each individual timestamp are connected across the time series and generates a set of evolution graphs. Each evolution graph is associated to a particular area within the study site and stores information about its temporal evolution. Such information can be deeply explored at the evolution graph scale or used to compare the graphs and supply a general picture at the study site scale. We validated our framework on two study sites located in the South of France and involving different types of natural, semi-natural and agricultural areas. The results obtained from a Landsat SITS support the quality of the methodological approach and illustrate how the framework can be employed to extract and characterize spatiotemporal dynamics.

  13. Multi Resolution Analysis (MRA of satellite images of oil spill disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Hussain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill disasters monitoring and mitigation requires availability of state of the art applications and tools. Conventional technology gets benefit from latest trends and research in satellite imaginary. This research highlights multi-resolution wavelet analysis of satellite images of oil spill disasters. Multi-resolution analysis is one of the powerful techniques to analyze information content of images. This analysis enables us to have a scale-invariant interpretation of the image. At each resolution level, both smooth and detailed signals carry all the necessary information to reconstruct the smooth signal at the next level. The wavelet decomposition results in detail and approximate threshold coefficients. Multi resolution wavelet decomposition is used to analyze the image in both time and frequency domain. It provides better frequency resolution and poor time resolution for lower frequency; better time resolution and poor frequency resolution for higher frequency. This condition is fortunately suited for real applications; as signals have high frequency components for very short period of the interval and low frequency components for longer durations.

  14. Amazon Rainforest Deforestation Daily Detection Tool Using Artificial Neural Networks and Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Cazella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA [1] sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides the parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to find the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrixes to determine the degree of success of the network. Part of the municipality of Porto Velho, in Rondônia state, is located inside the tile H11V09 of the MODIS/TERRA sensor, which was used as the study area. A spectrum-temporal analysis of this area was made on 57 images from 20 of May to 15 of July 2003 using the trained neural network. This analysis allowed us to verify the quality of the implemented neural network classification as well as helping our understanding of the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest. The great potential of neural networks for image classification was perceived with this work. However, the generation of consistent alarms, in other words, detecting predatory actions at the beginning; instead of firing false alarms is a complex task that has not yet been solved. Therefore, the major contribution of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis and practical use of neural networks and satellite images to combat illegal deforestation.

  15. Triple Linear-array Imaging Geometry Model of ZiYuan-3 Surveying Satellite and its Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Xinming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 surveying satellite is the first civilian high-resolution stereo mapping satellite of China. Its objective is oriented to plot the 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 topographic maps. Comparing with foreign commercial mapping satellite imagery, the establishment of our own imaging geometry model is the core technical problem for different products and various applications of ZY-3 surveying satellite. This paper analyses the key problem on precision geometry processing based on the overall design, and proposes the ZY-3 Surveying satellite imaging geometry model with the technology of virtual CCD line-array imaging. In addition, this paper utilizes the first orbit imagery of ZY-3 satellite with coverage of the region of Dalian, and produces forward, backward and nadir cameras calibration products. Different ground control points are selected for the block adjustment experiment, and the Digital Surface Model (DSM, Digital Ortho Map (DOM are generated. The accuracy is validated by check points. It can be seen from the experiment that the planar and vertical accuracy are better than 3 meters and 2 meters, respectively. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of ZY-3 surveying satellite imaging geometry model

  16. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; Lohani, B.

    2014-11-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the targets using the principle of photogrammetry. The constraints of cost and low-payload restrict the applicability of this approach using UAV platforms. This paper proposes a methodology for determining the geolocation of a target tracked from an aerial platform in a partially GPS devoid environment. The method utilises automatic feature based registration technique of a georeferenced satellite image with an ae rial image which is already stored in UAV's database to retrieve the geolocation of the target. Since it is easier to register subsequent aerial images due to similar viewing parameters, the subsequent overlapping images are registered together sequentially thus resulting in the registration of each of the images with georeferenced satellite image thus leading to geolocation of the target under interest. Using the proposed approach, the target can be tracked in all the frames in which it is visible. The proposed concept is verified experimentally and the results are found satisfactory. Using the proposed method, a user can obtain location of target of interest as well features on ground without requiring any POS on-board the aerial platform. The proposed approach has applications in surveillance for target tracking, target geolocation as well as in disaster management projects like search and rescue operations.

  17. Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River, Wyoming; Cubeza Prieta, Arizona, and Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W. (Principal Investigator); Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the Powder River Basin, Wyo., narrow geologic units having thermal inertias which contrast with their surroundings can be discriminated in optimal images. A few subtle thermal inertia anomalies coincide with areas of helium leakage believed to be associated with deep oil and gas concentrations. The most important results involved delineation of tectonic framework elements some of which were not previously recognized. Thermal and thermal inertia images also permit mapping of geomorphic textural domains. A thermal lineament appears to reveal a basement discontinuity which involves the Homestake Mine in the Black Hill, a zone of Tertiary igneous activity and facies control in oil producing horizons. Applications of these data to the Cabeza Prieta, Ariz., area illustrate their potential for igneous rock type discrimination. Extension to Yellowstone National Park resulted in the detection of additional structural information but surface hydrothermal features could not be distinguished with any confidence. A thermal inertia mapping algorithm, a fast and accurate image registration technique, and an efficient topographic slope and elevation correction method were developed.

  18. Submarine periscope thermal imaging: its evolution in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, George R.

    1996-06-01

    The first submarine periscope to carry a thermal imaging sensor started sea trials in 1978. As a leading EO company and the sole supplier of periscopes to the Royal Navy since 1917, Pilkington Optronics (Barr & Stroud) has led the evolution of this technology in the UK. As is often the case, the evolutionary path has been IR detector technology- led. The first operational periscope TI system (1981) used a serial/parallel array of first generation photoconductive detectors operating in the LWIR (8 - 12 micrometer) waveband. The advent of SPRITE detectors in the 1980s opened the way to greatly improved performance within a reduced space volume, culminating in 1993 with the entry into fleet service of the SPRITE-based IR028 modular system for Vanguard, the new class of RN ballistic submarines. Today, second generation focal plane array detectors, along with the concept of the non-hull penetrating optronics mast, are ready to revolutionize periscope TI. The Pilkington Optronics CM10 Optronics Mast, presently under development, has been bid for the next class of RN submarines, Trafalgar Batch 2. CM10 exists in two versions, allowing the user to choose the operational waveband most suited to his operational needs. The sensor in the LWIR version is the PO high definition thermal imager (HDTI), which makes optimum use of SPRITEs to achieve very high performance within a compact space. The MWIR version features dual-band (TV plus 3 - 5 micrometer) optics viewing through a single pressure window; the TI sensor is based on a microscanned CMT FPA, yielding high spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity with small aperture optics.

  19. Solar resources estimation combining digital terrain models and satellite images techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.L.; Batlles, F.J. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120-Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, G. [EPS-Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important steps to make use of any renewable energy is to perform an accurate estimation of the resource that has to be exploited. In the designing process of both active and passive solar energy systems, radiation data is required for the site, with proper spatial resolution. Generally, a radiometric stations network is used in this evaluation, but when they are too dispersed or not available for the study area, satellite images can be utilized as indirect solar radiation measurements. Although satellite images cover wide areas with a good acquisition frequency they usually have a poor spatial resolution limited by the size of the image pixel, and irradiation must be interpolated to evaluate solar irradiation at a sub-pixel scale. When pixels are located in flat and homogeneous areas, correlation of solar irradiation is relatively high, and classic interpolation can provide a good estimation. However, in complex topography zones, data interpolation is not adequate and the use of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) information can be helpful. In this work, daily solar irradiation is estimated for a wide mountainous area using a combination of Meteosat satellite images and a DTM, with the advantage of avoiding the necessity of ground measurements. This methodology utilizes a modified Heliosat-2 model, and applies for all sky conditions; it also introduces a horizon calculation of the DTM points and accounts for the effect of snow covers. Model performance has been evaluated against data measured in 12 radiometric stations, with results in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10%, and a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of +2%, both expressed as a percentage of the mean value measured. (author)

  20. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  1. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  2. Satellite Characterization of Bio-Optical and Thermal Variability in the Japan/East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-30

    remote sensing. We have created a climatology of the inherent optical properties (IOP s) using SeaWiFS satellite imagery to define how the bio -optical cycle is driven by the physical processes and circulation.

  3. Detection and Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Satellites Images with Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzouai, Siham; Smara, Youcef

    2010-12-01

    The advent of satellite images allows now a regular and a fast digitizing and update of geographic data, especially roads which are very useful for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications such as transportation, urban pollution, geomarketing, etc. For this, several studies have been conducted to automate roads extraction in order to minimize the manual processes [4]. In this work, we are interested in roads extraction from satellite imagery with high spatial resolution (at best equal to 10 m). The method is semi automatic and follows a linear approach where road is considered as a linear object. As roads extraction is a pattern recognition problem, it is useful, above all, to characterize roads. After, we realize a pre-processing by applying an Infinite Size Edge Filter -ISEF- and processing method based on dynamic programming concept, in particular, Fishler algorithm designed by F*.

  4. Fast Road Network Extraction in Satellite Images Using Mathematical Morphology and Markov Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Géraud

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast method for road network extraction in satellite images. It can be seen as a transposition of the segmentation scheme “watershed transform + region adjacency graph + Markov random fields” to the extraction of curvilinear objects. Many road extractors which are composed of two stages can be found in the literature. The first one acts like a filter that can decide from a local analysis, at every image point, if there is a road or not. The second stage aims at obtaining the road network structure. In the method we propose to rely on a “potential” image, that is, unstructured image data that can be derived from any road extractor filter. In such a potential image, the value assigned to a point is a measure of its likelihood to be located in the middle of a road. A filtering step applied on the potential image relies on the area closing operator followed by the watershed transform to obtain a connected line which encloses the road network. Then a graph describing adjacency relationships between watershed lines is built. Defining Markov random fields upon this graph, associated with an energetic model of road networks, leads to the expression of road network extraction as a global energy minimization problem. This method can easily be adapted to other image processing fields, where the recognition of curvilinear structures is involved.

  5. Comparing Manual and Semi-Automated Landslide Mapping Based on Optical Satellite Images from Different Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hölbling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Object-based image analysis (OBIA has been increasingly used to map geohazards such as landslides on optical satellite images. OBIA shows various advantages over traditional image analysis methods due to its potential for considering various properties of segmentation-derived image objects (spectral, spatial, contextual, and textural for classification. For accurately identifying and mapping landslides, however, visual image interpretation is still the most widely used method. The major question therefore is if semi-automated methods such as OBIA can achieve results of comparable quality in contrast to visual image interpretation. In this paper we apply OBIA for detecting and delineating landslides in five selected study areas in Austria and Italy using optical Earth Observation (EO data from different sensors (Landsat 7, SPOT-5, WorldView-2/3, and Sentinel-2 and compare the OBIA mapping results to outcomes from visual image interpretation. A detailed evaluation of the mapping results per study area and sensor is performed by a number of spatial accuracy metrics, and the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches for landslide mapping on optical EO data are discussed. The analyses show that both methods produce similar results, whereby the achieved accuracy values vary between the study areas.

  6. Comparision of Clustering Algorithms usingNeural Network Classifier for Satellite Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Praveena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid clustering algorithm and feed-forward neural network classifier for land-cover mapping of trees, shade, building and road. It starts with the single step preprocessing procedure to make the image suitable for segmentation. The pre-processed image is segmented using the hybrid genetic-Artificial Bee Colony(ABC algorithm that is developed by hybridizing the ABC and FCM to obtain the effective segmentation in satellite image and classified using neural network . The performance of the proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with the algorithms like, k-means, Fuzzy C means(FCM, Moving K-means, Artificial Bee Colony(ABC algorithm, ABC-GA algorithm, Moving KFCM and KFCM algorithm.

  7. Object-Based Forest Cover Monitoring Using GAOFEN-2 High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. M.; Li, Z. Y.; Chen, E. X.; Liu, Q. W.

    2016-10-01

    Forest cover monitoring is an important part of forest management in local or regional area. The structure and tones of forest can be identified in high spatial remote sensing images. When forests cover change, the spectral characteristics of forests is also changed. In this paper a method on object-based forest cover monitoring with data transformation from time series of high resolution images is put forward. First the NDVI difference image and the composite of PC3,PC4, PC5 of the stacked 8 layers of time series of high resolution satellites are segmented into homogeneous objects. With development of the object-based ruleset classification system, the spatial extent of deforestation and afforestation can be identified over time across the landscape. Finally the change accuracy is achieved with reference data.

  8. High-resolution satellite image segmentation using Hölder exponents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Chakraborty; Gautam Kumar Sen; Sugata Hazra

    2009-10-01

    Texture in high-resolution satellite images requires substantial amendment in the conventional segmentation algorithms. A measure is proposed to compute the Hölder exponent (HE) to assess the roughness or smoothness around each pixel of the image. The localized singularity information is incorporated in computing the HE. An optimum window size is evaluated so that HE reacts to localized singularity. A two-step iterative procedure for clustering the transformed HE image is adapted to identify the range of HE, densely occupied in the kernel and to partition Hölder exponents into a cluster that matches with the range. Hölder exponent values (noise or not associated with the other cluster) are clubbed to a nearest possible cluster using the local maximum likelihood analysis.

  9. Recognization of Satellite Images of Large Scale Data Based on Map- Reduce Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Jadhav,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today in the world of cloud and grid computing integration of data from heterogeneous databases is inevitable.This will become complex when size of the database is very large. M-R is a new framework specifically designed for processing huge datasets on distributed sources. Apache’s Hadoop is an implementation of M-R.Currently Hadoop has been applied successfully for file based datasets. This project proposes to utilize the parallel and distributed processing capability of Hadoop M-R for handling Images on large datasets.The presented methodology of land-cover recognition provides a scalable solution for automatic satellite imagery analysis, especially when GIS data is not readily available, or surface change may occur due to catastrophic events such as flooding, hurricane, and snow storm, etc.Here,we are using algorithms such as Image Differentiation,Image Duplication,Zoom-In,Gray-Scale.

  10. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  11. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  12. Thermal ion imagers and Langmuir probes in the Swarm electric field instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Buchert, S. C.; Eriksson, A. I.; Gill, R.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Åhlen, L.; Smith, M.; Moffat, B.

    2017-02-01

    The European Space Agency's three Swarm satellites were launched on 22 November 2013 into nearly polar, circular orbits, eventually reaching altitudes of 460 km (Swarm A and C) and 510 km (Swarm B). Swarm's multiyear mission is to make precision, multipoint measurements of low-frequency magnetic and electric fields in Earth's ionosphere for the purpose of characterizing magnetic fields generated both inside and external to the Earth, along with the electric fields and other plasma parameters associated with electric current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Electric fields perpendicular to the magnetic field B→ are determined through ion drift velocity v→i and magnetic field measurements via the relation E→⊥=-v→i×B→. Ion drift is derived from two-dimensional images of low-energy ion distribution functions provided by two Thermal Ion Imager (TII) sensors viewing in the horizontal and vertical planes; v→i is corrected for spacecraft potential as determined by two Langmuir probes (LPs) which also measure plasma density ne and electron temperature Te. The TII sensors use a microchannel-plate-intensified phosphor screen imaged by a charge-coupled device to generate high-resolution distribution images (66 × 40 pixels) at a rate of 16 s-1. Images are partially processed on board and further on the ground to generate calibrated data products at a rate of 2 s-1; these include v→i, E→⊥, and ion temperature Ti in addition to electron temperature Te and plasma density ne from the LPs.

  13. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  14. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (42-46°C, treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  15. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of quasi-static microaccelerations onboard a satellite using video images of moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levtov, V. L.; Romanov, V. V.; Boguslavsky, A. A.; Sazonov, V. V.; Sokolov, S. M.; Glotov, Yu. N.

    2009-12-01

    A space experiment aimed at determination of quasi-static microaccelerations onboard an artificial satellite of the Earth using video images of the objects executing free motion is considered. The experiment was carried out onboard the Foton M-3 satellite. Several pellets moved in a cubic box fixed on the satellite’s mainframe and having two transparent adjacent walls. Their motion was photographed by a digital video camera. The camera was installed facing one of the transparent walls; a mirror was placed at an angle to another transparent wall. Such an optical system allowed us to have in a single frame two images of the pellets from differing viewpoints. The motion of the pellets was photographed on time intervals lasting 96 s. Pauses between these intervals were also equal to 96 s. A special processing of a separate image allowed us to determine coordinates of the pellet centers in the camera’s coordinate system. The sequence of frames belonging to a continuous interval of photography was processed in the following way. The time dependence of each coordinate of every pellet was approximated by a second degree polynomial using the least squares method. The coefficient of squared time is equal to a half of the corresponding microacceleration component. As has been shown by processing made, the described method of determination of quasi-static microaccelerations turned out to be sufficiently sensitive and accurate.

  17. Combined Use of Multi-Temporal Optical and Radar Satellite Images for Grassland Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Dusseux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of optical images, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images and the combination of both types of data to discriminate between grasslands and crops in agricultural areas where cloud cover is very high most of the time, which restricts the use of visible and near-infrared satellite data. We compared the performances of variables extracted from four optical and five SAR satellite images with high/very high spatial resolutions acquired during the growing season. A vegetation index, namely the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and two biophysical variables, the LAI (Leaf Area Index and the fCOVER (fraction of Vegetation Cover were computed using optical time series and polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH. The polarization ratio and polarimetric decomposition (Freeman–Durden and Cloude–Pottier were calculated using SAR time series. Then, variables derived from optical, SAR and both types of remotely-sensed data were successively classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM technique. The results show that the classification accuracy of SAR variables is higher than those using optical data (0.98 compared to 0.81. They also highlight that the combination of optical and SAR time series data is of prime interest to discriminate grasslands from crops, allowing an improved classification accuracy.

  18. Integrated use of satellite images, DEMs, soil and substrate data in studying mountainous lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Fabio; Montanarella, Luca; Salandin, Roberto

    A method based on the integration into a GIS of satellite images of different spatial resolution (Landsat TM and SPOT), Digital Elevation Models, geo-lithological maps and some soil-landscape data was developed and applied to a test area on a sector of the Italian northwestern Alps in the Piemonte region (Pellice, Po, Varaita and Maira valleys southwest of Torino). The main working steps performed (using GIS software) in this area were: (1) acquisition of geo-lithological and geomorphological maps available and a first definition of homogeneous zones obtained by joining different classes with pedogenic criteria; (2) processing and classification of satellite images to define homogeneous areas with reference to prevailing land cover, land use pattern, relief shape and spectral characters; (3) integration of the previous two layers to obtain a first set of cartographic units showing a distinctive and often repetitive pattern of land form, land cover and parent material; and (4) processing DEMs (slope and aspect), soil or soil-landscape data in order to refine data and characterise the units. The resulting cartographic units were superimposed on a soil-landscape map realised by means of stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs by IPLA at the same scale (1:250,000). This comparison was used to verify the correctness of the satellite image processing steps and consistency with the map scale used. A larger scale application was also developed for grassland at 1:50,000 scale to demonstrate the practical use of remote sensing and GIS data in assisting mountainous land development.

  19. Solar irradiance assessment in insular areas using Himawari-8 satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liandrat, O.; Cros, S.; Turpin, M.; Pineau, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The high amount of surface solar irradiance (SSI) in the tropics is an advantage for a profitable PV production. It will allow many tropical islands to pursue their economic growth with a clean, affordable and locally produced energy. However, the local meteorological conditions induce a very high variability which is problematic for a safe and gainful injection into the power grid. This issue is even more critical in non-interconnected territories where network stability is an absolute necessity. Therefore, the injection of PV power is legally limited in some European oversea territories. In this context, intraday irradiance forecasting (several hours ahead) is particularly useful to mitigate the production variability by reducing the cost of power storage management. At this time scale, cloud cover evolves with a stochastic behaviour not properly represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Analysing cloud motion using images from geostationary meteorological satellites is a well-known alternative to forecasting SSI up to 6 hours ahead with a better accuracy than NWP models. In this study, we present and apply our satellite-based solar irradiance forecasting methods over two measurement sites located in the field of view of the satellite Himawari-8: Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) and New Caledonia (France). In particular, we converted 4 months of images from Himawari-8 visible channel into cloud index maps. Then, we applied an algorithm computing a cloud motion vector field from a short sequence of consecutive images. Comparisons between forecasted SSI at 1 hour of time horizon and collocated pyranometric measurements show a relative RMSE between 20 and 27%. Error sources related to the tropic insular context (coastal area heterogeneity, sub-pixel scale orographic cloud appearance, convective situation…) are discussed at every implementation step for the different methods.

  20. Evaluation of Satellite Image Correction Methods Caused by Differential Terrain Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama Budi Santosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem due to differential terrain illumination on satellite imagery is experienced by most of areas which are on mountainous terrain. This may cause variations in reflectance of similar ground features which lead to a misclassification of land cover classes due to different topographic positions. This phenomenon most commonly occurred in the areas which are located on southern and northern hemisphere because of the low sun inclination. This problem has been a major interest for researchers to be solved prior to the land cover classification process. For satellite images which experience this kind of problem, topographic correction need to be applied in order to reduce the illumination effects prior to land cover classification process. This research is aimed at conducting topographic correction of multi spectral SPOT satellite data as well as evaluating the three topographic correction methods. They are Cosine which is based on Lambertian reflectance assumption, as well as Minnaert correction and C correction methods which are based on non-Lambertian reflectance assumption. The data used in this study are two scenes of SPOT images of forested mountainous area of Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Research steps had been conducted in this study including geometric correction, sample data collection for calculating Minnaert constants and C constants at location which represents the whole study area, topographic correction for two scenes SPOT images, and results analysis. The results show that Cosine method did not show good performance for the study area which is topographically dominated by rugged terrain. Whereas Minnaert method and C method gave satisfactory results as is indicated by the statistical data as well as visual interpretation. However the Minnaert correction method showed slightly better performance than the C correction method.

  1. Analysis of the sensitivity of thermal infrared nadir satellite observations to the chemical and micro-physical properties of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Sèze, Geneviève; Legras, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Secondary sulphate aerosols are the predominant typology of aerosols in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), and can have an important impact on radiative transfer and climate, cirrus formation and chemistry in the UTLS. Despite their importance, the satellite observation at the regional scale of sulphate aerosols in the UTLS is limited. In this work, we address the sensitivity of the thermal infrared satellite observations to secondary sulphate aerosols in the UTLS. The absorption properties of sulphuric acid/water droplets, for different sulphuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The absorption coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indexes taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques : Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the absorption of idealized aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on the radiance spectra observed by these simulated satellite instruments. We found a marked spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulphate and bi-sulphate ions and the undissociated sulphuric acid, with absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1. Micro-windows with a sensitivity to chemical and micro-physical properties of the sulphate aerosol layer are identified, and the role of interfering species, and temperature and water vapour profile is discussed.

  2. Utilization of satellite images to understand the dynamics of Pampas shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aliaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze satellite images of different spatial resolutions to interpret the morphometric behavior of six shallow lakes of the Pampas, Argentina. These are characterized by having different rainfall regimes. Morphometric response considering each location, site conditions and dry and wet extreme events is analyzed. Standardized Precipitation Index (IEP for determination of wet, dry and normal years was used. This analysis showed that the Pampas shallow lakes do not behave in the same way to the rainfall events. Its origin, socio-economic use and rainfall patterns affect their spatiotemporal variation and morphometric.

  3. Monitoring an air pollution episode in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-07-01

    Urban air pollution is influenced not only by local emission sources including industry and vehicles, but also greatly by regional atmospheric pollutant transportation from the surrounding areas, especially in developed city clusters, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Taking an air pollution episode in Shenzhen as an example, this paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of the pollution episode and identifies the transport pathways of air pollutants in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Results show that this pollution episode is mainly caused by the local emission of pollutants in PRD and oceanic air masses under specific weather conditions.

  4. Determination of Destructed and Infracted Forest Areas with Multi-temporal High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Unal, A.; Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.

    2015-12-01

    Migration from rural areas to city centers and their surroundings is an important problem of not only our country but also the countries that under development stage. This uncontrolled and huge amount of migration brings out urbanization and socio - economic problems. The demand on settling the industrial areas and commercial activities nearby the city centers results with a negative change in natural land cover on cities. Negative impacts of human induced activities on natural resources and land cover has been continuously increasing for decades. The main human activities that resulted with destruction and infraction of forest areas can be defined as mining activities, agricultural activities, industrial / commercial activities and urbanization. Temporal monitoring of the changes in spatial distribution of forest areas is significantly important for effective management and planning progress. Changes can occur as spatially large destructions or small infractions. Therefore there is a need for reliable, fast and accurate data sources. At this point, satellite images proved to be a good data source for determination of the land use /cover changes with their capability of monitoring large areas with reasonable temporal resolutions. Spectral information derived from images provides discrimination of land use/cover types from each other. Developments in remote sensing technology in the last decade improved the spatial resolution of satellites and high resolution images were started to be used to detect even small changes in the land surface. As being the megacity of Turkey, Istanbul has been facing a huge migration for the last 20 years and effects of urbanization and other human based activities over forest areas are significant. Main focus of this study is to determine the destructions and infractions in forest areas of Istanbul, Turkey with 2.5m resolution SPOT 5 multi-temporal satellite imagery. Analysis was mainly constructed on threshold based classification of

  5. Attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaguang; Wang, Zhigang

    2005-11-01

    To achieve the high accuracy of attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation, a new approach combined gyro with star trackers is proposed, and a real-time algorithm for attitude estimation is designed. This algorithm begins with a prediction for angular rate model errors induced by gyro drifting error, and ends with the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for attitude estimation of three-axis. A Matlab-based time domain simulation model is developed to evaluate the attitude determination performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has characteristics of high accuracy, rapid convergence and strong robustness.

  6. Warping-based co-registration of thermal infrared images: Study of factors influencing its applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, D.; Pinti, P.; Di Donato, L.; Merla, A.

    2017-06-01

    A relevant issue for processing biomedical thermal imaging data is the availability of tools for objective and quantitative comparison of images across different conditions or subjects. To this goal, a solution can be offered by projecting the thermal distribution data onto a fictitious template to obtain a common reference for comparison across cases or subjects. In this preliminary study, we tested the feasibility of applying a warping procedure on infrared thermal images. Fifteen thermal images of checkerboard were recorded at three different distances and five different angles in order to evaluate which factor mostly influences the warping accuracy. The accuracy of three different warping transformation models (local weighted mean (LWM), polynomial, affine) was tested by comparing the positioning error between users' selected fiduciary points on each thermal image and their corresponding reference position assigned on the template image. Fifteen users, divided into three groups upon on their experience in thermal imaging processing, participated in this study in order to evaluate the effect of experience in applying a warping procedure to the analysis of thermal infrared images. The most relevant factor influencing the positioning and thermal errors is the acquisition distance, while the users' level of experience and the inclination angle do not seem to play the same importance. Comparing the three transformations, the LWM seems to be the best in terms of minimizing the two categories of errors. This preliminary work helps to understand the limits and the possibilities of applying warping techniques for objective, quantitative and automatic thermal image comparisons.

  7. The facial expression of schizophrenic patients applied with infrared thermal facial image sequence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo-Lin Jian; Chieh-Li Chen; Wen-Lin Chu; Min-Wei Huang

    2017-01-01

    .... Thus, this study used non-contact infrared thermal facial images (ITFIs) to analyze facial temperature changes evoked by different emotions in moderately and markedly ill schizophrenia patients...

  8. Online self-service processing system of ZY-3 satellite: a prospective study of image cloud services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Huabin; Shi, Shaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The strong demands for satellite images are increasing not only in professional fields, but also in the non-professionals. But the online map services with up-to-date satellite images can serve few demands. One challenge is how to provide online processing service, which need to handle real-time online data-intensive geospatial computation and visualization. Under the background of the development of cloud computing technology, the problem can be figured out partly. The other challenge is how to implement user-customized online processing without professional background and knowledge. An online self-service processing system of ZY-3 Satellite images is designed to implement an on-demand service mode in this paper. It will work with only some simple parameters being set up for the non-professionals without having to care about the specific processing steps. And the professionals can assemble the basic processing services to a service chain, which can work out a more complex processing and a better result. This intelligent self-service online system for satellite images processing, which is called the prototype of satellite image cloud service in this paper, is accelerated under the development of cloud computing technology and researches on data-intensive computing. To realize the goal, the service mode and framework of the online self-service processing system of ZY-3 Satellite images are figured out in this paper. The details of key technologies are also discussed, including user space virtualization management, algorithm-level parallel image processing, image service chain construction, etc. And the experimental system is built up as a prospective study of image cloud services.

  9. Thermally induced vibrations of smart solar panel in a low-orbit satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, E.; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Azadi, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a smart flexible satellite moving in a circular orbit with two flexible panels are studied. The panels have been modeled as clamped-free-free-free rectangular plates with attached piezoelectric actuators. It is assumed that the satellite has a pitch angle rotation maneuver. Rapid temperature changes at day-night transitions in orbit generate time dependent bending moments. Satellite maneuver and temperature varying induce vibrations in the appendages. So, to simulate the system, heat radiation effects on the appendages have been considered. The nonlinear equations of motion and the heat transfer equations are coupled and solved simultaneously. So, the governing equations of motion are nonlinear and very complicated ones. Finally, the whole system is simulated and the effects of the heat radiation, radius of the orbit, piezoelectric voltages, and piezoelectric locations on the response of the system are studied.

  10. Satellite Image Pansharpening Using a Hybrid Approach for Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Hoan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS, Brovey Transform (BT, and Smoothing-Filter-Based-Intensity Modulation (SFIM algorithms were used to pansharpen GeoEye-1 imagery. The pansharpened images were then segmented in Berkeley Image Seg using a wide range of segmentation parameters, and the spatial and spectral accuracy of image segments was measured. We found that pansharpening algorithms that preserve more of the spatial information of the higher resolution panchromatic image band (i.e., IHS and BT led to more spatially-accurate segmentations, while pansharpening algorithms that minimize the distortion of spectral information of the lower resolution multispectral image bands (i.e., SFIM led to more spectrally-accurate image segments. Based on these findings, we developed a new IHS-SFIM combination approach, specifically for object-based image analysis (OBIA, which combined the better spatial information of IHS and the more accurate spectral information of SFIM to produce image segments with very high spatial and spectral accuracy.

  11. AUTOMATIC URBAN ILLEGAL BUILDING DETECTION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL SATELLITE IMAGES AND GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khalili Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented growth of urban population and urban development, we are faced with the growing trend of illegal building (IB construction. Field visit, as the currently used method of IB detection, is time and man power consuming, in addition to its high cost. Therefore, an automatic IB detection is required. Acquiring multi-temporal satellite images and using image processing techniques for automatic change detection is one of the optimum methods which can be used in IB monitoring. In this research an automatic method of IB detection has been proposed. Two-temporal panchromatic satellite images of IRS-P5 of the study area in a part of Tehran, the city map and an updated spatial database of existing buildings were used to detect the suspected IBs. In the pre-processing step, the images were geometrically and radiometrically corrected. In the next step, the changed pixels were detected using K-means clustering technique because of its quickness and less user’s intervention required. Then, all the changed pixels of each building were identified and the change percentage of each building with the standard threshold of changes was compared to detect the buildings which are under construction. Finally, the IBs were detected by checking the municipality database. The unmatched constructed buildings with municipal database will be field checked to identify the IBs. The results show that out of 343 buildings appeared in the images; only 19 buildings were detected as under construction and three of them as unlicensed buildings. Furthermore, the overall accuracies of 83%, 79% and 75% were obtained for K-means change detection, detection of under construction buildings and IBs detection, respectively.

  12. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, F.

    2015-11-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable to the wider public. For this study, animated image sequences were created for four regions in the central Karakoram mountain range over a 25-year time period (1990-2015) from freely available image quick-looks of orthorectified Landsat scenes. The animations play automatically in a web browser and reveal highly complex patterns of glacier flow and surge dynamics that are difficult to obtain by other methods. In contrast to other regions, surging glaciers in the Karakoram are often small (10 km2 or less), steep, debris-free, and advance for several years to decades at relatively low annual rates (about 100 m a-1). These characteristics overlap with those of non-surge-type glaciers, making a clear identification difficult. However, as in other regions, the surging glaciers in the central Karakoram also show sudden increases of flow velocity and mass waves travelling down glacier. The surges of individual glaciers are generally out of phase, indicating a limited climatic control on their dynamics. On the other hand, nearly all other glaciers in the region are either stable or slightly advancing, indicating balanced or even positive mass budgets over the past few decades.

  13. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  14. Resonant photo-thermal conversion for sub-terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Alain; Chassagne, Bruno; Jolly, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    An original design of generic interest is proposed for fast imaging, in the field of sub-terahertz frequencies, by means of resonant coupling between an ultra-thin photo-thermal converter and a metallic grid upstream an infrared camera. The material is a sheet of polyimide material with a high content of absorptive carbon inclusions. We make use of the large difference between the IR and THz wavelengths in a quarter-wave planar geometry, to ensure a highly efficient and stable conversion process. A complete setup has been implemented for demonstration purposes, using the beam from a Gunn diode at 110 GHz. Experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions from the numerical model, which helps to validate the concept and the requirements for geometrical adjustment.

  15. Thermal Modeling and Analysis of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad) is a payload carried by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at altitudes up to 60,000 ft with the purpose of measuring ocean surface wind speeds and near ocean surface rain rates in hurricanes. The payload includes several components that must maintain steady temperatures throughout the flight. Minimizing the temperature drift of these components allows for accurate data collection and conclusions to be drawn concerning the behavior of hurricanes. HIRad has flown on several different UAVs over the past two years during the fall hurricane season. Based on the data from the 2011 flight, a Thermal Desktop model was created to simulate the payload and reproduce the temperatures. Using this model, recommendations were made to reduce the temperature drift through the use of heaters controlled by resistance temperature detector (RTD) sensors. The suggestions made were implemented for the 2012 hurricane season and further data was collected. The implementation of the heaters reduced the temperature drift for a portion of the flight, but after a period of time, the temperatures rose. With this new flight data, the thermal model was updated and correlated. Detailed analysis was conducted to determine a more effective way to reduce the temperature drift. The final recommendations made were to adjust the set temperatures of the heaters for 2013 flights and implement hardware changes for flights beyond 2013.

  16. Deep and shallow structures in the Arctic region imaged by satellite magnetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Carmen; Panet, Isabelle; Shephard, Grace

    2016-07-01

    , volcanic crust, but, as in the case of other oceanic Large Igneous Provinces, only deep sea drilling will be able to reveal the true nature of the underlying crust at the core of the Arctic. The oldest continental crust, usually found in the cratonic areas and as Proterozoic accreted crust, generates the largest positive magnetic anomalies. This crust contains large and deep volcanic bodies in the North American shield, Greenland, the Baltic shield in Eurasia and the Siberian platform in NE Asia, and are imaged by the satellite data. Furthermore, satellite data is not only restricted to revealing crustal and lithospheric depths. Recent workflows have shown that subducted remnants of ocean basins, now located in the lower mantle, as well as large, antipodal features on the core-mantle boundary, can be imaged by satellite gravity. Seismic tomography provides evidence for an extinct Mesozoic Arctic ocean lying around 1400 km under present-day Greenland. However, the variable resolution of seismic tomography at high latitudes, as well as ambiguity in plate reconstructions, renders the existence of the slab open to interpretation. Critically, the current location of the slab also matches perturbations in long-wavelength gravity gradients, providing further support for a deep density anomaly and a slab origin. Gravity data therefore provides a complementary and independent link in linking surface events and deep mantle structure in frontier regions like the Arctic. By revealing the present-day structure, satellite-derived magnetics and gravity offer a critical component in our understanding of Arctic history, over timescales of millions of years and scales of thousands of kilometers.

  17. The digital mapping of satellite images under no ground control and the distribution of landform, blue ice and meteorites in the Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家抦; 霍东民; 周军其; 孙朝辉

    2001-01-01

    The colorful satellite image maps with the scale of 1∶100 000 were made by processing the parameters-on-satellite under the condition of no data of field surveying. The purpose is to ensure the smooth performance of the choice of expedition route, navigation and research task before the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) first made researches on the Grove Mountains. Moreover, on the basis of the visual interpretation of the satellite image, we preliminarily analyze and discuss the relief and landform, blue ice and meteorite distribution characteristics in the Grove Mountains. Key words Grove Mountains, parameters-on-satellite, satellite image, digital mapping, blue ice, meteorites distribution.

  18. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  19. The Orbits of Saturn's Small Satellites Derived from Combined Historic and Cassini Imaging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, J. N.; Jacobson, R. A.; Porco, C. C.; Owen, W. M., Jr.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the orbits of the small, inner Saturnian satellites, either recovered or newly discovered in recent Cassini imaging observations. The orbits presented here reflect improvements over our previously published values in that the time base of Cassini observations has been extended, and numerical orbital integrations have been performed in those cases in which simple precessing elliptical, inclined orbit solutions were found to be inadequate. Using combined Cassini and Voyager observations, we obtain an eccentricity for Pan 7 times smaller than previously reported because of the predominance of higher quality Cassini data in the fit. The orbit of the small satellite (S/2005 S1 [Daphnis]) discovered by Cassini in the Keeler gap in the outer A ring appears to be circular and coplanar; no external perturbations are apparent. Refined orbits of Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus are based on Cassini , Voyager, Hubble Space Telescope, and Earth-based data and a numerical integration perturbed by all the massive satellites and each other. Atlas is significantly perturbed by Prometheus, and to a lesser extent by Pandora, through high-wavenumber mean-motion resonances. Orbital integrations involving Atlas yield a mass of GMAtlas=(0.44+/-0.04)×10-3 km3 s -2, 3 times larger than reported previously (GM is the product of the Newtonian constant of gravitation G and the satellite mass M). Orbital integrations show that Methone is perturbed by Mimas, Pallene is perturbed by Enceladus, and Polydeuces librates around Dione's L5 point with a period of about 791 days. We report on the nature and orbits of bodies sighted in the F ring, two of which may have persisted for a year or more.

  20. USE SATELLITE IMAGES AND IMPROVE THE ACCURACY OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE WITH THE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Javadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The best technique to extract information from remotely sensed image is classification. The problem of traditional classification methods is that each pixel is assigned to a single class by presuming all pixels within the image. Mixed pixel classification or spectral unmixing, is a process that extracts the proportions of the pure components of each mixed pixel. This approach is called spectral unmixing. Hyper spectral images have higher spectral resolution than multispectral images. In this paper, pixel-based classification methods such as the spectral angle mapper, maximum likelihood classification and subpixel classification method (linear spectral unmixing were implemented on the AVIRIS hyper spectral images. Then, pixel-based and subpixel based classification algorithms were compared. Also, the capabilities and advantages of spectral linear unmixing method were investigated. The spectral unmixing method that implemented here is an effective technique for classifying a hyperspectral image giving the classification accuracy about 89%. The results of classification when applying on the original images are not good because some of the hyperspectral image bands are subject to absorption and they contain only little signal. So it is necessary to prepare the data at the beginning of the process. The bands can be stored according to their variance. In bands with a high variance, we can distinguish the features from each other in a better mode in order to increase the accuracy of classification. Also, applying the MNF transformation on the hyperspectral images increase the individual classes accuracy of pixel based classification methods as well as unmixing method about 20 percent and 9 percent respectively.