WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite solar power stations

  1. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  2. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  3. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  4. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  5. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  6. Operations research investigations of satellite power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Ballard, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A systems model reflecting the design concepts of Satellite Power Stations (SPS) was developed. The model is of sufficient scope to include the interrelationships of the following major design parameters: the transportation to and between orbits; assembly of the SPS; and maintenance of the SPS. The systems model is composed of a set of equations that are nonlinear with respect to the system parameters and decision variables. The model determines a figure of merit from which alternative concepts concerning transportation, assembly, and maintenance of satellite power stations are studied. A hybrid optimization model was developed to optimize the system's decision variables. The optimization model consists of a random search procedure and the optimal-steepest descent method. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to enable the user to optimize nonlinear functions using the model. Specifically, the computer program was used to optimize Satellite Power Station system components.

  7. Wireless power transmission: The key to solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nansen, R.H. [Solar Space Industries, Ocean Shores, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the years following the OPEC oil embargo of 1973--74, the US aggressively researched alternative energy options. Among those studied was the concept of Solar Power Satellites -- generating electricity in space from solar energy on giant satellites and sending the energy to the earth with wireless power transmission. Much has happened in the fifteen years since the studies were terminated. Maturing of the enabling technologies has provided much of the infrastructure to support the development of a commercial Solar Power Satellite program. All of this will reduce the cost by one to two orders of magnitude so development can now be undertaken by industry instead of relying on a massive government program. Solar Space Industries was formed to accomplish this goal. The basis of their development plan for Solar Power Satellites is to build a Ground Test Installation that will duplicate, in small scale on the earth, all aspects of the power generating and power transmission systems for the Solar Power Satellite concept except for the space environment and the range and size of the energy beam. Space operations issues will be separated from the power generation function and verified by testing using the NASA Space Station and Space Shuttle. Solar Space Industries` concept is to built a Ground Test Installation that couples an existing 100 kW terrestrial solar cell array, furnished by an interested utility, to a phased-array wireless power transmitter based on the subarray developed by William Brown and The Center for Space Power. Power will be transmitted over a 1 1/4 mile range to a receiving antenna (rectenna) and then fed into a commercial utility power grid. The objective is to demonstrate the complete function of the Solar Power Satellites, with the primary issue being the validation of practical wireless power transmission. The key features to demonstrate are; beam control, stability, steering, efficiency, reliability, cost, and safety.

  8. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  9. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  10. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J. [Deutsche Aerospace AG, Munich (Germany)]|[Technical Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  11. Solar power satellites - Heat engine or solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, H.; Gregory, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A solar power satellite is the energy-converting element of a system that can deliver some 10 GW of power to utilities on the earth's surface. We evaluated heat engines and solar cells for converting sunshine to electric power at the satellite. A potassium Rankine cycle was the best of the heat engines, and 50 microns thick single-crystal silicon cells were the best of the photovoltaic converters. Neither solar cells nor heat engines had a clear advantage when all factors were considered. The potassium-turbine power plant, however, was more difficult to assemble and required a more expensive orbital assembly base. We therefore based our cost analyses on solar-cell energy conversion, concluding that satellite-generated power could be delivered to utilities for around 4 to 5 cents a kWh.

  12. Lightweight Solar Power for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    The innovation targets small satellites or CubeSats for which conventional deployable arrays are not feasible due to their size, weight and complexity. This novel solar cell array includes a thin and flexible photovoltaic cell applied to an inflatable structure to create a high surface area array for collecting solar energy in a lightweight, simple and deployable structure. The inflatable array, with its high functional surface area, eliminates the need and the mechanisms required to point the system toward the sun. The power density achievable in these small arrays is similar to that of conventional high-power deployable/pointable arrays used on large satellites or space vehicles. Although inflatable solar arrays have been previously considered by others, the arrays involved the use of traditional rigid solar cells. Researchers are currently working with thin film photovoltaics from various suppliers so that the NASA innovation is not limited to any particular solar cell technology. NASA has built prototypes and tested functionality before and after inflation. As shown in the current-voltage currents below, deployment does not damage the cell performance.

  13. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  14. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  15. Solar power satellites - Technical, social and political implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelman, F. H.

    Solar power satellite systems (SPS) are examined, together with their environmental and social impacts and the energy policies necessary for their construction. The energy source, the sun, is acceptable to advocates of decentralized technologies, while the conversion system is fitted to large institutions. However, large-scale power plants are subject to persistent malfunctions, and the approximately 50 sq km SPS solar array is projected to suffer from at least recurring cell contact failures. The power could also be generated by heat engines for transmission by either laser or microwaves. Numerous feasibility and cost-benefit studies are still required, including defining the transmission beam's effects on the atmosphere, ionosphere, and human health. Furthermore, the resource allocations, capital costs, insurance, and institutional problems still need clarification, as do the design, logistics, and development of an entire new, much larger launch system based on Shuttle technology. Finally, the military defensibility of the SPS power station is questioned.

  16. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MULTILEVEL INVERTOR OF SOLAR POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Levitskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of control law for network multilevel invertor of solar power station and design device for control law realization. Methodology. At synthesis of control law theory of automatic control, power network engineering and circuit technique are considered. The control law for distributive control over the direct-axis and quadrature-axis currents of invertor after abc-dq transform of three phase current’s momentary value is used. Results. The improved model of regulator of direct-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the voltage optimization of invertor’s operating both from solar module and from network by means of calculation the reactive power consumption from network, voltage on network and voltage on solar module. The improved model of regulator of quadrature-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the power and frequency optimization of invertor’s operating by means of calculation ratio of active power consumption and power from solar module. Originality. The offered control law and device, which realize it, is working out on secondary loop from power network smart grid with active and reactive power consumption monitoring. That provides the optimal operation of solar station both from solar module and from power network. Practical value. The proposed control law and structure of the network multilevel invertor for solar power station provide the operate mode of solar module in maximum power point and increasing the solar module’s productivity.

  17. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  18. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  19. A Comparison Of A Solar Power Satellite Concept To A Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the Solar Power Satellite concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, that the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground.

  20. In-Space Transportation for GEO Space Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James A.; Donnahue, Benjamin B.; Henley, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes results of study tasks to evaluate design options for in-space transportation of geostationary Space Solar Power Satellites. Referring to the end-to-end architecture studies performed in 1988, this current activity focuses on transportation of Sun Tower satellite segments from an initial low Earth orbit altitude to a final position in geostationary orbit (GEO; i.e., 35,786 km altitude, circular, equatorial orbit). This report encompasses study activity for In-Space Transportation of GEO Space Solar Power (SSP) Satellites including: 1) assessment of requirements, 2) design of system concepts, 3) comparison of alternative system options, and 4) assessment of potential derivatives.

  1. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  2. Solar Power Satellite Thermal Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Cassisa, G.; Gottero, M.

    2004-12-01

    The concept of generating solar power in space and transmitting it to earth or any other desired destination such as a planet, moon, or to charge a space vehicle via microwaves, stems from a wide variety of human needs and necessities. It is now a well-known fact that world population increases at a very rapid rate, nearly 80 millions or more per year, and the world-wide energy demand seems to double in the course of the present century. If technology has to advance at the present rate, in phase with high living standards, energy growth must not lag behind. These estimates are based on the population growth rate in the developing countries and the simultaneous increase in per capita energy consumption in these countries, coupled with economical boost. In most of the underdeveloped countries energy needs are of small scales, faraway from the power distribution line and can be very easily satisfied by harnessing solar energy. Furthermore, the Earth temperature has increased by 0.5° to 1° F during the past century. This rise in temperature is believed to have been caused by the use of oil, coal, and natural gas (fossil fuels) for transportation and energy production. Actually, fossil fuel combustion-based power plants are the dominant sources for energy demands. Therefore, increased power production will accelerate the production of greenhouse gases (predominantly CO2). To cope with their energy needs, countries could be engaged in the use of nuclear energy, which could accelerate the diffusion of nuclear arms as a bye- product.

  3. Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Space solar power satellites require innovative concepts in order to achieve economically and technically feasible designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment will be enabling design attributes. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems. A building block approach is proposed in order to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction while promoting the necessary long-term technology advances. Promising mechanical systems technologies anticipated in the coming decades including modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are described

  4. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  5. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen T. Dorrah; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Faten H. Fahmy; Hanaa T. El-Madany

    2012-01-01

    Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical powe...

  6. A new concept of space solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Duan, Baoyan; Song, Liwei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Wang, Dongxu

    2017-07-01

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) is a tremendous energy system that collects and converts solar power to electric power in space, and then transmits the electric power to earth wirelessly. In this paper, a novel SSPS concept based on ε-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial is proposed. A spherical condenser made of ENZ metamaterial is developed, by using the refractive property of the ENZ metamaterial sunlight can be captured and redirected to its center. To make the geometric concentration ratio of the PV array reasonable, a hemispherical one located at the center is used to collect and convert the normal-incidence sunlight to DC power, then through a phased array transmitting antenna the DC power is beamed down to the rectenna on the ground. Detailed design of the proposed concept is presented.

  7. The solar power satellite: Looking back to look ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ray A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1981 the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) published an assessment of the solar power satellite (SPS) concept. SPS proponents claimed that the development and deployment of SPS systems could revolutionize electrical production and sharply reduce global dependence on fossil and atomic fuels. Opponents argued that SPS would be too expensive and environmentally damaging. The OTA assessment examined a broad variety of satellite technologies that might be employed in SPS and compared projected electrical production with terrestrial solar power, advanced coal technologies, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion. It also explored public attitudes toward the SPS concept and compared its potential environmental impacts with those of other future electrical power sources. Technology, world politics, the U.S. economy, and the state of the U.S. space program have changed dramatically since the OTA report was published. This paper examines several of the economic, environmental, and international factors that must be taken into account when assessing the advisability of investing in future solar power satellite concepts.

  8. Electrostatic protection of the Solar Power Satellite and rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Few, A. A., Jr.; Reiff, P. H.; Cooke, D.; Bohannon, J.; Haymes, B.

    1979-01-01

    Several features of the interactions of the solar power satellite (SPS) with its space environment were examined theoretically. The voltages produced at various surfaces due to space plasmas and the plasma leakage currents through the kapton and sapphire solar cell blankets were calculated. At geosynchronous orbit, this parasitic power loss is only 0.7%, and is easily compensated by oversizing. At low-Earth orbit, the power loss is potentially much larger (3%), and anomalous arcing is expected for the EOTV high voltage negative surfaces. Preliminary results of a three dimensional self-consistent plasma and electric field computer program are presented, confirming the validity of the predictions made from the one dimensional models. Magnetic shielding of the satellite, to reduce the power drain and to protect the solar cells from energetic electron and plasma ion bombardment is considered. It is concluded that minor modifications can allow the SPS to operate safely and efficiently in its space environment. The SPS design employed in this study is the 1978 MSFC baseline design utilizing GaAs solar cells at CR-2 and an aluminum structure.

  9. Rectenna System Design. [energy conversion solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, G. R.; Andryczyk, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental processes involved in the operation of the rectenna system designed for the solar power satellite system are described. The basic design choices are presented based on the desired microwave rf field concentration prior to rectification and based on the ground clearance requirements for the rectenna structure. A nonconcentrating inclined planar panel with a 2 meter minimum clearance configuration is selected as a representative of the typical rectenna.

  10. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  11. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.

    2012-10-01

    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  12. Urban solar irradiance and power prediction from nearby stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of small-scale solar PV installations, global horizontal irradiance (GHI and power predictions are becoming critical elements in the integration of PV generation into the grid. This paper considers short-term prediction, from 5 minutes to a few hours, based on historical meteorological measurement data from weather and power monitoring stations located in the Canberra (Australia region. The specific objective of this study is to produce skilful forecasts for (a generic target station using a minimal amount of observations from nearby stations. Thus, although a large number of weather and power variables are collected and used for developing and testing the prediction algorithms, the ultimate aim is to rely on a few predictors, mainly meteorologically based. This will allow the identification of critical instruments which would need to be installed in order to provide satisfactory PV power predictions while limiting capital and operating costs of monitoring. Relative mean absolute error (rMAE is used here to indicate prediction performance. Three statistical methods are tested for two different seasons, a winter and a summer. The relative importance of predictors and stations is assessed. A conversion from GHI to global irradiance on tilted surfaces, by means of simple geometry arguments and notion of irradiance components at a nearby site, is also introduced and tested. Finally, the prediction accuracy is categorised according to different clear-sky indices. Results show that when the clear-sky index exceeds 0.9 (near-to-cloudless conditions, the prediction performance is distinctly better than at lower clear sky indices, by at least 0.05 and 0.2 in terms of rMAE in summer and winter, respectively.

  13. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  14. Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 1: Protection of the solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Several features of the interactions of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) with its space environment are examined theoretically. The voltages produced at various surfaces due to space plasmas and the plasma leakage currents through the kapton and sapphire solar cell blankets are calculated. At geosynchronous orbit, this parasitic power loss is only 0.7%, and is easily compensated by oversizing. At low Earth orbit, the power loss is potentially much larger (3%), and anomalous arcing is expected for the EOTV high voltage negative surfaces. Preliminary results of a three dimensional self consistent plasma and electric field computer program are presented, confirming the validity of the predictions made from the one dimensional models. Lastly, magnetic shielding of the satellite is considered to reduce the power drain and to protect the solar cells from energetic electron and plasma ion bombardment. It is concluded that minor modifications can allow the SPS to operate safely and efficiently in its space environment. Subsequent design changes will substantially alter the basic conclusions.

  15. The solar power satellite - Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1980-06-01

    The potential and the problems of solar energy are discussed, covering all aspects of the necessary technology and its economic and political consequences. The concept of the solar power satellite (SPS) is introduced, noting its feasibility through the space technology of the 1990's. Proposed objectives, including consideration of finite resources, environmentally benign operations and global benefits are covered, as are technical details on power transmission (microwave beams of the 2.50 GHz frequency or the laser beams at 10 MW), and on assembly in orbit through the space transportation system. From the point of view of economic possibilities, costs are estimated at between $1500 to $4000 per kW and finally, ecological and international topics are touched upon.

  16. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  17. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  18. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  19. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  20. The Solar Power Satellite concept - Towards the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, C. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    An evolutionary program phasing with respect to the development of a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is considered, taking into account concept identification, concept evaluation, exploratory research, space technology projects, system development, and commercial operations. At the present time the concept evaluation phase of the program is underway. This phase is scheduled for completion in 1980. It will result in a recommendation as to whether the concept should be explored further and if so, in what manner. The recommendation will be based on technical feasibility, economic and environmental considerations, and comparisons with other potential systems of the future. It is premature to speculate on the conclusions and recommendations from the evaluation program as to whether the program should proceed to the next phase.

  1. Prefeasibility Study of a Solar Power Plant Project and Optimization of a Meteorological Station Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derouich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A prefeasibility study of a solar power plant project was carried out in order to study and search the best location to install a concentrated solar power plant according to a tender with the Algerian electricity company “SPE” following a specific criteria and methodology in order to obtain a site with a maximum possible irradiation along with other economic constraints. Normally, eleven years of solar irradiation data from an on-ground weather station is needed for site assessment, such data are not available, hence the typical meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery results is needed in order to have the accurate value, therefore we can give the right evaluation for the site candidate. Additionally, an analysis of a weather measurement station was carried out to ensure the proper functioning of the weather data reception and analysis processes, and thus to optimize the algorithm of a data logger in order to get the right measurement with a minimum error. The correction algorithm was developed by weather scientists and was added to the data logger main program.

  2. Solar radiation pumped solid state of lasers for Solar Power Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ruiyi [New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The Laser Solar Power Satellites (L-SPS) is the most promising way to overcome global energy and environmental and economical problems. The purpose was to use the favorable combination of solar radiation, modern lasers and the extremely promising phenomenon Optical Phase Conjugation (OPC). Direct conversion of solar energy to energy of a high-power laser beam has the advantage of high efficiency and precise energy transportation. In this paper, direct solar radiation pumping of the laser is compared with the pumping using the intermediate stage of the conversion of the solar radiation in electrical energy. Possible solid-state lasers that can be used in L-SPS are also discussed (including optical system and cooling system). [Spanish] Los Satelites de Energia Solar Laser (L-SPS) son la forma mas prometedora para contrarrestar los problemas globales de energia, ambientales y problemas economicos. El proposito fue el de usar la combinacion favorable de radiacion solar, laseres modernos y el fenomeno extremadamente prometedor de conjugacion de fase optica (OPC). La conversion directa de energia solar a energia de un rayo laser de alta potencia tiene la ventaja de la alta eficiencia y precision de la transportacion de la energia. En este documento la radiacion solar directa impulsada por el laser se compara con la impulsion usando el estado intermedio de conversion de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Tambien se analizan los posibles laseres de estado solido que pueden usarse en L-SPS (incluyendo el sistema optico y el sistema de enfriamiento).

  3. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  4. Personalized energy: the home as a solar power station and solar gas station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed. Such a means of energy supply would create a revolution in society's approach to energy use, and allow a more level playing field for all. This Viewpoint considers some of the key enablers for this technology.

  5. Space solar power - An available energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdman, S.; Kline, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The development of satellite solar power stations is described with attention given to station design and assembly in space. Problems associated with conversion of solar energy into microwaves and with getting the station into orbit are considered. The use of a solar propulsion system for pushing the station to high orbit is discussed along with questions of station lifetime (estimated to be about thirty years). The paper is copiously illustrated with drawings projecting various aspects of station design and utilization.

  6. The History of the Development of the Rectenna. [solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the development of the rectenna is reviewed through its early conceptual developmental phases. Some selective aspects of the current solar power satellite rectenna development are examined.

  7. Solar power satellite concepts and potential related space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent parametric studies of alternate SPS design concepts have shown that the concept appears technically feasible. The parametric studies were based on the use of advanced technology silicon solar cells for solar energy conversion. Solar array blanket unit masses of 0.31 to 0.46 kg/sq m were investigated. Conversion efficiencies of 15 to 17 percent air mass zero (AMO at 247 K) with a concentration ratio of two were considered. The systems were sized for a ground power output of 10 GW. To the level of detail studied, no design or operational problems were encountered that did not appear amenable to solution; however, the economic viability of the SPS concepts studied is obviously dependent upon a combination of technology advancement and/or the costs of competitive sources.

  8. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  9. Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration as Renewable Energy Source Based on Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Solar power satellites (SPS) are a solar energy generation mechanism that captures solar energy in space and converts this energy into microwave for transmission to Earth-based rectenna arrays. They offer a constant, high integrated energy density of 200 W/m2 compared to <10 W/m2 for other renewable energy sources. Despite this promise as a clean energy source, SPS have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current 20,000/kg to <200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to 2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many including the provision of stable baseload power. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to 1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies - in-situ resource utilization of lunar material and 3D printing of this material. Specifically, we demonstrate that electric motors may be constructed from lunar material through 3D printing representing a major step towards the development of self-replicating machines. Such machines have the capacity to build solar power satellites on the Moon, thereby bypassing the launch cost problem. The productive capacity of self-replicating machines favours the adoption of large constellations of small solar power satellites. This opens up additional clean energy options for combating climate change by meeting the demands for future global energy.

  10. Development of Space Qualified Microlens Arrays for Solar Cells Used on Satellite Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Keser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The power system, one of the main systems of satellite, provides energy required for the satellite. Solar cells are also the most used energy source in the power system. The third generation multi-junction solar cells are known as the ones with highest performance. One of the methods to increase the performance of the solar cells is anti-reflective surface coatings with the Micro Lens Array-MLA. It's expected that satellite technologies has high power efficiency and low mass. The space environment has many effects like atomic oxygen, radiation and thermal cycles. Researches for increasing the solar cells performance shows that MLA coated solar cell has increased light absorption performance and less cell heating with very low additional mass. However, it is established that few studies on MLA coatings of solar cells are not applicable on space platforms. In this study, the process of development of MLA which is convenient to space power systems is investigated in a methodological way. In this context, a method which is developed based on MLA coatings of multi-junction solar cells for satellite power systems is presented.

  11. Effects of plasma sheath on solar power satellite array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the plasma sheath and equilibrium voltage distribution of a high-power solar array governs various kinds of plasma-interaction phenomena and array losses. Sheath effects of a linearly-connected array are investigated for GEO. Although the array may be large, the thin-sheath-limit analysis may be invalid, necessitating numerical methods. Three-dimensional computer calculations show that potential barriers and over-lapping sheaths can occur, i.e., structures not predictable under the thin-sheath-limit analysis, but nevertheless controlling the distribution of plasma currents impacting on the array.

  12. Laser satellite power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 7, phase 1: SPS and rectenna systems analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite systems is presented. The design and power distribution of the rectenna system is discussed. The communication subsystem and thermal control characteristics are described and a failure analysis performed on the systems is reported.

  14. OFFSET - RAY TRACING OPTICAL ANALYSIS OF OFFSET SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR SPACE STATION SOLAR DYNAMIC POWER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, K.

    1994-01-01

    OFFSET is a ray tracing computer code for optical analysis of a solar collector. The code models the flux distributions within the receiver cavity produced by reflections from the solar collector. It was developed to model the offset solar collector of the solar dynamic electric power system being developed for Space Station Freedom. OFFSET has been used to improve the understanding of the collector-receiver interface and to guide the efforts of NASA contractors also researching the optical components of the power system. The collector for Space Station Freedom consists of 19 hexagonal panels each containing 24 triangular, reflective facets. Current research is geared toward optimizing flux distribution inside the receiver via changes in collector design and receiver orientation. OFFSET offers many options for experimenting with the design of the system. The offset parabolic collector model configuration is determined by an input file of facet corner coordinates. The user may choose other configurations by changing this file, but to simulate collectors that have other than 19 groups of 24 triangular facets would require modification of the FORTRAN code. Each of the roughly 500 facets in the assembled collector may be independently aimed to smooth out, or tailor, the flux distribution on the receiver's wall. OFFSET simulates the effects of design changes such as in receiver aperture location, tilt angle, and collector facet contour. Unique features of OFFSET include: 1) equations developed to pseudo-randomly select ray originating sources on the Sun which appear evenly distributed and include solar limb darkening; 2) Cone-optics technique used to add surface specular error to the ray originating sources to determine the apparent ray sources of the reflected sun; 3) choice of facet reflective surface contour -- spherical, ideal parabolic, or toroidal; 4) Gaussian distributions of radial and tangential components of surface slope error added to the surface normals at

  15. Optimization of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Ph.D. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy can be used to avoid environmental problems associated with the use of fossil fuels. Because of limitations on the availability of solar energy at the Earth`s surface, it is recommended that energy from the sun be harnessed by solar collectors in geostationary orbit, known as solar power satellites (SPS). The energy collected is transmitted to the Earth by means of microwaves. The physics of power beaming is investigated through the use of mathematical analysis and numerical computer techniques. The most widely considered microwave frequency, 2.45 GHz, constrains the design of the SPS, due to the diffraction of the beam. Therefore, transmission through other atmospheric `windows` has been considered, notably 35 and 94 GHz. Although increasing the frequency decreases the size of the main beam lobe, and thus the rectifying antenna (rectenna) needed to capture the energy, the size of the exclusion zone needed to protect populations from microwave exposure is independent of frequency for a square transmitting antenna. Rain attenuation is significant above 15 GHz. In clear air, microwave absorption may lead to atmospheric heating effects, especially at 94 GHz. It is therefore recommended that future power beaming research concentrate on minimizing beam sidelobes, and increasing the frequency from 2.45 GHz to no more than 15 GHz. Circular transmitting antennas allow for smaller exclusion zones than square antennas. Furthermore, if the amplitude of the beam is varied, or tapered, across the face of the transmitting antenna, then the exclusion zones can be made even smaller. If the frequency is increased to 9.8 GHz, a moderate beam taper is used, and the peak beam intensity is kept to a few tens of milliwatts per square centimeter, then a larger number of somewhat smaller SPS`s will be needed to supply a given amount of power. This results in a net decrease in the land area needed for rectennas and exclusion zones.

  16. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  17. Accuracy analysis of pointing control system of solar power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, J. C.; Peebles, P. Z., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The first-phase effort concentrated on defining the minimum basic functions that the retrodirective array must perform, identifying circuits that are capable of satisfying the basic functions, and looking at some of the error sources in the system and how they affect accuracy. The initial effort also examined three methods for generating torques for mechanical antenna control, performed a rough analysis of the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector, and defined a control system configuration for mechanical pointing control of the array.

  18. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  19. Solar power satellite rectenna design study: Directional receiving elements and parallel-series combining analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rectenna conversion efficiencies (RF to dc) approximating 85 percent were demonstrated on a small scale, clearly indicating the feasibility and potential of efficiency of microwave power to dc. The overall cost estimates of the solar power satellite indicate that the baseline rectenna subsystem will be between 25 to 40 percent of the system cost. The directional receiving elements and element extensions were studied, along with power combining evaluation and evaluation extensions.

  20. Solar Power Satellite system in formation on a common geostationary orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; Winter, O. C.

    2017-10-01

    The diurnal day-night cycle severely limits the Terrestrial solar power. To overcome this limitation, a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system, consisting of a sunlight reflector and a microwave energy generator-transmitter in formation, is presented in this work. The microwave transmitting satellite (MTS) is placed on a common geostationary orbit (GEO) in the Earth’s equatorial plane, and the sunlight reflector uses the solar radiation pressure to achieve quasi-periodic orbits about the MTS, so that the sunlight is always redirected to the MTS, which converts the solar energy in electromagnetic power and transmits it by microwaves to an Earth-receiving antenna. Assuming the sun line direction constant at dierent seasons (i.e. autumn/spring equinoxes and winter and summer solstices), previous studies have shown the existence of a family of displaced ecliptic orbits above or below the equatorial plane of the Earth around a GEO. In this study, the position of the Sun is assumed on the ecliptic plane with a mean obliquity (inclination of Earth’s equator with respect to the ecliptic) of 23.5◦. A linear solution as an initial condition for the full equations of motions about a GEO, which yields bounded orbit for the sunlight reflector about the MTS in the Earth-satellite two-body problem with solar radiation pressure. To redirect the sunlight to the MTS, the law of reflection is satisfied by the space mirror attitude.

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  2. Analysis of different comparison parameters applied to solar radiation data from satellite and German radiometric stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinar, Bella; Ramirez, Lourdes; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Martin, Luis [Solar Platform of Almeria (Energy Department, CIEMAT), Ctra. de Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain); Drews, Anja [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Oldenburg University, Oldenburg (Germany); Beyer, Hans Georg [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal (FH), Magdeburg (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    In this paper new comparison parameters are defined for assessing statistical similarity between two data sets. The new parameters are based on the commonly used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. They allow quantifying differences between the cumulative distribution functions of each data series. These parameters are applied to global horizontal daily irradiation values from pyranometric measurements and satellite data. The test data from 38 stations distributed throughout Germany cover the time from 1995 until 2003. The results affirm that the new parameters contribute valuable information to the comparison of data sets complementing those that are found with the mean bias and root mean squared differences. (author)

  3. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  4. Optimization technique for improved microwave transmission from multi-solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, G.D.; Kerwin, E.M.

    1982-08-01

    An optimization technique for generating antenna illumination tapers allows improved microwave transmission efficiencies from proposed solar power satellite (SPS) systems and minimizes sidelobe levels to meet preset environmental standards. The cumulative microwave power density levels from 50 optimized SPS systems are calculated at the centroids of each of the 3073 counties in the continental United States. These cumulative levels are compared with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) measured levels of electromagnetic radiation in seven eastern cities. Effects of rectenna relocations upon the power levels/population exposure rates are also studied.

  5. Space solar power stations. Problems of energy generation and using its on the earth surface and nearest cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkevich, OA; Gerasimov, DN; Glazkov, VV

    2017-11-01

    Three important physical and technical problems for solar power stations (SPS) are considered: collection of solar energy and effective conversion of this energy to electricity in space power stations, energy transportation by the microwave beam to the Earth surface and direct utilization of the microwave beam energy for global environmental problems. Effectiveness of solar energy conversion into electricity in space power stations using gas and steam turbines plants, and magneto-hydrodynamic generator (MHDG) are analyzed. The closed cycle MHDG working on non–equilibrium magnetized plasmas of inert gases seeded with the alkaline metal vapors are considered. The special emphases are placed on MHDG and gas-turbine installations that are operating without compressor. Also opportunities for using the produced by space power stations energy for ecological needs on Earth and in Space are discussed.

  6. Validation of three satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation using measurements performed at 42 stations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claire; Wey, Etienne; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-06-01

    The SoDa website (www.soda-pro.com) is populated with numerous solar-related Web services. Among them, three satellite-derived irradiation databases can be manually or automatically accessed to retrieve radiation values within the geographical coverage of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite: the two most advanced versions of the HelioClim-3 database (versions 4 and 5, respectively HC3v4 and HC3v5), and the CAMS radiation service. So far, these databases have been validated against measurements of several stations in Europe and North Africa only. As the quality of such databases depends on the geographical regions and the climates, this paper extends this validation campaign and proposes an extensive comparison on Brazil and global irradiation received on a horizontal surface. Eleven stations from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research (INPE) network offer 1 min observations, and thirty-one stations from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) network offer hourly observations. The satellite-derived estimates have been compared to the corresponding observations on hourly, daily and monthly basis. The bias relative to the mean of the measurements for HC3v5 is mostly comprised between 1 and 3 %, and that for HC3v4 between 2 and 5 %. These are very satisfactory results and they demonstrate that HC3v5, and to a lesser extent HC3v4, may be used in studies of long-term changes in SSI in Brazil. The situation is not so good with CAMS radiation service for which the relative bias is mostly comprised between 5 and 10 %. For hourly irradiation, the relative RMSE ranges from 15 to 33 %. The correlation coefficient is very large for all stations and the three databases, with an average of 0.96. The three databases reproduce well the hour from hour changes in SSI. The errors show a tendency to increase with the viewing angle of the MSG satellite. They are greater in tropical areas where the relative humidity in the atmosphere is important. It is concluded

  7. Feasibility Study of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In China, the power sector is currently the largest carbon emitter and the transportation sector is the fastest-growing carbon emitter. This paper proposes a model of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles to mitigate problems encountered in China’s renewable energy utilization processes and to cope with the increasing power demand by electric vehicles for the near future. This study applies the proposed model to Shenzhen City to verify its technical and economic feasibility. Modeling results showed that the total net present value of a photovoltaic power charging station that meets the daily electricity demand of 4500 kWh is $3,579,236 and that the cost of energy of the combined energy system is $0.098/kWh. In addition, the photovoltaic powered electric vehicle model has pollutant reduction potentials of 99.8%, 99.7% and 100% for carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, respectively, compared with a traditional gasoline-fueled car. Sensitivity analysis results indicated that interest rate has a relatively strong influence on COE (Cost of Energy. An increase in the interest rate from 0% to 6% increases COE from $0.027/kWh to $0.097/kWh. This analysis also suggests that carbon pricing promotes renewable energy only when the price of carbon is above $20/t.

  8. A comparison of a conventional launch system vs. externally supplied vehicles for installation and maintenance of solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetzerich, Klaus

    The paper analyzes two principal approaches for the transportation system to support the operational phase of a solar power satellite (SPS) scenario that foresees the continued installation of two 10 GW stations per year equivalent to 150,000 Mg payload per year. One concept consists of conventional single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, the structure of which is left in orbit and used as part of the structure of an SPS. As an alternative concept an externally supplied vehicle is being considered, the required power being supplied by a laser from the ground. A comparison of these two approaches showed, that the conventional launch system is preferable, because it is technically feasible, simpler to development, and no significant inpact to atmosphere is foreseen.

  9. Determination of potential solar power sites in the United States based upon satellite cloud observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, H. W.; Senn, H. V.; Bukkapatnam, S. T.; Akyuzlu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The use of cloud images in the visual spectrum from the SMS/GOES geostationary satellites to determine the hourly distribution of sunshine on a mesoscale in the continental United States excluding Alaska is presented. Cloud coverage and density as a function of time of day and season are evaluated through the use of digital data processing techniques. Low density cirrus clouds are less detrimental to solar energy collection than other types; and clouds in the morning and evening are less detrimental than those during midday hours of maximum insolation. Seasonal geographic distributions of cloud cover/sunshine are converted to langleys of solar radiation received at the earth's surface through relationships developed from long term measurements at six widely distributed stations.

  10. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Robinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.

  11. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  12. Direct conversion of light to radio frequency energy. [using photoklystrons for solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Simons, S.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the test results obtained with the latest models of the phototron. The phototron was conceived as a replacement for the high voltage solar cell-high power klystron combination for the solar power satellite concept. Physically, the phototron is a cylindrical evacuated glass tube with a photocathode, two grids, and a reflector electrode in a planar configuration. The phototron can be operated either in a biased mode where a low voltage is used to accelerate the electron beam produced by the photocathode or in an unbiased mode referred to as self-oscillation. The device is easily modulated by light input or voltage to broadcast in AM or FM. The range of operation of the present test model phototrons is from 2 to 200 MHz.

  13. Development of a New, High-Power Solar Array for Telecommunication Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Airbus is currently developing the Next Generation Solar Array (NGSA for telecommunication satellites. It is based on a hybrid array concept which combines a conventional rigid panel array with lightweight, semi-rigid lateral panels. The main figures of merit power/mass and power/volume can be doubled through this concept. Mechanically, the semi-rigid panels are the key new element. Through acoustic testing as well as sine vibration testing in air and in vacuum it was verified that these panels are suitable as cell support in stowed configuration. With the help of finite element modelling it is demonstrated that the semi-rigid panels are compatible with a free deployment. Electrically, the new array is to be equipped with a new generation of 4 junction solar cells with efficiencies above 30%. The increased radiation dose due to electric orbit raising has to be taken into account to arrive at the optimum shielding while still minimizing the array mass. By adjusting the ratio of rigid to semi-rigid panels and through the choice of solar cell type and mass, the NGSA can be tailored in a wide range to needs of a given platform. This is illustrated for the solar array to be flown on the new Airbus platform Eurostar Neo.

  14. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control Systems Design for Space Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control systems architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 x 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control systems architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an offset of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  15. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control System Design for Space Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica (Technical Monitor); Moore, Chris (Technical Monitor); Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control system architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control system architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an o.set of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  16. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  17. Cost optimization of the dimensions of the antennas of a solar power satellite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilev, A.V.; Klassen, V.I.; Laskin, N.N.; Tobolev, A.K.

    1983-05-01

    The problem of the cost optimization of the dimensions of the antennas of a solar power satellite system is formulated. The optimization problem is twofold: (1) for a given power delivered to the microwave transmitting antenna (TA), to determine the dimensions Lt (the characteristic dimension of the TA) and Lr (the characteristic dimension of the rectenna) which minimize the unit-power cost function for a given amplitude-phase distribution in the aperture of the TA, and (2) for a power delivered to the TA which is proportional to the aperture area, to determine the dimensions Lt and Lr which minimize the unit-power cost function for a given amplitude-phase distribution in the aperture of the TA. Two possible variants of the solution of this problem are considered: (1) the case of a linear antenna (the two-dimensional problem), and (2) the case of square apertures (the three-dimensional problem). A specific example of optimization is considered, where the cost of the TA is $1000/sq m and the cost of the rectenna is $12/sq m. 11 references.

  18. Satellite Power System (SPS): an Overview of Prospective Organizational Structures in the Solar Satellite Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    A literature survey, interviews with acknowledged experts in the fields of organizational entities, space, solar energy, and the SPS concept, and an analysis of these inputs to identify the organizational alternatives and make judgments as to their feasibility to serve as patterns for a future SPS entity are presented. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasibility (both national and international) and cost-effectiveness (including environmental and other external costs). Based on these criteria, four organizational alternatives are discussed which offer reasonable promise as potential options for SPS. These included three domestic alternatives and one international alternative.

  19. Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 2: Lightning protection of the rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulations and laboratory tests were used to evaluate the hazard posed by lightning flashes to ground on the Solar Power Satellite rectenna and to make recommendations on a lightning protection system for the rectenna. The distribution of lightning over the lower 48 of the continental United States was determined, as were the interactions of lightning with the rectenna and the modes in which those interactions could damage the rectenna. Lightning protection was both required and feasible. Several systems of lightning protection were considered and evaluated. These included two systems that employed lightning rods of different lengths and placed on top of the rectenna's billboards and a third, distribution companies; it consists of short lightning rods all along the length of each billboard that are connected by a horizontal wire above the billboard. The distributed lightning protection system afforded greater protection than the other systems considered and was easier to integrate into the rectenna's structural design.

  20. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.

    1983-12-22

    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented. (orig./BWI).

  1. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.

    1978-12-06

    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, so that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented.

  2. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almgren, D.W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A.D.

    1978-03-31

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  3. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  4. Gravitational force and torque on a solar power satellite considering the structural flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Jingrui; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Quan

    2017-11-01

    The solar power satellites (SPS) are designed to collect the constant solar energy and beam it to Earth. They are traditionally large in scale and flexible in structure. In order to obtain an accurate model of such system, the analytical expressions of the gravitational force, gravity gradient torque and modal force are investigated. They are expanded to the fourth order in a Taylor series with the elastic displacements considered. It is assumed that the deformation of the structure is relatively small compared with its characteristic length, so that the assumed mode method is applicable. The high-order moments of inertia and flexibility coefficients are presented. The comprehensive dynamics of a large flexible SPS and its orbital, attitude and vibration evolutions with different order gravitational forces, gravity gradient torques and modal forces in geosynchronous Earth orbit are performed. Numerical simulations show that an accurate representation of the SPS‧ dynamic characteristics requires the retention of the higher moments of inertia and flexibility. Perturbations of orbit, attitude and vibration can be retained to the 1-2nd order gravitational forces, the 1-2nd order gravity gradient torques and the 1-2nd order modal forces for a large flexible SPS in geosynchronous Earth orbit.

  5. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  6. A Lunar Mission to Create a Constellation of Space Solar Power Satellites as a Precursor to Industrial Establishment, Resource Extraction, and Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsrud, C. M.; Straub, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of a system of space solar power satellites (SSPSs) to service lunar science, mining and manufacturing operations. The SSPS system will provide power to enable a new paradigm of lunar and Moon-based exploration.

  7. Solar-assisted MED treatment of Eskom power station waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Rogers, David E. C.; Gericke, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    The comparative benefits of multi-effect distillation (MED) used in conjunction with Nano Filtration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) are determined for waste water minimization for inland coal fired power stations for Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge (ZLED). A sequence of technologies is proposed to achieve maximal water recovery and brine concentration: NF - physico-chemical treatment - MED - EFC. The possibility of extending the concentration of RO reject arising from minewater treatment at the Lethabo power station with MED alone is evaluated with mineral formation modelling using the thermochemical modelling software Phreeq-C. It is shown that pretreatment is essential to extend the amount of water that can be recovered, and this can be beneficially supported by NF.

  8. Technical Feasible Study for Future Solar Thermal Steam Power Station in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Atira, N. N.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Izzuddin, T. A.; Baharom, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposed renewable energy which is potential to be used in Malaysia in generating electricity to innovate and improve current operating systems. Thermal and water act as the resources to replace limited fossil fuels such as coal which is still widely used in energy production nowadays. Thermal is also known as the heat energy while the water absorbs energy from the thermal to produce steam energy. By combining both of the sources, it is known as thermal steam renewable energy. The targeted area to build this power station has constant high temperature and low humidity which can maximize the efficiency of generating power.

  9. Implications for the UK of solar-power satellites /s.p.s/ as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The solar power satellite concept which would make the sun's radiation available on earth as a source of energy, is discussed. Attention is given to the concept currently under evaluation in the USA, and also in Europe, though to a lesser extent. The advantages and problems associated with its adoption by the UK as a major source of electrical energy are discussed. The discussion covers topics such as sizing, reference system, and construction, costs, and problem areas.

  10. Theory of intense radio waves in an underdense ionosphere: application to solar power satellite transmissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M V

    1980-11-01

    The instabilities in the F-region plasma are investigated that can be created by the passage of a solar power satellite beam (2.45 Ghz frequency, at a power flux of 23 mW/cm/sup 2/) at frequencies much higher than the cut-off plasma frequency of the ionosphere. The threshold geometry and frequency and intensity scaling laws are calculated for the thermal self-focusing instability, and its saturation level is estimated. The possibility is considered of scaled experiments at HF power to detect the thermal self-focusing instability for an underdense ionosphere. Other experimental possibilities are discussed in terms of the scaling laws. (LEW)

  11. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Hekinan thermal power station is situated at the port of Kinuura in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Unit 1 began commercial operation in October 1991, Unit 2 in June 1992 and Unit 3 in April 1993. This brochure gives the specification of the main facilities of the power station, shows its layout; illustrates its pollution control equipment, gives specifications of its flue gas treatment systems and of its large steam turbine, describes its coal handling facilities and gives their specifications, and mentions the power station`s automated control system.

  12. A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearien, J.A.; Priebe, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.

  13. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks) powered by solar energy sources a long-term promisi...

  14. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  15. Solar power satellites and the ionosphere - The effect of high power microwave beams on the ionosphere and the chemical effects due to Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of solar power satellites on the ionosphere are discussed, separated into two categories: (1) passive interactions, in which the ionospheric plasma influences the propagation of the power satellite beam in some way, and in some instances possibly gives rise to co-channel interference through scattering off the beam, and (2) an active inteference, in which ionospheric plasma itself is modified. Strong electron heating from the power satellite beam may produce irregularities in the ionization capable of scattering radio waves of lower frequencies, thereby increasing the potential for broad-band interference. Ionospheric modification may also result from the emission of exhaust effluents from heavy lift launch vehicles, and associated changes in ionospheric chemistry can lead to depletions in ionization at F-region heights. Interference with radio services is briefly discussed.

  16. Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  17. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4. The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas.

  18. System design for a solar powered electric vehicle charging station for workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.; Bauer, P.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of charging battery electric vehicles at workplace in Netherlands using solar energy. Data from the Dutch Meteorological Institute is used to determine the optimal orientation of PV panels for maximum energy yield in the Netherlands. The seasonal and diurnal

  19. A preliminary design for a satellite power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Clara V.; Kokaly, Ray; Nandi, Saumya; Timmons, Mike; Garrard, Mark; Mercado, Rommel; Rogers, Brian; Ugaz, Victor

    1991-01-01

    Outlined here is a preliminary design for a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system. The SPS will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for mass consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy which can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting to one ground station. The SPs technology uses multi-layer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 sq km planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit and array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on the solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing panels (SSAPs). The primary truss elements used to support the arrays are composed on composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  20. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  1. Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  2. Summary of the electromagnetic compatibility evaluation of the proposed satellite power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. L., Jr.; Grant, W. B.; Davis, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) operations on electronic equipment and systems by fundamental, harmonic, and intermodulation component emissions from the orbital station; and the fundamental, harmonic, and structural intermodulation emissions from the rectenna site were evaluated. The coupling and affects interactions affecting a wide spectrum of electronic equipment are considered. The primary EMC tasking areas are each discussed separately.

  3. Design, fabrication and testing of a CFA for use in the solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    A crossed field amplifier was designed to meet the performance objectives of high signal to noise ratio, an efficiency of 85%, a CW microwave power output of 5-8 kW, and a frequency of 2450 MHz. The signal to noise ratio achieved was better than 69 db/MHz in a 2000 MHz band centered on the carrier. High circuit efficiency of 97% and a sharp knee on voltage current characteristic were achieved. The basic problem of maintaining good transfer of heat to the external radiator while providing for adequate connections to input and output was solved. Maximum efficiency achieved was 70.5% and gain and power level were below objectives. An investigation of causes of reduced performance indicated the poor field pattern in the cathode anode interaction area of the tube was a major cause.

  4. Critical areas: Satellite power systems concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Critical Areas are defined and discussed in the various areas pertinent to satellite power systems. The presentation is grouped into five areas (General, Space Systems, Solar Energy Conversion, Microwave Systems, and Environment/Ecology) with a sixth area (Power Relay) considered separately in an appendix. Areas for Future Consideration as critical areas are discussed in a second appendix.

  5. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  6. Exploring the Feasibility of Providing Electrical Power to Remote Bases Via Space-Based Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    attributes vary by design alternative, to include transmitter size, rectenna size, power transmitted, mass of components, and number of launches...system attributes vary by design alternative, to include transmitter size, rectenna size, power transmitted, mass of components, and number of launches...32 e. Ground Power Receiver ( Rectenna

  7. Plasma sheath effects and voltage distributions of large high-power satellite solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the floating voltage configuration of a large array in orbit is needed in order to estimate various plasma-interaction effects. The equilibrium configuration of array voltages relative to space depends on the sheath structure. The latter dependence for an exposed array is examined in the light of two finite-sheath effects. One effect is that electron currents may be seriously underestimated. The other is that a potential barrier for electrons can occur, restricting electron currents. A conducting surface is assumed on the basis of a conductivity argument. Finite-sheath effects are investigated. The results of assuming thin-sheath and thick-sheath limits on the floating configuration of a linearly connected array are studied. Sheath thickness and parasitic power leakage are estimated. Numerically computed fields using a 3-D code are displayed in the thick-sheath limit.

  8. Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbridge, E. W.

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  9. Solar mobile power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Libian

    2014-01-01

    The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environment protective product. Besides, it consists of solar panels, storage battery and controller as well as other important components. Based on the traditional solar charging circuit, this solar power supply combines the 5V USB interface and 12V adjustable circuit as well as the 220V inverter and power adapter to greatly improve the function of the power system.

  10. Space power station. Uchu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-02-20

    A calculation tells that the amount of electric power the world will use in the future will require 100 to 500 power plants each with an output of 5-GW class. If this conception is true, it is beyond dispute that utilizing nuclear power will constitute a core of the power generation even though the geographical conditions are severe for nuclear power plants. It is also certain that power generation using clean solar energy will play important roles if power supply stability can be achieved. This paper describes plans to develop space solar power generation and space nuclear power generation that can supply power solving problems concerning geographical conditions and power supply stability. The space solar power generation is a system to arrest solar energy on a static orbit. According to a result of discussions in the U.S.A., the plan calls for solar cell sheets spread over the surface of a structure with a size of 5 km [times] 10 km [times] 0.5 km thick, and electric power obtained therefrom is transmitted to a rectenna with a size of 10 km [times] 13 km, a receiving antenna on the ground. The space nuclear power generation will be constructed similarly on a static orbit. Researches on space nuclear reactors have already begun. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 8: SPS launch vehicle ascent and entry sonic overpressure and noise effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Recoverable launch vehicle concepts for the Solar Power Satellite program were identified. These large launch vehicles are powered by proposed engines in the F-1 thrust level class. A description of the candidate launch vehicles and their operating mode was provided. Predictions of the sonic over pressures during ascent and entry for both types of vehicles, and prediction of launch noise levels in the vicinity of the launch site were included. An overall assessment and criteria for sonic overpressure and noise levels was examined.

  12. Scattering Effects of Solar Panels on Space Station Antenna Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John C.; Hwu, Shian U.; Johnson, Larry A.; Elmore, James D.; Lu, Ba P.; Kelley, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Characterizing the scattering properties of the solar array panels is important in predicting Space Station antenna performance. A series of far-field, near-field, and radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at S-Band and Ku-Band microwave frequencies on Space Station solar array panels. Based on investigation of the measured scattering patterns, the solar array panels exhibit similar scattering properties to that of the same size aluminum or copper panel mockup. As a first order approximation, and for worse case interference simulation, the solar array panels may be modeled using perfect reflecting plates. Numerical results obtained using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) modeling technique are presented for Space Station antenna pattern degradation due to solar panel interference. The computational and experimental techniques presented in this paper are applicable for antennas mounted on other platforms such as ship, aircraft, satellite, and space or land vehicle.

  13. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  14. Performance Assessment of a Solar powered Air Quality and Weather Station Placed on a School Rooftop in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of compact, roof version of a Village Green Project station installed on a secondary school rooftop in Hong Kong. Preliminary comparison of the station's data against nearby regulatory monitors are summarized.

  15. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  16. The solar panels on the GOES-L satellite are deployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The solar panels on the GOES-L weather satellite are fully deployed. Final testing of the imaging system, instrumentation, communications and power systems also will be performed at the Astrotech facility, Titusville, Fla. The satellite is to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) aboard an Atlas II rocket in late March. The GOES- L is the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It is a three-axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures and perform atmospheric sounding at the same time. Once launched, the satellite, to be designated GOES-11, will undergo checkout and provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.

  17. Can solar power deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M

    2013-08-13

    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies.

  18. Mars Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars, both robotic and human, rely on solar arrays for the primary power system. Mars presents a number of challenges for solar power system operation, including a dusty atmosphere which modifies the spectrum and intensity of the incident solar illumination as a function of time of day, degradation of the array performance by dust deposition, and low temperature operation. The environmental challenges to Mars solar array operation will be discussed and test results of solar cell technology operating under Mars conditions will be presented, along with modeling of solar cell performance under Mars conditions. The design implications for advanced solar arrays for future Mars missions is discussed, and an example case, a Martian polar rover, are analyzed.

  19. Regional trends in surface solar radiation derived from satellite-based data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Posselt, Rebekka; Krähenmann, Stefan; Müller, Richard W.; Wild, Martin; Stöckli, Reto; Ahrens, Bodo

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of the surface solar radiation and the detection of its variability and possible changes is highly relevant for our understanding of the climate system. Clouds and aerosols are the main contributors to the observed changes in the solar energy reaching the surface. Clouds are well observed from satellites, especially during daytime, making satellite-derived data sets of the surface radiation a potentially powerful source of information to assess the spatial structure of surface solar radiation. Surface-based observations, e.g., from the BSRN and GEBA networks, have been used to assess the temporal variability and trend of the surface radiation. Due to the limited spatial distribution of the surface stations, a generalization of the trends derived from measurements at individual stations is difficult. Satellite-derived data of the surface radiation, providing up to global coverage, are available since the 1980s allowing an analysis of the regional variability of temporal changes of the surface radiation. Here, we use surface solar radiation data generated and provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, www.cmsaf.eu) based on geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. The ability of the satellite-derived data sets to detect trends is tested and assessed by comparison with surface reference observations in Europe. It is shown that, at least for part of the available time series, the satellite data is stable and can be used to derive trend estimates. Substantial regional differences in the trend of the surface solar radiation are detected across Europe between 1994 and 2005, with strong positive trends over Central Europe (brightening) and negative trends over the Mediterranean Sea (dimming).

  20. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis Model Development and Application Study Comparing Solar Powered Airplane and Airship Station-Keeping Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    There have been ongoing efforts in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a suite of integrated physics-based computational utilities suitable for modeling and analyzing extended-duration missions carried out using solar powered aircraft. From these efforts, SolFlyte has emerged as a state-of-the-art vehicle analysis and mission simulation tool capable of modeling both heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicle concepts. This study compares solar powered airplane and airship station-keeping capability during a variety of high altitude missions, using SolFlyte as the primary analysis component. Three Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) concepts were designed for this study: an airplane (Operating Empty Weight (OEW) = 3285 kilograms, span = 127 meters, array area = 450 square meters), a small airship (OEW = 3790 kilograms, length = 115 meters, array area = 570 square meters), and a large airship (OEW = 6250 kilograms, length = 135 meters, array area = 1080 square meters). All the vehicles were sized for payload weight and power requirements of 454 kilograms and 5 kilowatts, respectively. Seven mission sites distributed throughout the United States were selected to provide a basis for assessing the vehicle energy budgets and site-persistent operational availability. Seasonal, 30-day duration missions were simulated at each of the sites during March, June, September, and December; one-year duration missions were simulated at three of the sites. Atmospheric conditions during the simulated missions were correlated to National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) historical data measurements at each mission site, at four flight levels. Unique features of the SolFlyte model are described, including methods for calculating recoverable and energy-optimal flight trajectories and the effects of shadows on solar energy collection. Results of this study indicate that: 1) the airplane concept attained longer periods of on

  1. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  2. Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultra-lightweight arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kevin; Willenberg, Harvey J.

    2009-11-01

    Space solar power shows great promise for future energy sources worldwide. Most central power stations operate with power capacity of 1000 MW or greater. Due to launch size limitations and specific power of current, rigid solar arrays, the largest solar arrays that have flown in space are around 50 kW. Thin-film arrays offer the promise of much higher specific power and deployment of array sizes up to several MW with current launch vehicles. An approach to early commercial applications for space solar power to distribute power to charge hand-held, mobile battery systems by wireless power transmission (WPT) from thin-film solar arrays in quasi-stationary orbits will be presented. Four key elements to this prototype will be discussed: (1) Space and near-space testing of prototype wireless power transmission by laser and microwave components including WPT space to space and WPT space to near-space HAA transmission demonstrations; (2) distributed power source for recharging hand-held batteries by wireless power transmission from MW space solar power systems; (3) use of quasi-geostationary satellites to generate electricity and distribute it to targeted areas; and (4) architecture and technology for ultra-lightweight thin-film solar arrays with specific energy exceeding 1 kW/kg. This approach would yield flight demonstration of space solar power and wireless power transmission of 1.2 MW. This prototype system will be described, and a roadmap will be presented that will lead to still higher power levels.

  3. Pioneering with Solar Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, George; Pollack, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of Mississippi County Community College's (MCCC's) solar energy system. Explains the functioning of the campus's computer-controlled photovoltaic concentrator system, MCCC's cooperative agreement with the Arkansas-Missouri Power Company, program funding, the integration of the solar system with other building components,…

  4. Advances in Solar Power Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, S. E.; Kosovic, B.; Drobot, S.

    2014-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research and partners are building a blended SunCast Solar Power Forecasting system. This system includes several short-range nowcasting models and improves upon longer range numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as part of the "Public-Private-Academic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting." The nowcasting models being built include statistical learning models that include cloud regime prediction, multiple sky imager-based advection models, satellite image-based advection models, and rapid update NWP models with cloud assimilation. The team has also integrated new modules into the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to better predict clouds, aerosols, and irradiance. The modules include a new shallow convection scheme; upgraded physics parameterizations of clouds; new radiative transfer modules that specify GHI, DNI, and DIF prediction; better satellite assimilation methods; and new aerosol estimation methods. These new physical models are incorporated into WRF-Solar, which is then integrated with publically available NWP models via the Dynamic Integrated Forecast (DICast) system as well as the Nowcast Blender to provide seamless forecasts at partner utility and balancing authority commercial solar farms. The improvements will be described and results to date discussed.

  5. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  6. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  7. Future Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.; Lawrence, G.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W.; Kopp, G.

    2003-01-01

    Required solar irradiance measurements for climate studies include those now being made by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) onboard the SORCE satellite, part of the Earth Observing System fleet of NASA satellites. Equivalent or better measures of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI, 200 to 2000 nm) are planned for the post-2010 satellites of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System ("OESS). The design life of SORCE is 5 years, so a "Solar Irradiance Gap Filler" EOS mission is being planned for launch in the 2007 time frame, to include the same TSI and SSI measurements. Besides avoiding any gap, overlap of the data sources is also necessary for determination of possible multi-decadal trends in solar irradiance. We discuss these requirements and the impacts of data gaps, and data overlaps, that may occur in the monitoring of the critical solar radiative forcing.

  8. A New Generation of Electrical Power Supply for Telecom Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhours, Gilles; Asplanato, Remi; Rebuffel, Christophe; Pasquet, Jean-Marie; Bardin, Bertrand; Deplus, Nicolas; Lempereur, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the main features of the new power subsystem generation for the Thales Alenia Space (TAS) Spacebus platforms.All its components (Solar Array, Solar Array Drive Mechanism, Power Conditioning Unit and Lithium-Ion batteries) have been upgraded, taking advantage of the latest available technologies. The modularity has been improved to perfectly match the sizing of each unit to the satellite power level requirement. These two improvements lead to optimal mass and cost over the whole power range.In addition, the customer benefits from a fully automatic operation of the subsystem, including redundancy, making the ground station workload negligible, even during eclipse periods. Finally, the capability to support any type of payload has been further improved, in terms of overall power level and operating modes. Payload pulsed operation capability has been especially increased to support all anticipated mission requirements. In parallel to the PCU hardware, a detailed electrical model has also been developed and correlated to analyse the regulation performance in any nominal or degraded mode. An extensive set of tests provides a verification of performances and interfaces, hardware as well as software.This paper will first describe the main requirements considered in this development. Then, the architecture will be detailed, showing how the requirements have been fulfilled. The design of each unit will be shortly presented, and finally the correlation between the regulation analysis model and the EQM measurements will be illustrated.

  9. Analysis of solar radiation and other variables for the evaluation of locations of thermo solar power stations; Analisis de radiacion solar y otras vairables para la evaluacion de emplazamientos de centrales termosolares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, I.; Miranda, M. T.; Rojas, S.; Bolinaga, B.; Tierra, C.; Pico, J. del

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of various measuring weather stations located in future CCP thermal plants, showing the different systems they are equipped with, among others, pyrheliometer, pyrano meter, anemometers, thermo-hygrometer and data transmission system. Some results of solar radiation and other climate variables obtained in these stations are presented and analyzed in relation to existing data in the area, taking into account different external parameters that can influence the direct radiation obtained and, therefore, the future operation of the thermal plant. (Author)

  10. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions

  11. Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Lee A.; Loomis, James; Bhatia, Bikram; Bierman, David M.; Wang, Evelyn N.; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-09

    Solar energy is a bountiful renewable energy resource: the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth in an hour exceeds the energy consumed by all of humanity in a year.(1) While the phrase “solar energy conversion” probably brings photovoltaic (PV) cells to mind first, PV is not the only option for generating electricity from sunlight. Another promising technology for solar energy conversion is solar–thermal conversion, commonly referred to as concentrating solar power (CSP).(2) The first utility-scale CSP plants were constructed in the 1980s, but in the two decades that followed, CSP saw little expansion.(3, 4) More recent years, however, have seen a CSP renaissance due to unprecedented growth in the adoption of CSP.(3, 5) Photographs of two operating CSP plants, a parabolic trough collector plant and a central receiver (or “power tower”), are shown here.

  12. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  13. Public solar refuelling station for electrical vehicles at ISET. Oeffentliche Solartankstelle fuer Elektrofahrzeuge am ISET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willer, B. (Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany)); Wollny, M. (Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Electrical cars are getting more important for reducing emission loads in urban and metropolitan areas. Power generation may also become cleaner by using renewable energy sources. A refuelling station providing solar power for electrical vehicles is an important step in infrastructural development. At Kassel, a demonstration project involves the design and installation of a ''solar-power'' refuelling station. The authors present the concept underlying this station. (BWI)

  14. Solar Power on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani). The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  15. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  16. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  17. Solar Sea Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  18. Laser power beaming for satellite applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-09-22

    A serious consideration of laser power beaming for satellite applications appears to have grown out of a NASA mission analysis for transmitting power to lunar bases during the two week dark period. System analyses showed that laser power beaming to the moon in conjunction with efficient, large area solar cell collection panels, were an attractive alternative to other schemes such as battery storage and nuclear generators, largely because of the high space transportation costs. The primary difficulty with this scheme is the need for very high average power visible lasers. One system study indicated that lasers in excess of 10 MW at a wavelength of approximately 850 nm were required. Although such lasers systems have received much attention for military applications, their realization is still a long term goal.

  19. Concentrating Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified, along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives, CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas-fired systems during peak-demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50%, and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

  20. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Durfee, Norman [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Overbey, Randall M [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data

  1. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  2. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  3. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  4. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  5. Complex Mobile Independent Power Station for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunik, A. A.; Tolstoy, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    A new type of a complex mobile independent power station developed in the Department of Engineering Communications and Life-Support Systems of Irkutsk National Research Technical University, is presented in this article. This station contains only solar panel, wind turbine, accumulator, diesel generator and microbial fuel cell for to produce electric energy, heat pump and solar collector to generate heat energy and also wastewater treatment plant and new complex control system. The complex mobile independent power station is intended for full power supply of a different kind of consumers located even in remote areas thus reducing their dependence from centralized energy supply systems, decrease the fossil fuel consumption, improve the environment of urban areas and solve the problems of the purification of industrial and municipal wastewater.

  6. Solar Power Sources: PV, Concentrated PV, and Concentrated Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  7. GNSS satellite transmit power and its impact on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Thoelert, Steffen; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Antenna thrust is a small acceleration acting on Global Navigation Satellite System satellites caused by the transmission of radio navigation signals. Knowledge about the transmit power and the mass of the satellites is required for the computation of this effect. The actual transmit power can be obtained from measurements with a high-gain antenna and knowledge about the properties of the transmit and receive antennas as well as losses along the propagation path. Transmit power measurements for different types of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou-2 satellites were taken with a 30-m dish antenna of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) located at its ground station in Weilheim. For GPS, total L-band transmit power levels of 50-240 W were obtained, 20-135 W for GLONASS, 95-265 W for Galileo, and 130-185 W for BeiDou-2. The transmit power differs usually only slightly for individual spacecraft within one satellite block. An exception are the GLONASS-M satellites where six subgroups with different transmit power levels could be identified. Considering the antenna thrust in precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites decreases the orbital radius by 1-27 mm depending on the transmit power, the satellite mass, and the orbital period.

  8. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  9. Solar Power Grid Unfurled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown here is one of the first images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander of one of the octagonal solar panels, which opened like two handheld, collapsible fans on either side of the spacecraft. Beyond this view is a small slice of the north polar terrain of Mars. The successfully deployed solar panels are critical to the success of the 90-day mission, as they are the spacecraft's only means of replenishing its power. Even before these images reached Earth, power readings from the spacecraft indicated to engineers that the solar panels were already at work recharging the spacecraft's batteries. Before deploying the Surface Stereo Imager to take these images, the lander waited about 15 minutes for the dust to settle. This image was taken by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol, or Martian day, 0 (May 25, 2008). This image has been geometrically corrected. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Solar Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown here is one of the first images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander of one of the octagonal solar panels, which opened like two handheld, collapsible fans on either side of the spacecraft. Beyond this view is a small slice of the north polar terrain of Mars. The successfully deployed solar panels are critical to the success of the 90-day mission, as they are the spacecraft's only means of replenishing its power. Even before these images reached Earth, power readings from the spacecraft indicated to engineers that the solar panels were already at work recharging the spacecraft's batteries. Before deploying the Surface Stereo Imager to take these images, the lander waited about 15 minutes for the dust to settle. This image was taken by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol, or Martian day, 0 (May 25, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  12. Solar powered model vehicle races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  13. Solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  14. Solar power supplies and solar vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanneret, R.

    1987-01-01

    2 rallies organized by the Swiss Solar Energy Association in 1985 and 1986 demonstrated the performance and developmental state of solar vehicles. Three types of solar vehicles without and with auxiliary batteries (pedals) as well as several standard vehicles (prototypes) are described in detail. Reference is made to their dimensions, solar generators, operating voltage, energy storage units, mechanical properties, theoretical fundamentals allowing to determine the energy demand as it manifests at the wheels, the chassis and propulsive concept, maximum power tracker (solar generator operating point as a function of the solar energy and operating temperature of the cell), traction batteries, the electronic system, as well as of the electric motor, the gear box and instrumentation. Rally experiences serve as the basis of a light weight electric-powered vehicle for short distances the specifications of which are given access to. (HWJ).

  15. Photovoltaic central-station power conditioner subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bahrami, K.; Bulawka, A.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of applying new advanced circuit topologies and semiconductors with improved switching characteristics to the design and development of central-station power conditioning subsystems is assessed. State-of-the-art large power conditioners suitable for photovoltaic central-station application are reviewed. Advanced topology power conditioning subsystems, when compared to available production hardware, promise improved performance, significant cost reduction, and lower cost-to-efficiency ratios.

  16. Initial assessment: electromagnetic compatibility aspects of proposed SPS Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    An analysis of major concerns with regard to the effects on radio and electronic systems by the proposed Microwave Power Transmission System for transmitting power from a satellite solar power station to earth is presented. (LCL)

  17. Lunar solar-power system: Commerical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, David R.

    1995-01-01

    The proposed Lunar Solar-Power (LSP) System collects solar power on the moon. The power is converted to beams of microwaves and transmitted to fields of microwave receivers (rectennas) on Earth that provide electric power to local and regional power grids. LSP can provide abundant and low cost energy to Earth to sustain several centuries of economic development on Earth and in space. The LSP power is independent of the biosphere (global warming, weather, and climate changes), independent of reserves of terrestrial non-renewable and renewable power, and is low in total costs compared to other large scale power systems. Efficient utilization of the moon as a platform for solar collectors/power transmitters and as a source of building materials is key to the development and emplacement of the LSP System. LSP development costs can be significantly reduced by the establishment of a manned lunar base.

  18. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system.

  19. Solar powered vehicles: From dream to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The initiatives of the 'Schweizer Vereinigung fuer Sonnenenergie' (Swiss Association for Solar Energy) has added new impetus worldwide for the utilisation of solar energy. The Association organised the 'Tour de Sol', a race for vehicles propelled with the aid of solar energy. Solar vehicles with and without supplementary power, both standard production models and prototypes were eligible for the race. Before the start of the race, the solar-powered vehicles were 'filled up' with solar energy at a 'solar filling station'. The winner in the 'standard' section (a 2-seater small car for short distances) weighed in at 240 kg and attained a top speed of 100 km/h and a range of 150 km. The rear-wheel drive of this battery-powered vehicle was provided by 2 permanent magnet motors. A newly-developed nickel-zinc battery from the USA was available to power the twin engines. The energy requirement was the equivalent of less than 1 liter of petrol per 100 km.

  20. Decommissioning strategy for Trawsfynydd power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.M.; Ellis, A.T. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Following the decision to close Trawsfynydd power station, Nuclear Electric adapted its generic decommissioning plans to suit the particular local circumstances. This resulted in an early reduced height safestore strategy which is described in the paper. (Author).

  1. Electric vehicles powered by space solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nansen, R. [Solar Space Industries, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    California recently adopted a zero emissions vehicle legislation, requiring that a certain percentage of each major automaker`s sales in California be zero emissions vehicles. Electric vehicles are the only technological alternative for automakers to meet the zero tailpipe emissions standard. The required percentage is set at two per cent for 1998, rising to 10 per cent by 2003. If the batteries of these vehicles were to be charged by power generated in plants that produce atmospheric emissions, the pollution equation would not change in any significant way. Clearly, a new way of generating electricity must be designed. This paper describes how solar power satellites (SPS) could be used to provide nonpolluting electricity in the future to power zero emissions electric vehicles and to satisfy the growing world demand for energy. The concept of the SPS energy system is to place giant satellites covered with vast arrays of solar cells in geosynchronous orbit, where they would be in sunlight more than 99 per cent of the time. The solar cells would convert sunlight to electricity. The electricity would then be changed to radio-frequency energy by a transmitting antenna on the satellite. This would be beamed to a receiver site on Earth where it would be reconverted to electricity. The power would then be routed into the normal electric distribution networks for use on Earth. 2 figs.

  2. Satellite power system. Concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The Reference System description emphasizes technical and operational information required in support of environmental, socioeconomic, and comparative assessment studies. Supporting information has been developed according to a guideline of implementing two 5 GW SPS systems per year for 30 years beginning with an initial operational data of 2000 and with SPS's being added at the rate of two per year (10 GW/year) until 2030. The Reference System concept, which features gallium--aluminum--arsenide (GaAlAs) and silicon solar cell options, is described in detail. The concept utilizes a planar solar array (about 55 km/sup 2/) built on a graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic structure. The silicon array uses a concentration ratio of one (no concentration), whereas the GaAlAs array uses a concentration ratio of two. A one-kilometer diameter phased array microwave antenna is mounted on one end. The antenna uses klystrons as power amplifiers with slotted waveguides as radiating elements. The satellite is constructed in geosynchronous orbit in a six-month period. The ground receiving stations (rectenna) are completed during the same time period. The other two major components of an SPS program are (1) the construction bases in space and launch and mission control bases on earth and (2) fleets of various transportation vehicles that support the construction and maintenance operations of the satellites. These transportation vehicles include Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV), Personnel Launch Vehicles (PLV), Cargo Orbit Transfer Vehicles (COTV), and Personnel Orbit Transfer Vehicles (POTV). The earth launch site chosen is the Kennedy Space Center, pending further study.

  3. Geoengineering Vision-Application for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlund, B. J.; Jenkins, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    The continued extreme use of fossil fuels to meet world energy needs is putting the Earth at risk for significant climate change. In an uncontrolled experiment, the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is apparently affecting the Earth's climate. The global climate is warming and severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes are getting worse. Alternatives to fossil fuels may reduce the addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Space Solar Power, from orbiting satellites, provides an option for clean, renewable energy that will reduce the pressure on the Earth's environmental system. Uncertainty in the cost of commercial power from space has been the principal issue inhibiting investment support by the power companies. Geoengineering is defined as the use of technology to interact with the global environment. A Solar Power Satellite represents a capability for considering geoengineering concepts. The Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite (TSPS) is a concept for interacting with thunderstorms to prevent formation of tornadoes. Before weather modification can be safely attempted, the fine structure of thunderstorms must be computer simulated and related to tornadogenesis. TSPS benefits are saving lives and reducing property. These benefits are not as sensitive to the system economics as the commercial solar power satellite and can be used to justify government investment in space solar power. The TSPS can develop and demonstrate the technology and operations critical to understanding the cost of space solar power. Consequently, there is no direct competition with fossil fuel based power supplies until SSP technology and operations have been demonstrated.

  4. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  5. Characteristics of the New Solar Cell Power Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    松尾, 博文; 黒川, 不二雄; 川原, 学

    1982-01-01

    Recently, the solar cell has been used as power sources for the radio relay stations, the light houses, the agricultural systems, the microwave communication systems, and so forth. In such solar call power supply systems, it often requires that the maximum power point of the solar array is tracked, in spite of the variations in the load and the light intensity, to make the most efficient use of the solar array and the storage battery. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new solar cell ...

  6. Electric power - Photovoltaic or solar dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. L.; Hallinan, G. J.; Hieatt, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the power system for supplying the Space Station with insolation-generated electricity is the main Phase B task at NASA-Lewis Center. The advantages and limitations of two types of power systems, the photovoltaic arrays (PV) and the solar dynamic system (SD), are discussed from the points of view of cost, overall systems integration, and growth. Subsystems of each of these options are described, and a sketch of a projected SD system is shown. The PV technology is well developed and proven, but its low efficiency calls for solar arrays of large areas, which affect station dynamics, control, and drag compensation. The SD systems would be less costly to operate than VP, and are more efficient, needing less deployed area. The major drawback of the SD is its infancy. The conservative and forgiving designs for some of its components must still be created and tested, and the development risks assessed.

  7. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  8. Solar Powered Propulsion for Space. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and performance of solar propulsion systems. Solar electric propulsion and solar thermal propulsion are reviewed. Topics include solar power satellites, nuclear electric propulsion, solar-powered orbit transfer vehicles, and solar dynamic and bimodal power systems. References also discuss atmospheric pollution control, telephone services, space commercialization, interplanetary missions, and lunar and Mars exploration. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Satellite power system. Concept Development and Evaluation Program, Volume 6: construction and operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, H.; Jenkins, L.M.

    1981-04-01

    The construction, operation, and maintenance requirements for a solar power satellite, including the space and ground systems, are reviewed. The basic construction guidelines are explained, and construction location options are discussed. The space construction tasks, equipment, and base configurations are discussed together with the operations required to place a solar power satellite in geosynchronous orbit. A rectenna construction technique is explained, and operation with the grid is defined. Maintenance requirements are summarized for the entire system. Key technology issues required for solar power satellite construction operations are defined.

  10. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-01-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

  11. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  12. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  13. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  14. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  15. Estimation of solar radiation over Cambodia from long-term satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Pankaew, P.; Laksanaboonsong, J. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Kitichantaropas, P. [Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency, Ministry of Energy, 17 Rama 1 Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia was estimated from a long-term satellite data. A 14-year period (1995-2008) of visible channel data from GMS5, GOES9 and MTSAT-1R satellites were used to provide earth-atmospheric reflectivity. A satellite-based solar radiation model developed for a tropical environment was used to estimate surface solar radiation. The model relates the satellite-derived earth-atmospheric reflectivity to absorption and scattering coefficients of various atmospheric constituents. The absorption of solar radiation due to water vapour was calculated from precipitable water derived from ambient relative humidity and temperature. Ozone data from the TOMS and OMI satellite data were employed to compute the solar radiation absorption by ozone. The depletion of radiation due to aerosols was estimated from the visibility data. Five new solar radiation measuring stations were established at Cambodian cities, namely Siem Reap (13.87 N, 103.85 E), Kompong Thom (12.68 N, 104.88 E), Phnom Penh (11.55 N, 104.83 E), Sihanouke Ville (10.67 N, 103.63 E) and Kampot (10.70 N, 104.28 E). Global solar radiation measured at these stations was used to validate the model. The validation was also carried out by using solar radiation measured at four Thai meteorological stations. These stations are situated near the Cambodian border. Monthly average daily global irradiation from these stations was compared with that calculated from the model. The measured and calculated irradiation is in good agreement, with the root mean square difference of 6.3%, with respect to the mean values. After the validation, the model was used to calculate monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia. Based on this satellite-derived irradiation, solar radiation maps for Cambodia were generated. These maps show that solar radiation climate of this country is strongly influenced by the monsoons. A solar radiation database was also generated

  16. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  17. Energy Balance and Power Performance Analysis for Satellite in Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Soo Jang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrical power system (EPS of Korean satellites in low-earth-orbit is designed to achieve energy balance based on a one-orbit mission scenario. This means that the battery has to be fully charged at the end of a one-orbit mission. To provide the maximum solar array (SA power generation, the peak power tracking (PPT method has been developed for a spacecraft power system. The PPT is operated by a software algorithm, which tracks the peak power of the SA and ensures the battery is fully charged in one orbit. The EPS should be designed to avoid the stress of electronics in order to handle the main bus power from the SA power. This paper summarizes the results of energy balance to achieve optimal power sizing and the actual trend analysis of EPS performance in orbit. It describes the results of required power for the satellite operation in the worst power conditions at the end-of-life, the methods and input data used in the energy balance, and the case study of energy balance analyses for the normal operation in orbit. Both 10:35 AM and 10:50 AM crossing times are considered, so the power performance in each case is analyzed with the satellite roll maneuver according to the payload operation concept. In addition, the data transmission to the Korea Ground Station during eclipse is investigated at the local-time-ascending-node of 11:00 AM to assess the greatest battery depth-of-discharge in normal operation.

  18. Electrical failure on satellite's power harnesses due to small debris impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Takayuki; Higashide, Masumi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Kawakita, Shirou; Mando, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Shota; Tanaka, Koji; 平井, 隆之; 東出, 真澄; 黒崎, 裕久; 川北, 史朗; 万戸, 雄輝; 山口, 翔太; 田中, 孝治

    2017-01-01

    Loss of satellite functions due to space debris collisions includes not only mechanical failures like breakup of satellite main bodies but also electric failures such as decrease in power supply from solar arrays and power harnesses. In particular, the past hypervelocity impact experiments suggest that sustained arcs and resulting ground faults on the power harnesses could be triggered by impacts of tiny space debris particles smaller than 1 mm which constantly impact on satellite surfaces. T...

  19. Bit Error Rate Due to Misalignment of Earth Station Antenna Pointing to Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One problem causing reduction of energy in satellite communications system is the misalignment of earth station antenna pointing to satellite. Error in pointing would affect the quality of information signal to energy bit in earth station. In this research, error in pointing angle occurred only at receiver (Rx antenna, while the transmitter (Tx antennas precisely point to satellite. The research was conducted towards two satellites, namely TELKOM-1 and TELKOM-2. At first, measurement was made by directing Tx antenna precisely to satellite, resulting in an antenna pattern shown by spectrum analyzer. The output from spectrum analyzers is drawn with the right scale to describe swift of azimuth and elevation pointing angle towards satellite. Due to drifting from the precise pointing, it influenced the received link budget indicated by pattern antenna. This antenna pattern shows reduction of power level received as a result of pointing misalignment. As a conclusion, the increasing misalignment of pointing to satellite would affect in the reduction of received signal parameters link budget of down-link traffic.

  20. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  1. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  2. Solar Power at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    For the very first time, astronomers have witnessed the speeding up of an asteroid's rotation, and have shown that it is due to a theoretical effect predicted but never seen before. The international team of scientists used an armada of telescopes to discover that the asteroid's rotation period currently decreases by 1 millisecond every year, as a consequence of the heating of the asteroid's surface by the Sun. Eventually it may spin faster than any known asteroid in the solar system and even break apart. ESO PR Photo 11a/07 ESO PR Photo 11a/07 Asteroid 2000 PH5 "The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is believed to alter the way small bodies in the Solar System rotate," said Stephen Lowry (Queens University Belfast, UK), lead-author of one of the two companion papers in which this work is reported [1, 2]. "The warming caused by sunlight hitting the surfaces of asteroids and meteoroids leads to a gentle recoil effect as the heat is released," he added. "By analogy, if one were to shine light on a propeller over a long enough period, it would start spinning." Although this is an almost immeasurably weak force, its effect over millions of years is far from negligible. Astronomers believe the YORP effect may be responsible for spinning some asteroids up so fast that they break apart, perhaps leading to the formation of double asteroids. Others may be slowed down so that they take many days to complete a full turn. The YORP effect also plays an important role in changing the orbits of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, including their delivery to planet-crossing orbits, such as those of near-Earth asteroids. Despite its importance, the effect has never been seen acting on a solar system body, until now. Using extensive optical and radar imaging from powerful Earth-based observatories, astronomers have directly observed the YORP effect in action on a small near-Earth asteroid, known as (54509) 2000 PH5. Shortly after its discovery in 2000, it was

  3. Space-based solar power generation: staged scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, P.E. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Davidson, F.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Macro-Engineering Research Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Csigi, K.I. [ERIC International, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Despite forecasts of increased global energy demand and warnings of environmental degradation associated with fossil fuel use, the idea of solar power satellites (SPS) generating power for microwave transmission to the Earth`s surface, has met widespread opposition or simply apathy. The authors urge a staged approach to the ultimate goal of developing SPS technology and infrastructure to meet global energy forecasts. The ``terracing`` idea means that technologies applicable to SPS will be developed to meet existing or planned projects to known scientific and economic value. A forty year growth plan for the ``terraced`` evolution of the solar power satellite is set out to illustrate this idea. (UK)

  4. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  5. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  6. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Irwin

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  7. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  8. A Comparison of Satellite Based, Modeled Derived Daily Solar Radiation Data with Observed Data for the Continental US

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeffrey W.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Wilkens, Paul W.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Hoell, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Many applications of simulation models and related decision support tools for agriculture and natural resource management require daily meteorological data as inputs. Availability and quality of such data, however, often constrain research and decision support activities that require use of these tools. Daily solar radiation (SRAD) data are especially problematic because the instruments require electronic integrators, accurate sensors are expensive, and calibration standards are seldom available. The Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resources (NASA/POWER; power.larc.nasa.gov) project at the NASA Langley Research Center estimates daily solar radiation based on data that are derived from satellite observations of outgoing visible radiances and atmospheric parameters based upon satellite observations and assimilation models. The solar data are available for a global 1 degree x 1 degree coordinate grid. SRAD can also be estimated based on attenuation of extraterrestrial radiation (Q0) using daily temperature and rainfall data to estimate the optical thickness of the atmosphere. This study compares daily solar radiation data from NASA/POWER (SRADNP) with instrument readings from 295 stations (SRADOB), as well as with values that were estimated with the WGENR solar generator. WGENR was used both with daily temperature and precipitation records from the stations reporting solar data and records from the NOAA Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), thus providing two additional sources of solar data, SRADWG and SRADCO. Values of SRADNP for different grid cells consistently showed higher correlations (typically 0.85 to 0.95) with SRADOB data than did SRADWG or SRADCO for sites within the corresponding cells. Mean values of SRADOB, SRADWG and SRADNP for sites within a grid cell usually were within 1 MJm-2d-1 of each other, but NASA/POWER values averaged 1.1 MJm-2d-1 lower than SRADOB. The magnitude of this bias was greater at lower latitudes and during summer months and may be at

  9. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2009-09-23

    In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  10. The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

  11. Ray tracing optical analysis of offset solar collector for space station solar dynamic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Kent S.

    1988-01-01

    OFFSET, a detailed ray tracing computer code, was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to model the offset solar collector for the Space Station solar dynamic electric power system. This model traces rays from 50 points on the face of the Sun to 10 points on each of the 456 collector facets. The triangular facets are modeled with spherical, parabolic, or toroidal reflective surface contour and surface slope errors. The rays are then traced through the receiver aperture to the walls of the receiver. Images of the collector and of the Sun within the receiver produced by this code provide insight into the collector receiver interface. Flux distribution on the receiver walls, plotted by this code, is improved by a combination of changes to aperture location and receiver tilt angle. Power loss by spillage at the receiver aperture is computed and is considerably reduced by using toroidal facets.

  12. Ray tracing optical analysis of offset solar collector for Space Station solar dynamic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Kent S.

    1988-01-01

    OFFSET, a detailed ray tracing computer code, was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to model the offset solar collector for the Space Station solar dynamic electric power system. This model traces rays from 50 points on the face of the sun to 10 points on each of the 456 collector facets. The triangular facets are modeled with spherical, parabolic, or toroidal reflective surface contour and surface slope errors. The rays are then traced through the receiver aperture to the walls of the receiver. Images of the collector and of the sun within the receiver produced by this code provide insight into the collector receiver interface. Flux distribution on the receiver walls, plotted by this code, is improved by a combination of changes to aperture location and receiver tilt angle. Power loss by spillage at the receiver aperture is computed and is considerably reduced by using toroidal facets.

  13. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  14. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure. and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  15. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  16. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  17. Solar Power Use Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA evaluates partnership metrics annually to determine progress toward programmatic goals.

  18. Test field today, fuelling station tomorrow. The Burkhardt family dream of charging their own solar-powered electric car; Heute Testfeld, morgen Tankstelle. Familie Burkhardt traeumt von einem mit Solarstrom gespeisten Elektroauto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutschmann, Ines

    2010-06-15

    The contribution describes a residential building whose owners installed two different solar cell arrays on their roof, one with polycrystalline modules and another with monocrystalline modules. The solar gain of the two sysetms is comparable, and the payback period is about ten years. The Burkhardt family now dreams of charging their own solar-powered electric car, (orig.)

  19. PV-enhanced solar thermal power

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Solar electricity generation using concentrating solar thermal collectors faces the challenge of strongly decreased levelized electricity costs by photovoltaic power plants. One of the selling points favouring solar thermal power is the possibility to generate dispatchable power. Concepts discussed here are solar hybridization of conventional or biomass thermal power plants. Another option is the use of thermal energy storage (TES) charged with solar heat which allow to drive the generation o...

  20. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  1. Solar Power Generation Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert L. Johnson Jr.; Gary E. Carver

    2011-10-28

    This project centered on creating a solar cell prototype enabling significant reductions in module cost and increases in module efficiency. Low cost was addressed by using plentiful organic materials that only comprise 16% of the total module cost, and by leveraging building integrated PV concepts that reduce the cost of key module components to zero. High efficiency was addressed by implementing multiband organic PV, low cost spectral splitting, and possibly integrating photovoltaic and photothermal mechanisms. This research has contributed to the design of multiband organic PV, and the sealing of organic PV cells. If one assumes that the aggregate multiband efficiency can reach 12%, projected cost would be $0.97/W. If the sealing technology enables 10 to 20 year lifetimes, the LCOE will match that of domestic coal. The final report describes progress towards these goals.

  2. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  3. Solar-power mountain concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, V. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Solar collectors on mountainside collect thermal energy for mountaintop powerplant. Sloped arrangement reduces heat-transport problem of level ground-based collector field. Heated air rises without mechanical pumps and buoyancy force supplies pumping power without further cost. Precision tracking requirement of power towers eliminated by butted-together Winston-type concentrator troughs. Low-cost native rock is used for heat storage.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  5. Combining Regional Monitoring Stations with Space-based Data to Determine the MEO Satellite Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Le

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ground monitoring stations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS are regional distribution and the number of these stations is small. The more global ground stations cannot be built in the short term. The ground regional monitoring stations are difficult to observe the global Medium Earth Orbit Satellite (MEO continuously, which leads to low precision of orbits in BDS real-time broadcast ephemeris. Based on the above problems, in view of real time satellite GNSS data of low earth orbit satellite can effectively make up the lack of regional monitoring stations in space overlay, a method is proposed that the GNSS receivers of LEO satellites used as high dynamic space-based monitoring stations combining with the data of the ground monitoring stations to calculate and forecast the MEO satellite orbits. The numeral results show that, using the data of seven regional monitoring stations add 1 to 3 LEO satellites, the precision of the MEO orbit determination can be increased by about 21%, 34% and 55% respectively. It also shows that, the ground regional monitoring stations combined with the data of LEO satellites can effectively improve the orbit precision of MEO satellite. It is suggested that using the data combined with ground stations and LEO satellites to improve the precision of broadcast ephemeris of MEO in BDS.

  6. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  7. 47 CFR 25.215 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. 25.215 Section 25.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. In addition to § 25.148(f), space station antennas operating in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service must be designed to...

  8. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    .... Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector...

  9. Satellite-Based Solar Resource Data Sets for India 2002-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perez, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gueymard, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderberg, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A new 10-km hourly solar resource product was created for India. This product was created using satellite radiances from the Meteosat series of satellites. The product contains global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI) for the period from 2002 to 2011. An additional solar resource data set covering the period from January 2012 to June 2012 was created solely for validation because this period overlaps ground measurements that were made available from the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy's (MNRE's) National Institute for Solar Energy for five stations that are part of MNRE's solar resource network. These measurements were quality checked using the SERI QC software and used to validate the satellite product. A comparison of the satellite product to the ground measurements for the five stations shows good agreement. This report also presents a comparison of the new version of solar resource data to the previous version, which covered the period from 2002 to 2008.

  10. Solar Irradiance and Pan Evaporation Estimation from Meteorological Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ren Syu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about spatial and temporal variations in surface global solar radiation (GSR and evaporative water loss from the ground are important issues to many researches and applications. In this study empirical relationships suitable for Taiwan were established for GSR retrieval from geostationary satellite images using the Heliosat method for the period from 2011 - 2013. The derived GSR data has been used to generate consecutive maps of 10-day averaged pan evaporation (Epan as the basis to produce regional ET estimation using a strategy that does not require remote sensed land surface temperatures (LST. The retrieved daily GSR and the derived 10-day averaged Epan were validated against pyranometer and class-A pan measurements at selected Central Weather Bureau (CWB stations spread across various climatic regions in Taiwan. Compared with the CWB observed data the overall relative mean bias deviations (MBD% and root mean square differences (RMSD% in daily solar irradiance retrieval were about 5 and 15%, respectively. Seasonally, the largest MBD% and RMSD% of retrieved daily solar irradiance occur in spring (9.5 and 21.3% on average, while the least MBD% (-0.3% on average and RMSD% (9.7% on average occur in autumn and winter, respectively. For 10-day averaged Epan estimation, the mean MBD% and RMSD% for stations located in the coastal plain areas were 0.1 and 16.9%, respectively. However, in mountainous areas the mean MBD% and RMSD% increased to 30.2 and 34.5%, respectively. This overestimation was due mainly to the large differences in surrounding micro-environments between the mountainous and plain areas.

  11. thermal power stations' reliability evaluation in a hydrothermal system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A quantitative tool for the evaluation of thermal power stations reliability in a hydrothermal system is presented. A reliable power station is one which would supply the required power within its installed capacity at any time within the specified voltage and frequency limits. Required for this evaluation are the station's installed ...

  12. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  13. Electrical Power Station Theory. A Course of Technical Information for Electrical Power Station Wireman Apprentices. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This third-year course for electrical power station wirer apprentices is a foundation for the study of all aspects of installation and maintenance of power station equipment. It also provides a good technical background as well as the general knowledge essential to power station operator trainees. The course is intended to be equivalent to a…

  14. Power generation device of artificial satellite. Jinko eisei no hatsuden sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Takashi.

    1989-11-01

    As the conventional artificial satellite lacks a power generation controlling ability, a separate power controller is required which reduces the weight efficiency. It is not easy to freely control the photovoltaic ability of a solar cell projected on a satellite without causing an external turbulent moment on the main satellite body. For solving this problem, in this invention, in case a power is generated by a solar cell panel installed on the satellite in a pair, a shielding film and its driving device are equipped wherein the shielding film is made freely windable along the light receiving surface of a pair of the soalr cell panels and mutually movable in the opposite directions. By this, the device requires no shunt circuit, thus improving the economy, and reducing the total weight of the satellite. 2 figs.

  15. Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1984-12-01

    A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

  16. Childhood cancer near German nuclear power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken (KiKK) study in Germany reported a 60% increase in solid cancers and a 120% increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from radionuclides incorporated by pregnant women living near nuclear reactors. Doses and risks from environmental emissions to embryos and fetuses may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  17. Decommissioning at Trawsfynydd nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Trawsfynndd nuclear power station in North Wales was formally closed on July 20th 1993 on economic grounds. Radiation effects in the steel pressure vessels of the two Magnox units required high cost modifications if the reactors were to continue operation. Defuelling of the reactors was completed by August 1995. The Deferred Safestore Strategy has been selected as the decommissioning option. This does not involve any significant active dismantling until about 135 years from shutdown. Three main aspects of the decommissioning are discussed. These are: public consultation which focussed on the socio-economic implications of the reduction in the workforce and the visual impact of the safestore building design which was reduced in height in response to public opinion; technical considerations relating to waste management and electrical plant decommissioning; the conversion of the reactor buildings to provide safe storage for activated and contaminated material for a long period yet requiring only minimal maintenance. (UK).

  18. Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

  19. Utilization of hydraulic mini-power stations in rural zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontier, R. (Societe Neyrpic, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1982-10-01

    It is explained on a specific case how hydroelectric mini-power stations can be associated to a hydraulic dam to feed electric power to the water treatment works and to supply peak load power to the grid.

  20. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M R

    1980-11-01

    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  1. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  2. Solar-powered hot-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  3. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  4. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Henry [Solar Dynamics LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant can provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion turbines

  5. Coal fired power stations and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.H.

    1982-12-01

    Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal in power stations were discussed in a conference in Copenhagen in August, 1982. Topics included: 1) Discussions of the adverse temperature effects of cooling tower water. The pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been isolated in two of eight cooling tower systems; 2) Uses of power plant ash. Dense blocks of the ash have been used to build artificial reefs with, as yet, not adverse effects on the marine community; 3) Long-range transport of particulates which bind heavy metals in the ash; and 4) The effects of acid rain. An examination of the fish status of Scandanavian lakes did not reveal a simple relationship between pH and fishlessness. It was concluded that levels of calcium and aluminum, food supply, genetically determined tolerance and ecological factors have also played a part in the fish regime of acid-affected lakes. The Norwegian attitude is that there are good grounds for thinking acid rain is a global problem implicating the discharge of nitrogen and sulfur oxides and either micropollutants. (JMT)

  6. Advanced conceptual design of the solar-repowering system for West Texas Utilities Company, Paint Creek Power Station Unit No. 4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-07

    The results of the conceptual design study reported include the development of a workable design for a sodium-cooled tower focus repowering system, the costs required to construct that design, and the determination of the benefits which could be obtained. A number of trade studies and optimizations were carried out in order to derive the most cost-effective design that also had the greatest potential for widespread application and commercialization. These studies are identified and their results are presented and discussed. The overall plant design is described and diagrammed, as are each of the subsystems: the heliostats, external receiver, master control, heat transport, thermal storage, electric power generating, and steam generating subsystems. Each subsystem's cost is summarized by major component. The subsystem is then described with its major components in terms of physical characteristics, requirements, and performance. An economic analysis is presented based on the internal rate of return to the project owner, and development plans are described. Appended is the system requirements specification. The testing and results for a sodium-cooled receiver panel are described. (LEW)

  7. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date will...

  8. Modern power station practice incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PM

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi

  9. Nanostructured electrodes for Solar Power Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key to achieving high-power solar arrays for NASA applications is the development of high-efficiency, thin-film solar cells that can be fabricated directly on...

  10. Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker for Power Utilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandeep Banik; Dr P.K.Saha

    2014-01-01

    Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker For power utilities‖ As the name implied, it is a photovoltaic system that uses the photovoltaic array as a source of electrical power supply and since every photovoltaic (PV...

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  12. Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Design and building of two unique components for solar heating (1. flatplate solar collector using no metal components, and 2. solar powered pump for heating and cooling systems are outlined in report. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification.

  13. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  14. A new CM SAF Solar Surface Radiation Climate Data Set derived from Meteosat Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, J.; Mueller, R. W.; Pfeifroth, U.; Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Cremer, R.

    2014-12-01

    The incoming surface solar radiation has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. It is mandatory to monitor this part of the earth's energy balance, and thus gain insights on the state and variability of the climate system. In addition, data sets of the surface solar radiation have received increased attention over the recent years as an important source of information for the planning of solar energy applications. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving surface solar radiation from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. While CM SAF is focusing on the generation of high-quality long-term climate data records, also operationally data is provided in short time latency within 8 weeks. Here we present SARAH (Solar Surface Radiation Dataset - Heliosat), i.e. the new CM SAF Solar Surface Radiation data set based on Meteosat satellite observations. SARAH provides instantaneous, daily- and monthly-averaged data of the effective cloud albedo (CAL), the direct normalized solar radiation (DNI) and the solar irradiance (SIS) from 1983 to 2013 for the full view of the Meteosat satellite (i.e, Europe, Africa, parts of South America, and the Atlantic ocean). The data sets are generated with a high spatial resolution of 0.05 deg allowing for detailed regional studies, and are available in netcdf-format at no cost without restrictions at www.cmsaf.eu. We provide an overview of the data sets, including a validation against reference measurements from the BSRN and GEBA surface station networks.

  15. Satellite Power System (SPS) laser studies. Volume 2: Meteorological effects on laser beam propagation and direct solar pumped lasers for the SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this research activity was to investigate the effect of the environment on laser power transmission/reception from space to ground. Potential mitigation techniques to minimize the environment effect by a judicious choice of laser operating parameters was investigated. Using these techniques, the availability of power at selected sites was determined using statistical meteorological data for each site.

  16. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service... of Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) in the 14.0-14.5 GHz band from secondary to primary and... stations of the FSS on a primary basis in the 11.7-12.2 GHz band (space-to-Earth), on an unprotected basis...

  17. Solar Power Generation in Extreme Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Frederick W.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of space requires power for guidance, navigation, and control; instrumentation; thermal control; communications and data handling; and many subsystems and activities. Generating sufficient and reliable power in deep space through the use of solar arrays becomes even more challenging as solar intensity decreases and high radiation levels begin to degrade the performance of photovoltaic devices. The Extreme Environments Solar Power (EESP) project goal is to develop advanced photovoltaic technology to address these challenges.

  18. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  19. Estimation method of input power spectrum to satellite transponder in SCPC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakana, H.; Isobe, S.; Sasaoka, H.

    The paper presents a method for estimating the input power of individual signals to a satellite transponder from the output power spectrum. This method can be used to monitor the performance of the satellite transponder in single-channel-per-carrier (SCPC) systems. For this purpose, nonlinearity of a traveling wave tube, commonly used in a satellite transponder, is analyzed with newly proposed transfer functions, and a formula which can easily represent the output power spectrum for arbitrary input power and carrier frequency assignment is derived. Using this estimation method, the monitoring station in SCPC systems can readily decide whether the input power of each signal to the satellite transponder is normal or not.

  20. Design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L.; Simon, A.; Barrera, H.; Acharya, V.; Repke, W.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory (SPML) system. The SPML provides a mobile platform that schools, universities, and communities can use to give students and staff access to laboratory environments where dedicated laboratories are not available. The lab includes equipment like 3D printers, computers, and soldering stations. The primary power source of the system is solar PV which allows the laboratory to be operated in places where the grid power is not readily available or not sufficient to power all the equipment. The main system components include PV panels, junction box, battery, charge controller, and inverter. Not only is it used to teach students and staff how to use the lab equipment, but it is also a great tool to educate the public about solar PV technologies.

  1. Power Station. Bio-power plant Schilling at Schwendi; Power Station. Bio-Kraftwerk-Schilling in Schwendi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thun, Matteo [Matteo Thun and Partners, Mailand (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    When wood burns certain natural cycles are naturally completed: chemical energy turns into light and heat, water turns into steam and then rain, mineral salts transform into ashes and fall back down to the ground and carbon dioxide is given off into the air. But when wood burns properly, all this turns into energy which may be used creating less environmental impact than any fossil fuel (either oil or gas). It may seem strange, but burning wood and safeguarding nature are perfectly compatible. This is the underlying philosophy of Schilling Power Station, which, together with the nearby sawmill, turn the woodburning cycle into something genuinely virtuous: wast products from the sawmill in the form of bark and wood chips become combustible biomass serving the power station. In turn, the power station generates energy in the form of heat to cover the sawmill's energy requirements. This completes the circle, and that would be enough in its own right. (orig.)

  2. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  3. A New Physical Model to Estimate Solar Irradiance Componets on the Earth's Surface from Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, Marco, ,, Dr.; Wiesenberg, Ralf, ,, Dr.; Fernandéz, Irene; Jimenez, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The present study describes a new model designed to estimate the incident solar radiation at the Earth's surface from geostationary satellites images (AFASat). In this new physical model proposed, the effect of Rayleigh scattering, aerosols and Earth's surface topography are taken into account. Water vapor absorption is also introduced by means of its climatological effects on shortwave radiation. Cloud albedo, ground albedo and absorption are derived from brightness measurements on the assumption that they both are linearly related to the brightness. However, this simple consideration applied to individual images elements represents quite accurately the bulk effect of clouds and reflectance. AFASat model uses the Heliosat-3 method and add others environmental factors to estimate with relative precision the solar radiation that arrives at the Earth's surface. Comparisons with daily radiation measurements from ground data station located in Europe, Africa and India (BSRN) showed that the satellite estimates were, on the average, within 2% of the ground measurements for global horizontal irradiance and less than 7% for direct normal irradiance. The hourly variations monitored by the satellite also followed very closely the variations measured on the ground. This study has shown that model is sufficient for the determination of the incident solar radiation when the high spatial and temporal coverage of a geostationary satellite is used. The AFASat is highly appropriate for such those projects that required an analysis of the solar resource assessment as such as TMY report (Typical Meteorological Year).

  4. Topaz II Nuclear Powered SAR Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Feuerstein, M.; Agrawal, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.1994-4688 The AA4871 Spacecraft Design course is the capstone class for the M.S. in Astronautics at the Naval Postgraduate School. Thc design team integrated a Topaz If nuclear power system with an EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar to design a low Earth orbit, three axis stabilized satellite flying in a gravity gradient stable orientation. The SAR is a high resolution, electronically stecrable, Earth scie...

  5. Energy storage and power conditioning aspects of photovoltaic solar power systems. Volume I. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Solar energy may be utilized as thermal energy or converted into electricity by solar cells. ERDA's National Photovoltaic Conversion Program is concerned with this latter approach and is currently sponsoring industrial programs for photovoltaic systems and devices. In one such program, Spectrolab, Inc., is charged with performing conceptual design and analysis of three photovoltaic solar power systems. The sizes of these three systems will cover the requirements of residential, commercial and electric utility central station applications. In addition to a solar cell array, photovoltaic power systems must also include an energy storage system to enable operation during periods of low insolation and a power conditioning system to control the dc power from the array and convert it into an ac waveshape compatible with existing electrical equipment. The Scientific Development Operation of Bechtel Corporation is participating in the Spectrolab program by compiling and studying data on the energy storage and power conditioning aspects of all three photovoltaic solar power systems and by the conceptual design of the system for electric utility central station applications. The results of the energy storage and power conditioning study effort are presented in this report. (W.D.M.)

  6. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  7. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  8. Determination of GNSS satellite transmit power and impact on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Thölert, Steffen; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites requires a best possible modeling of forces acting on the satellite. Antenna thrust is a small acceleration caused by the transmission of navigation signals of a GNSS satellite. It depends on the mass of the satellite and the total power of the transmitted signals and results in a mainly radial force changing the orbital radius by up to 2 cm. Within the International GNSS Service (IGS), antenna thrust is currently only considered for GPS and GLONASS. Transmit power levels for the different types of GPS satellites are based on the minimum received power near the Earth's surface as specified in the GPS interface control document. Empirical scaling factors take into account deviations from observed power levels resulting in IGS model values between 76 and 249 W. For GLONASS, a transmit power of 100 W is assumed. However, antenna thrust is currently ignored within the IGS for the emerging navigation systems Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS due to unknown transmit power levels. The effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of a GNSS satellite can be measured with a high gain antenna. Based on the gain pattern of the satellite antenna, the transmit power can be obtained. EIRP measurements were gathered with a 30 m high gain antenna operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR) at its ground station in Weilheim (Germany). In this presentation, we discuss the measurement setup and present the transmit power estimates for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou satellites in the L1, L2, L5/E5 and E6 frequency bands. Differences of the various satellite types as well as the scatter of the individual satellites within one type are analyzed. The GPS results are compared to the values of the current IGS model. Finally, the impact of taking into account antenna thrust based on the estimated transmit power on precise orbit determination is assessed.

  9. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  10. Thermally-induced structural motions of satellite solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John Dennis

    1999-11-01

    Satellites have experienced attitude disturbances resulting from thermally. induced structural motions of flexible appendages since the early days of the space program. Thermally-induced structural motions are typically initiated during orbital eclipse transitions when a satellite exits from or enters into the Earth's shadow. The accompanying rapid changes in thermal loading may lead to time-varying temperature differences through the cross-section of appendages resulting in differential thermal expansion and corresponding structural deformations. Since the total angular momentum of the system must be conserved, motions of flexible appendages such as booms and solar arrays result in rigid body rotations of the entire satellite. These potentially large attitude disturbances may violate satellite pointing and jitter requirements. This research investigates thermally-induced structural motions of rigid panel solar arrays (solar panels) through analytical and experimental studies. Orbital eclipse transition heating and thermal analyses were completed to study solar panel thermal behavior and provide results for input to dynamics analyses. A hybrid coordinate dynamical model was utilized to study the planar dynamics of a simple satellite consisting of a rigid hub with a cantilevered flexible solar panel undergoing thermally-induced structural motions. Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to gain new insight into thermal-structural behavior and to validate analytical models. The experimental studies investigated the thermal-structural performance of honeycomb sandwich panels and satellite solar panel hardware subject to simulated eclipse transition heating. Results from the analytical and experimental studies illustrate the importance of the through-the-thickness temperature difference and its time derivatives as well as the ratio of the characteristic thermal and structural response times in solar panel thermally-induced structural motions. The thermal

  11. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  12. PV/thermal solar power assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-01-13

    A flexible solar power assembly (2) includes a flexible photovoltaic device (16) attached to a flexible thermal solar collector (4). The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof (20, 25) or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners (23).

  13. Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

  14. Solar power pumping system for domestic appliences

    OpenAIRE

    Lukhwareni, T.; Gouws, R.; Dobzhanskyi, O.

    2014-01-01

    With the world encountering huge pollution problems, use of renewable energy is being encouraged in place of fossils fuels for electricity generation. On such renewable energies is solar power. Solar powered systems are able to generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV) panels, or thermal collectors directly from sunlight. Pool pump electricity consumption has also risen in South Africa. This paper presents the results of the design, and construction of a PV solar system to effect water pum...

  15. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of...

  16. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem; Baseem Khan

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs) uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV) solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station loca...

  17. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  18. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) pilot beam and communication link subsystem investigation study, phase 1. [ionospheric propagation, radio frequency interference, and microwave transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary engineering model of ionospheric interactions with the pilot beam was established and used to demonstrate that the dual frequency baseline pilot beam system might not be viable in the presence of an unstable transmission path. Alternate approaches to remove this difficulty are described. Although ionospheric fluctuations will not significantly degrade beam pointing or raise the sidelobe levels, they will reduce transmission efficiency by upwards of 25%. Mitigating strategies to substantially reduce this effect are proposed. Based on the Klystron noise spectrum, the pilot beam transmitter power was determined as a function of frequency offset from the power beam carrier frequency. The RFI from the pilot beam, on the ground and at geosynchronous orbit is shown. Noise levels on the earth's surface due to the SPS are presented as a function of frequency and the number of SPS systems. Analysis of the communication subsystem indicates that a standard telemetry line of 1.544 MB/s would satisfy both voice and data link requirements. Additional links would be required for TV and radio transmissions.

  19. Scenery Storage Technology Application in Power Station System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong; Geng, Hao; Feng, Lei; Xu, Xing

    Scenery storage technology can effectively utilize wind power and photovoltaic power generation in the natural complementary of energy and time, improve the reliability of power supply, has attracted more and more attention. At present, the scenery storage research in the field application of the technology is relatively small, based on the actual substation as the research object, put forward the scenery storage technology as substation load power supply three applications of lighting power, standby power station and DC system, and through the detailed implementation of the program design, investment analysis, research the scenery with the feasibility of electrical energy storage technology system application in station. To solve the weak power grid, substation remote and backward areas should not be from the outside to obtain reliable power supply problems, the station area electric system design provides a new way of thinking, which has important practical engineering value.

  20. Fault Detection and Isolation of Satellite Formations using a Ground Station Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm for a formation of satellites but processed at a ground station. The algorithm...

  1. Combined Solar Charging Stations and Energy Storage Units Allocation for Electric Vehicles by Considering Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming a key feature of smart grids. EVs will be embedded in the smart grids as a mobile load-storage with probabilistic behavior. In order to manage EVs as flexible loads, charging stations (CSs) have essential roles. In this paper, a new method for optimal sitting...... and sizing of solar CSs using energy storage (ES) options is presented. Also, behavior of EVs in the presence of other loads, electricity price and solar power generation uncertainties are considered. The proposed optimization model maximizes the distribution company (DisCo) benefit by appropriate use of CSs...... are considered based on time-of-use (TOU) demand response programs (DRPs). In order to solve the optimization problem considering uncertainty of load growth, electricity price, initial state of charge of batteries and solar power generation, genetic algorithm method using Monte-Carlo simulation is used...

  2. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  3. Mass and power modeling of communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Pidgeon, David; Tsao, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Analytic estimating relationships for the mass and power requirements for major satellite subsystems are described. The model for each subsystem is keyed to the performance drivers and system requirements that influence their selection and use. Guidelines are also given for choosing among alternative technologies which accounts for other significant variables such as cost, risk, schedule, operations, heritage, and life requirements. These models are intended for application to first order systems analyses, where resources do not warrant detailed development of a communications system scenario. Given this ground rule, the models are simplified to 'smoothed' representation of reality. Therefore, the user is cautioned that cost, schedule, and risk may be significantly impacted where interpolations are sufficiently different from existing hardware as to warrant development of new devices.

  4. Towards Space Solar Power - Examining Atmospheric Interactions of Power Beams with the HAARP Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, M

    2014-01-01

    In the most common space solar power (SSP) system architectures, solar energy harvested by large satellites in geostationary orbit is transmitted to Earth via microwave radiation. Currently, only limited information about the interactions of microwave beams with energy densities of several tens to hundreds of W/m$^2$ with the different layers of the atmosphere is available. Governmental bodies will likely require detailed investigations of safety and atmospheric effects of microwave power beams before issuing launch licenses for SSP satellite systems. This paper proposes to collect representative and comprehensive data of the interaction of power beams with the atmosphere by extending the infrastructure of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. Estimates of the transmission infrastructure performance as well as measurement devices and scientific capabilities of possible upgrade scenarios will be discussed. The proposed upgrade of the HAARP facility is expected to d...

  5. Station planning and design incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, PC

    1991-01-01

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with ""non-engineering"" factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are

  6. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  7. Liquid metals for solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, J.; Niedermeier, K.; Fritsch, A.; Musaeva, D.; Marocco, L.; Uhlig, R.; Baake, E.; Buck, R.; Wetzel, T.

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals in solar power systems is not new. The receiver tests with liquid sodium in the 1980s at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) already proved the feasibility of liquid metals as heat transfer fluid. Despite the high efficiency achieved with that receiver, further investigation of liquid metals in solar power systems was stopped due to a sodium spray fire. Recently, the topic has become interesting again and the gained experience during the last 30 years of liquid metals handling is applied to the concentrated solar power community. In this paper, recent activities of the Helmholtz Alliance LIMTECH concerning liquid metals for solar power systems are presented. In addition to the components and system simulations also the experimental setup and results are included.

  8. Surface solar radiation from geostationary satellites for renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Heidinger, Andrew; Goldberg, Mitchell

    With the launch of the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. One of its flagship instruments, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. Products derived from ABI measurements will primarily be heritage meteorological products (cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation, winds, etc.), but some will be for interdisciplinary use, such as for the solar energy industry. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. In this paper we describe a physical, radiative-transfer-based algorithm for the retrieval of surface solar irradiance that uses atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral ABI radiances. The algorithm is designed to provide basic radiation budget products (total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed for the solar energy industry (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). Two alternative algorithms, which require less ABI atmosphere and surface products or no explicit knowledge of the surface albedo, are also explored along with their limitations. The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term MODIS and GOES satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

  9. Solar resources estimation combining digital terrain models and satellite images techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.L.; Batlles, F.J. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120-Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, G. [EPS-Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important steps to make use of any renewable energy is to perform an accurate estimation of the resource that has to be exploited. In the designing process of both active and passive solar energy systems, radiation data is required for the site, with proper spatial resolution. Generally, a radiometric stations network is used in this evaluation, but when they are too dispersed or not available for the study area, satellite images can be utilized as indirect solar radiation measurements. Although satellite images cover wide areas with a good acquisition frequency they usually have a poor spatial resolution limited by the size of the image pixel, and irradiation must be interpolated to evaluate solar irradiation at a sub-pixel scale. When pixels are located in flat and homogeneous areas, correlation of solar irradiation is relatively high, and classic interpolation can provide a good estimation. However, in complex topography zones, data interpolation is not adequate and the use of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) information can be helpful. In this work, daily solar irradiation is estimated for a wide mountainous area using a combination of Meteosat satellite images and a DTM, with the advantage of avoiding the necessity of ground measurements. This methodology utilizes a modified Heliosat-2 model, and applies for all sky conditions; it also introduces a horizon calculation of the DTM points and accounts for the effect of snow covers. Model performance has been evaluated against data measured in 12 radiometric stations, with results in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10%, and a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of +2%, both expressed as a percentage of the mean value measured. (author)

  10. Effects of solar radiation torque on satellite spin and attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Maria Cecilia; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    An analytical solution for the system of equations describing the rotational motion of an artificial satellite under the influence of the direct solar radiation pressure is presented. Here is considered a satellite of cylinder circular shape and the method to obtain the analytical solution is the Lagrange's method of the variation of parameters. Andoyer's vaiables are used to describe the rotational motion. The analytical solution obtained shows that, due to solar radiation, all the Andoyer's angular variables have secular and periodical variations but, the modulus of the rotational angular momentum and its projection on the z-axis of the system of principal axis of inertia vary periodically only. In order to validate the range of the analytical solution, Burlirsch-Stoer's method is used to perform a numerical integration of the system of equations of motion. Considering a hypothetical satellite, a numerical application is exhibited.

  11. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service... technical and licensing rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA), i.e., earth stations on aircraft...-11.2 GHz, 11.45-11.7 GHz, 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth or downlink) and 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to...

  12. Launch Vehicle Assessment for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, John R.

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed study at Georgia Tech examined various launch vehicle options for deploying a future constellation of Space Solar Power satellites of the Suntower configuration. One of the motivations of the study was to determine whether the aggressive $400/kg launch price goal established for SSP package delivery would result in an attractive economic scenario for a future RLV developer. That is, would the potential revenue and traffic to be derived from a large scale SSP project be enough of an economic "carrot" to attract an RLV company into developing a new, low cost launch vehicle to address this market. Preliminary results presented in the attached charts show that there is enough economic reward for RLV developers, specifically in the case of the latest large GEO-based Suntower constellations (over 15,500 MT per year delivery for 30 years). For that SSP model, internal rates of return for the 30 year economic scenario exceed 22%. However, up-front government assistance to the RLV developer in terms of ground facilities, operations technologies, guaranteed low-interest rate loans, and partial offsets of some vehicle development expenses is necessary to achieve these positive results. This white paper is meant to serve as a companion to the data supplied in the accompanying charts. It's purpose is to provide more detail on the vehicles and design processes used, to highlight key decisions and issues, and to emphasize key results from each phase of the Georgia Tech study.

  13. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  14. Solar Power for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of NASA missions and technology development efforts are discussed. Future spacecraft will need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of missions. One application driving development of these future arrays is solar electric propulsion.

  15. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  16. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  17. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  18. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexis John M. Rubio; Joan P. Lazaro

    2016-01-01

    –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste...

  19. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  20. Short-Term Solar Collector Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Perers, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power output from solar thermal collectors. The method is suited for online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is applied to predict hourly values of power from a standard single glazed large area flat plate collector......, such as wind power. In such a scenario online forecasting is a vital tool for optimal control and utilization of solar heating systems. The method is a two-step scheme, where first a non-linear model is applied to transform the solar power into a stationary process, which then is forecasted with robust time......-adaptive linear models. The approach is similar to the one by Bacher et al. (2009), but contains additional effects due to differences between solar thermal collectors and photovoltaics. Numerical weather predictions provided by Danish Meteorological Institute are used as input. The applied models adapt over time...

  1. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  2. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of performing...

  3. 75 FR 11205 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station... Nuclear Power Station,'' NUREG-1437, Supplement 29, published in July 2007 (ADAMS Accession No...

  4. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  5. Power station automation: A special issue; Stationsautomatisering: Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewald, H.F.M. [ed.; Wester, Ph. [Afdeling Hoogspanningsstations, PEN, Bloemendaal (Netherlands); Rijanto, H.; Kersten, W.F.J. [Vakgroep Elektrische Energiesystemen, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, J.H. [Afdeling Studie en Bedrijfsvoering, Delta Nutsbedrijven, Middelburg (Netherlands); Groeman, J.F. [KEMA Transport en Distributie, Arnhem (Netherlands); De Heus, A.A. [Elin Holec High Voltage, Amersfoort (Netherlands); De Bruijn, P. [Smit Transformatoren, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Groot, J.W. [Sector Automatiseringstechniek, Mauell-Nederland, Harderwijk (Netherlands); Zomers, A.N.

    1995-04-01

    Nine articles are presented in this special issue of `Energietechniek` on the subject of power station automation. The first article is an introduction to several articles, which are based on lectures, presented during the bi-annual joint meeting of Study Committees of Cigre (`Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques`) in Arnhem, Netherlands, December 16, 1994. The contents of six articles, presented at the Cigre meeting are a summary of the discussions, maintenance, design methods for future power stations, safety and control, a new generation of power substations, and future technological developments. The other two articles deal with operational exploitation calculations of power transformers, and the state of the art regarding the automation of power stations and networks

  6. Hybrid Power System for Remote Communications Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    2 ft ft ft -. .0 .0 IA .0 VINO ft Vt VI VI I............... ILl *VI - I Vt - 8* VI I Vt VI Vt Vt Vi ft ft ft ft - 4 I 0 a -.m WILl .4 I-C II) I ft...Electrical Code, New Mexico University, Las Cruces, November 1992. 35. Sandia Laboratories, Maintenance and Operation of Stand- Alone Photovoltaic Systems...Albuquerque, New Mexico , December 1991. 36. Palz, W., Solar Electricity, Chapel River Press, Andover, England, 1980. 37. Boes, E.C., "Photovoltaic

  7. Annual solar motion and spy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Margaret; Larson, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    A topic often taught in introductory astronomy courses is the changing position of the Sun in the sky as a function of time of day and season. The relevance and importance of this motion is explained in the context of seasons and the impact it has on human activities such as agriculture. The geometry of the observed motion in the sky is usually reduced to graphical representations and visualizations that can be difficult to render and grasp. Sometimes students are asked to observe the Sun’s changing motion and record their data, but this is a long-term project requiring several months to complete. This poster outlines an activity for introductory astronomy students that takes a modern approach to this topic, namely determining the Sun’s location in the sky on a given date through the analysis of satellite photography of the Earth.

  8. Online Short-term Solar Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours.......This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours....

  9. Low-cost solar electric power

    CERN Document Server

    Fraas, Lewis M

    2014-01-01

    ?This book describes recent breakthroughs that promise major cost reductions in solar energy production in a clear and highly accessible manner. The author addresses the three key areas that have commonly resulted in criticism of solar energy in the past: cost, availability, and variability. Coverage includes cutting-edge information on recently developed 40? efficient solar cells, which can produce double the power of currently available commercial cells. The discussion also highlights the potentially transformative emergence of opportunities for integration of solar energy storage and natura

  10. Liquid metals for solar power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Flesch, J.; Niedermeier, K; Fritsch, Andreas; Musaeva, D.; Marocco, L.; Uhlig, Ralf; Baake, E.; Buck, Reiner; Wetzel, Th.

    2017-01-01

    The use of liquid metals in solar power systems is not new. The receiver tests with liquid sodium in the 1980s at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) already proved the feasibility of liquid metals as heat transfer fluid. Despite the high efficiency achieved with that receiver, further investigation of liquid metals in solar power systems was stopped due to a sodium spray fire. Recently, the topic has become interesting again and the gained experience during the last 30 years of liqui...

  11. Terrestrial Solar Power Plants - Current Perspectives and Long Term Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, D.

    2004-12-01

    For terrestrial photovoltaic systems to be viable alternatives to satellite-borne solar generators, two conditions are necessary: Low-cost power generation and low-loss power transmission. This review will deal mainly with the power generation aspect of Very Large Scale terrestrial PV systems, for which it will be argued that system costs of less than $1000/kW may be achievable via the use of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology. Such system costs should be directly competitive with fossil-fuelled ground-based power plants without the need for subsidies. As such, they could be readily integrated into the existing terrestrial grid systems in appropriate parts of the world. Regarding the transmission aspect, technological improvements are to be expected in low-loss long- distance cables - possibly via the discovery of hightemperature superconducting materials. This could enable the creation of a trans-equatorial power grid that, like satellite-borne systems, would ensure that the sun always shines on the generators. Key words: terrestrial solar energy, photovoltaics, dishconcentrators, low-cost electricity

  12. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  13. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  14. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  15. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... turbine set, a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and a steam turbine generator set. DATES: Written...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western...

  16. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... generator, and a steam turbine generator set. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the ROD, or for further... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for...

  17. Design of a 40/50 GHz satellite ground station for fade mitigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the increasing demand in satellite capacity, driven by applications such as high-definition television (HDTV), 3D-TV and interactive broadband services, higher frequency bands will have to be exploited. The capacity on Ku-band is already becoming scarce and Ka-band systems are more commonly used. It can be expected that 40 and 50 GHz (Q and V band) will have to be used in the future. At these frequencies the wave propagation effects have a significant impact on the performance. The traditional approach of implementing large fade margins in the system design is not suitable as it leads to expensive ground terminals. Fade mitigation by adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) is a cost-efficient method. To investigate the Q/V-band for future commercial exploitation, ESA's ALPHASAT satellite will provide experimental payloads for communications and wave propagation experiments. In Graz a Q/V-band ground station is currently under development. It will be equipped with a 3 m tracking antenna, a 50 W Klystron amplifier and a 290 K LNA. Fade mitigation experiments will be conducted, initially using DVB-S2 modems which allow to vary the modulation scheme, the Forward Error Correction code and the symbol rate under control of the ACM computer. In addition, uplink power control can be combined with the ACM methods. A specially developed signal analyser provides precise measurement of the signal/noise ratio. In addition, propagation data will be available from a beacon receiver, also developed by Joanneum Research. Important goals of the experiment are to investigate the reliability of links under realistic operating conditions using ACM and to develop efficient ACM and signal/noise ratio measurement algorithms which can be later implemented in optimised modems for Q/V-band. The paper describes the ground station design and addresses the planned fade mitigation experiments.

  18. case study of afam power station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    fell to 45.3%. Recommendations include the establishment of a good maintenance work documentation system, increased training programme for local manpower, privatization of the electric power industry among others. INTRODUCTION. The maintenance of any engineering system consists of performing the following.

  19. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelqvist, G. [State Power Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Bliselius, P. Aa.; Blomberg, P.E.; Jonsson, E.; Aakerhielm, F. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-09-15

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is {+-} 0.5 dB in amplitude and {+-} 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  20. Advanced power cycles for concentrated solar power

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, W. H.; Buck, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of advanced power cycles under consideration for CSP. As variable renewables make rapid commercial progress, CSP with thermal energy storage is in an excellent position to provide low cost stability and reliability to the grid, however higher efficiency and lower costs are critical. Steam turbines provide a robust commercial option for today but more advanced power cycles offering greater agility and flexibility are needed. Supercritical steam turbines are attract...

  1. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  2. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  3. Next Generation Solar Array Technologies for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Fosness, E.; Guerrero, J.; Mayberry, C; Carpenter, B; Goldstein, D.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), Elastic Memory Composites (EMC), and ultra- light composites along with thin-film Copper-Indium- Diselinide (CIS) photovoltaics have offered the potential to provide solar array systems for small satellites that are significantly lighter than the current state of the practice. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Lockheed Martin...

  4. Solar vs. Fission Surface Power for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Oleson, Steve; George, Pat; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Amee; Jones, Robert E.; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Martini, Michael C.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A multi-discipline team of experts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Mars surface power system point design solutions for two conceptual missions. The primary goal of this study was to compare the relative merits of solar- versus fission-powered versions of each surface mission. First, the team compared three different solar power options against a fission power system concept for a sub-scale, uncrewed demonstration mission. The 4.5 meter (m) diameter pathfinder lander's primary mission would be to demonstrate Mars entry, descent, and landing techniques. Once on the Martian surface, the lander's In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload would demonstrate liquid oxygen propellant production using atmospheric resources. For the purpose of this exercise, location was assumed to be at the Martian equator. The three solar concepts considered included a system that only operated during daylight hours (at roughly half the daily propellant production rate of a round-the-clock fission design), a battery-augmented system that operated through the night (matching the fission concept's propellant production rate), and a system that operated only during daylight, but at a higher rate (again, matching the fission concept's propellant production rate). Including 30% mass growth allowance, total payload masses for the three solar concepts ranged from 1,116 to 2,396 kg, versus the 2,686 kg fission power scheme. However, solar power masses are expected to approach or exceed the fission payload mass at landing sites further from the equator, making landing site selection a key driver in the final power system decision. The team also noted that detailed reliability analysis should be performed on daytime-only solar power schemes to assess potential issues with frequent ISRU system on/off cycling. Next, the team developed a solar-powered point design solution for a conceptual four-crew, 500-day surface mission consisting of up to four landers per

  5. Online short-term solar power forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2009-01-01

    . Then forecasts of the normalized solar power are calculated using adaptive linear time series models. Both autoregressive (AR) and AR with exogenous input (ARX) models are evaluated, where the latter takes numerical weather predictions (NWPs) as input. The results indicate that for forecasts up to two hours......This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The method is suited to online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons of up to 36 hours. The data used is fifteen...

  6. Solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M. T. B. F.

    2016-11-01

    The Philippines is surrounded by coastal areas and these areas can be a potential source for potable water. This study aims to design and construct a solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens. The experimental study was conducted using polluted salt water for the sample and desalination was carried out using the designed system. The desalination system was composed of the solar concentrator, solar still and the condenser system. The Fresnel lens was made of acrylic plastic and was an effective solar concentrator. Solar stills made of dark colored glass bottles were effective in absorbing the solar energy. The condenser system made of polybutylene and polystyrene were effective in condensing the vapor at ambient temperature. The shortest time of vaporization of the salt water was at 293 sec and the optimum angle of position of the lens was 36.42°. The amount of condensate collected was directly proportional to the amount of salt water in the solar still. The highest mean efficiency of the designed set-up was 34.82%. The water produced by the solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens passed the standards set by WHO (World Health Organization) for drinking water.

  7. Materials in Harnessing Solar Power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    64

    domestication of solar energy will definitely take place. With the advent of nano- science and technology, it is postulated that nanomaterials ...... material suppliers and marketing fraternity have to be encouraged and closely monitored. The problem of energy is so big that the industry should realize to put aside big margin ...

  8. Solar Versus Fission Surface Power for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Oleson, Steve; George, Pat; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Amee; Jones, Robert E.; Turnbull, Elizabeth; McNatt, Jeremiah; Martini, Michael C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A multi-discipline team of experts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Mars surface power system point design solutions for two conceptual missions to Mars using In-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The primary goal of this study was to compare the relative merits of solar- versus fission-powered versions of each surface mission. First, the team compared three different solar-power options against a fission power system concept for a sub-scale, uncrewed demonstration mission. This “pathfinder” design utilized a 4.5 meter diameter lander. Its primary mission would be to demonstrate Mars entry, descent, and landing techniques. Once on the Martian surface, the lander’s ISRU payload would demonstrate liquid oxygen propellant production from atmospheric resources. For the purpose of this exercise, location was assumed to be at the Martian equator. The three solar concepts considered included a system that only operated during daylight hours (at roughly half the daily propellant production rate of a round-the-clock fission design), a battery-augmented system that operated through the night (matching the fission concept’s propellant production rate), and a system that operated only during daylight, but at a higher rate (again, matching the fission concept’s propellant production rate). Including 30% mass growth allowance, total payload masses for the three solar concepts ranged from 1,128 to 2,425 kg, versus the 2,751 kg fission power scheme. However, solar power masses increase as landing sites are selected further from the equator, making landing site selection a key driver in the final power system decision. The team also noted that detailed reliability analysis should be performed on daytime-only solar power schemes to assess potential issues with frequent ISRU system on/off cycling.

  9. The Grossmatt hydro-power station; Wasserkraftwerk Grossmatt. Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintermann, M.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented.

  10. Focus on coal power station installations and population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valenti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence.

  11. Solar thermal power systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Each of DOE's solar Thermal Power Systems projects funded and/or in existence during FY 1978 is described and the status as of September 30, 1978 is reflected. These projects are divided as follows: small thermal power applications, large thermal power applications, and advanced thermal technology. Also included are: 1978 project summary tables, bibliography, and an alphabetical index of contractors. (MHR)

  12. Molten salt concentrating solar plants. Their potential contribute to a better grid integration of solar power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchetta, Massimo [ENEA - Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Rome (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Solar energy is becoming of increasing importance in Power Systems. Among solar technologies, use of molten salt heat storage in Concentrating Solar Power plants (CSP) is a cost effective way to improve the value for the grid operator of a non controllable energy source as solar power is. In such type of plants, a high temperature fluid is stored on tanks using solar input; the heat is then released when needed to feed a steam turbine and produce electricity on demand. Depending on tank size, technical solutions are commercially available with storage sizes ranging from 6 hours to 15 hours of nominal output, or even more. Options actually commercially available are the central receiver (Tower) with molten salt direct storage and linear parabolic through field with oil as Heat Transfer Fluid and molten salt as indirect storage; parabolic trough field with molten salt as HTF and as direct storage. The paper concentrates more on the last solution, developed by ENEA since 2001 and firstly introduced in the demonstrative 5 MW unit at Archimede ENEL's Power station. The papers present a simplified dynamic simulation approach, able to show the advantages from the point of view of dispatchability of power output and load following ability of this type of plant from a typical year worth of data of DNI and electricity prices on the Italian market. The model includes the main features affecting plant power output, namely optical efficiency as related to ANI (Aperture Normal Irradiation), solar field main dynamics, storage dynamics and typical operating procedures. (orig.)

  13. A review of technical options for solar charging stations in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. This paper reviews the state of the art of charging stations, with special focus on the technical options. Forty-five different actors in this field were analysed, based on academic publications, reports, online search and surveys. Results show that most stations are run in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, are powered by solar energy and although there are many different energy services targeted, the most popular services are charging batteries, mobile phones and lamps. The first charging station was installed in 1992 but most activities happen after 2005. This recent growth has been enabled by the falling cost of photovoltaic modules, learning effect, economies of scale, financial innovation, private sector involvement and worldwide dissemination of mobile phones. While in the first system the only purpose was to charge solar photovoltaic lanterns, the first multi-purpose station appeared in 2008. As expected, the technical challenges are mostly related to the use of batteries not only because they represent the component with shortest lifetime but also because if the battery is not for individual use, social questions arise due to poor definition of rights and duties of the customers. Furthermore, the development of a sustainable business model is also a challenge since this requires technical skills and system monitoring that are not usually available locally. Finally, it is also suggested that the minimum technical quality standards for charging stations should be defined and implemented.

  14. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  15. Solar Power. Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sarah [Booth Clean Energy LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-05-01

    As global electricity demand increases, governments are designing and implementing policies to scale up and catalyze renewable energy, which now meets 22% of global electricity demand (REN21 2014). Solar technologies are a critical component of this expanded deployment, and they have experienced unprecedented growth in recent years. As presented in Figure 1, solar prices have decreased significantly over the last decade (REN21 2014) and in 2013, new capacity installation of solar electricity from photovoltaics (PV) 1 surpassed all other renewable energy technologies worldwide—excluding hydropower—with 39 gigawatts installed that year. Concentrating solar thermal power,2 although it still represents a fairly nascent market, also continues to expand as installed capacity increased by 36% in 2013 compared to 2012. In addition to meeting energy demand in an increasingly cost-effective manner, solar deployment can also support critical economic, social, and environmental development goals (Flavin and Hull Aeck, n.d.).

  16. Power Processing Unit For Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System (MEPS program has been originated by the increasing need to provide a low-cost and low-power Electric Propulsion System (EPS for small satellites ( 92%, small size and weight and high reliability. Its functional modules and preliminary results obtained at breadboard level are also presented.

  17. Microwave energy transmission test toward the SPS using the space station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

    1986-12-01

    An outline of a project METT (Microwave Energy Transmission Test) using the Space Station is described. The objectives of the METT are to develop and test the technology of microwave energy transmission for the future Solar Power Satellite (SPS), and to estimate the environmental effects of the high power microwaves on the ionosphere and the atmosphere. Energy generated with solar cells is transmitted from a transmitting antenna on the bus platform near the Space Station to a rectenna on the sub-satellite or the ground station in order to test the total efficiency and the functions of the developed system of the energy transmission. Plasma similar to that in the D and E layers in the ionosphere is produced in a large balloon opened on the sub-satellite in order to investigate possible interactions between the SPS microwave and the ionospheric plasma and to determine the maximum power density of the microwave beam which passes through the ionosphere.

  18. Microwave energy transmission test toward the SPS using the Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

    1985-01-01

    An outline of a project METT (Microwave Energy Transmission Test) using the Space Station is described. The objectives of the METT are to develop and test the technology of microwave energy transmission for the future Solar Power Satellite (SPS), and to estimate the environmental effects of the high power microwaves on the ionosphere and the atmosphere. Energy generated with solar cells is transmitted from a transmitting antenna on the bus platform near the Space Station to a rectenna on the sub-satellite or the ground station in order to test the total efficiency and the functions of the development system of the energy transmission. Plasma similar to that in the D and E layers in the ionosphere is produced in a large balloon opened on the sub-satellite in order to investigate possible interactions between the SPS microwave and the ionospheric plasma and to determine the maximum power density of the microwave beam which passes through the ionosphere. 9 references.

  19. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  20. Electrolysers Powered with Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Y. Nedelchev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast fossil fuel consumption and decreasing oil reserves and natural resources, enforce much more need of finding decision for renewable energies and development of constructions for using the so called green resources. One solution of this problem is combination ofalready established solar based sources and brown gas cell construction. Brown gas cell production is based on electrolysis of pure water and as a result generating a real gas fuel. This production can find large utility in different usages.

  1. Stability of coordinates of the borowiec SLR station (7811) on the basis of satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, E.; Schillak, S.; Kuźmicz-Cieślak, M.

    2002-07-01

    Borowiec satellite laser ranging station belongs to the global tracking stations network conducting continuous observations in the last decade. The accuracy of measurements has reached the level of 1-2cm for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites. The satellite laser ranging system has been generally stable in terms of the range bias since 1994. One of the important tasks of geodynamics is a determination of the station coordinates and the control of their stability. The paper presents results of determination of the position of the Borowiec SLR station (7811) calculated on the basis of the data provided by the LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 laser ranging from the results of selected 15 laser ranging stations in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 97 system. The calculations were performed with the use of the GEODYN II program and ALPHA computers in Borowiec and Poznań Observatories. The coordinates of the Borowiec station were determined from monthly arcs for 1999, the best year in the terms of quantity and quality of Borowiec LAGEOS data. The final stability of the Borowiec SLR coordinates for all components per one year is equal to ±9 mm.

  2. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  3. Ultra-Portable Solar-Powered 3D Printers for Onsite Manufacturing of Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julielynn Y

    2015-09-01

    The first space-based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer is powered by solar photovoltaics. This study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using solar energy to power a FDM 3D printer to manufacture medical resources at the Mars Desert Research Station and to design an ultra-portable solar-powered 3D printer for off-grid environments. Six solar panels in a 3×2 configuration, a voltage regulator/capacitor improvised from a power adapter, and two 12V batteries in series were connected to power a FDM 3D printer. Three designs were printed onsite and evaluated by experts post analogue mission. A solar-powered 3D printer composed of off-the-shelf components was designed to be transported in airline carry-on luggage. During the analogue mission, the solar-powered printer could only be operated for solar-powered 3D printer was designed that could print an estimated 16 dental tools or 8 mallet finger splints or 7 scalpel handles on one fully charged 12V 150Wh battery with a 110V AC converter. It is feasible to use solar energy to power a 3D printer to manufacture functional and personalized medical resources at a Mars analogue research station. Based on these findings, a solar-powered suitcase 3D printing system containing solar panels, 12V battery with charge controller and AC inverter, and back-up solar charge controller and inverter was designed for transport to and use in off-grid communities.

  4. Kinematic positioning of LEO and GPS satellites and IGS stations on the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švehla, Dražen; Rothacher, Markus

    For the first time, we publish results with the kinematic positioning of the GPS satellites and make comparisons with the kinematic positioning of LEO satellites and IGS stations on the ground. We show that LEO point-positioning is possible by means of GPS satellite clocks estimated solely based on phase GPS measurements. In sequel, we introduce a fourth approach in precise orbit determination, which we call reduced-kinematic POD, where kinematic position differences in time are constrained to corresponding differences in a priori dynamic orbit.

  5. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkerim, A. I.; Sami Eusuf, M. M. R.; Salami, M. J. E.; Aibinu, A.; Eusuf, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors.

  6. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV... protect an authorized digital low power TV or TV translator station or an application for such station...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power. Report April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, Erik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Enery and Environment, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies offer ways to utilise solar radiation by concentrating the light. In a concentrated form, the light can be utilised more cost efficiently. It is focused with mirrors or lenses and used either as a heat source in thermal power cycles (thermal CSP) or as a light source for high efficiency photovoltaic cells (concentrating photovoltaics, CPV). All concentrating systems use tracking to follow the movement of the sun, in two or three dimensions, and require direct sunlight (no diffusing clouds). CSP plants are often more complex, component wise than those based on flat PV. The extra cost of complexity is generally more than offset by the larger scales, the less need for expensive materials such as purified silicon and a better fit with the current energy infrastructure. Some thermal CSP plants offer great possibilities to deal with the intermittency of solar energy, as the heat generated can be stored in the form of a heated liquid in large tanks for many hours with little additional cost, and drive the thermal power generation also during cloudy periods or at night. CSP is growing rapidly and can be an important portion of future low-carbon energy systems. A prerequisite is that expected cost reductions are, at least largely, realised. In regions with good solar conditions (Mediterranean countries, US Southwest, Middle East, Australia etc), CSP systems already in the short-term future can satisfy significant shares of the power demand, to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Less solar-intensive regions (Northern Europe, much of North America etc) can be supplied with CSP power from solar-rich regions by using long distance power grids, for instance the high voltage DC cables being deployed and developed today

  8. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  9. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  10. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  11. A Simple PV Inverter Power Factor Control Method Based on Solar Irradiance Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    of these impacts mostly depends on PV penetration level, grid and weather characteristics as well as the interaction of load and generation. In this study, a reactive power control method is proposed benefitting from solar irradiance measurements in weather stations. Accordingly, power factors of PV inverters...

  12. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  13. Advanced Power Technology Development Activities for Small Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Taylor, Linda M.; Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne; Raffaelle, Ryne; Landi, Brian; Hubbard, Seth; Schauerman, Christopher; Ganter, Mathew; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history related to the development of advanced power technology for space applications. This expertise covers the breadth of energy generation (photovoltaics, thermal energy conversion, etc.), energy storage (batteries, fuel cell technology, etc.), power management and distribution, and power systems architecture and analysis. Such advanced technology is now being developed for small satellite and cubesat applications and could have a significant impact on the longevity and capabilities of these missions. A presentation during the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on various advanced power technologies being developed and demonstrated by NASA, and their possible application within the small satellite community.

  14. Physical model SOLARMET for determining total and direct solar radiation by meteosat satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliani, E.; Maccari, A. [ENEA, Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment, C.R. Casaccia, Solterm-Svil, P.O. Box 117, Via Anguillarese 301-00123, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Ricchiazzi, P. [ICESS, Institute for Computational Earth System Science, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-3060 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    A vigorous R and D program on solar concentrating power plants has been recently funded in Italy in order to demonstrate the feasibility of these technologies. Maps of direct normal radiation (DNI) are needed for the selection of construction sites for demonstration plants. This paper describes SOLARMET, a physical model that simulates the atmospheric effect on solar radiation. The SOLARMET model may be used to determine the solar radiation, total and direct, reaching the ground, based on information provided by satellite images. Atmosphere transmissivity, ground reflection coefficient, and other essential parameters in the model were determined from SBDART, a radiative transfer model, developed at University of California. Validation of the model have been carried out at Casaccia (Rome-Italy) ENEA centre. The results obtained in the 2002 year are encouraging. The difference between measured and calculated data, during this year, either for direct or global radiation, are lower than 6% on monthly basis. (author)

  15. Piracy of Satellite Signals by Domestic Receive-Only Earth Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Steven D.

    Innovations in technology have enabled homeowners to pirate satellite signals intended for cable television operators through the use of home earth-stations. Section 605 of the Communications Act of 1934, which governs reception of signals, is inadequate to regulate this situation because it appears that publication of received programing outside…

  16. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service... proposed rule that appeared in the Federal Register of March 8, 2013. The document proposed rules for Earth...

  17. Integrated dynamic analysis simulation of space stations with controllable solar arrays (supplemental data and analyses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, J. A.; Fee, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Space station and solar array data and the analyses which were performed in support of the integrated dynamic analysis study. The analysis methods and the formulated digital simulation were developed. Control systems for space station altitude control and solar array orientation control include generic type control systems. These systems have been digitally coded and included in the simulation.

  18. East–West GEO Satellite Station-Keeping with Degraded Thruster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Borissov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The higher harmonic terms of Earth’s gravitational potential slowly modify the nominal longitude of geostationary Earth orbit (GEO satellites, while the third-body presence (Moon and Sun mainly affects their latitude. For this reason, GEO satellites periodically need to perform station-keeping maneuvers, namely, east–west and north–south maneuvers to compensate for longitudinal and latitudinal variations, respectively. During the operational lifetime of GEO satellites, the thrusters’ response when commanded to perform these maneuvers slowly departs from the original nominal impulsive behavior. This paper addresses the practical problem of how to perform reliable east–west station-keeping maneuvers when thruster response is degraded. The need for contingency intervention from ground-based satellite operators is reduced by breaking apart the scheduled automatic station-keeping maneuvers into smaller maneuvers. Orbital alignment and attitude are tracked on-board during and in between sub-maneuvers, and any off nominal variations are corrected for with subsequent maneuvers. These corrections are particularly important near the end of the lifetime of GEO satellites, where thruster response is farthest from nominal performance.

  19. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... include a new natural gas-fired combustion turbine set, a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and a steam turbine generator set. DATES: With this notice, RUS invites any affected Federal, State, and local...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY...

  20. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  1. Determination of station positions and velocities from laser ranging observations to Ajisai, Starlette and Stella satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejba, P.; Schillak, S.

    2011-02-01

    The positions and velocities of the four Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) stations: Yarragadee (7090), Greenbelt (7105), Graz (7839) and Herstmonceux (7840) from 5-year (2001-2005) SLR data of low orbiting satellites (LEO): Ajisai, Starlette and Stella were determined. The orbits of these satellites were computed from the data provided by 20 SLR stations. All orbital computations were performed by means of NASA Goddard’s GEODYN-II program. The geocentric coordinates were transformed to the topocentric North-South, East-West and Vertical components in reference to ITRF2005. The influence of the number of normal points per orbital arc and the empirical acceleration coefficients on the quality of station coordinates was studied. To get standard deviation of the coordinates determination lower than 1 cm, the number of the normal points per site had to be greater than 50. The computed positions and velocities were compared to those derived from LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 data. Three parameters were used for this comparison: station coordinates stability, differences from ITRF2005 positions and velocities. The stability of coordinates of LEO satellites is significantly worse (17.8 mm) than those of LAGEOS (7.6 mm), the better results are for Ajisai (15.4 mm) than for Starlette/Stella (20.4 mm). The difference in positions between the computed values and ITRF2005 were little bit worse for Starlette/Stella (6.6 mm) than for LAGEOS (4.6 mm), the results for Ajisai were five times worse (29.7 mm) probably due to center of mass correction of this satellite. The station velocities with some exceptions were on the same level (≈1 mm/year) for all satellites. The results presented in this work show that results from Starlette/Stella are better than those from Ajisai for station coordinates determination. We can applied the data from LEO satellites, especially Starlette and Stella for determination of the SLR station coordinates but with two times lower accuracy than when using LAGEOS

  2. The power of inexpensive satellite constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrud, Lars P.; La Tour, Rose; Swartz, William H.; Nag, Sreeja; Lorentz, Steven R.; Hilker, Thomas; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Papadakis, Stergios J.

    2014-06-01

    Two thematic drivers are motivating the science community towards constellations of small satellites, the revelation that many next generation system science questions are uniquely addressed with sufficient numbers of simultaneous space based measurements, and the realization that space is historically expensive, and in an environment of constrained costs, we must innovate to ―do more with less‖. We present analysis that answers many of the key questions surrounding constellations of scientific satellites, including research that resulted from the GEOScan community based effort originally intended as hosted payloads on Iridium NEXT. We present analysis that answers the question how many satellites does global system science require? Perhaps serendipitously, the analyses show that many of the key science questions independently converge towards similar results, i.e. that approximately 60+ satellites are needed for transformative, as opposed to incremental capability in system science. The current challenge is how to effectively transition products from design to mass production for space based instruments and vehicles. Ideally, the lesson learned from past designs and builds of various space products should pave the way toward a better manufacturing plan that utilizes just a fraction of the prototype`s cost. Using the commercial products industry implementations of mass customization as an example, we will discuss about the benefits of standardization in design requirements for space instruments and vehicles. For example, the instruments (payloads) are designed to have standardized elements, components, or modules that interchangeably work together within a linkage system. We conclude with a discussion on implementation plans and the new paradigms for community and international cooperation enabled by small satellite constellations.

  3. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station: Satellite-observed evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC, land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization is the main factor that affects the spatial-temporal distribution of thermal environment around meteorological stations. Moreover, the normalized LST and NDVI exhibit strong inverse correlations around meteorological stations, so the variability of LST can be monitored through evaluating the variability of NDVI. In addition, station-relocation plays an important role in improving representativeness of thermal environment. Notably, the environment representativeness was improved, but when using the data from the station to study climate change, the relocation-induced inhomogeneous data should be considered and adjusted. Consequently, controlling the scale and layout of the urban buildings and constructions around meteorological stations is an effective method to ameliorate observational thermal environment and to improve regional representativeness of station observation. The present work provides observational evidences that high resolution Landsat images can be used to evaluate the thermal environment of meteorological stations.

  4. Potential for solar-powered base-load capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Brady; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In 2010 nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japans nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large-scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan operated beyond base load with excess energy being stored in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems. Here we show how coupling these storage systems to rooftop solar systems in Tokyo could compensate for the loss of nuclear power. Data from a study of rooftop space, and a 34-year data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. If current generation PV systems were placed on the available rooftop space in greater Tokyo, this coupled system could provide for 20% of Toyo's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.99. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with six times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.98.

  5. Power Systems Evaluated for Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2000-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission architectures are applicable to a wide range NASA missions including the robotic exploration of the outer planets in the next decade and the human exploration of Mars within the next 2 decades. SEP enables architectures that are very mass efficient with reasonable power levels (1-MW class) aerobrake and cryogenic upper-stage transportation technologies are utilized. In this architecture, the efficient SEP stage transfers the payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) High Energy Elliptical Parking Orbit (HEEPO) within a period of 6 to 12 months. highthrust, cryogenic upper stage and payload then separate from the SEP vehicle for injection to the planetary target, allowing for fast heliocentric trip times. This mission architecture offers a potential reduction in mass to LEO in comparison to alternative all-chemical nuclear propulsion schemes. Mass reductions may allow launch vehicle downsizing enable missions that would have been grounded because of cost constraints. The preceding figure illustrates a conceptual SEP stage design for a human Mars mission. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed conceptual SEP vehicle, conceived the mission architecture to use this vehicle, and analyzed the vehicle s performance. This SEP stage has a dry mass of 35 metric tons (MT), 40 MT of xenon propellant, and a photovoltaic array that spans 110 m, providing power to a cluster of eight 100-kW Hall thrusters. The stage can transfer an 80-MT payload and upper stage to the desired HEEPO. Preliminary packaging studies show this space-station-class SEP vehicle meets the proposed "Magnum" launch vehicle and volume requirements with considerable margin. An SEP vehicle for outer planetary missions, such as the Europa Mapper Mission, would be dramatically smaller than human Mars mission SEP stage. In this mission architecture, the SEP power system with the payload to provide spacecraft power throughout the mission. Several

  6. Polarimetry of small bodies and satellites of our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnulo, S.; Belskaya, I.; Cellino, A.; Kolokolova, L.

    2017-09-01

    The large majority of astronomical observations are based on intensity measurements as a function of either wavelength or time, or both. Polarimetry, a technique which measures the way in which the electromagnetic field associated to the radiation oscillates, does provide further information about the objects that have emitted or scattered the observed radiation. For instance, polarimetric measurements can provide important constraints to the characterisation of cosmic dust (be it of interstellar or cometary origin), of the surfaces of the atmosphereless bodies and of planetary atmospheres. This property has been exploited in solar system science to study asteroids, comets, rocky and giant gaseous planets, and their satellites. In this paper we present a review of the polarimetric studies of the small bodies of the Solar System.

  7. Orbital Space Solar Power Option for a Lunar Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges to the implementation of a continuously manned lunar base is power. During the lunar day (14 Earth days), it is conceptually simple to deploy solar arrays to generate the estimated 35 kilowatts of continuous power required. However, generating this level of power during the lunar night (also 14 Earth days) has been an extremely difficult problem to solve. Conventional solutions range from the requirement that the base be located at the lunar south pole so as to take advantage of the continuous sunshine available there to developing a space-qualified nuclear reactor and power plant to generate the needed energy. There is a third option: Use the soon-to-be-available Space Launch System to place a space based solar power station in lunar orbit that would beam the needed energy to the lunar base. Several detailed studies have been performed by NASA, universities and others looking at the lunar south pole for locating the base. The results are encouraging: by taking advantage of the moon's orbital tilt, large solar arrays can be deployed there to track the sun continuously and generate the power needed to sustain the base. The problem with this approach is inherent to its design: it will only work at the lunar south pole. There is no other site on the Moon with geometry favorable to generating continuous solar power. NASA has also considered the development of a compact fission reactor and power plant to generate the needed power, allowing the base to be sited anywhere on the Moon. The problem with this approach is that there are no space fission reactors available, none are being planned and the cost of developing one is prohibitively expensive. Using an orbiting space based solar power station to generate electrical power and beam it to a base sited anywhere on the moon should therefore be considered. The technology to collect sunlight, generate greater than the estimated 35 kilowatts of power, and beam it to the surface using

  8. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  9. Impact of Atmospheric Attenuations Time Resolutions in Solar Radiation Derived from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of solar irradiance components at the earth surface is of highly interest in many scientific and technology branches concerning meteorology, climate, agriculture and solar energy applications. In the specific case of solar energy systems the solar resource analysis with accuracy is a first step in every project since it is a required data for design, power output estimations, systems simulations and risk assessments. Solar radiation measurement availability is increasing both in spatial density and in historical archiving. However, it is still quite limited and most of the situations cannot make use of a long term ground database of high quality since solar irradiance is not generally measured where users need data. Satellite-derived solar radiation estimations are a powerful and valuable tool for solar resource assessment studies that have achieved a relatively high maturity due to years of developments and improvements. However, several sources of uncertainty are still present in satellite-derived methods. In particular, the strong influence of atmospheric attenuation information as input to the method is one of the main topics of improvement. Since solar radiation attenuation by atmospheric aerosols, and water vapor in a second place, is, after clouds, the second most important factor determining solar radiation, and particularly direct normal irradiance, the accurate knowledge of aerosol optical depth and water vapor content is relevant in the final output of satellite-derived methods. This present work, two different datasets we are used for extract atmospheric attenuation information. On the one hand the monthly mean values of the Linke turbidity factor from Meteotest database, which are twelve unique values of the Linke turbidity worldwide with a spatial resolution of 1/12º. On the other hand, daily values of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) at 550 nm, Angstrom alpha exponent and water vapor column were taken from a gridded database that

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    This report has been prepared in response to section 603(b) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, (Pub. L. No. 110-140), which states that “…the Secretary of Energy shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of a study on methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems.”

  11. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  12. Solar cell power systems for space vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, N.W. (Inst. for Defense Analyses, Washington, DC); Karcher, R.W.

    1961-01-01

    On May 3 and 4, 1960, a symposium was held in Washington, DC, under the sponsorship of the Advanced Research Projects Agency by the Institute for Defense Analyses. Ten programs involving solar cell power systems for current US space vehicles conducted under government sponsorship were discussed by the project engineers who directed these programs. The results of that symposium are highlighted and summarized.

  13. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  14. SORCE and Future Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.; Lawrence, G.; Kopp, G.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W.

    2003-01-01

    With solar activity just passing the maximum of cycle 23, SORCE is beginning a 5 year mission to measure total solar irradiance (TSI) with unprecedented accuracy using phase-sensitive detection, and to measure spectral solar irradiance (SSI) with unprecedented spectral coverage, from 1 to 2000 nm. The new Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) has 4 active cavity radiometers, any one of which can be used as a fixed-temperature reference against any other that is exposed to the Sun via a shutter that cycles at a rate designed to minimize noise at the shutter frequency. The new Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) is a dual Fery prism spectrometer that can employ either prism as a monochromatic source on the other prism, thus monitoring its transmission during the mission lifetime. Either prism can measure SSI from 200 to 2000 nm, employing the same phase-sensitive electrical substitution strategy as TIM. SORCE also carries dual SOLSTICE instruments to cover the spectral range 100-320 nm, similar to the instruments onboard UARS, and also an XUV Photometer System (XPS) similar to that on TIMED. SSI has now been added to TSI as a requirement of EOS and NPOESS, because different spectral components drive different components of the climate system - UV into upper atmosphere and stratospheric ozone, IR into tropospheric water vapor and clouds, and Visible into the oceans and biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions being planned for 2006 and 2011 will continue to monitor these critical solar variables.

  15. Water productivity mapping using Landsat 8 satellite together with weather stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Renato A. M.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice Freitas; Coaguila, Daniel Noe; Neale, Christopher M.

    2016-10-01

    The use of remote sensing satellite in conjunction with models and meteorological data enable the mapping of biophysical properties of agroecosystems with satisfactory accuracy. The main goal of this research was to determine the spatial-temporal agro-ecological indicators of water productivity in watersheds with different types of land use and occupation, using Landsat 8 images, agro-meteorological stations and application of Monteith and SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) models to estimate the production biomass (BIO) and the actual evapotranspiration (ET), respectively. Incident global solar radiation (RS ↓) is observed seasonality of radiation during the year. Higher RS ↓levels happen during the first and the last four months, when the Sun is around its zenith positions in the study region. During the natural dry period in the region, the RS↓ is lower because winter solstice time for the Southern Hemisphere, this condition it is verified the reducing in the values of ET and BIO. Average values of biophysical properties for the study period were 0.54, 0.16 and 301 K for Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, albedo and surface temperature, respectively. The highest value of BIO was 105 kg ha-1d-1 and occurred in July 2013. The lowest value was 15.9 kg ha-1d-1 and occurred in October 2014. ET showed a value of 1.65 mm d-1 in the rainy period and 0.64 during the dry period in the study area. The highest average ET occurred in the irrigated area (June 2014), with a value of 1.89 mm d-1 and a maximum of 2.46 mm d-1. WP average for the evaluated period was 3.06 Kg m-3, with the largest value of 4.91 Kg m-3 in June 2013 and a minimum value of 2.45 Kg m-3 in September 2013.

  16. Chemical properties of fly ashes produced in the Arcelor Mittal power station and the Třinec ironworks power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulikova, L.

    2017-10-01

    Fly ash is an inorganic secondary material coming from combustion of coal in power stations. Tested fly ashes were produced by different processes. Therefore they have different parameters. Their chemical properties were determined using chemical analyzes and compared. Results of laboratory tests show possibility to use of fly ashes in road construction as binder for soil treatment.

  17. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  18. Approach to develop space solar power as a new energy system for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, Makoto [Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The idea of space solar power proposed by Glaser was explained as a set of a solar power station in geostationary earth orbit to transmit microwave power and a ground station to receive the microwave power. Most of the ideas and concepts since Glaser used the same context. On the other hand, Collins et al. introduced the concept of microwave `fuel` to assess the commercial relations of power from space, in which space solar power stations are considered to sell microwave power to any unspecified rectenna. This concept changed the theoretical context of `power from space` to an industrial and economic relation of producers and buyers of an industrial product. This new context has been applied to the SPS 2000 conceptual study. As a result, if 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission is used, each rectenna can be planned and engineered independently from the space sector by local users, especially in developing countries, who are familiar with such activities as introducing solar energy systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  19. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV.... Predictions of interference to co-channel DTV broadcast, digital Class A TV, digital LPTV and digital TV...

  20. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  1. Development of a solar array drive mechanism for micro-satellite platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatis, Giorgos; Guo, Jian; Buursink, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    Photovoltaic solar array (PVSA) systems are the most widely used method for spacecraft power generation. However, in many satellite missions, the optimum orientation of the PVSA system is not always compatible with that of the payload orientation. Many methods, have been examined in the past to overcome this problem. Up to date, the most widely used active method for large costly satellites is the Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM). The SADM serves as the interface between the satellite body and the PVSA subsystem, enabling the decoupling of their spatial orientation. Nonetheless, there exists a research and development gap for such systems regarding low cost micro-satellites. During the literature study of this paper, individual orbital parameters of various micro-satellites have been extracted and compared to the rotational freedom of the corresponding SADMs used. The findings demonstrated that the implemented SADMs are over designed. It is therefore concluded that these components are not tailored made for each spacecraft mission individually, but rather, exhibit a generic design to full fill a majority of mission profiles and requirements. Motivated by the above analysis, the cardinal objective of the current research is to develop a low cost mechanism that will be precisely tailored for the use of a low Earth orbit (LEO) micro-satellite platform orbiting in altitudes of 500 - 1000km . The design of the mechanism may vary from the existing miniaturized SADMs. For example, the preliminary analysis of the current research suggests, that the conventional use of the slip ring system as the electronic transfer unit can be replaced by a seMI Orientation Unit (MIOU). Systems engineering tools for concept generation and selection have been used. In addition, simulation and mathematical modelling have been implemented on component and system level, to accurately predict the behaviour of the system under various modes of operation. The production and system testing of

  2. Power stations, power plant engineering and power station design in (what was) the German Democratic Republic. Kraftwerke, Kraftwerkstechnik und Kraftwerksplanung in der ehemaligen DDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, G.; Gernhardt, A. (Vereinigte Kraftwerks-AG, Peitz (Germany, F.R.)); Weidlich, H.G. (Ingenieurunternehmen fuer Kraftwerks-, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Vetschau (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    Using as a basis the capacities available in the field of both engineering and civil construction in the post war years, the existing power stations were recommissioned. Later, continuous development using 100 MW units was attained. Due to the age of these plants and the high incidence of faults which occurred on them, additional solutions were evolved for improving and modernizing the power stations in addition to the repair and maintenance strategy. On the basis of new conditions created under international treaty for the planning of power stations and the solution of ecological problems, a new concept is presented in this paper. (orig.).

  3. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment...-4, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna... changes are being made in the types of effluents that may be released offsite. There is no significant...

  4. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features

  5. Efficient Cells Cut the Cost of Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    If you visit Glenn Research Center, you might encounter a photovoltaic (PV) array that looks unlike anything you've ever seen. In fact, what one would normally identify as the panel is actually a series of curved mirrors called solar concentrators, engineered to reflect sunlight rather than absorb it. These concentrators gather, intensify, and focus sun beams upward, aiming at a fixture containing specialized silicon concentrated PV chips the actual solar cells. If you stay by the array for a while, you'll notice that the solar concentrators follow the path of the sun throughout the day, changing position to best capture and utilize the sunlight. The specialized chips that make the technology possible are the brainchild of Bernard Sater, an engineer who had worked at Glenn since the early 1960s before retiring to pursue his unique ideas for harnessing solar power. Sater contributed to multiple PV projects in the latter part of his career at the Center, including research and development on the International Space Station s solar arrays. In his spare time, he enjoyed tinkering with new approaches to solar power, experiments that resulted in the system installed at Glenn today. Sater s basic idea had two components. First, he wanted to create a silicon cell that was smaller, more efficient, and much lower cost than those available at the time. To ensure that the potential of such a chip could be realized, he also planned on pairing it with a system that could concentrate sunlight and focus it directly on the cell. When he retired from Glenn in 1994 to focus on researching and developing the technology full time, Sater found that NASA was interested in the concept and ready to provide funding, facilities, and expertise in order to assist in its development.

  6. The generation of pollution-free electrical power from solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Projections of the U.S. electrical power demands over the next 30 years indicate that the U.S. could be in grave danger from power shortages, undesirable effluence, and thermal pollution. An appraisal of nonconventional methods of producing electrical power is conducted, giving particular attention to the conversion of solar energy into commercial quantities of electrical power by solar cells. It is found that 1% of the land area of the 48 states could provide the total electrical power requirements of the U.S. in the year 1990. The ultimate method of generating vast quantities of electrical power would be from a series of synchronous satellites which beam microwave power back to earth to be used wherever needed. Present high manufacturing costs of solar cells could be substantially reduced by using massive automated techniques employing abundant low cost materials.

  7. Materials on the International Space Station - Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a space solar cell experiment currently being built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA). The experiment has been named the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE), and the purpose is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar cells on orbit and provide validation data for these technologies. The FTSCE is being fielded in response to recent on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space solar arrays that have raised concern over the survivability of new solar technologies in the space environment and the validity of present ground test protocols. The FTSCE is being built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) Experiment (MISSE-5), which is a NASA program to characterize the performance of new prospective spacecraft materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the space environment. Telemetry, command, control, and communication (TNC) for the FTSCE will be achieved through the Amateur Satellite Service using the PCSat2 system, which is an Amateur Radio system designed and built by the USNA. In addition to providing an off-the-shelf solution for FTSCE TNC, PCSat2 will provide a communications node for the Amateur Radio satellite system. The FTSCE and PCSat2 will be housed within the passive experiment container (PEC), which is an approximately 2ft x2ft x 4in metal container built by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) as part of the MISSE-5 program. NASA LaRC has also supplied a thin film materials experiment that will fly on the exterior of the thermal blanket covering the PCSat2. The PEC is planned to be transported to the ISS on a Shuttle flight. The PEC will be mounted on the exterior of the ISS by an astronaut during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After nominally one year, the PEC will be retrieved and returned to Earth. At the time of writing this paper, the

  8. Analysis of shadowing effects on MIR photovoltaic and solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently working with RSC-Energia, the Russian Space Agency, and Allied Signal in developing a flight demonstration solar dynamic power system. This type of power system is dependent upon solar flux that is reflected and concentrated into a thermal storage system to provide the thermal energy input to a closed-cycle Brayton heat engine. The solar dynamic unit will be flown on the Russian Mir space station in anticipation of use on the International Space Station Alpha. By the time the power system is launched, the Mir will be a spatially complex configuration which will have, in addition to the three-gimbaled solar dynamic unit, eleven solar array wings that are either fixed or track the Sun along one axis and a variety or repositionable habitation and experiment modules. The proximity of arrays to modules creates a situation which makes it highly probable that there will be varying solar flux due to shadowing on the solar dynamic unit and some of the arrays throughout the orbit. Shadowing causes fluctuations in the power output from the arrays and the solar dynamic power system, thus reducing the energy capabilities of the spacecraft. An assessment of the capabilities of the power system under these conditions is an important part in influencing the design and operations of the spacecraft and predicting its energy performance. This paper describes the results obtained from using the Orbiting Spacecraft Shadowing Analysis Station program that was integrated into the Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) electrical power system computer program. OSSA allows one to consider the numerous complex factors for analyzing the shadowing effects on the electrical power system including the variety of spacecraft hardware geometric configurations, yearly and daily orbital variations in the vehicle attitude and orbital maneuvers (for communications coverage, payload pointing requirements and rendezvous/docking with other

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Program Review 2013 (Book) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Concentrating Solar Power Program Review Meeting booklet will be provided to attendees at the Concentrating Solar Power Review Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona on April 23-25, 2013.

  10. Spacecraft vehicle design considerations and trades utilizing solar and nuclear reactor electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Patrick G.

    1993-02-01

    The status of the reviews and the work performed to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of various nuclear power systems for space mission applications in the 5-20 kWe range. The study found that, out of nine nuclear power systems studied, three could be used to replace a 10 kWe solar array power system on a representative surveillance satellite. Each of these systems could be incorporated using a boom without major specific modifications to a baseline spacecraft design.

  11. Lunar Solar Power System Driven Human Development of the Moon and Resource-Rich Exploration of the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The people of Earth require, by the middle of the 21st century, a new source of commercial power that is sustainable, clean, reliable, low in cost ( 2 kWe/person or > 20 TWe) than now (1, 2). The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System appears to be the only reasonable option (2, 3). The Moon dependably receives 13,000 TWs of solar power. The LSP System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth. To achieve low cost, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth. Hundreds to thousands of people will be required on the Moon, in cis-lunar space, and operating tele-robotically from Earth to construct the full scale LSP System. Models indicate that power sales on Earth can easily support the required people, their regular transport between the Earth and Moon, and provide the required return on investment to develop the LSP System (4, 5). Construction of the LSP System, even at an early stage, creates fundamentally new wealth and capabilities supportive of rapid growth of human activities within the inner solar system. A factor of ten increase in global Earth-to-orbit transport will be required in the demonstration phase. Launch cost of 5,000 /kg is acceptable. Lower cost transport decreases the upfront cost of the LSP System but is not critical to the cost of energy from the mature LSP. Logistic and assembly facilities in orbit about the Earth and Moon will be required that are at least a factor of ten large than planned for the full scale International Space Station. Transport must be provided between the Earth and the Moon of hundreds, possibly thousands, of workers. Production machinery will be available that can build fundamentally new

  12. Surface Solar Radiation in North America: Observations, Reanalyses, Satellite and Derived Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of daily surface solar/shortwave radiation data from over 4000 stations have been gathered, covering much of the lower 48 continental states of the US as well as portions of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. The quantity of data increases almost linearly from 1998 when only several hundred stations had data. A quality control procedure utilizing threshold values along with computing the clear sky radiation envelope for individual stations was implemented to both screen bad data and rescue informative data. Over two thirds of the observations are seen as acceptable. Fifteen different surface solar radiation products are assessed relative to observations, including reanalyses (20thC, CFSRR, ERAI, JRA-55, MERRA, NARR, NCEP), derived products (CRU_NCEP, DAYMET, GLDAS, GSWP3, MsTMIP, NLDAS) and two satellite products (CERES and GOES). All except the CERES product are daily or finer in temporal resolution. The root mean square error of spatial biases is greater than 18Wm-2 for 13 of the 15 products over the summer season (June, July, August). None of the daily resolution products fulfill all three desirable criteria of low (bias, high correlation with observed cloudiness and correct distribution of clear sky radiation. Some products display vestiges of underlying algorithm issues (e.g. from MTCLIM ver4.3) or bias correction methods. A new bias correction method is introduced that preserves clear sky radiation values and better replicates cloudiness statistics. The current quantity of data over the continental US suggests a solar radiation product based on, or enhanced with, observations is feasible.

  13. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses......, the deposits can be grouped into five textural types, which all possess distinct textural and chemical characteristics. Likewise, the deposition mechanisms for these five types are characteristic and they may be used for constructing a model for the buildup and maturation of an ash deposit. The deposits...... collected on the probes were thin (maximum 2 mm after 9 h) and the influence of operational parameters and probe temperatures on the magnitude of the deposits were minor. The probe temperatures had no influence on the composition of the ash deposits for coals with low ash deposition propensities, whereas...

  14. The use of satellite data assimilation methods in regional NWP for solar irradiance forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzrock, Frederik; Cros, Sylvain; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Potthast, Roland; Linguet, Laurent; Sébastien, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    As an intermittent energy source, the injection of solar power into electricity grids requires irradiance forecasting in order to ensure grid stability. On time scales of more than six hours ahead, numerical weather prediction (NWP) is recognized as the most appropriate solution. However, the current representation of clouds in NWP models is not sufficiently precise for an accurate forecast of solar irradiance at ground level. Dynamical downscaling does not necessarily increase the quality of irradiance forecasts. Furthermore, incorrectly simulated cloud evolution is often the cause of inaccurate atmospheric analyses. In non-interconnected tropical areas, the large amplitudes of solar irradiance variability provide abundant solar yield but present significant problems for grid safety. Irradiance forecasting is particularly important for solar power stakeholders in these regions where PV electricity penetration is increasing. At the same time, NWP is markedly more challenging in tropic areas than in mid-latitudes due to the special characteristics of tropical homogeneous convective air masses. Numerous data assimilation methods and strategies have evolved and been applied to a large variety of global and regional NWP models in the recent decades. Assimilating data from geostationary meteorological satellites is an appropriate approach. Indeed, models converting radiances measured by satellites into cloud properties already exist. Moreover, data are available at high temporal frequencies, which enable a pertinent cloud cover evolution modelling for solar energy forecasts. In this work, we present a survey of different approaches which aim at improving cloud cover forecasts using the assimilation of geostationary meteorological satellite data into regional NWP models. Various approaches have been applied to a variety of models and satellites and in different regions of the world. Current methods focus on the assimilation of cloud-top information, derived from infrared

  15. A calibrated, high-resolution goes satellite solar insolation product for a climatology of Florida evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, S.J.; Mecikalski, J.R.; Sumner, D.M.; Pathak, C.S.; Wu, Q.; Islam, S.; Sangoyomi, T.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of incoming solar radiation (insolation) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations have been produced for the state of Florida over a 10-year period (1995-2004). These insolation estimates were developed into well-calibrated half-hourly and daily integrated solar insolation fields over the state at 2 km resolution, in addition to a 2-week running minimum surface albedo product. Model results of the daily integrated insolation were compared with ground-based pyranometers, and as a result, the entire dataset was calibrated. This calibration was accomplished through a three-step process: (1) comparison with ground-based pyranometer measurements on clear (noncloudy) reference days, (2) correcting for a bias related to cloudiness, and (3) deriving a monthly bias correction factor. Precalibration results indicated good model performance, with a station-averaged model error of 2.2 MJ m-2/day (13%). Calibration reduced errors to 1.7 MJ m -2/day (10%), and also removed temporal-related, seasonal-related, and satellite sensor-related biases. The calibrated insolation dataset will subsequently be used by state of Florida Water Management Districts to produce statewide, 2-km resolution maps of estimated daily reference and potential evapotranspiration for water management-related activities. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

  16. The SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) Small Satellite Mission: From Payload to Ground Station Development and Everything in Between

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Cotten, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    This work introduces the mission concept, technologies, and development status for the measuring SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) small satellite mission, which will use a hyperspectral imager to map sensitive coastal regions and off coast water quality near the state of Georgia and beyond. SPOC is being developed by The University of Georgia's Small Satellite Research Laboratory (SSRL) with funds from NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP). The project is led by undergraduates from a wide range of backgrounds and supervised by a multidisciplinary team of Principal Investigators. Using optical components, electronics boards, a grating spectrometer, and a CMOS array the students will assemble and integrate the payload components and ensure their compatibility with the other subsystems. In-house development and assembly includes building the hyperspectral imager, as well integrating it into the satellite, and testing of the different subsystems of the satellite. The mission will collect spectral data along a 300 km swath using the grating spectrometer to diffract the incoming radiation into the 440-865 nm spectral range. The resulting images will be 75 km x 300 km in size, have a 120 m spatial resolution, and a spectral resolution of 2 nm, covering 100 spectral bands. The resulting dataset will allow for spectral analysis comparisons with some of NASA's legacy satellites. The work describes the timeline and current progress of the SPOC mission. Focus will be equally distributed to all the different systems of the satellite including their development, testing, and integration. Particular emphasis is given to Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS), command and data handling (CDH), payload, power generation, S-Band/X-Band transceivers, and the development of ground station capabilities (S-Band/X-Band).

  17. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  18. Short-term solar irradiance forecasting via satellite/model coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven D.; Rogers, Matthew A.; Haynes, John M.; Sengupta, Manajit; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2017-12-01

    The short-term (0-3 h) prediction of solar insolation for renewable energy production is a problem well-suited to satellite-based techniques. The spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolution of instrumentation hosted on the geostationary platform allows these satellites to describe the current cloud spatial distribution and optical properties. These properties relate directly to the transient properties of the downwelling solar irradiance at the surface, which come in the form of 'ramps' that pose a central challenge to energy load balancing in a spatially distributed network of solar farms. The short-term evolution of the cloud field may be approximated to first order simply as translational, but care must be taken in how the advection is handled and where the impacts are assigned. In this research, we describe how geostationary satellite observations are used with operational cloud masking and retrieval algorithms, wind field data from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), and radiative transfer calculations to produce short-term forecasts of solar insolation for applications in solar power generation. The scheme utilizes retrieved cloud properties to group pixels into contiguous cloud objects whose future positions are predicted using four-dimensional (space + time) model wind fields, selecting steering levels corresponding to the cloud height properties of each cloud group. The shadows associated with these clouds are adjusted for sensor viewing parallax displacement and combined with solar geometry and terrain height to determine the actual location of cloud shadows. For mid/high-level clouds at mid-latitudes and high solar zenith angles, the combined displacements from these geometric considerations are non-negligible. The cloud information is used to initialize a radiative transfer model that computes the direct and diffuse-sky solar insolation at both shadow locations and intervening clear-sky regions. Here, we describe the formulation of

  19. Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiolek, Richard

    it to absorb more energy and making the antenna collector 20 times more efficient than planar designs. A tracking pedestal powered by betavoltaics can follow the sun. With a 500-sun photovoltaic cell underneath a Fresnal lens magnifies and distributes the sun's energy at 500 times. Primary results and the main conclusions This idea is revolutionary and utilizes satellite tracking abilities to follow the sun, maintaining a constant energy source that can reach 700 to 800 degrees. This technology will have many applications, from instant fresh water in the form of steam to the use of fiber optics to filter natural light through a building. With the direction of the oil and energy costs continuing to spiral upward, there has been recent emphasis on alternative energy that is transmitted from space. Satellite antenna manufacturers can move quickly to production and create a revolution in sustainable energy that was never thought of before. The efforts of the United States, Russia, China, and India to colonize the Moon and Mars would be greatly enhanced by use of satellite solar collectors and betavoltaics electrical energy technologies for the colonies' habitats. Introduction This study was undertaken for the Global environment is in a crisis. The rich oil producing countries of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Africa, have been at war to gain monopoly power and to restrict the space based explorations of the solar system. The physics of solar energy transmission to electrical mechanical energy is unique in improving the economies of the entire community of Nations. It is easy to produce satellite antennas, thus, satellite antennas can now be used as solar panels which can generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity. Solar Panels require no moving parts; have zero emissions, and no maintenance. These antennas will revolutionize the use of solar rays from the sun to benefit a global grid. These "collectors of free energy" are able to harness

  20. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  1. Station normal : the power of the Stave River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, M.; Wilson, H. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This book documented the history of power development along the Stave River and Stave Falls in British Columbia. The book was compiled from memories of employees and retired employees who helped to build the power station along the Stave River. The book provided details of the technical achievements accomplished during the construction of the hydro-electric project, and described the roles and functions of BC Hydro workers at the plant. The book also chronicled the project's growth over time, and discussed its impact on communities in the region. The book included over 100 photographs, as well as a chronology. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from other...

  3. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator will be protected from...

  4. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Tug Power System Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Bury, Kristen M.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Sajdak, Adam M.; Scheiddegger, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is truly at the "intersection of commercial and military space" as well as the intersection of NASA robotic and human space missions. Building on the use of SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft station keeping, there are numerous potential commercial and military mission applications for SEP stages operating in Earth orbit. At NASA, there is a resurgence of interest in robotic SEP missions for Earth orbit raising applications, 1-AU class heliocentric missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) and SEP spacecraft technology demonstrations. Beyond these nearer term robotic missions, potential future human space flight missions to NEOs with high-power SEP stages are being considered. To enhance or enable this broad class of commercial, military and NASA missions, advancements in the power level and performance of SEP technologies are needed. This presentation will focus on design considerations for the solar photovoltaic array (PVA) and electric power system (EPS) vital to the design and operation of an SEP stage. The engineering and programmatic pros and cons of various PVA and EPS technologies and architectures will be discussed in the context of operating voltage and power levels. The impacts of PVA and EPS design options on the remaining SEP stage subsystem designs, as well as spacecraft operations, will also be discussed.

  5. Radiation-hard mid-power booster optical fiber amplifiers for high-speed digital and analogue satellite laser communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Stevens, G.; Henwood-Moroney, L.; Hosking, P.; Robertson, A.

    2017-11-01

    Optical laser communications (OLC) has been identified as the technology to enable high-data rate, secure links between and within satellites, as well as between satellites and ground stations with decreased mass, size, and electrical power compared to traditional RF technology.

  6. Solar power developer feels its technology is cost competitive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smock, R.W.

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on a solar power developer which believes that it has a cost-competitive solar power technology. Right now, more than 90% of the world's operating solar-powered electric generating capacity is located in the Los-Angeles-based company's privately financed solar-thermal plants currently operating on the Southern California Edison system. It has 274 MW of qualifying-facility, small-power solar capacity in operation in eight plants. They are expected to produce 700 million kWh this year, equal to an annual capacity factor of about 29%. The solar technology uses supplemental firing of natural gas.

  7. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  8. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  9. Application of ORC power station to increase electric power of gas compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocarski Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculation results of efficiency of the subcritical low temperature ORC power station powered by waste heat resulting from the process of cooling a stationary compression ignition engine. The source of heat to supply the ORC power station is the heat in a form of water jet cooling the engine at a temperature of 92°C, and the exhaust gas stream at a temperature of 420°C. The study considers three variants of systems with the ORC power stations with different ways of using heat source. The first variant assumes using just engine cooling water to power the ORC station. In the second variant the ORC system is powered solely by a heat flux from the combustion gases by means of an intermediary medium - thermal oil, while the third variant provides the simultaneous management of both heat fluxes to heat the water stream as a source of power supply to the ORC station. The calculations were made for the eight working media belonging both to groups of so-called dry media (R218, R1234yf, R227ea and wet media (R32, R161, R152a, R134a, R22.

  10. A New Database of Global and Direct Solar Radiation Using the Eastern Meteosat Satellite, Models and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gracia Amillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new database of solar radiation at ground level for Eastern Europe and Africa, the Middle East and Asia, estimated using satellite images from the Meteosat East geostationary satellites. The method presented calculates global horizontal (G and direct normal irradiance (DNI at hourly intervals, using the full Meteosat archive from 1998 to present. Validation of the estimated global horizontal and direct normal irradiance values has been performed by comparison with high-quality ground station measurements. Due to the low number of ground measurements in the viewing area of the Meteosat Eastern satellites, the validation of the calculation method has been extended by a comparison of the estimated values derived from the same class of satellites but positioned at 0°E, where more ground stations are available. Results show a low overall mean bias deviation (MBD of +1.63 Wm−2 or +0.73% for global horizontal irradiance. The mean absolute bias of the individual station MBD is 2.36%, while the root mean square deviation of the individual MBD values is 3.18%. For direct normal irradiance the corresponding values are overall MBD of +0.61 Wm−2 or +0.62%, while the mean absolute bias of the individual station MBD is 5.03% and the root mean square deviation of the individual MBD values is 6.30%. The resulting database of hourly solar radiation values will be made freely available. These data will also be integrated into the PVGIS web application to allow users to estimate the energy output of photovoltaic (PV systems not only in Europe and Africa, but now also in Asia.

  11. Coolidge solar powered irrigation pumping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A 150 kW solar thermal electric power plant which includes over 2100 square meters of parabolic trough type collectors and an organic Rankine cycle turbine engine was constructed on an irrigated farm. The plant is interconnected with the electrical utility grid. Operation is providing an evaluation of equipment performance and operating and maintenance requirements as well as the desirability of an on farm location.

  12. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class fiee-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of technology experiments. Recent space solar power (SSP) studies by NASA have taken a stepping stones approach that lead to the gigawatt systems necessary to cost-effectively deliver power from space. These steps start with a 100 kW-class satellite, leading to a 500 kW and then a 1 MW-class platform. Later steps develop a 100 M W bus that could eventually lead to a 1-2 GW pilot plant for SSP. Our studies have shown that a modular approach is cost effective. Modular designs include individual laser-power-beaming satellites that fly in constellations or that are autonomously assembled into larger structures at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Microwave power-beamed approaches are also modularized into large numbers of identical units of solar arrays, power converters, or supporting structures for arrays and microwave transmitting antennas. A cost-effective approach to launching these modular units is to use existing Earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems, in which the modules are dropped into low Earth orbit (LEO) and then the modules perform their own orbit transfer to GEO using expendable solar arrays to power solar electric thrusters. At GEO, the modules either rendezvous and are assembled robotically into larger platforms, or are deployed into constellations of identical laser power-beaming satellites. Since solar electric propulsion by the modules is cost-effective for both

  13. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis John M. Rubio; Joan P. Lazaro

    2016-01-01

    –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste disposal in thePhilippines. The device used a Gizduino X ATMega 1281 as its main processing module along with a Gizduino 644 microcontroller board, anda GSM Shield module for communication. Arduino1.6 IDE is used to program the Gizduinoboards. The device is powered by a 15V rechargeab...

  14. Feature Selection and ANN Solar Power Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O’Leary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of solar power forecasting for individuals and small businesses is developed in this paper based on machine learning, image processing, and acoustic classification techniques. Increases in the production of solar power at the consumer level require automated forecasting systems to minimize loss, cost, and environmental impact for homes and businesses that produce and consume power (prosumers. These new participants in the energy market, prosumers, require new artificial neural network (ANN performance tuning techniques to create accurate ANN forecasts. Input masking, an ANN tuning technique developed for acoustic signal classification and image edge detection, is applied to prosumer solar data to improve prosumer forecast accuracy over traditional macrogrid ANN performance tuning techniques. ANN inputs tailor time-of-day masking based on error clustering in the time domain. Results show an improvement in prediction to target correlation, the R2 value, lowering inaccuracy of sample predictions by 14.4%, with corresponding drops in mean average error of 5.37% and root mean squared error of 6.83%.

  15. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Rachelson, W.; Sterling, R.; Frey, H. U.; Harris, S. E.; McBride, S.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D.; Doolittle, J. L.; Engebretson, M.; Inan, U.; Labelle, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  16. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  17. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  18. The economic feasibility of renewable powered fast charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benger, Ralf; Heyne, Raoul; Wenzl, Heinz; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-07-01

    Electric vehicles will make an important contribution for a sustainable energy supply in the public transport sector. Although it is not sure at the moment which role the different vehicle concepts and charging options will play, it is possible to act on following assumptions: There will be purely electrically operated vehicles (EV), which will need a charging infrastructure in the public domain. Even if the number of these vehicles in comparison with hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) or range extended electric vehicles (REV) will be low, in the long run an amount of some million vehicles can be reached (1 0 % of the vehicles in Germany corresponds to round about 4 million vehicles). Charging stations in parking areas, shopping malls, at home or at work do not require high charging power because the time available for charging is relative long. In contrast charging stations beside these in normal parking areas should have the ability to charge the car batteries in a very short time, e.g. 80% of the energy content in 15 minutes or less. Therefore every charging process requires 100-200 kW electric power. Such charging stations are necessary both in rural and in urban regions.

  19. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based sche...

  20. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  1. 75 FR 2164 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim), located in Plymouth County, MA. Therefore...

  2. A new generation of small satellite communication earth stations suited to transportable, emergency and disaster response applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A. E.

    1982-09-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, testing, and operation in Canada of a new generation of small satellite communication earth stations are presented. The stations, suited to transportable, emergency, and disaster response applications, operate via Telesat's commercial Anik satellites at 6/4 GHz, and are designed to be capable of global operation via other 6/4 GHz satellites. Telesat has instituted the use of satellites allowing communication to remote communities, and in 1975, 12 small air-transportable earth stations were implemented for temporary and emergency communications. In May 1978, a 3.7 m transportable earth station was set up to demonstrate satellite-terrestrial communications during a simulated oil spill. This experience led to the conclusion that transportable satellite stations were needed. Station test results show that error rates in telephone signalling processing are as low as 10 to the -2nd, acceptable performance of voice-activated delta-codec 40 kbps PSK-modulated signal is experienced at 55 dB-Hz, and the G/T of such a station is at least 19 dB/K.

  3. Solar irradiance assessment in insular areas using Himawari-8 satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liandrat, O.; Cros, S.; Turpin, M.; Pineau, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The high amount of surface solar irradiance (SSI) in the tropics is an advantage for a profitable PV production. It will allow many tropical islands to pursue their economic growth with a clean, affordable and locally produced energy. However, the local meteorological conditions induce a very high variability which is problematic for a safe and gainful injection into the power grid. This issue is even more critical in non-interconnected territories where network stability is an absolute necessity. Therefore, the injection of PV power is legally limited in some European oversea territories. In this context, intraday irradiance forecasting (several hours ahead) is particularly useful to mitigate the production variability by reducing the cost of power storage management. At this time scale, cloud cover evolves with a stochastic behaviour not properly represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Analysing cloud motion using images from geostationary meteorological satellites is a well-known alternative to forecasting SSI up to 6 hours ahead with a better accuracy than NWP models. In this study, we present and apply our satellite-based solar irradiance forecasting methods over two measurement sites located in the field of view of the satellite Himawari-8: Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) and New Caledonia (France). In particular, we converted 4 months of images from Himawari-8 visible channel into cloud index maps. Then, we applied an algorithm computing a cloud motion vector field from a short sequence of consecutive images. Comparisons between forecasted SSI at 1 hour of time horizon and collocated pyranometric measurements show a relative RMSE between 20 and 27%. Error sources related to the tropic insular context (coastal area heterogeneity, sub-pixel scale orographic cloud appearance, convective situation…) are discussed at every implementation step for the different methods.

  4. A study of some features of ac and dc electric power systems for a space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzes certain selected topics in rival dc and high frequency ac electric power systems for a Space Station. The interaction between the Space Station and the plasma environment is analyzed, leading to a limit on the voltage for the solar array and a potential problem with resonance coupling at high frequencies. Certain problems are pointed out in the concept of a rotary transformer, and further development work is indicated in connection with dc circuit switching, special design of a transmission conductor for the ac system, and electric motors. The question of electric shock hazards, particularly at high frequency, is also explored. and a problem with reduced skin resistance and therefore increased hazard with high frequency ac is pointed out. The study concludes with a comparison of the main advantages and disadvantages of the two rival systems, and it is suggested that the choice between the two should be made after further studies and development work are completed.

  5. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W. [Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Corp., Brookpark, OH (United States). Aerospace Technology Development

    1996-12-31

    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  6. Peak-power-point monitor for solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine solar cell panel peak power capability without disrupting power flow from panel. Separate solar cell strings were switched from panel circuits, and increasingly larger loads were added rapidly until peak power points were transversed. String wattage output was recorded and all stored string measurements summed together indicate peak power point in panel.

  7. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  8. Expansion potential for existing nuclear power station sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, D. F.; Bauman, H. F.

    1977-09-26

    This report is a preliminary analysis of the expansion potential of the existing nuclear power sites, in particular their potential for development into nuclear energy centers (NECs) of 10 (GW(e) or greater. The analysis is based primarily on matching the most important physical characteristics of a site against the dominating site criteria. Sites reviewed consist mainly of those in the 1974 through 1976 ERDA Nuclear Power Stations listings without regard to the present status of reactor construction plans. Also a small number of potential NEC sites that are not associated with existing power stations were reviewed. Each site was categorized in terms of its potential as: a dispersed site of 5 GW(e) or less; a mini-NEC of 5 to 10 GW(e); NECs of 10 to 20 GW(e); and large NECs of more than 20 GW(e). The sites were categorized on their ultimate potential without regard to political considerations that might restrain their development. The analysis indicates that nearly 40 percent of existing sites have potential for expansion to nuclear energy centers.

  9. 75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... Statement for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Docket No. 50-271, dated July 1972, as supplemented...

  10. 75 FR 38147 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The... regulations. Therefore, the exemption is authorized by law. Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station Exemption...

  11. 78 FR 71675 - License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT... proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station...

  12. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this...

  13. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed facility... Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station,'' dated July 2007 (ADAMS Accession Nos...

  14. Solar Dynamic Power System Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct various fault simulation studies for diagnosing the type and location of faults in the power distribution system. Different types of faults are simulated at different locations within the distribution system and the faulted waveforms are monitored at measurable nodes such as at the output of the DDCU's. These fault signatures are processed using feature extractors such as FFT and wavelet transforms. The extracted features are fed to a clustering based neural network for training and subsequent testing using previously unseen data. Different load models consisting of constant impedance and constant power are used for the loads. Open circuit faults and short circuit faults are studied. It is concluded from present studies that using features extracted from wavelet transforms give better success rates during ANN testing. The trained ANN's are capable of diagnosing fault types and approximate locations in the solar dynamic power distribution system.

  15. Keeping Cool With Solar-Powered Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In the midst of developing battery-free, solar-powered refrigeration and air conditioning systems for habitats in space, David Bergeron, the team leader for NASA's Advanced Refrigerator Technology Team at Johnson Space Center, acknowledged the need for a comparable solar refrigerator that could operate in conjunction with the simple lighting systems already in place on Earth. Bergeron, a 20-year veteran in the aerospace industry, founded the company Solus Refrigeration, Inc., in 1999 to take the patented advanced refrigeration technology he co-developed with his teammate, Johnson engineer Michael Ewert, to commercial markets. Now known as SunDanzer Refrigeration, Inc., Bergeron's company is producing battery-free, photovoltaic (PV) refrigeration systems under license to NASA, and selling them globally.

  16. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Quimby, D.; Nelson, L.; Christiansen, W.; Neice, S.; Cassady, P.; Pindroh, A.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the lasant. Efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20 percent are projected for these indirect optically pumped lasers.

  17. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  18. Monthly and yearly maps of daily average global solar radiation of the Madeira archipelago (Portugal), obtained from Meteosat images and six meteorological stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.; Izquierdo, P.; Santos, J.M.; Prado, M.T. [Solar Energy Lab, Univ. of Vigo, ETSI Industriales, Vigo (Spain); Magro, C. [Lab. Regional de Engenharia Civil, Governo Regional da Madeira, Sao Martinho, Funchal (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the Atlas of Global Solar Radiation of the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal) is presented. In a first approach, horizontal global solar irradiances at ground level are obtained applying the Heliosat-2 method to earth images taken by the Meteosat-6 satellite. These values are then integrated and averaged to obtain the ''first approach'' monthly average daily global solar radiation values in each pixel of the image. These results are, in turn, calibrated (normalized) with data of solar radiation measured in six meteorological stations in the region. Both data base are from the period January 2002-December 2005. Twelve monthly tables of daily average global solar radiation in each pixel of the image included in the study are obtained and yearly values are calculated from them. The thirteen tables are taken to the ArcGIS application to obtain yearly and monthly radiation maps for the region. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of ionosphere variability over low-latitude GNSS stations during 24th solar maximum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Ratnam, D.; Sivavaraprasad, G.; Latha Devi, N. S. M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a remote sensing tool of space weather and ionospheric variations. However, the interplanetary space-dependent drifts in the ionospheric irregularities cause predominant ranging errors in the GPS signals. The dynamic variability of the low-latitude ionosphere is an imperative threat to the satellite-based radio communication and navigation ranging systems. The study of temporal and spatial variations in the ionosphere has triggered new investigations in modelling, nowcasting and forecasting the ionospheric variations. Hence, in this paper, the dynamism in the day-to-day, month-to-month and seasonal variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) has been explored during the solar maximum period, January-December 2013, of the 24th solar cycle. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere are analysed using the TEC values derived from three Indian low-latitude GPS stations, namely, Bengaluru, Guntur and Hyderabad, separated by 13-18° in latitude and 77-81° in longitude. The observed regional GPS-TEC variations are compared with the predicted TEC values of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012 and 2007) models. Ionospheric parameters such as Vertical TEC (VTEC), relative TEC deviation index and monthly variations in the grand-mean of ionosphere TEC and TEC intensity, along with the upper and lower quartiles, are adopted to investigate the ionosphere TEC variability during quiet and disturbed days. The maximum ionospheric TEC variability is found during March and September equinoxes, followed by December solstice while the minimum variability is observed during June solstice. IRI models are in reasonable agreement with GPS TEC but are overestimating during dawn hours (01:00-06:00 LT) as compared to the dusk hours. Higher percentage deviations are observed during equinoctial months than summer over EIA stations, Guntur and Hyderabad. GPS TEC variations are overestimated during dawn hours for all the

  20. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  1. 75 FR 9449 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). The licenses provide, among other things, that the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339; NRC-2010-0026 Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 1.0 Background The Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee...

  2. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...-7, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, ``Criteria for and... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

  3. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  4. Interstellar Organics, the Solar Nebula, and Saturn's Satellite Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar medium inventory of organic material (Pendleton et al. 1994, Pendleton & Allamandola 2002) was likely incorporated into the molecular cloud in which the solar nebula condensed. This provided the feedstock for the formation of the Sun, major planets, and the smaller icy bodies in the region outside Neptune's orbit (transneptunian objects, or TNOs). Saturn's satellites Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion open a window to the composition of one class of TNO as revealed by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn. Phoebe (mean diameter 213 km) is a former TNO now orbiting Saurn. VIMS spaectral maps of PHoebe's surface reveal a complex organic spectral signature consisting of prominent aromatic (CH) and alophatic hydrocarbon (CH2, CH3) absorption bands (3.2-3.6 micrometers). Phoebe is the source of a huge debris ring encircling Saturn, and from which particles (approximately 5-20 micrometer size) spiral inward toward Saturn. They encounter Iapetus and Hperion where they mix with and blanket the native H2O ice of those two bodies. Quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon bands on Iapetus demonstrates that aromatic CH is approximately 10 times as abundant as aliphatic CH2+CH3, significantly exceeding the strength of the aromatic signature in interplanetary dust particles, comet particles, ad in carbonaceous meteorites (Cruikshank et al. 2013). A similar excess of aromatics over aliphatics is seen in the qualitative analysis of Hyperion and Phoebe itself (Dalle Ore et al. 2012). The Iapetus aliphatic hydrocarbons show CH2/CH3 approximately 4, which is larger than the value found in the diffuse ISM (approximately 2-2.5). In so far as Phoebe is a primitive body that formed in the outer regions of the solar nebula and has preserved some of the original nebula inventory, it can be key to understanding the content and degree of procesing of the nebular material. There are other Phoebe-like TNOs that are presently

  5. Solar-Tep. Solar thermal power. Final report; Solar-Tep. Solare Thermokraft. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, R.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2006-07-01

    The direct and efficient conversion of concentrated solar radiation into electricity with a high power output requires the development of thermoelectrically active p- and n-type semiconductors with similar material properties which are stable in air at very high temperature. The only suitable materials that fulfil this task are high performance ceramics. We successfully developed and investigated novel perovskite-type transition-metal oxides as potential candidates for thermoelectric devices operating at high temperatures as they can possess large positive as well as large negative thermo-power depending on their composition. The three parameters defining the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT are in most cases interdependent: the thermo-power increases with increasing resistivity. The heat conductivity increases with electrical conductivity. Therefore, an optimum charge carrier concentration and mobility has to be defined, which depends on the substitution level, the spin states of the transition metals, the Ligand field, i.e. the crystallographic structure, the valence states of the cations and ionic deficiencies. The tuning of the thermoelectric properties of the perovskite-type candidates is based on controlled anionic and cationic substitutions. The resulting products are characterised as far as structure and composition are concerned using various methods available at EMPA and at large scale facilities including Xray and Neutron Diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermal analysis, synchrotron-radiation-based techniques (EXAFS, XANES, Diffraction) as well as Raman spectroscopy and tested concerning their thermoelectric activity in the new thermoelectricity lab at EMPA. (author)

  6. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  7. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  8. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  9. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Ziegler, Klaus; Allani, Yassine

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors) featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS). This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a) the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System)...

  10. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  11. Low-Thrust Out-of-Plane Orbital Station-Keeping Maneuvers for Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of out of plane orbital maneuvers for station keeping of satellites. The main idea is to consider that a satellite is in an orbit around the Earth and that it has its orbit is disturbed by one or more forces. Then, it is necessary to perform a small amplitude orbital correction to return the satellite to its original orbit, to keep it performing its mission. A low thrust propulsion is used to complete this task. It is important to search for solutions that minimize the fuel consumption to increase the lifetime of the satellite. To solve this problem a hybrid optimal control approach is used. The accuracy of the satisfaction of the constraints is considered, in order to try to decrease the fuel expenditure by taking advantage of this freedom. This type of problem presents numerical difficulties and it is necessary to adjust parameters, as well as details of the algorithm, to get convergence. In this versions of the algorithm that works well for planar maneuvers are usually not adequate for the out of plane orbital corrections. In order to illustrate the method, some numerical results are presented.

  12. Program assessment report, statement of findings. Satellite power systems concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    What is known, uncertain, and unknown about the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is stated. The important technical, environmental, and cost goal questions that must be answered prior to making a commitment to the SPS concept are discussed. Although significant technological, environmental and economic questions remain to be answered, the preliminary investigations undertaken in the CDEP do provide a basis for a policy decision on further commitment. Also, areas of research and experimentation required to acquire the knowledge by which a series of informed, time-phased decisions may be made concerning the possibility of the SPS concept playing a major role in the United States' energy future are suggested.

  13. Assessment of satellite and model derived long term solar radiation for spatial crop models: A case study using DSSAT in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Biswal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop Simulation models are mathematical representations of the soil plant-atmosphere system that calculate crop growth and yield, as well as the soil and plant water and nutrient balances, as a function of environmental conditions and crop management practices on daily time scale. Crop simulation models require meteorological data as inputs, but data availability and quality are often problematic particularly in spatialising the model for a regional studies. Among these weather variables, daily total solar radiation and air temperature (Tmax and Tmin have the greatest influence on crop phenology and yield potential. The scarcity of good quality solar radiation data can be a major limitation to the use of crop models. Satellite-sensed weather data have been proposed as an alternative when weather station data are not available. These satellite and modeled based products are global and, in general, contiguous in time and also been shown to be accurate enough to provide reliable solar and meteorological resource data over large regions where surface measurements are sparse or nonexistent. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the satellite and model derived daily solar radiation for simulating groundnut crop growth in the rainfed distrcits of Andhra Pradesh. From our preliminary investigation, we propose that satellite derived daily solar radiation data could be used along with ground observed temperature and rainfall data for regional crop simulation studies where the information on ground observed solar radiation is missing or not available.

  14. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis John M. Rubio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste disposal in thePhilippines. The device used a Gizduino X ATMega 1281 as its main processing module along with a Gizduino 644 microcontroller board, anda GSM Shield module for communication. Arduino1.6 IDE is used to program the Gizduinoboards. The device is powered by a 15V rechargeable battery, which is charged by a solar panel retrofitted at the roof of the device, this is to promote energy conservation, and green engineering principles in the development of the study.The device can process empty plastic bottles (500ml. max with a base diameter of 3.5 inches, and aluminium cans. These recyclable materials are placed inside the machine and is scanned, then crushed and placed in a bin. An inductive sensor is used to detect either the material is a plastic bottle or an aluminium can. To compensate the user for recycling, an equivalent monetary value will be dispensed. The owner of the device can check the status of the coin dispenser and bins through an Android messaging application developed using the Eclipse IDE and the Java programming language, and when a certain limit is reached by the coin dispenser or the trash bins, an automatic text message notification will be sent to the owner.

  15. Toward global mapping of river discharge using satellite images and at-many-stations hydraulic geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Colin J; Smith, Laurence C

    2014-04-01

    Rivers provide critical water supply for many human societies and ecosystems, yet global knowledge of their flow rates is poor. We show that useful estimates of absolute river discharge (in cubic meters per second) may be derived solely from satellite images, with no ground-based or a priori information whatsoever. The approach works owing to discovery of a characteristic scaling law uniquely fundamental to natural rivers, here termed a river's at-many-stations hydraulic geometry. A first demonstration using Landsat Thematic Mapper images over three rivers in the United States, Canada, and China yields absolute discharges agreeing to within 20-30% of traditional in situ gauging station measurements and good tracking of flow changes over time. Within such accuracies, the door appears open for quantifying river resources globally with repeat imaging, both retroactively and henceforth into the future, with strong implications for water resource management, food security, ecosystem studies, flood forecasting, and geopolitics.

  16. Assessment of solar-powered cooling of buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, H.M.

    1975-04-01

    Three solar-powered cooling concepts are analyzed and evaluated. These are: (1) the solar Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by solar energy is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, (2) the solar-assisted Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by both solar energy and fuel combustion is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, and (3) the solar absorption concept in which solar energy is used to drive an absorption refrigeration machine. These concepts are compared on the bases of coefficient of performance, requirements for primary fuel input, and economic considerations. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  17. Water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations: A new level of information support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.

    2011-07-01

    Methods used by the Moscow Power Engineering Institute's Department for Technologies of Water and Fuel in providing information support to the chemical departments of power stations in the field of organizing water chemistry of power units are described. Information is given on a new handbook on water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations and on the site supplementing this handbook.

  18. 78 FR 784 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). The license provides, among... with the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant and Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, on February 9, 2011 and...

  19. Numerical modelling of the process of heat transference, of the convective flow induced and the power generated in a wind power station; Modelizacion numerica del proceso de transferencia de calor, del flujo convectivo inducido y de la potencia generada en una central eolico solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, F. J.; Kaiser, A. S.; Zamora, B.; Lucas, M.; Viedma, A.

    2008-07-01

    A thermodynamic analysis for solar chimney power plant has been carried out by numerical simulation. A numerical model has been developed using the general purpose code Fluent to study heat transfer and convective flow within the chimney power plant. The {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been employed. A heat transfer, mass flow and power production numerical analysis has been carried out on different hours during the day, assuming steady state conditions. The numeric values obtained are 10% different from experimental measures. Once model has been validated, a numeric study about flow within power plant, heat transfer and mass flow has been carry out, and the non-dimensional parameters obtained have been compared with studies about free convection. (Author)

  20. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N. H.

    1979-06-01

    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  1. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle W.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  2. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banoni Vanessa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated

  3. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoni, Vanessa Arellano; Arnone, Aldo; Fondeur, Maria; Hodge, Annabel; Offner, J Patrick; Phillips, Jordan K

    2012-04-23

    This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models' benefits and costs. The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm, outweigh any minor concerns or potential

  4. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm

  5. Baghouse performance and ash characterization at the Arapahoe Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Sears, D.R.; Green, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a field test conducted in March 1981, on the Unit 3 baghouse of the Arapahoe Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. The unit was burning a subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado, and was retrofitted with a baghouse in 1979. Baghouse performance was found to be excellent with an overall mass efficiency of 99.98%. The estimated cumulative collection efficiency of all particles smaller than two microns was 99.92%. The Grand Forks Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy, through its contractor Southern Research Institute, is conducting a series of field tests to study the characteristics and control of fly ash from the combustion of low-rank Western coals. Emphasis is being placed on two types of coal: Western subbituminous coal and Texas lignite. The overall objective of the project is to provide data that will be useful in evaluating particulate control technologies for these coals. To date, two field tests have been performed. The first field test, the subject of this paper, was conducted in march 1981, at Unit 3 of the Arapahoe Power Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. The unit, retrofitted with a baghouse that was placed in service in May 1979, was burning a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado. The second field test, which was jointly sponsored by DOE and EPRI, was completed in May 1982 at the San Miguel Station of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative located between San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Texas. Results of the San Miguel test will be reported elsewhere.

  6. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  7. Closed Cycle Engine Program Used in Solar Dynamic Power Testing Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensworth, Clint B., III; McKissock, David B.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is testing the world's first integrated solar dynamic power system in a simulated space environment. This system converts solar thermal energy into electrical energy by using a closed-cycle gas turbine and alternator. A NASA-developed analysis code called the Closed Cycle Engine Program (CCEP) has been used for both pretest predictions and post-test analysis of system performance. The solar dynamic power system has a reflective concentrator that focuses solar thermal energy into a cavity receiver. The receiver is a heat exchanger that transfers the thermal power to a working fluid, an inert gas mixture of helium and xenon. The receiver also uses a phase-change material to store the thermal energy so that the system can continue producing power when there is no solar input power, such as when an Earth-orbiting satellite is in eclipse. The system uses a recuperated closed Brayton cycle to convert thermal power to mechanical power. Heated gas from the receiver expands through a turbine that turns an alternator and a compressor. The system also includes a gas cooler and a radiator, which reject waste cycle heat, and a recuperator, a gas-to-gas heat exchanger that improves cycle efficiency by recovering thermal energy.

  8. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  9. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  10. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Gen3 Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wagner, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andraka, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Today's power-tower concentrating solar power (CSP) technology exists in large part as a result of Department of Energy (DOE) and utility industry funding of demonstration systems in the 1980s and 1990s. Today's most advanced towers are integrated with molten-salt thermal energy storage, delivering thermal energy at 565 degrees C for integration with conventional steam-Rankine cycles. The supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle has been identified as a likely successor to the steam-Rankine power cycle due to its potential for high efficiency when operating at elevated temperatures of 700 degrees C or greater. Over the course of the SunShot Initiative, DOE has supported a number of technology pathways that can operate efficiently at these temperatures and that hold promise to be reliable and cost effective. Three pathways - molten salt, particle, and gaseous - were selected for further investigation based on a two-day workshop held in August of 2016. The information contained in this roadmap identifies research and development challenges and lays out recommended research activities for each of the three pathways. DOE foresees that by successfully addressing the challenges identified in this roadmap, one or more technology pathways will be positioned for demonstration and subsequent commercialization within the next ten years. Based on current knowledge of the three power tower technologies, all three have the potential to achieve the SunShot goal of 6 cents/kilowatt-hour. Further development, modeling, and testing are now required to bring one or more of the technologies to a stage where integrated system tests and pilot demonstrations are feasible.

  12. Small geothermic heat and power station with power plants on organic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, W.; Wos, M. [Szczecin Univ. of Tech. (Poland). Chair of Heat Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of the calculations of heat-flow heats and power stations were introduced in the work geothermic with one circulation, with two circulations and with three circulations. They are reinforced network water heated up in the geothermic heat exchanger to temperatures 100 C and stream. In this solution the temperature of water force to the geothermic hest exchanger changes and amount out suitably 39,35 C (one circulation), 49,83 C (two circulations), 58,91 C (three circulations). He results that the solution of heat and power station is the most profitable variant with three circulations from the analysis of the received results of calculations. He keeps the highest power of the circulation C.R. from three considered variants. (orig.)

  13. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  14. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  15. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  16. Models for the transient stability of conventional power generating stations connected to low inertia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifakis, Marios; Coffey, William T.; Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Titov, Sergei V.

    2017-06-01

    An ever-increasing requirement to integrate greater amounts of electrical energy from renewable sources especially from wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations exists and recent experience in the island of Ireland demonstrates that this requirement influences the behaviour of conventional generating stations. One observation is the change in the electrical power output of synchronous generators following a transient disturbance especially their oscillatory behaviour accompanied by similar oscillatory behaviour of the grid frequency, both becoming more pronounced with reducing grid inertia. This behaviour cannot be reproduced with existing mathematical models indicating that an understanding of the behaviour of synchronous generators, subjected to various disturbances especially in a system with low inertia requires a new modelling technique. Thus two models of a generating station based on a double pendulum described by a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations and suitable for analysis of its stability corresponding to infinite or finite grid inertia are presented. Formal analytic solutions of the equations of motion are given and compared with numerical solutions. In particular the new finite grid model will allow one to identify limitations to the operational range of the synchronous generators used in conventional power generation and also to identify limits, such as the allowable Rate of Change of Frequency which is currently set to ± 0.5 Hz/s and is a major factor in describing the volatility of a grid as well as identifying requirements to the total inertia necessary, which is currently provided by conventional power generators only, thus allowing one to maximise the usage of grid connected non-synchronous generators, e.g., wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations.

  17. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  18. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  19. Worldwide impact of aerosol's time scale on the predicted long-term concentrating solar power potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A; Gueymard, Christian A; Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2016-08-10

    Concentrating solar technologies, which are fuelled by the direct normal component of solar irradiance (DNI), are among the most promising solar technologies. Currently, the state-of the-art methods for DNI evaluation use datasets of aerosol optical depth (AOD) with only coarse (typically monthly) temporal resolution. Using daily AOD data from both site-specific observations at ground stations as well as gridded model estimates, a methodology is developed to evaluate how the calculated long-term DNI resource is affected by using AOD data averaged over periods from 1 to 30 days. It is demonstrated here that the use of monthly representations of AOD leads to systematic underestimations of the predicted long-term DNI up to 10% in some areas with high solar resource, which may result in detrimental consequences for the bankability of concentrating solar power projects. Recommendations for the use of either daily or monthly AOD data are provided on a geographical basis.

  20. Habitat Size Optimization of the O'Neill - Glaser Economic Model for Space Solar Satellite Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Creating large space habitats by launching all materials from Earth is prohibitively expensive. Using space resources and space based labor to build space solar power satellites can yield extraordinary profits after a few decades. The economic viability of this program depends on the use of space resources and space labor. To maximize the return on the investment, the early use of high density bolo habitats is required. Other shapes do not allow for the small initial scale required for a quick population increase in space. This study found that 5 Man Year, or 384 person bolo high density habitats will be the most economically feasible for a program started at year 2010 and will cause a profit by year 24 of the program, put over 45,000 people into space, and create a large system of space infrastructure for the further exploration and development of space.

  1. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  2. A combined data and power management infrastructure for small satellites

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the need for a suitable onboard computer design arose for the small satellite project at the Institute of Space Systems, University of Stuttgart, Germany. It had to meet the constraints imposed by the small satellite (a 130 kg CubeSat) with its full featured ACS, diverse payloads and full CCSDS telecommand and telemetry standard compliance. The design of the Onboard Computer system lead to a functional merging between onboard computer components and the satellite's Power Control and Distribution Unit, resulting in a very innovative solution – the so-called Combined Data and Power Management Infrastructure. The technical implementation of such a design was achieved with the support of an international industry partner consortium consisting of Astrium GmbH, Aeroflex Colorado Springs Inc., 4Links Ltd., Aeroflex Gaisler AB, Vectronic Aerospace GmbH and HEMA Kabeltechnik GmbH & Co. KG. At end of the flight unit's development the consortium decided to provide a single consistent documentation of the d...

  3. Testing solar panels for small-size satellites: the UPMSAT-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roibás-Millán, E.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Jiménez-Mateos, A. G.; Pindado, S.

    2017-11-01

    At present, the development of small-size satellites by universities, companies and research institutions has become usual practice, and is spreading rapidly. In this kind of project cost plays a significant role. One of the main areas are the assembly, integration and test (AIT) plans, which carry an associated cost for simulating environmental conditions. For instance, in the power subsystems test and, in particular, in the testing of solar panels, the irradiance and temperature conditions might be optimum so the performance of the system can be shown next to real operational conditions. To reproduce the environmental conditions in terms of irradiance, solar simulators are usually used, which carries an associated increase in cost for testing the equipment. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative and inexpensive way to perform AIT plans on spacecraft power subsystems, from a testing campaign performed using outdoor clean-sky conditions and an isolation system to protect the panels. A post-process of the measured data is therefore needed, taking into account the conditions in which the test has been accomplished. The I–V characteristics obtained are compared with a theoretical 1-diode/2-resistor equivalent electric circuit, achieving enough precision based solely on the manufacturer’s data.

  4. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  5. Grid Integration of Solar Power into Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dung

    2016-01-01

    As solar energy penetration in the power grid increases, challenges arise from the variable nature of solar power. Like any distributed generation source or load, photovoltaic (PV) generation can impact the voltage profile of a distribution feeder, potentially driving the service voltage outside of acceptable ranges. However, distributed energy resources can also bring great opportunities to improve power quality and cost effectiveness of the current power grid. In this dissertation, we will ...

  6. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  7. Seasonal, Diurnal, and Solar-Cycle Variations of Electron Density at Two West Africa Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ouattara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the variability of foF2 at two West Africa equatorial ionization anomaly stations (Ouagadougou and Dakar during three solar cycles (from cycle 20 to cycle 22, that is, from 1966 to 1998 for Ouagadougou and from 1971 to 1997 for Dakar. We examine the effect of the changing levels of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation with sunspot number. The study shows high correlation between foF2 and sunspot number (Rz. The correlation coefficient decreases from cycle 20 to cycle 21 at both stations. From cycle 21 to cycle 22 it decreases at Ouagadougou station and increases at Dakar station. The best correlation coefficient, 0.990, is obtained for Dakar station during solar cycle 22. The seasonal variation displays equinoctial peaks that are asymmetric between March and September. The percentage deviations of monthly average data from one solar cycle to another display variability with respect to solar cycle phase and show solar ultraviolet radiation variability with solar cycle phase. The diurnal variation shows a noon bite out with a predominant late-afternoon peak except during the maximum phase of the solar cycle. The diurnal Ouagadougou station foF2 data do not show a significant difference between the increasing and decreasing cycle phases, while Dakar station data do show it, particularly for cycle 21. The percentage deviations of diurnal variations from solar-minimum conditions show more ionosphere during solar cycle 21 at both stations for all three of the other phases of the solar cycle. There is no significant variability of ionosphere during increasing and decreasing solar cycle phases at Ouagadougou station, but at Dakar station there is a significant variability of ionosphere during these two solar-cycle phases.

  8. Concentrated solar power plants: Review and design methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huili; Degrève, Jan; Caceres, Gustavo; Baeyens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are gaining increasing interest, mostly as parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or solar tower collectors (STC). Notwithstanding CSP benefits, the daily and monthly variation of the solar irradiation flux is a main drawback. Despite the approximate match between hours of the day where solar radiation and energy demand peak, CSPs experience short term variations on cloudy days and cannot provide energy during night hours unless incorporating thermal energy s...

  9. Effects of solar radiation pressure torque on the rotational motion of an artificial satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Maria Cecilia F. P. S.; Vilhenademoraes, Rodolpho

    1992-01-01

    The motion of an artificial satellite about its center of mass is studied considering torques due to the gravity gradient and direct solar radiation pressure. A model for direct solar radiation torque is derived for a circular cylindrical satellite. An analytical solution is obtained by the method of variation of the parameters. This solution shows that the angular variables have secular variation but that the modulus of the rotational angular momentum, the projection of rotational angular momentum on the z axis of the moment of inertia and inertial axis z, suffer only periodic variations. Considering a hypothetical artificial satellite, a numerical application is demonstrated.

  10. Concept for a Lunar Transfer Vehicle for Small Satellite Delivery to the Moon from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John; Alkalai, Leon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has developed as a very capable center for scientific research in Lower Earth Orbit. An additional potential of the ISS that has not thus far been exploited, is the use of this orbiting plat-form for the assembly and launching of vehicles that could be sent to more distant destinations. This paper reports the results of a recent study that looked at an architecture and conceptual flight system design for a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) that could be delivered to the ISS in segments, assembled, loaded with payload and launched from the ISS with the objective of delivering multiple small and micro satellites to lunar orbit. The design of the LTV was optimized for low cost and high payload capability, as well as ease of assembly. The resulting design would use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to carry a total payload mass of 250 kg from the ISS to a 100 km lunar orbit. A preliminary concept of operations was developed considering currently available delivery options and ISS capabili-ties that should prove flexible enough to accommodate a variety of payloads and missions. This paper will present an overview of the study, including key trades, mission and flight system design, and notional operational concept.

  11. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    OpenAIRE

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal) . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid en...

  12. 75 FR 14209 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background.... DPR-28, which authorizes operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). The license....55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

  13. 75 FR 14208 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The license provides, among..., ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  14. 76 FR 30204 - Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Dresden Nuclear Power Station (DNPS), Unit 1, located in Grundy County, Illinois. DNPS Unit 1... ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  15. 76 FR 39134 - ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COMMISSION ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... licensing basis requirements previously applicable to the nuclear power units and associated systems...

  16. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The...,'' section 73.55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors...

  17. The research and development of the automatic solar power tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a kind of automatic tracker using solar power. It depends on two important parts which are servo system and adjusting mechanism system to keep the tracker operating normally. The article focuses on describing the characteristics and functions of two systems and the operating details of the automatic solar power tracker.

  18. Transient Simulation of Line-Focus Solar Thermal Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    do amaral Burghi, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a utility scale technology that pro duces electricity using the thermal energy of the sun. Due to the varying intensity of the solar irradiation, there is a constant change in the op eration point for solar thermal power plants. In order to optimize the process, a complex relation between irradiation intensity, fluid mass fl ow and collector focus must be considered and appropriate control strategies should take into account the transient...

  19. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  20. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  1. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants,'' to... workers and members of the public. No changes will be made to plant buildings or the site property... Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Supplements 6 and 7 Regarding Surry and NAPS...

  2. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  3. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  4. Global Solar radiation in Spain from Satellite Images; Radiacion Solar Global en la Espana Peninsular a partir de images de satelite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Santigosa, L.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.; Navarro Fernandez, A. A.; Varela conde, M.; Cruz Echeandia, M. de la

    2003-07-01

    In the context of the present work a series of algorithms of calculation of the solar radiation from satellite images has been developed. These models, have been applied to three years of images of the Meteosat satellite and the results of the treatment have been extrapolated to long term. For the development of the models of solar radiation registered in ground stations have been used, corresponding all of them to localities of peninsular Spain and the Balearic ones. The maximum periods of data available have been used, supposing in most of the cases periods of between 6 and 9 years. From the results has a year type of images of global solar radiation on horizontal surface. The original resolution of the image of 7x7 km in the study latitudes, has been revaluate to 5x5 km. This supposes to have a value of the typical radiation for every day of the year, each 5x5 km in the study territory. This information, supposes an important advance as far as the knowledge of the space distribution of the radiation solar,impossible to reach about alternative methods. Doubtlessly, the precision of the provided values is not comparable with pyranometric measures in a concrete localise, but it provides a very valid indicator in places in which, it not had previous information. In addition to the radiation maps, tables of the global solar radiation have been prepared on different inclinations, from the global radiation on horizontal surface calculated for every day of the year and in each pixel of the image. (Author) 24 refs.

  5. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  6. Solar absorption estimated from surface radiation measurements and collocated satellite products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakuba, M. Z.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth's climate and life-relevant processes are governed by the incoming solar radiation as part of the global energy balance. Changes in the atmospheric energy budget largely affect the global climate and hydrological cycle, but the quantification of the different energy balance components is still afflicted with large uncertainties. The overall aim of the research presented here is an improved understanding of the mean state and spatio-temporal variations of the global energy balance through reducing the uncertainties in one of its components, i.e., the absorption of solar radiation within the climate system. To quantify the solar absorption at the surface and within the atmospheric column, we combine the worldwide surface radiation measurements of the Global Energy Balance archive (GEBA) and Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) with collocated satellite-inferred surface albedo and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation data (MODIS, CERES). Our analysis of the present mean state, temporal and spatial variability during the last decade (2000-2010) focuses on Europe and Asia, and will expand worldwide in a later step. We examined the quality and homogeneity of station records beyond 2000 provided by GEBA to identify a subset of station records of sufficient quality. We find the vast majority of monthly records to be suitable for our purposes. The considered GEBA sites indicate overall positive trends in Europe, and mostly negative trends over Asia during the last decade (2000-2010). To derive the surface solar absorption at the measurement sites, we intend to combine the shortwave fluxes with the collocated surface albedo from MODIS. The MODIS products include the so-called black-sky albedo (under the assumption of direct radiation only) and white-sky albedo (under diffuse isotropic conditions). The majority of GEBA sites comprises only global radiation data, which do not differentiate between direct and diffuse components. To determine solar absorption from

  7. Solar Power in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Denis

    1975-01-01

    Describes the present state of solar technology, points out the need for research and development in this area, and indicates the important role solar technology could play in Third World development. (GS)

  8. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  9. Satellite Power System (SPS) financial/management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajk, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The possible benefits of a Satellite Power System (SPS) program, both domestically and internationally, justify detailed and imaginative investigation of the issues involved in financing and managing such a large-scale program. In this study, ten possible methods of financing a SPS program are identified ranging from pure government agency to private corporations. The following were analyzed and evaluated: (1) capital requirements for SPS; (2) ownership and control; (3) management principles; (4) organizational forms for SPS; (5) criteria for evaluation; (6) detailed description and preliminary evaluation of alternatives; (7) phased approaches; and (8) comparative evaluation. Key issues and observations and recommendations for further study are also presented.

  10. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  11. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  12. Development of a small Multifunctional Ground Station (MGS) for satellite communication on 11/14 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguelle, W. H. G.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments on digital telephony (using separate carrier waves for each channel) and image telephony with 32 kbit/sec and 8.448 Mbit/sec transmission rates, were done using an MGS with a 3 m antenna. System aspects of digital satellite communication and requirements and development of a ground station were treated. An orthomode transducer, used for simultanous transmission and reception with one antenna, is discussed. Noise ratio, phase noise characteristics, and technical realization of the receiver chain are treated. Realization of the transmitter chain and the impact of nonlinear effects of traveling wave tubes on the system degradation are discussed. Experiments on analog TV-reception from the OTS were carried out.

  13. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  15. Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Susan Tyler

    This companion document updates an April 1998 volume on designing schools to use solar energy as a power source. Volume 2 presents numerous case studies of solar installations in new and existing schools across the United States and Europe, updates and presents new examples of solar education programs, and offers an updated resource listing of…

  16. Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for Outer Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for outer planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low outer planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of outer planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.

  17. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power needs to be explored. This paper deals with the evaluation method of solar contribution based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of thermoeconomics with a case of 600 MW solar aided coal-fired power plant. In this study, the feasibility of the method has been carried out. The contribution of this paper is not only to determine the proportion of solar energy in overall electric power, but also to assign the individual cost components involving solar energy. Therefore, this study will supply the theoretical reference for the future research of evaluation methods and new energy resource subsidy.

  18. Recent advances in automated ultrasonic inspection of Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.B. [Magnox Electric Ltd., Gloucestershire (United Kingdom). Oldbury Technical Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes recent advances in automated ultrasonic techniques which have enabled fully effective and qualified inspections to be introduced for nuclear power stations. In the first example, ultrasonic phased arrays have been introduced for inspection of fillet welded structures where physical access for the operator is very awkward and the surface available for probe scanning are very restricted. The system has optimised the depth of field by varying the number of phased array elements fired at a given time and the inspections are substantially faster and more reliable than conventional manual inspection. In the second example, NDT Workbench significantly improves data analysis for complex geometries and defects by using 3D data displays of multiple beams and automated logging of measurements. Both examples have been formally qualified using the ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) Methodology. This was achieved more easily because of the rigorous in-house training programmes and because the Technical Justifications referred to evidence from previous related qualifications whenever appropriate. (orig.)

  19. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... digital Class A TV stations (``Class A''). The Commission addresses important issues such as: (1) The... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

  20. The Future of Solar Power in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Reid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used detailed industry data to analyse the impacts of expected further cost reductions on the competitiveness of solar power in Britain, and assess whether the solar market can survive without support in the near future. We investigated three solar power markets: large-scale, ground-mounted “solar farms” (defined in our analysis as larger than a 5000 kilowatt system; commercial roof-top (250 kW; and residential rooftop (3 kW. We found that all three would be economic without support in the next decade. Such an outcome assumes progressively falling support under a stable policy regime. We found that unsubsidised residential solar power may be cheaper with battery storage within the next five to 10 years. Unsupported domestic solar battery packs achieve payback periods of less than 10 years by 2025. That could create an inflexion point driving adoption of domestic solar systems. The variability of solar power will involve some grid integration costs at higher penetration levels, such as more frequent power market scheduling; more interconnector capacity; storage; and backup power. These costs and responses could be weighed against non-market benefits including the potential for grid balancing; lower carbon and particulate emissions; and energy security.