Sample records for satellite snapshots capture



    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  2. Capability of satellite-aided ballistic capture (United States)

    Luo, Z.-F.; Topputo, F.


    In this paper we study a special instance of ballistic capture dynamics: the case in which the capture orbit about a planet experiences a close passage to one or more of its natural satellites. The capability of the satellites in improving ballistic capture is assessed. The dynamical framework considers at least the gravitational attractions of the Sun, the planet, and its satellites, all acting on a massless particle. The effect of the satellites is introduced explicitly by modifying a previously developed method, which relies on three-dimensional stable sets and n-body dynamics with precise ephemeris. Once a stability criterium is defined, initial conditions defined over a computational grid are integrated forward and backward. This allows us to classify orbits into different sets. Ballistic capture orbits with prescribed features are generated by manipulating these sets. Two indices, namely the hyperbolic velocity and the stability index, are used to assess the performance of pre- and post-capture portions, respectively. A Pareto frontier is used to extract orbits of practical interest. Case studies are performed in the context of Earth and Jupiter environments. Comparing to the situation with no moons, the satellite-aided ballistic capture can evidently increase the pre-capture energy and post-capture stability, so making it possible to have permanent capture of a particle at zero-cost. This is a desirable feature in mission design.

  3. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)


    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  4. Multispectral Snapshot Imagers Onboard Small Satellite Formations for Multi-Angular Remote Sensing (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Hewagama, Tilak; Georgiev, Georgi; Pasquale, Bert; Aslam, Shahid; Gatebe, Charles K.


    Multispectral snapshot imagers are capable of producing 2D spatial images with a single exposure at selected, numerous wavelengths using the same camera, therefore operate differently from push broom or whiskbroom imagers. They are payloads of choice in multi-angular, multi-spectral imaging missions that use small satellites flying in controlled formation, to retrieve Earth science measurements dependent on the targets Bidirectional Reflectance-Distribution Function (BRDF). Narrow fields of view are needed to capture images with moderate spatial resolution. This paper quantifies the dependencies of the imagers optical system, spectral elements and camera on the requirements of the formation mission and their impact on performance metrics such as spectral range, swath and signal to noise ratio (SNR). All variables and metrics have been generated from a comprehensive, payload design tool. The baseline optical parameters selected (diameter 7 cm, focal length 10.5 cm, pixel size 20 micron, field of view 1.15 deg) and snapshot imaging technologies are available. The spectral components shortlisted were waveguide spectrometers, acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF), electronically actuated Fabry-Perot interferometers, and integral field spectrographs. Qualitative evaluation favored AOTFs because of their low weight, small size, and flight heritage. Quantitative analysis showed that waveguide spectrometers perform better in terms of achievable swath (10-90 km) and SNR (greater than 20) for 86 wavebands, but the data volume generated will need very high bandwidth communication to downlink. AOTFs meet the external data volume caps well as the minimum spectral (wavebands) and radiometric (SNR) requirements, therefore are found to be currently feasible in spite of lower swath and SNR.

  5. Identification of a debris cloud from the nuclear powered SNAPSHOT satellite with haystack radar measurements (United States)

    Stokely, C. L.; Stansbery, E. G.

    Data from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory Long Range Imaging Radar (known as the Haystack radar) have been used in the past to examine families of objects from individual satellite breakups or families of orbiting objects that can be isolated in altitude and inclination. This is possible because, for some time after a breakup, the debris cloud of particles can remain grouped together in similar orbit planes. This cloud will be visible to the radar, in fixed staring mode, for a short time twice each day, as the orbit plane moves through the field of view. There should be a unique three-dimensional pattern in observation time, range, and range rate which can identify the cloud. Eventually, through slightly differing precession rates of the right ascension of ascending node of the debris cloud, the observation time becomes distributed so that event identification becomes much more difficult. Analyses of the patterns in observation time, range, and range rate have identified good debris candidates released from the polar orbiting SNAPSHOT satellite (International Identifier: 1965-027A). For orbits near 90° inclination, there is essentially no precession of the orbit plane. The SNAPSHOT satellite is a well known nuclear powered satellite launched in 1965 to a near circular 1300 km orbit with an inclination of 90.3°. This satellite began releasing debris in 1979, with new pieces being discovered and cataloged over the years. Fifty-one objects are still being tracked by the United States Space Surveillance Network. An analysis of the Haystack data has identified at least 60 pieces of debris separate from the 51 known tracked debris pieces, where all but 2 of the 60 pieces have a size less than 10 cm. The altitude and inclination (derived from range-rate with a circular orbit assumption) are consistent with the SNAPSHOT satellite and its tracked debris cloud.

  6. Refined Use of Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth Snapshots to Constrain Biomass Burning Emissions in the GOCART Model (United States)

    Petrenko, Mariya; Kahn, Ralph; Chin, Mian; Limbacher, James


    Simulations of biomass burning (BB) emissions in global chemistry and aerosol transport models depend on external inventories, which provide location and strength for BB aerosol sources. Our previous work shows that to first order, satellite snapshots of aerosol optical depth (AOD) near the emitted smoke plume can be used to constrain model-simulated AOD, and effectively, the smoke source strength. We now refine the satellite-snapshot method and investigate where applying simple multiplicative emission adjustment factors alone to the widely used Global Fire Emission Database version 3 emission inventory can achieve regional-scale consistency between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD snapshots and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model. The model and satellite AOD are compared globally, over a set of BB cases observed by the MODIS instrument during the 2004, and 2006-2008 biomass burning seasons. Regional discrepancies between the model and satellite are diverse around the globe yet quite consistent within most ecosystems. We refine our approach to address physically based limitations of our earlier work (1) by expanding the number of fire cases from 124 to almost 900, (2) by using scaled reanalysis-model simulations to fill missing AOD retrievals in the MODIS observations, (3) by distinguishing the BB components of the total aerosol load from background aerosol in the near-source regions, and (4) by including emissions from fires too small to be identified explicitly in the satellite observations. The small-fire emission adjustment shows the complimentary nature of correcting for source strength and adding geographically distinct missing sources. Our analysis indicates that the method works best for fire cases where the BB fraction of total AOD is high, primarily evergreen or deciduous forests. In heavily polluted or agricultural burning regions, where smoke and background AOD values tend to be comparable, this approach

  7. Cold Snapshot of a Molecular Rotary Motor Captured by High-Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domingos, Sérgio R.; Cnossen, Arjen; Buma, Wybren Jan; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Schnell, Melanie


    We present the first high-resolution rotational spectrum of an artificial molecular rotary motor. By combining chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and supersonic expansions, we captured the vibronic ground-state conformation of a second-generation motor based on chiral,

  8. From cells to chromatin: capturing snapshots of genome organization with 5C technology. (United States)

    Ferraiuolo, Maria A; Sanyal, Amartya; Naumova, Natalia; Dekker, Job; Dostie, Josée


    In eukaryotes, genome organization can be observed on many levels and at different scales. This organization is important not only to reduce chromosome length but also for the proper execution of various biological processes. High-resolution mapping of spatial chromatin structure was made possible by the development of the chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique. 3C uses chemical cross-linking followed by proximity-based ligation of fragmented DNA to capture frequently interacting chromatin segments in cell populations. Several 3C-related methods capable of higher chromosome conformation mapping throughput were reported afterwards. These techniques include the 3C-carbon copy (5C) approach, which offers the advantage of being highly quantitative and reproducible. We provide here an updated reference protocol for the production of 5C libraries analyzed by next-generation sequencing or onto microarrays. A procedure used to verify that 3C library templates bear the high quality required to produce superior 5C libraries is also described. We believe that this detailed protocol will help guide researchers in probing spatial genome organization and its role in various biological processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. X-Ray Snapshots Capture the First Cries of Baby Stars (United States)


    activities, however, have remained hidden until now, embedded in the dense envelopes. Previous X-ray telescopes--namely the Japan-U.S. Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics and the German-UK-US Roentgen Satellite--discovered sporadic X rays from several Class-I protostars. These satellites did not have enough spatial resolution nor sensitivity, however, to resolve the large percentage of protostars deep inside crowded cloud cores. Movie in X-ray band of rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud core F Movie in X-ray band of rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud core F. The green bar indicates the time from 0 hours to 27 hours by the length. (Click Image to View Movie) With Chandra, astronomers from Penn State and Kyoto University in Japan have detected X rays from 17 Class-I protostars in a region with 22 known "infrared" Class-I sources. These protostars are located in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud 500 light years from Earth in constellation Ophiuchi. The astronomers also saw nearly a dozen X-ray flares over a 27-hour period (*see figure 1 and movie). "Virtually all the Class I protostars in the rho molecular cloud may emit X rays with extremely violent and frequent flare activity," said Kensuke Imanishi of Kyoto University, lead investigator of the rho Ophiuchi observation. "The X-ray fluxes in the flares we saw were up to 10,000 to 100,000 brighter than those in our Sun's flares." Probing deeply with Chandra into a different star-formation region, 1400 light years from Earth in constellation Orion, a second team of astronomers led by Tsuboi observed for the first time activity from Class-0 protostars. Up until now, only the protostar envelope had been seen. In the Class-0 phase, a dense molecular cloud and heavy accretion of gas onto the newly forming star enshroud the region and attenuate even the most penetrating X rays. Chandra, however, had the sensitivity to detect X-ray activity. "The X rays are heavily absorbed, possibly by a large amount of cloud gas," said Tsuboi. "It

  10. A snapshot of the polar ionosphere. [satellite observation of F layer and topside (United States)

    Whitteker, J. H.; Brace, L. H.; Maier, E. J.; Burrows, J. R.; Dodson, W. H.; Winningham, J. D.


    This paper presents a picture of the north polar F layer and topside ionosphere obtained primarily from three satellites (Alouette 2, ISIS 1, ISIS 2) that passed over the region within a time interval of about 50 min on a magnetically quiet day. The horizontal distribution of electron densities at the peak of the F layer is found to be similar to synoptic results from the IGY. Energetic-particle and ionospheric-plasma data are also presented, and the F-layer data are discussed in terms of these measurements as well as in terms of electric-field and neutral N2 density measurements made by other satellites on other occasions. The major feature observed is a tongue of F-region ionization extending from the dayside across the polar cap, which is accounted for by antisunward drift due to magnetospheric convection. In the F layer and topside ionosphere, the main effect of auroral precipitation appears to be heating and expansion of the topside. A region of low F-layer density appears on the morning side of the polar cap, which may be due to convection and possibly also to enhanced N2 densities.

  11. Visual Servoing of Space Robot for Autonomous Satellite Capture (United States)

    Inaba, Noriyasu; Oda, Mitsushige; Hayashi, Masato

    On-orbit servicing, such as refueling, repairing, and orbit recovery, will be essential for space activities in the next generation for both manned and unmanned space systems. One of the most important and most difficult tasks in on-orbit servicing is capturing a “customer satellite” using a manipulator that can move dynamically in a wide range of space. A visual servoing technique that controls and guides the manipulator based on a camera image is required to perform this dynamic task. It is necessary to establish boundary conditions; in other words, to specify the task by assessing the environment and setting proper conditions for in order to execute it under the constraints of on-board computing power and the severe lighting conditions of space. This paper describes the design concept of a visual servoing system for a space robot and presents the results of an on-orbit experiment using Japanese Engineering Test Satellite VII (ETS-VII) that was designed based on this concept.

  12. Control of a space robot for minimal attitude disturbance to the base satellite for capturing a tumbling satellite (United States)

    Flores-Abad, Angel; Ma, Ou


    The use of a space manipulator (robot) for capturing a tumbling object is a risky and challenging task, mainly because when the manipulator onboard a servicing satellite (base satellite) intercepts with an external object for capture, the resulting impulse will be transferred along the mechanical arm down to the servicing satellite causing disturbance to the attitude of the satellite. Such disturbance may destabilize the servicing satellite if the captured object is tumbling and the physical contact between the robot end-effector and the object is not controlled properly. Certainly, the risk may be mitigated with a force or impedance control capability of the manipulator. However, the implementation of force or impedance control usually requires the robot to have a joint torque sensing and control capability which is a very expensive requirement for a space manipulator. To date, there has never been a really flown space manipulator having a joint torque control capability. Further, even a force or impedance control capability becomes available, much development is still needed before safe capture of a tumbling object can be confidently tried in a real mission. This paper presents an optimal control strategy for a space manipulator to have minimal impact to the base satellite during a capturing operation. The idea is to first predict an optimal future time and motion state for capturing and then control the manipulator to reach the determined motion state such that, when the tip of the robot maneuvers to and intercepts with the tumbling object, a minimal attitude disturbance to the servicing satellite will occur. The proposed control strategy can be implemented regardless whether the manipulator has a joint torque control capability or not. Since the control acts before a physical contact happens, it will not affect but actually augment any existing force or impedance control capability of the manipulator. The proposed method is demonstrated using a simulation

  13. Satellite captures trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific (United States)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Neveux, Jacques; Subramaniam, Ajit; Mulholland, Margaret R.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Campbell, Lisa; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    Obtaining a true estimate of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria in the oceans, mainly Trichodesmium, is an important step toward understanding the entire nitrogen cycle in the tropical ocean. This strictly anaerobic process, which has a high Fe requirement, could regulate atmospheric CO2 over geological time. For example, during interglacial periods, N2 fixation would be too low (low Fe) to balance denitrification and the ocean would lose its fixed nitrogen [Falkowski, 1997]. Has the level of marine nitrogen fixation been underestimated until now? High N2 fixation rates measured on Trichodesmium spp. communities have led to an upward revision of this marine flux [Capone et al, 1997]. Recent modeling studies and observations predict that N2 fixation could regulate the long-term N:P equilibrium in the oceans and balance denitrification [Tyrell, 1999; J L. Sarmiento and N. Gruber, manuscript in preparation, 1999].The major nitrogen fixer, Trichodesmium spp., which are filamentous, nonheterocystous N2-fixing cyanobacteria, has a nearly ubiquitous distribution in the euphotic zone of tropical and subtropical seas and could play a major role in bringing new N to these oligotrophic systems. Satellite images from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs), the recently launched ocean color sensor, and data from a recent cruise, provide further evidence of the importance of Trichodesmium in the southwestern tropical Pacific Ocean.

  14. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  15. Validation results of satellite mock-up capturing experiment using nets (United States)

    Medina, Alberto; Cercós, Lorenzo; Stefanescu, Raluca M.; Benvenuto, Riccardo; Pesce, Vincenzo; Marcon, Marco; Lavagna, Michèle; González, Iván; Rodríguez López, Nuria; Wormnes, Kjetil


    The PATENDER activity (Net parametric characterization and parabolic flight), funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) via its Clean Space initiative, was aiming to validate a simulation tool for designing nets for capturing space debris. This validation has been performed through a set of different experiments under microgravity conditions where a net was launched capturing and wrapping a satellite mock-up. This paper presents the architecture of the thrown-net dynamics simulator together with the set-up of the deployment experiment and its trajectory reconstruction results on a parabolic flight (Novespace A-310, June 2015). The simulator has been implemented within the Blender framework in order to provide a highly configurable tool, able to reproduce different scenarios for Active Debris Removal missions. The experiment has been performed over thirty parabolas offering around 22 s of zero-g conditions. Flexible meshed fabric structure (the net) ejected from a container and propelled by corner masses (the bullets) arranged around its circumference have been launched at different initial velocities and launching angles using a pneumatic-based dedicated mechanism (representing the chaser satellite) against a target mock-up (the target satellite). High-speed motion cameras were recording the experiment allowing 3D reconstruction of the net motion. The net knots have been coloured to allow the images post-process using colour segmentation, stereo matching and iterative closest point (ICP) for knots tracking. The final objective of the activity was the validation of the net deployment and wrapping simulator using images recorded during the parabolic flight. The high-resolution images acquired have been post-processed to determine accurately the initial conditions and generate the reference data (position and velocity of all knots of the net along its deployment and wrapping of the target mock-up) for the simulator validation. The simulator has been properly

  16. Market capture by 30/20 GHz satellite systems. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.


    Demand for 30/20 GHz satellite systems over the next two decades is projected. Topics include a profile of the communications market, switched, dedicated, and packet transmission modes, deferred and real-time traffic, quality and reliability considerations, the capacity of competing transmission media, and scenarios for the growth and development of 30/20 GHz satellite communications.

  17. Performance SNAPSHOT Reports (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HOME Program Performance SNAPSHOTs are quarterly cumulative performance reports, which can be useful in tracking the HOME program progress of participating...

  18. How Well the Early 2017 California Atmospheric River Precipitation Events Were Captured by Satellite Products and Ground-based Radars? (United States)

    Wen, Y. B.; Behrangi, A.; Chen, H.; Lambrigtsen, B.


    In January and February of 2017, California experienced multiple heavy storms that caused serious destruction of facilities and economic loss, although it also helped to reduce water storage deficit due to prolonged drought in previous years. These extreme precipitation events were mainly associated with Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) and brought about 174 km3 of water to California according to ground observations. This paper evaluates the performance of six commonly used satellite-based precipitation products (IMERG, 3B42RT, PERSIANN, CCS, CMORPH, and GSMaP), as well as ground-based radar products (Radar-only and Radar-lgc) in capturing the ARs precipitation rate and distribution. It is found that precipitation maps from all products present heavy precipitation in January and February, with more consistent observations over ocean than land. Though large uncertainties exist in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over land, the ensemble mean of different remote sensing precipitation products over California is consistent with gauge measurements. Among the six satellite-based products, IMERG correlates the best with gauge observations both in the detection and quantification of precipitation, but it is not the best product in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) or bias. Compared to satellite products, ground weather radar shows better precipitation detectability and estimation skill. However, neither radar nor satellite QPE products have good performances in quantifying the peak precipitation intensity during the extreme events, suggesting that further advancement in quantification of extremely intense precipitation associated with AR in the Western United States is needed.

  19. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.


    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  20. Satellite stories: capturing professional experiences of academic health sciences librarians working in delocalized health sciences programs. (United States)

    Phinney, Jackie; Horsman, Amanda Rose


    Health sciences training programs have progressively expanded onto satellite campuses, allowing students the opportunity to learn in communities away from an academic institution's main campus. This expansion has encouraged a new role for librarians to assume, in that a subset of health sciences librarians identify as "satellite librarians" who are permanently located at a distance from the main campus. Due to the unique nature of this role and lack of existing data on the topic, the authors investigated the experiences and perceptions of this unique group of information professionals. An electronic survey was distributed to health sciences librarians via two prominent North American email discussion lists. Questions addressed the librarians' demographics, feelings of social inclusion, technological support, autonomy, professional support, and more. Eighteen surveys were analyzed. While several respondents stated that they had positive working relationships with colleagues, many cited issues with technology, scheduling, and lack of consideration as barriers to feeling socially included at both the parent and local campuses. Social inclusion, policy creation, and collection management issues were subject to their unique situations and their colleagues' perceptions of their roles as satellite librarians. The results from this survey suggest that the role of the academic health sciences librarian at the satellite campus needs to be clearly communicated and defined. This, in turn, will enhance the experience for the librarian and provide better service to the client.

  1. Tundra photosynthesis captured by satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (United States)

    Luus, K. A.; Commane, R.; Parazoo, N. C.; Benmergui, J.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Frankenberg, C.; Joiner, J.; Lindaas, J.; Miller, C. E.; Oechel, W. C.; Zona, D.; Wofsy, S.; Lin, J. C.


    Accurately quantifying the timing and magnitude of respiration and photosynthesis by high-latitude ecosystems is important for understanding how a warming climate influences global carbon cycling. Data-driven estimates of photosynthesis across Arctic regions often rely on satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI); we find that satellite observations of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide a more direct proxy for photosynthesis. We model Alaskan tundra CO2 cycling (2012-2014) according to temperature and shortwave radiation and alternately input EVI or SIF to prescribe the annual seasonal cycle of photosynthesis. We find that EVI-based seasonality indicates spring "green-up" to occur 9 days prior to SIF-based estimates, and that SIF-based estimates agree with aircraft and tower measurements of CO2. Adopting SIF, instead of EVI, for modeling the seasonal cycle of tundra photosynthesis can result in more accurate estimates of growing season duration and net carbon uptake by arctic vegetation.

  2. Best Timing for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images, Asphalt, and Concrete Objects


    Toufic Abd El-Latif Sadek


    The asphalt object represents the asphalted areas like roads, and the concrete object represents the concrete areas like concrete buildings. The efficient extraction of asphalt and concrete objects from one satellite thermal image occurred at a specific time, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness values between asphalt and concrete, and among other objects. So that to achieve efficient extraction and then better analysis. Seven sample objects were used un th...

  3. Capturing the fingerprint of Etna volcano activity in gravity and satellite radar data (United States)

    Negro, Ciro Del; Currenti, Gilda; Solaro, Giuseppe; Greco, Filippo; Pepe, Antonio; Napoli, Rosalba; Pepe, Susi; Casu, Francesco; Sansosti, Eugenio


    Long-term and high temporal resolution gravity and deformation data move us toward a better understanding of the behavior of Mt Etna during the June 1995 - December 2011 period in which the volcano exhibited magma charging phases, flank eruptions and summit crater activity. Monthly repeated gravity measurements were coupled with deformation time series using the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique on two sequences of interferograms from ERS/ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed satellites. Combining spatiotemporal gravity and DInSAR observations provides the signature of three underlying processes at Etna: (i) magma accumulation in intermediate storage zones, (ii) magmatic intrusions at shallow depth in the South Rift area, and (iii) the seaward sliding of the volcano's eastern flank. Here we demonstrate the strength of the complementary gravity and DInSAR analysis in discerning among different processes and, thus, in detecting deep magma uprising in months to years before the onset of a new Etna eruption.

  4. Capturing the fingerprint of Etna volcano activity in gravity and satellite radar data (United States)

    Negro, Ciro Del; Currenti, Gilda; Solaro, Giuseppe; Greco, Filippo; Pepe, Antonio; Napoli, Rosalba; Pepe, Susi; Casu, Francesco; Sansosti, Eugenio


    Long-term and high temporal resolution gravity and deformation data move us toward a better understanding of the behavior of Mt Etna during the June 1995 – December 2011 period in which the volcano exhibited magma charging phases, flank eruptions and summit crater activity. Monthly repeated gravity measurements were coupled with deformation time series using the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique on two sequences of interferograms from ERS/ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed satellites. Combining spatiotemporal gravity and DInSAR observations provides the signature of three underlying processes at Etna: (i) magma accumulation in intermediate storage zones, (ii) magmatic intrusions at shallow depth in the South Rift area, and (iii) the seaward sliding of the volcano's eastern flank. Here we demonstrate the strength of the complementary gravity and DInSAR analysis in discerning among different processes and, thus, in detecting deep magma uprising in months to years before the onset of a new Etna eruption. PMID:24169569

  5. Satellite-tagged osprey nearly sets longevity record and productivity response to initial captures (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Martell, Mark S.


    We equipped adult Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from 24 nests in Oregon/Washington with satellite-tracked battery-powered radios, known as platform transmitter terminals (PTTs), in 1996–1999. These Ospreys from the lower Columbia River (river miles 76–286), and the Willamette Valley in western Oregon were part of a larger study of Osprey fall migration, wintering ecology, and spring migration, which included additional adults from the Upper Midwest and East Coast of the United States (Martell et al. 2001, 2014, Washburn et al. 2014). These early-generation PTTs weighed 30–35 g (Microwave Telemetry Inc., Columbia, MD U.S.A.) and utilized the ARGOS tracking system ( We placed PTTs on the birds' backs using Teflon ribbon (Bally Ribbon, Bally, PA U.S.A.) in a standard backpack configuration (Kenward 2001). With the mass of adult male Ospreys 1400 to 1500 g (Poole et al. 2002), the ratio of tag mass to body mass was 2.0 to 2.5%. Ospreys also received a standard size 8 bird band (U.S. Geological Survey) on one leg and a numbered color band on the other. For more details on trapping techniques, attachment procedures, the battery-powered units, turn-on, turn-off cycles, and tracking equipment, see Martell et al. (2001).

  6. Robust snapshot interferometric spectropolarimetry. (United States)

    Kim, Daesuk; Seo, Yoonho; Yoon, Yonghee; Dembele, Vamara; Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert


    This Letter describes a Stokes vector measurement method based on a snapshot interferometric common-path spectropolarimeter. The proposed scheme, which employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module, can extract the spectral polarimetric parameters Ψ(k) and Δ(k) of a transmissive anisotropic object by which an accurate Stokes vector can be calculated in the spectral domain. It is inherently strongly robust to the object 3D pose variation, since it is designed distinctly so that the measured object can be placed outside of the interferometric module. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed snapshot scheme enables us to extract the spectral Stokes vector of a transmissive anisotropic object within tens of msec with high accuracy.

  7. Leveraging the NPS Femto Satellite for Alternative Satellite Communication Networks (United States)


    of the Experiment ....................................................53 Figure 26. A Snapshot of the First Step to Run the Python Program...54 Figure 27. A Snapshot of the Python Program Menu .................................................54 xiii LIST OF TABLES... learn about the satellite, even though I did not have a strong background in this area. He convinced me not to be afraid. I want to thank Dr. Alex

  8. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae). (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Breitbart, Mya


    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640-750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity.

  9. Interferometric snapshot spectro-ellipsometry. (United States)

    Dembele, Vamara; Jin, Moonseob; Choi, Inho; Chegal, Won; Kim, Daesuk


    We propose a snapshot spectroscopic ellipsometry and its applications for real-time thin-film thickness measurement. The proposed system employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module that can measure the spectroscopic ellipsometric phase for thin-film deposited on a substrate with a measurement speed of around 20 msec. It requires neither moving parts nor time dependent modulation devices. The accuracy of the proposed interferometric snapshot spectro-ellipsometer is analyzed through comparison with commercial equipment results.

  10. Holographic Snapshots of Laser Wakefields (United States)

    Downer, Michael


    Tabletop plasma accelerators driven by intense ultrashort laser pulses or charged-particle bunches can now produce GeV-range electron beams and femtosecond x-ray and gamma-ray pulses, providing compact radiation sources for application in medicine, nuclear engineering, materials science and high-energy physics. In these accelerators, electrons surf on >100 GeV/m electric fields (thousands of times stronger than in conventional accelerators) generated within plasma structures (e.g. electron plasma waves, ``bubbles'' devoid of electrons) propagating behind the driving pulse. Because of their microscopic size and luminal velocity, however, critical features of these structures that determine the energy, energy spread, collimation and charge of the accelerated beam have eluded direct single-shot observation, inhibiting progress in producing high quality beams and in correlating beam properties with wake structure. Here we demonstrate single shot visualization of laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) structures for the first time, using Frequency Domain Holography (FDH), a technique designed to image structures propagating near light speed. Our holographic ``snapshots'' capture the evolution of multiple wake periods, and resolve wavefront curvature seen previously only in simulations. These previously invisible features underlie wave breaking, electron injection and focusing within the wake, the key determinants of beam quality. We reconstruct wake morphology in real-time, providing experimental feedback and optimization. Beyond accelerators, we anticipate that FDH will provide an unprecedented visualization and feedback capability for structures created in diverse laser- and particle-plasma interactions, including fast ignition for laser fusion and plasma-based amplification and compresssion of ultra-intense laser pulses.

  11. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John


    Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member...

  12. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal imaging using compact spectral resolving detector array. (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Dong, Biqin; Kaluzny, Joel V; Fawzi, Amani A; Zhang, Hao F


    Hyperspectral retinal imaging captures the light spectrum from each imaging pixel. It provides spectrally encoded retinal physiological and morphological information, which could potentially benefit diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of retinal diseases. The key challenges in hyperspectral retinal imaging are how to achieve snapshot imaging to avoid motions between the images from multiple spectral bands, and how to design a compact snapshot imager suitable for clinical use. Here, we developed a compact, snapshot hyperspectral fundus camera for rodents using a novel spectral resolving detector array (SRDA), on which a thin-film Fabry-Perot cavity filter was monolithically fabricated on each imaging pixel. We achieved hyperspectral retinal imaging with 16 wavelength bands (460 to 630 nm) at 20 fps. We also demonstrated false-color vessel contrast enhancement and retinal oxygen saturation (sO 2 ) measurement through spectral analysis. This work could potentially bring hyperspectral retinal imaging from bench to bedside. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optimization of compressive 4D-spatio-spectral snapshot imaging (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Feng, Weiyi; Lin, Lihua; Su, Wu; Xu, Guoqing


    In this paper, a modified 3D computational reconstruction method in the compressive 4D-spectro-volumetric snapshot imaging system is proposed for better sensing spectral information of 3D objects. In the design of the imaging system, a microlens array (MLA) is used to obtain a set of multi-view elemental images (EIs) of the 3D scenes. Then, these elemental images with one dimensional spectral information and different perspectives are captured by the coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) which can sense the spectral data cube onto a compressive 2D measurement image. Finally, the depth images of 3D objects at arbitrary depths, like a focal stack, are computed by inversely mapping the elemental images according to geometrical optics. With the spectral estimation algorithm, the spectral information of 3D objects is also reconstructed. Using a shifted translation matrix, the contrast of the reconstruction result is further enhanced. Numerical simulation results verify the performance of the proposed method. The system can obtain both 3D spatial information and spectral data on 3D objects using only one single snapshot, which is valuable in the agricultural harvesting robots and other 3D dynamic scenes.

  14. A review of snapshot multidimensional optical imaging: Measuring photon tags in parallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Liang; Wang, Lihong V.


    Multidimensional optical imaging has seen remarkable growth in the past decade. Rather than measuring only the two-dimensional spatial distribution of light, as in conventional photography, multidimensional optical imaging captures light in up to nine dimensions, providing unprecedented information about incident photons’ spatial coordinates, emittance angles, wavelength, time, and polarization. Multidimensional optical imaging can be accomplished either by scanning or parallel acquisition. Compared with scanning-based imagers, parallel acquisition–also dubbed snapshot imaging–has a prominent advantage in maximizing optical throughput, particularly when measuring a datacube of high dimensions. Here, we first categorize snapshot multidimensional imagers based on their acquisition and image reconstruction strategies, then highlight the snapshot advantage in the context of optical throughput, and finally we discuss their state-of-the-art implementations and applications.

  15. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.


    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  16. High spatial sampling light-guide snapshot spectrometer (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.


    A prototype fiber-based imaging spectrometer was developed to provide snapshot hyperspectral imaging tuned for biomedical applications. The system is designed for imaging in the visible spectral range from 400 to 700 nm for compatibility with molecular imaging applications as well as satellite and remote sensing. An 81×96 pixel spatial sampling density is achieved by using a custom-made fiber-optic bundle. The design considerations and fabrication aspects of the fiber bundle and imaging spectrometer are described in detail. Through the custom fiber bundle, the image of a scene of interest is collected and divided into discrete spatial groups, with spaces generated in between groups for spectral dispersion. This reorganized image is scaled down by an image taper for compatibility with following optical elements, dispersed by a prism, and is finally acquired by a CCD camera. To obtain an (x,y,λ) datacube from the snapshot measurement, a spectral calibration algorithm is executed for reconstruction of the spatial-spectral signatures of the observed scene. System characterization of throughput, resolution, and crosstalk was performed. Preliminary results illustrating changes in oxygen-saturation in an occluded human finger are presented to demonstrate the system's capabilities.

  17. High spatial sampling light-guide snapshot spectrometer (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.


    A prototype fiber-based imaging spectrometer was developed to provide snapshot hyperspectral imaging tuned for biomedical applications. The system is designed for imaging in the visible spectral range from 400 to 700 nm for compatibility with molecular imaging applications as well as satellite and remote sensing. An 81 × 96 pixel spatial sampling density is achieved by using a custom-made fiber-optic bundle. The design considerations and fabrication aspects of the fiber bundle and imaging spectrometer are described in detail. Through the custom fiber bundle, the image of a scene of interest is collected and divided into discrete spatial groups, with spaces generated in between groups for spectral dispersion. This reorganized image is scaled down by an image taper for compatibility with following optical elements, dispersed by a prism, and is finally acquired by a CCD camera. To obtain an (x, y, λ) datacube from the snapshot measurement, a spectral calibration algorithm is executed for reconstruction of the spatial–spectral signatures of the observed scene. System characterization of throughput, resolution, and crosstalk was performed. Preliminary results illustrating changes in oxygen-saturation in an occluded human finger are presented to demonstrate the system’s capabilities. PMID:29238115

  18. Forensic SNP genotyping with SNaPshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fondevila, M; Børsting, C; Phillips, C


    This review explores the key factors that influence the optimization, routine use, and profile interpretation of the SNaPshot single-base extension (SBE) system applied to forensic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Despite being a mainly complimentary DNA genotyping technique...... to routine STR profiling, use of SNaPshot is an important part of the development of SNP sets for a wide range of forensic applications with these markers, from genotyping highly degraded DNA with very short amplicons to the introduction of SNPs to ascertain the ancestry and physical characteristics...... of an unidentified contact trace donor. However, this technology, as resourceful as it is, displays several features that depart from the usual STR genotyping far enough to demand a certain degree of expertise from the forensic analyst before tackling the complex casework on which SNaPshot application provides...

  19. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni


    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  20. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni


    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...... and probing about her actions and thoughts open for participatory analysis. Keywords usability test, cost effective, unobtrusive, TA, eye and cursor tracking, user experience, participatory analysis...

  1. Snapshot isolation for Neo4j


    Patiño Martínez, Marta; Sancho, Diego; Jiménez Peris, Ricardo; Brondino, Ivan; Vianello, Valerio; Dhamane, Rohit


    NoSQL data stores are becoming more and more popular. Graph databases are one of this kind of data stores. In this paper we present an overview of the implementation of snapshot isolation for Neo4j, a very popular graph database.

  2. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Downlight - 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  3. Gender Equity in Education: A Data Snapshot (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012


    This data snapshot highlights several differences in educational opportunities between males and females from prekindergarten through higher education. The information herein, gathered from a variety of education data sources, shows that--despite the enormous progress made in ensuring equal educational opportunities since the passage of Title IX…

  4. A Snapshot from the European Educational Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddin, F.; Graham, Todd; Schmitt, L.; Sujon, Z.; Carpentier, Nico; Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, Pille; Nordenstreng, Kaarle; Hartmann, Maren; Vihalemm, Peeter; Cammaerts, Bart; Nieminen, Hannu


    In this chapter, we present a snapshot of the European doctoral landscape based on the reflections of 40 doctoral students gathered from throughout the European Union for the ECREA Doctoral Summer School. One of this school’s main objectives is to ‘generate a wide picture of the international

  5. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Troffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  6. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Industrial Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  7. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Downlight - 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  8. SnapShot: GI tract development. (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick S; Wells, James M


    The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) lineages during development, giving rise to an array of specialized epithelial cell types lining organs, including the thyroid, thymus, lungs, liver, biliary system, pancreas, and intestines. This SnapShot timelines and summarizes key stages following gastrulation, including endoderm patterning, organ specification, and organogenesis. A lineage tree of the developing endocrine pancreas is outlined to further illustrate this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical application of tagging snapshot MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Masanobu; Niimi, Seiji; Niitsu, Mamoru.


    The present study was to determine the contraction of the tongue-related muscles during the production of 5 Japanese vowels by tagging snapshot MRI. The tagging snapshot pulse sequence had three components: a contrast preparation pulse, subsequent tagging pulses and a data acquisition phase. When a vowel was uttered, the stripes were displaced, indicating the displacement of the tissues. The subjects were a 35-year-old and a 30-year-old Japanese men. Images of 5 vowels and the reference position were acquired. Six lines were imposed with their anatomical meanings on MRI, representing fibers of the anterior, middle and posterior parts of the genioglossus muscles (GGa, GGm, GGp), superior-longitudinalis muscle (SL), inferior-longitudinalis muscle (IL) and verticalis muscle (V). The lengths of these lines were measured for the contractions of the muscles along these lines. During the utterance of /a/, the contraction of GGa, V and SL seemed to cause the shortening of the tongue in the vertical axis. During the utterance of /i/, GGm and GGp seemed to contract to pull the tongue toward the chin to make the tongue shorter in the longitudinal axis. During the utterance of /u/, the contraction of GGa, GGp and IL made the tongue shorter in the vertical and longitudinal axes. During the utterance of /e/, GGp contracted as of /i/, although the tongue position was lower for /e/ than /i/. During the utterance of /o/, GGp contracted to pull the bottom of the tongue against the contraction of SG to pull back the upper part of the tongue. A newly developed tagging snapshot MRI is capable of imaging the 'inner' construction of the tongue and the contraction of the muscles during speech production. (N.K.)

  10. SnapShot: Phosphoregulation of Mitosis. (United States)

    Burgess, Andrew; Vuong, Jenny; Rogers, Samuel; Malumbres, Marcos; O'Donoghue, Seán I


    During mitosis, a cell divides its duplicated genome into two identical daughter cells. This process must occur without errors to prevent proliferative diseases (e.g., cancer). A key mechanism controlling mitosis is the precise timing of more than 32,000 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events by a network of kinases and counterbalancing phosphatases. The identity, magnitude, and temporal regulation of these events have emerged recently, largely from advances in mass spectrometry. Here, we show phosphoevents currently believed to be key regulators of mitosis. For an animated version of this SnapShot, please see Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Verification of Snapshotable Trees using Access Permissions and Typestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes; Aldrich, Jonathan


    We use access permissions and typestate to specify and ver- ify a Java library that implements snapshotable search trees, as well as some client code. We formalize our approach in the Plural tool, a sound modular typestate checking tool. We describe the challenges to verify- ing snapshotable trees...

  12. Formalized Verification of Snapshotable Trees: Separation and Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes; Sieczkowski, Filip; Birkedal, Lars


    We use separation logic to specify and verify a Java program that implements snapshotable search trees, fully formalizing the speci- cation and verication in the Coq proof assistant. We achieve local and modular reasoning about a tree and its snapshots and their iterators, al- though...... for full functional specication and verication, whether by separation logic or by other formalisms....

  13. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.


    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  14. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.


    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation

  15. Implementation of a multiplexed structured illumination method to achieve snapshot multispectral imaging. (United States)

    Dorozynska, Karolina; Kristensson, Elias


    An instantaneous multispectral imaging setup based on frequency recognition algorithm for multiple exposures (FRAME) is presented and demonstrated experimentally. With this implementation of FRAME, each light source is uniquely encoded with a spatial modulation and the corresponding fluorescent responses pertaining to each maintain the same unique encoding. This allows the extraction of each source response from a single captured image by filtering in the Fourier domain. As a result, a multispectral imaging system based on FRAME can perform all the illumination and corresponding fluorescence detection simultaneously, where the latter is recorded in a single exposure and on a single detector and is thus capable of recording true 'snapshot' multispectral images. The results presented here demonstrate that the technique is capable of distinguishing source responses for well separated and co-localized fluorophores as well as providing z-sectioning capabilities. This implementation of FRAME demonstrates its viability as a tool for multispectral imaging of dynamic samples. Additionally, since all the spectral images are captured simultaneously, the method has potential for studying samples prone to photobleaching. Finally, this application of FRAME makes it possible to discriminate between signals due to infinitely spectrally close sources which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has not been possible in snapshot multispectral imaging schemes before.

  16. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  17. Bayer Filter Snapshot Hyperspectral Fundus Camera for Human Retinal Imaging. (United States)

    Kaluzny, Joel; Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Nesper, Peter; Park, Justin; Zhang, Hao F; Fawzi, Amani A


    To demonstrate the versatility and performance of a compact Bayer filter snapshot hyperspectral fundus camera for in-vivo clinical applications including retinal oximetry and macular pigment optical density measurements. 12 healthy volunteers were recruited under an Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved protocol. Fundus images were taken with a custom hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of 460-630 nm. We determined retinal vascular oxygen saturation (sO 2 ) for the healthy population using the captured spectra by least squares curve fitting. Additionally, macular pigment optical density was localized and visualized using multispectral reflectometry from selected wavelengths. We successfully determined the mean sO 2 of arteries and veins of each subject (ages 21-80) with excellent intrasubject repeatability (1.4% standard deviation). The mean arterial sO 2 for all subjects was 90.9% ± 2.5%, whereas the mean venous sO 2 for all subjects was 64.5% ± 3.5%. The mean artery-vein (A-V) difference in sO 2 varied between 20.5% and 31.9%. In addition, we were able to reveal and quantify macular pigment optical density. We demonstrated a single imaging tool capable of oxygen saturation and macular pigment density measurements in vivo. The unique combination of broad spectral range, high spectral-spatial resolution, rapid and robust imaging capability, and compact design make this system a valuable tool for multifunction spectral imaging that can be easily performed in a clinic setting.

  18. Impact Detections Of Temporarily Captured Natural Satellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clark, D.; Spurný, Pavel; Wiegert, P.; Brown, P.; Borovička, Jiří; Tagliaferri, E.; Shrbený, Lukáš


    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2016), 135/1-135/15 ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1382 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteor ites * meteor s * meteor oids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2016

  19. Sea Turtle Satellite Telemetry Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles captured in various fishing gear (pound nets, long haul seines, gill nets) were outfitted with satellite transmitters so that their movements, migratory...

  20. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto


    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  1. Multifractal properties of snapshot attractors of random maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiras, F.J. (Laboratory for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (USA) Centro de Electrodinamica (INIC), Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex, (Portugal)); Grebogi, C. (Laboratory for Plasma Research University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (USA)); Ott, E. (Laboratory for Plasma Research, Department of Electrical Engineering 2 Department of Physics University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (USA))


    We consider qualitative and quantitative properties of snapshot attractors'' of random maps. By a random map we mean that the parameters that occur in the map vary randomly from iteration to iteration according to some probability distribution. By a snapshot attractor'' we mean the measure resulting from many iterations of a {ital cloud} of initial conditions viewed at a {ital single} instant (i.e., iteration). In this paper we investigate the multifractal properties of these snapshot attractors. In particular, we use the Lyapunov number partition function method to calculate the spectra of generalized dimensions and of scaling indices for these attractors; special attention is devoted to the numerical implementation of the method and the evaluation of statistical errors due to the finite number of sample orbits. This work was motivated by problems in the convection of particles by chaotic fluid flows.

  2. From snapshots to social media the changing picture of domestic photography

    CERN Document Server

    Sarvas, Risto


    New technology is changing the face of the photograph. This volume on 'snapshot' photography-pictures taken by non-professionals-examines key future trends, from multimedia and social practices to the notion of embedding physicality into digital snapshots.

  3. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Outdoor Area Lighting - 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  4. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  5. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Indoor LED Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  7. Sidecoin: a snapshot mechanism for bootstrapping a blockchain


    Krug, Joseph; Peterson, Jack


    Sidecoin is a mechanism that allows a snapshot to be taken of Bitcoin's blockchain. We compile a list of Bitcoin's unspent transaction outputs, then use these outputs and their corresponding balances to bootstrap a new blockchain. This allows the preservation of Bitcoin's economic state in the context of a new blockchain, which may provide new features and technical innovations.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  9. An ethnographic account of a snapshot in Professor Graham ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article takes the form of a meta-reflection on the educational contribution to the wider community of the University of Pretoria made by Professor Graham Duncan. It is but a snapshot of the academic life of a scholar of note. The epicentre of the article revolves around his educational professionalism that emanated from ...

  10. Snapshots of mathematics teacher noticing during task design (United States)

    Choy, Ban Heng


    Designing a mathematically worthwhile task is critical for promoting students' reasoning. To improve task design skills, teachers often engage in collaborative lesson planning activities such as lesson study. However, to learn from the process of lesson study, it is important for teachers to notice productively the concepts, students' confusion and the design of the task. But what researchers mean by productive noticing varies. In this article, I present the FOCUS Framework which highlights two characteristics of productive noticing: having an explicit focus for noticing and focusing noticing through pedagogical reasoning. Using these two characteristics, I develop snapshots of noticing as a representation of practice to present a fine-grained analysis of teacher noticing. Through vignettes of teachers discussing the design of a task to teach fractions, I illustrate how two teachers' noticing can be analysed and represented using snapshots of noticing. To conclude, I highlight what snapshots of noticing tell us about a teacher's noticing and suggest ways to use these snapshots in future studies of noticing.

  11. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Outdoor Area Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  12. A snapshot of noncommunicable disease profiles and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A snapshot of noncommunicable disease profiles and their prescription costs at ten primary healthcare facilities in the in the western half of the Cape Town Metropole. AA Isaacs, N Manga, N Manga, C Le Grange, C Le Grange, DA Hellenberg, DA Hellenberg, V Titus, V Titus, R Sayed, R Sayed ...

  13. A comparison of the use of virtual versus physical snapshots for supporting update-intensive workloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas


    and one for the frequent and very localized updates. The snapshot that receives the updates is frequently made available to queries, so that queries see up-to-date data. The snapshots may be physical or virtual. Physical snapshots are created using the C library \\texttt{memcpy} function. Virtual snapshots...... are created by the \\texttt{fork} system function that creates a new process that initially has the same data snapshot as the process it was forked from. When the new process carries out updates, this triggers the actual memory copying in a copy-on-write manner at memory page granularity. This paper...

  14. Mental Snapshots: Creating an Organized Plan for Health Assessment. (United States)

    Fosbrook, Susan Curro


    Beginning nursing students enter a rapidly moving and changing health care climate. Multiple stimulations can frighten and overwhelm the student's ability to find order of essential patient information. Students need to know how to collect, process, and manage important health data accurately and efficiently in the clinical setting. An integrative method for teaching nursing students to walk into the patient's room and construct a patterned sequence of focused assessments assists students in creating an organized plan for health assessment. The Mental Snapshots Method includes three components for health assessment: (a) sequential assessment steps of the patient; (b) color-coded visual images of the patient representing a bodily condition; and (c) focused assessment questions of primary health complaint(s) with a plan for nursing care. This mental snapshots strategy employs an information processing model of sensory, memory, and motor functioning, which enable students to maintain patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aasen


    Full Text Available Hyperspectral data has great potential for vegetation parameter retrieval. However, due to angular effects resulting from different sun-surface-sensor geometries, objects might appear differently depending on the position of an object within the field of view of a sensor. Recently, lightweight snapshot cameras have been introduced, which capture hyperspectral information in two spatial and one spectral dimension and can be mounted on unmanned aerial vehicles. This study investigates the influence of the different viewing geometries within an image on the apparent hyperspectral reflection retrieved by these sensors. Additionally, it is evaluated how hyperspectral vegetation indices like the NDVI are effected by the angular effects within a single image and if the viewing geometry influences the apparent heterogeneity with an area of interest. The study is carried out for a barley canopy at booting stage. The results show significant influences of the position of the area of interest within the image. The red region of the spectrum is more influenced by the position than the near infrared. The ability of the NDVI to compensate these effects was limited to the capturing positions close to nadir. The apparent heterogeneity of the area of interest is the highest close to a nadir.

  16. Snapshot RGB mapping of skin melanin and hemoglobin (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Oshina, Ilze


    The concept of snapshot red-green-blue (RGB) multispectral imaging was applied for skin chromophore mapping. Three monochromatic spectral images have been extracted from a single RGB image dataset at simultaneous illumination of skin by 473-, 532-, and 659-nm laser lines. The spectral images were further transformed into distribution maps of skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, related to pigmented and vascular skin malformations. The performance and clinical potential of the proposed technique are discussed.

  17. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J


    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arrighi, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chand, Kyle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  19. Auto-interpreter for CYP2D6 SNaPshot genotyping. (United States)

    Ong, Sungmoon; Jeong, Hye-Eun; Lee, Sang Seop; Shon, Ji-Hong; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Eun-Young


    CYP2D6 genotyping using SNaPshot method is a very useful tool clinically. However it's hard to interpret the obtained data as a genotype without training. Thus SNaPshot auto-interpreter for the genotype was designed to interpret obtained raw data to a genotype. The auto-interpreter showed good concordance with experts' reading. The validated auto-interpreter of CYP2D6 genotyping using SNaPshot can contribute to accelerating the clinical use.

  20. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.


    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  1. Collisional Cascades Following Triton's Capture (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Sarah T.


    Neptune's moon Triton is widely thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbit, most likely through binary dissociation (Agnor and Hamilton, 2006). Triton's original eccentric orbit must have been subsequently circularized by satellite tides (Goldreich et al. 1989). Cuk and Gladman (2005) found that Kozai oscillations make early tidal evolution inefficient, and have proposed that collisions between Triton and debris from pre-existing satellites was the dominant mechanism of shrinking Triton's large post-capture orbit. However, Cuk and Hamilton (DPS 2016), using numerical simulations and results of Stewart and Leinhardt (2012), have found that collisions between regular satellites are unlikely to be destructive, while collisions between prograde moons and Triton are certainly erosive if not catastrophic. An obvious outcome would be pre-existing moon material gradually grinding down Triton and making it reaccrete in the local Laplace plane, in conflict with Triton's large current inclination. We propose that the crucial ingredient for understanding the early evolution of the Neptunian system are the collisions between the moons and the prograde and retrograde debris originating from the pre-existing moons and Triton. In particular, we expect early erosive impact(s) on Triton to generate debris that will, in subsequent collisions, disrupt the regular satellites. If the retrograde material were to dominate at some planetocentric distances, the end result may be a large cloud or disk of retrograde debris that would be accreted by Triton, shrinking Triton's orbit. Some of the prograde debris could survive in a compact disk interior to Triton's pericenter, eventually forming the inner moons of Neptune. We will present results of numerical modeling of these complex dynamical processes at the meeting.

  2. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  3. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking towa...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases.......Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... towards the centrosome. However, the recent identification of several new centriolar satellite components suggests that this model offers only an incomplete picture of their cellular functions. While the mechanisms controlling centriolar satellite status and function are not yet understood in detail...

  4. Unveiling Quasar Fueling through a Public Snapshot Survey of Quasar Host Environments (United States)

    Johnson, Sean


    Feedback from quasars is thought to play a vital role in galaxy evolution, but the relationship between quasars and the halo gas that fuels star-formation on long timescales is not well constrained. Recent observations of the content of quasar host halos have found unusually high covering fractions of cool gas observed in absorption in background quasar spectra. The cool halo gas is strongly correlated with quasar luminosity and exceeds what is observed around non-AGN galaxies by factor of two. Together, these observations provide compelling evidence for a connection between AGN activity and halo gas on 20-200 kpc scales. The high covering fraction and correlation with quasar luminosity may be the result of debris from the galaxy mergers thought to trigger luminous quasars or the halo gas of satellites in gas-rich groups amenable to quasar feeding. If this is the case, then the cool gas observed in absorption will be correlated with signatures of recent galaxy interactions in the quasar host or satellites close to the background sightline. Here, we propose a snapshot imaging survey of z<1 quasars with available constraints on halo gas content to examine a possible correlation between cool halo gas and galaxy interaction signatures. Galaxy morphologies and faint tidal features at z 1 can only be observed with the high resolution imaging capabilities of HST due to the substantial flux in extended wings of AO point-spread functions. The images will be of significant archival value for studying the galaxy environments of quasars and for constraining gas flow models with multi-sightline halo gas studies of galaxies at lower redshift than the foreground & background quasars.

  5. Satellite theory (United States)

    Kozai, Y.


    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  6. The Role of "Family Snapshots" in Teaching Art History within a Dialogic Pedagogy (United States)

    Baxter, Kristin


    Studying images of families in works of art and in snapshots is compelling, and the author wondered if looking at both types of images side by side might help students understand both kinds of images more fully. Snapshots often prompt detailed and vivid stories among family members and friends. Therefore, she wondered if dialogue about snapshots…

  7. Pressure estimation from single-snapshot tomographic PIV in a turbulent boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneiders, J.F.G.; Pröbsting, S.; Dwight, R.P.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Scarano, F.


    A method is proposed to determine the instantaneous pressure field from a single tomographic PIV velocity snapshot and is applied to a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. The main concept behind the single-snapshot pressure evaluation method is to approximate the flow acceleration using the

  8. Time-lapse crystallography snapshots of a double-strand break repair polymerase in action. (United States)

    Jamsen, Joonas A; Beard, William A; Pedersen, Lars C; Shock, David D; Moon, Andrea F; Krahn, Juno M; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kunkel, Thomas A; Wilson, Samuel H


    DNA polymerase (pol) μ is a DNA-dependent polymerase that incorporates nucleotides during gap-filling synthesis in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double-strand break repair. Here we report time-lapse X-ray crystallography snapshots of catalytic events during gap-filling DNA synthesis by pol μ. Unique catalytic intermediates and active site conformational changes that underlie catalysis are uncovered, and a transient third (product) metal ion is observed in the product state. The product manganese coordinates phosphate oxygens of the inserted nucleotide and PP i . The product metal is not observed during DNA synthesis in the presence of magnesium. Kinetic analyses indicate that manganese increases the rate constant for deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate insertion compared to magnesium. The likely product stabilization role of the manganese product metal in pol μ is discussed. These observations provide insight on structural attributes of this X-family double-strand break repair polymerase that impact its biological function in genome maintenance.DNA polymerase (pol) μ functions in DNA double-strand break repair. Here the authors use time-lapse X-ray crystallography to capture the states of pol µ during the conversion from pre-catalytic to product complex and observe a third transiently bound metal ion in the product state.

  9. Smartphone snapshot mapping of skin chromophores under triple-wavelength laser illumination (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Oshina, Ilze; Berzina, Anna; Bykov, Alexander


    Chromophore distribution maps are useful tools for skin malformation severity assessment and for monitoring of skin recovery after burns, surgeries, and other interactions. The chromophore maps can be obtained by processing several spectral images of skin, e.g., captured by hyperspectral or multispectral cameras during seconds or even minutes. To avoid motion artifacts and simplify the procedure, a single-snapshot technique for mapping melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin of in-vivo skin by a smartphone under simultaneous three-wavelength (448-532-659 nm) laser illumination is proposed and examined. Three monochromatic spectral images related to the illumination wavelengths were extracted from the smartphone camera RGB image data set with respect to crosstalk between the RGB detection bands. Spectral images were further processed accordingly to Beer's law in a three chromophore approximation. Photon absorption path lengths in skin at the exploited wavelengths were estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The technique was validated clinically on three kinds of skin lesions: nevi, hemangiomas, and seborrheic keratosis. Design of the developed add-on laser illumination system, image-processing details, and the results of clinical measurements are presented and discussed.

  10. SnapShot: Visualization to Propel Ice Hockey Analytics. (United States)

    Pileggi, H; Stolper, C D; Boyle, J M; Stasko, J T


    Sports analysts live in a world of dynamic games flattened into tables of numbers, divorced from the rinks, pitches, and courts where they were generated. Currently, these professional analysts use R, Stata, SAS, and other statistical software packages for uncovering insights from game data. Quantitative sports consultants seek a competitive advantage both for their clients and for themselves as analytics becomes increasingly valued by teams, clubs, and squads. In order for the information visualization community to support the members of this blossoming industry, it must recognize where and how visualization can enhance the existing analytical workflow. In this paper, we identify three primary stages of today's sports analyst's routine where visualization can be beneficially integrated: 1) exploring a dataspace; 2) sharing hypotheses with internal colleagues; and 3) communicating findings to stakeholders.Working closely with professional ice hockey analysts, we designed and built SnapShot, a system to integrate visualization into the hockey intelligence gathering process. SnapShot employs a variety of information visualization techniques to display shot data, yet given the importance of a specific hockey statistic, shot length, we introduce a technique, the radial heat map. Through a user study, we received encouraging feedback from several professional analysts, both independent consultants and professional team personnel.

  11. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a revival of the radio era. The satellite radio is a natural choice to bridge the digital gap. It has several novel features like selective addressing and error control. The value-added services from such systems are of particular interest.

  12. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  13. An Optical Navigation System for Capturing Space Debris (United States)


    d. Simple light weight robot arm for debris capture e. Debris removal by electro-dynamic tether package included in thebottom of the simple robot ...Capturing of Target by Robot Arm Deployment of Electro-Dynamic- Tether 7 th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Aerospace Technology, 25 – 27...measures. A micro robotic satellite with a simple robot arm for active space debris removal has been studied. Capture is an indispensable task for the

  14. Video Screen Capture Basics (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura


    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  15. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.


    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  16. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  17. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg


    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  18. A snapshot of global health education at North American universities. (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia


    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States.

  19. Snapshots of the Universe: A Multilingual Astronomy Book (United States)

    Beaton, R. L.; Sokal, K. R.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.


    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is an outreach organization at the University of Virginia, focused on enhancing elementary level science education in under-served communities. Early in the program, DSBK volunteers encountered difficulties connecting with English as a second language (ESL) students. To meet that challenge, DSBK volunteers created story-book style art with short descriptions of astronomical objects in both Spanish and English to help communicate basic astronomy concepts to these students. Building on this initial success, our simple project has evolved into a full multilingual children's book targeted at 2nd-5th grade students. Though originally in Spanish and English, a partnership with the University of Alberta (Canada) has produced a French translation of the text, broadening the outreach potential of the book. In this contribution, we describe Snapshots of the Universe (Instantáneas del Universo) and reflect upon the process of creating this unique resource.

  20. What do the pictures say-snapshots of a career. (United States)

    Cooper, Terrance G


    What follows are snapshots of my career in chicken eyes, yeast and Rhodospirillum rubrum, castor beans, Escherichia coli and finally yeast again. In contrast, only a few of the failures that realistically make up a career are included. It is a tale of the generosity and influences of those who shaped what I am and what I learned in a wonderful profession. The science described is only that which I was lucky enough to do or was performed in my laboratory by those who really deserve the credit for any success that I've enjoyed. Not mentioned for lack of space are the critical contributions of many impressive investigators in the field of nitrogen-responsive regulation for no scientific investigation occurs in isolation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Double-gated spectral snapshots for biomolecular fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Hamada, Norio; Ichida, Hideki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Kanematsu, Yasuo


    A versatile method to take femtosecond spectral snapshots of fluorescence has been developed based on a double gating technique in the combination of an optical Kerr gate and an image intensifier as an electrically driven gate set in front of a charge-coupled device detector. The application of a conventional optical-Kerr-gate method is limited to molecules with the short fluorescence lifetime up to a few hundred picoseconds, because long-lifetime fluorescence itself behaves as a source of the background signal due to insufficiency of the extinction ratio of polarizers employed for the Kerr gate. By using the image intensifier with the gate time of 200 ps, we have successfully suppressed the background signal and overcome the application limit of optical-Kerr-gate method. The system performance has been demonstrated by measuring time-resolved fluorescence spectra for laser dye solution and the riboflavin solution as a typical sample of biomolecule

  2. A Distributed Snapshot Protocol for Efficient Artificial Intelligence Computation in Cloud Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongBeom Lim


    Full Text Available Many artificial intelligence applications often require a huge amount of computing resources. As a result, cloud computing adoption rates are increasing in the artificial intelligence field. To support the demand for artificial intelligence applications and guarantee the service level agreement, cloud computing should provide not only computing resources but also fundamental mechanisms for efficient computing. In this regard, a snapshot protocol has been used to create a consistent snapshot of the global state in cloud computing environments. However, the existing snapshot protocols are not optimized in the context of artificial intelligence applications, where large-scale iterative computation is the norm. In this paper, we present a distributed snapshot protocol for efficient artificial intelligence computation in cloud computing environments. The proposed snapshot protocol is based on a distributed algorithm to run interconnected multiple nodes in a scalable fashion. Our snapshot protocol is able to deal with artificial intelligence applications, in which a large number of computing nodes are running. We reveal that our distributed snapshot protocol guarantees the correctness, safety, and liveness conditions.

  3. Satellite myths (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David


    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  4. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  5. Ongoing River Capture in the Amazon via Secondary Channel Flow (United States)

    Goldberg, S. L.; Stokes, M.; Perron, J. T.


    The Rio Casiquiare in South America is a secondary channel that originates as a distributary of the Rio Orinoco and flows into the Rio Negro as a tributary to form a perennial connection between the Amazon and Orinoco basins, the largest and fourth-largest rivers on Earth by discharge. This unusual configuration is the result of an incomplete and ongoing river capture in which the Rio Negro is actively capturing the upper Rio Orinoco. This rarely observed intermediate stage of capture illuminates important mechanisms that drive river capture in lowland settings, both in the Amazon basin and elsewhere. In particular, we show that the capture of the Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare is driven by a combination of headward incision of a rapidly eroding tributary of the Rio Negro, sedimentation in the Rio Orinoco downstream of the bifurcation, and seasonal inundation of a low-relief divide. The initiation of the bifurcation by headward erosion caused an increase in discharge to the Rio Casiquiare while the corresponding loss of discharge to the downstream Rio Orinoco has led to observable sedimentation within the main channel. Unlike most ephemeral secondary channels, the Rio Casiquiare appears to be growing, suggesting that the present bifurcation is an unstable feature that will eventually lead to the complete capture of the upper Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare. This capture is the latest major event in the late Cenozoic drainage evolution of South America in response to Andean tectonism, and is an example of the lateral expansion of the Amazon basin through river capture following integration and entrenchment of the transcontinental Amazon River. The Rio Casiquiare provides a snapshot of an intermediate, transient state of bifurcation and inter-basin flow via a secondary channel during lowland river capture.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  7. Tunable Light-Guide Image Processing Snapshot Spectrometer (TuLIPSS) for Earth and Moon Observations (United States)

    Tkaczyk, T. S.; Alexander, D.; Luvall, J. C.; Wang, Y.; Dwight, J. G.; Pawlowsk, M. E.; Howell, B.; Tatum, P. F.; Stoian, R.-I.; Cheng, S.; Daou, A.


    A tunable light-guide image processing snapshot spectrometer (TuLIPSS) for Earth science research and observation is being developed through a NASA instrument incubator project with Rice University and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Saint Martin/Sint Maarten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the northeast Caribbean island Saint Martin. The island is divided between two nations, France in the north (Saint-Martin) and the Netherlands in the south (Sint Maarten).

  9. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  10. Spatial capture-recapture (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sollmann, Rahel; Gardner, Beth


    Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a revolutionary extension of traditional capture-recapture methods for studying animal populations using data from live trapping, camera trapping, DNA sampling, acoustic sampling, and related field methods. This book is a conceptual and methodological synthesis of spatial capture-recapture modeling. As a comprehensive how-to manual, this reference contains detailed examples of a wide range of relevant spatial capture-recapture models for inference about population size and spatial and temporal variation in demographic parameters. Practicing field biologists studying animal populations will find this book to be a useful resource, as will graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation biology, and fisheries and wildlife management.

  11. Observing storm surges in the Bay of Bengal from satellite altimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, C.; Testut, L.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    . As the repeat period of the orbit is the key factor to increase the probability of observing surges by a satellite, a high repetitive constellation of altimeter satellites can considerably enhance the chances of capturing of surge signals. Classical altimeters...

  12. Laser satellite power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walbridge, E.W.


    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  13. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.


    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  14. 'Ouvertures' in muon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, J.P.


    Attention is called to some open problems in the field of muon capture namely; the conserved isovector current hypothesis, the axial current in muon capture, vector-axial vector versus scalar-tensor coupling, and polarization of the muon neutrino. Some novel approaches to these problems are proposed which it is hoped may prove of help in tackling them. (U.K.)

  15. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.


    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  16. Electron capture and loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsdal Pedersen, E.


    Two limiting cases of electron capture leading to the formation of heavy ions with inner-shell vacancies are discussed. The first case is electron capture by fast (v>v 0 ) light ions in heavy targets. This process results, with a large probability, in the formation of inner-shell vacancies in the target. The second case is electron capture by, highly heavy charged ions in light targets, resulting in fast beam particles with K-shell vacancies which decay by means of polarised x rays. It is possible to get a quantitative understanding of the importance of capture from inner shells of the target in fast collisions between light projectiles and heavy targets and of the polarisation of x rays following electron capture by heavy, highly charged particles in light targets by a consideration of the matrix element in the Brinkman-Kramers approximation. (JIW)

  17. Direct thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Kahane, S.; Lynn, J.E.


    We discuss the direct-capture theory pertaining to primary electric dipole (E1) transitions following slow-neutron capture. For light nuclides that we have studied (including 9 Be, 12 C, 13 C, 24 Mg, 25 Mg, 26 Mg, 32 S, 33 S, 34 S, 40 Ca, and 44 Ca), estimates of direct-capture cross sections using optical-model potentials with physically realistic parameters, are in reasonable agreement with the data. Minor disagreements that exist are consistent with extrapolations to light nuclides of generally accepted formulations of compound-nucleus capture. We also discuss the channel-capture approximation which is, in general, a good representation of these cross sections in heavier nuclei particularly if the scattering lengths are not different from the corresponding potential radii. We also draw attention to cases where the use of this formula leads to inaccurate predictions. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tab

  18. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    communications as well as for point-to-multipoint broadcasting. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Radio is perceived to be an individual's possession because of its portability. It can be ... (See Box 1.) Gsa satellites are used for point-to-point communications as ... digital modulations one uses perceptual coding using auditory masking.

  19. Dual-order snapshot spectral imaging of plasmonic nanoparticles (United States)

    Nusz, Gregory J.; Marinakos, Stella M.; Rangarajan, Srinath; Chilkoti, Ashutosh


    The development of truly scalable, multiplexed optical microarrays requires a detection platform capable of simultaneous detection of multiple signals in real-time. We present a technique we term dual-order snapshot spectroscopic imaging (DOSSI) and demonstrate that it can be effectively used to collect spectrally resolved images of a full field of view of sparsely located spots in real time. Resonant peaks of plasmonic gold nanoparticles were tracked as a function of their surrounding refractive index. Measurement uncertainty analysis indicated that the spectral resolution of DOSSI in the described configuration is approximately 0.95nm. Further, real-time measurements by DOSSI allowed discrimination between optically identical nanoparticles that were functionalized with two homologous small molecule ligands that bound to the same protein, albeit with different affinity, based purely on their different molecular interaction kinetics---a feat not possible with slower raster-type hyperspectral imaging systems, or other dark-field optical detection systems that solely rely on end point measurements. Kinetic measurements of plasmon bands by DOSSI can be performed with a relatively simple optical system, thereby opening up the possibility of developing low-cost detectors for arrayed plasmonic diagnostics.

  20. A Snapshot of the Emerging Tomato Genome Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas A. Mueller


    Full Text Available The genome of tomato ( L. is being sequenced by an international consortium of 10 countries (Korea, China, the United Kingdom, India, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Spain, Italy, and the United States as part of the larger “International Solanaceae Genome Project (SOL: Systems Approach to Diversity and Adaptation” initiative. The tomato genome sequencing project uses an ordered bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC approach to generate a high-quality tomato euchromatic genome sequence for use as a reference genome for the Solanaceae and euasterids. Sequence is deposited at GenBank and at the SOL Genomics Network (SGN. Currently, there are around 1000 BACs finished or in progress, representing more than a third of the projected euchromatic portion of the genome. An annotation effort is also underway by the International Tomato Annotation Group. The expected number of genes in the euchromatin is ∼40,000, based on an estimate from a preliminary annotation of 11% of finished sequence. Here, we present this first snapshot of the emerging tomato genome and its annotation, a short comparison with potato ( L. sequence data, and the tools available for the researchers to exploit this new resource are also presented. In the future, whole-genome shotgun techniques will be combined with the BAC-by-BAC approach to cover the entire tomato genome. The high-quality reference euchromatic tomato sequence is expected to be near completion by 2010.

  1. The tenebrionidae of california: a time sensitive snapshot assessment. (United States)

    Aalbu, Rolf L; Smith, Aaron D


    DUE TO A DIVERSITY OF HABITATS AND ITS GEOLOGIC HISTORY, THE US STATE OF CALIFORNIA HOSTS A SPECTACULAR ASSEMBLAGE OF DARKLING BEETLE SPECIES (COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae). In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A "snapshot" of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.

  2. Single-snapshot DOA estimation by using Compressed Sensing (United States)

    Fortunati, Stefano; Grasso, Raffaele; Gini, Fulvio; Greco, Maria S.; LePage, Kevin


    This paper deals with the problem of estimating the directions of arrival (DOA) of multiple source signals from a single observation vector of an array data. In particular, four estimation algorithms based on the theory of compressed sensing (CS), i.e., the classical ℓ 1 minimization (or Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator, LASSO), the fast smooth ℓ 0 minimization, and the Sparse Iterative Covariance-Based Estimator, SPICE and the Iterative Adaptive Approach for Amplitude and Phase Estimation, IAA-APES algorithms, are analyzed, and their statistical properties are investigated and compared with the classical Fourier beamformer (FB) in different simulated scenarios. We show that unlike the classical FB, a CS-based beamformer (CSB) has some desirable properties typical of the adaptive algorithms (e.g., Capon and MUSIC) even in the single snapshot case. Particular attention is devoted to the super-resolution property. Theoretical arguments and simulation analysis provide evidence that a CS-based beamformer can achieve resolution beyond the classical Rayleigh limit. Finally, the theoretical findings are validated by processing a real sonar dataset.

  3. A Snapshot View of High Temperature Superconductivity 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Bansil, Arun; Basov, Dimitri N.


    This report outlines the conclusions of a workshop on High Temperature Superconductivity held April 5-8, 2002 in San Diego. The purpose of this report is to outline and highlight some outstanding and interesting issues in the field of High Temperature Superconductivity. The range of activities and new ideas that arose within the context of High Temperature Superconductors is so vast and extensive that it is impossible to summarize it in a brief document. Thus, this report does not pretend to be all-inclusive and cover all areas of activity. It is a restricted snapshot and it only presents a few viewpoints. The complexity and difficulties with high temperature superconductivity are well illustrated by the Buddhist parable of the blind men trying to describe ''experimentally'' an elephant. These very same facts clearly illustrate that this is an extremely active field, with many unanswered questions, and with a great future potential for discoveries and progress in many (sometimes unpredictable) directions. It is very important to stress that, independently of any current or future applications, this is a very important area of basic research.

  4. A Snapshot View of High Temperature Superconductivity 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Ivan K. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Basov, Dimitri N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    This report outlines the conclusions of a workshop on High Temperature Superconductivity held April 5-8, 2002 in San Diego. The purpose of this report is to outline and highlight some outstanding and interesting issues in the field of High Temperature Superconductivity. The range of activities and new ideas that arose within the context of High Temperature Superconductors is so vast and extensive that it is impossible to summarize it in a brief document. Thus, this report does not pretend to be all-inclusive and cover all areas of activity. It is a restricted snapshot and it only presents a few viewpoints. The complexity and difficulties with high temperature superconductivity are well illustrated by the Buddhist parable of the blind men trying to describe “experimentally” an elephant. These very same facts clearly illustrate that this is an extremely active field, with many unanswered questions, and with a great future potential for discoveries and progress in many (sometimes unpredictable) directions. It is very important to stress that, independently of any current or future applications, this is a very important area of basic research.

  5. Snapshot imaging spectrometry with a heterodyned Savart plate interferometer (United States)

    Maione, Bryan; Brickson, Leandra; Escuti, Michael; Kudenov, Michael


    Imaging spectrometers are frequently used in remote sensing for their increased target discrimination capabilities over conventional imaging. Increasing the spectral resolution of these sensors further enables the system's ability to discriminate certain targets and adds the potential for monitoring narrow-line spectral features. We describe a high spectral resolution (Δλ=1.1 nm full-width at half maximum) snapshot imaging spectrometer capable of distinguishing two narrowly separated bands in the red-visible spectrum. A theoretical model is provided to detail the first polarization grating-based spatial heterodyning of a Savart plate interferometer. Following this discussion, the experimental conditions of the narrow-line imaging spectrometer (NLIS) are provided. Finally, calibration and target identification methods are applied and quantified. Ultimately it is demonstrated that in a full spectral acquisition the NLIS sensor is capable of less than 3.5% error in reconstruction. Additionally, it is demonstrated that neural networks provide greater than 99% reduction in crosstalk when compared to pseudoinversion and expectation maximization in single target identification.

  6. Scientific Satellites (United States)


    Justification for this approach stems, first, from the sheer cost of trying to test at all levels. More significant is the fact that system-level tests are...specific impulses have been well worth the price until recently, when large production runs of small rockets (Scouts) and the sheer size of boosters in the...length: about 12 meters. Energy in unwanted oscillations is dissipated as heat in the damping spring. 348 SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES S/-- Piano Wire Silicone

  7. [Genotyping of ABO Blood Group in Partial Population of Yunnan Province by SNaPshot Technology]. (United States)

    Yu, S X; Zeng, F M; Jin, Y Z; Wan, H J; Zhai, D; Xing, Y M; Cheng, B W


    To detect the genotype of ABO blood group by SNaPshot technology. DNA were extracted from the peripheral blood samples with known blood groups (obtained by serology) of 107 unrelated individuals in Yunnan. Six SNP loci of the 261th, 297th, 681th, 703th, 802th, and 803th nucleotide positions were detected by SNaPshot Multiplex kit, and relevant genetics parameters were calculated. In 107 blood samples, the allele frequencies of types A, B, O A , and O G were 0.355 1, 0.168 2, 0.230 0 and 0.247 6, respectively, while that of types A G and cis AB were not detected. The genotyping results of ABO blood group were consistent with that of serologic testing. SNaPshot technology can be adapted for genotyping of ABO blood group. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  8. Orbital evolution and origin of the Martian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, A.M.K.


    The orbital evolution of the Martian satellites is considered from a dynamical point of view. Celestial mechanics relevant to the calculation of satellite orbital evolution is introduced and the physical parameters to be incorporated in the modeling of tidal dissipation are discussed. Results of extrapolating the satellite orbits backward and forward in time are presented and compared with those of other published work. Collision probability calculations and results for the Martian satellite system are presented and discussed. The implications of these calculations for the origin scenarios of the satellites are assessed. It is concluded that Deimos in its present form could not have been captured, for if it had been, it would have collided with Phobos at some point. An accretion model is therefore preferred over capture, although such a model consistent with the likely carbonaceous chondritic composition of the satellites has yet to be established. 91 references

  9. Pressure spectra from single-snapshot tomographic PIV (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Avallone, Francesco; Pröbsting, Stefan; Ragni, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio


    The power spectral density and coherence of temporal pressure fluctuations are obtained from low-repetition-rate tomographic PIV measurements. This is achieved by extension of recent single-snapshot pressure evaluation techniques based upon the Taylor's hypothesis (TH) of frozen turbulence and vortex-in-cell (VIC) simulation. Finite time marching of the measured instantaneous velocity fields is performed using TH and VIC. Pressure is calculated from the resulting velocity time series. Because of the theoretical limitations, the finite time marching can be performed until the measured flow structures are convected out of the measurement volume. This provides a lower limit of resolvable frequency range. An upper limit is given by the spatial resolution of the measurements. Finite time-marching approaches are applied to low-repetition-rate tomographic PIV data of the flow past a straight trailing edge at 10 m/s. Reference results of the power spectral density and coherence are obtained from surface pressure transducers. In addition, the results are compared to state-of-the-art experimental data obtained from time-resolved tomographic PIV performed at 10 kHz. The time-resolved approach suffers from low spatial resolution and limited maximum acquisition frequency because of hardware limitations. Additionally, these approaches strongly depend upon the time kernel length chosen for pressure evaluation. On the other hand, the finite time-marching approaches make use of low-repetition-rate tomographic PIV measurements that offer higher spatial resolution. Consequently, increased accuracy of the power spectral density and coherence of pressure fluctuations are obtained in the high-frequency range, in comparison to the time-resolved measurements. The approaches based on TH and VIC are found to perform similarly in the high-frequency range. At lower frequencies, TH is found to underestimate coherence and intensity of the pressure fluctuations in comparison to time-resolved PIV

  10. Iconic Destination: a Snapshot of Sustainable Tourism in Pisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sarti


    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries. According to the World Tourism Organization, Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with more than 47.7 million tourists a year (2013. At the same time, the increasing number of studies focused on sustainable tourism demonstrates a growing interest about the topic. In addition, practitioners’ attitude is changing and the most important actors of the market are acting in a more sustainable way and developing reports on their eco-friendly performances. Nowadays, the entire supply chain maybe environmentally sustainable. From the reservation to the post-holiday phase, it is possible to select the more eco-friendly suppliers. The main companies operating in the different stages of the process are demonstrating a concrete interest on sustainable development. This new challenge is generated through the information flow between local authorities, private firms and final customers. We propose to make a reflection based on the latter actors’ attitude. Our research aims to investigate the level of sensitivity of tourists about environmental sustainability from two different perspectives: self-evaluation and real purchasing behavior. We conducted a face-to-face survey among tourists in Pisa, in Piazza dei Miracoli, during May 2015. By using a structured questionnaire, we gathered primary data from a sample of 406 respondents. We selected respondents randomly. Pisa is the perfect location to obtain information from several typologies of tourists, with different levels of awareness of sustainable issues. Itis one of the most important tourist destination in Italy and it is an iconic destination recognized worldwide thanks to the attractiveness of the leading tower. The results of our study is a snapshot of the current level of awareness among tourists. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed tourist profiles, their eco-friendly behaviors, their concerns about sustainability

  11. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen


    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  12. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.


    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  13. Communication schemes for olfar's inter-satellite links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Willink-Castro, T.J.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan


    The Orbiting Low Frequency Array for Radio astronomy(OLFAR) project is aimed at developing a radio telescope in space sensitive for the 0.3–30 MHz range by using a swarm of more than 50 identical nano-satellites. The satellites will form a very large aperture, capable of capturing very weak

  14. Full-field pressure from snapshot and time-resolved volumetric PIV


    Laskari, Angeliki; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram


    This paper deals with pressure estimation from snapshot and time-resolved three-component (3C) volumetric PIV data using Taylor’s hypothesis, an Eulerian and a pseudo-Lagrangian approach. The Taylor’s hypothesis approach has been shown to provide accurate results for pressure in the case of 3C planar PIV data with an appropriate choice of convection velocity (de Kat and Ganapathisubramani 2013), and here we extend its use on 3C volumetric velocity snapshots. Application of the techniques to s...

  15. Origin and Evolution of Saturn's Small Satellites (United States)

    Charnoz, Sebastien; Salmon, J.; Crida, A.; Brahic, A.


    All Saturn’ small satellites, orbiting below Mimas'orbit, share some common physical and dynamical properties : they have strong water absorption bands (Poulet & Cuzzi, 2002 Icarus 160, 350-358, Cuzzi et al., in press) , they have strange and elongated shapes and are under dense (Charnoz et al, 2007 Science 318, 1622, Porco et al. 2007 Science 318, 1602). They are also dynamically coupled with Saturn rings. In addition, due to their small size, they should not be primordial because of the meteoroid bombardment. They dynamically evolve under the tidal torque of the planet and the rings, in addition to satellite's perturbations. A theory of their origin still needs to be done. We show in the present work that these small satellites may be the natural result of the viscous spreading of Saturn's rings. Using a new 1D coupled hydrodynamic + dynamical evolution code, we compute that the rings viscous spreading may naturally form a population of 10-50 km size satellites, with and orbital organisation similar to the today population of small satellites. Self-regulation processes are at work limiting the maximum mass of small satellite to about the mass of Janus, consistently with observations. This satellite formation scenario of a new kind (due to the viscous spreading of a disk) seems to explain the composition, the shape, the total mass, and the low density of Saturn's small satellites. It would give also an interesting explanation to the origin of the F ring. In conclusion, Saturn's small satellites may be considered as a specific category of satellites whose origin is very different either from Saturn's main satellites of Saturn's captured satellites. They could be the "children” of the rings.

  16. Spatial calibration and image processing requirements of an image fiber bundle based snapshot hyperspectral imaging probe: from raw data to datacube (United States)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham


    Hyperspectral imaging was first used in remote sensing and since then, it has been used in many other applications such as cancer diagnosis, precision farming and assessment of the level of flaking in ancient murals. In order to make hyperspectral imaging available for a wide variety of applications, its imagers can be made to operate using different methods and developed into different configurations. This leads to each variant having a set of specifications suitable for certain applications. The many variants of hyperspectral imager produce a set of three-dimensional spatial-spatialspectral datacube, which is made up of hundreds of spectral images of one scene. A snapshot hyperspectral imaging probe has recently been developed by integrating a fiber bundle, which is made up of specially-arranged optical fibers, with a spectrograph-based hyperspectral imager. The snapshot method is able to produce a datacube using the information from each scan. The fiber bundle has 100 fiberlets which are arranged in a row in the one-dimensional proximal end, and are rearranged into a 10×10 hexagonal array in the two-dimensional distal end. The image captured by the two-dimensional end of the fiber bundle is reduced from two to one spatial dimension at the one-dimensional end. The raw data acquired from each scan has to be remapped into a datacube with the correct representation of the spectral and spatial features of the captured scene. This paper reports the spatial calibrations of both ends of the fiber bundle and image processing that have to be performed for such a remapping.

  17. open capture-recapture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ' samples in each primary sample. • Integrated approach to modeling closed and open population data. • Total of 5,725 trap-nights of effort. • 74 individual tigers (> 2 years age) photo-captured. Open Model Capture–recapture ...

  18. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.


    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  19. Neutron capture therapies (United States)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.


    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  20. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  1. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). I. Survey description and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Heald; R. Pizzo; not CWI et al; L.H.A. Scheers (Bart)


    htmlabstractWe present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guadeloupe; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guadeloupe, an overseas region of France located in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Guadeloupe’s utility rates are approximately $0.18 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  3. Washington View: Not a Snapshot of Public Opinion but an Album (United States)

    Ferguson, Maria


    The columnist weighs in on the most recent PDK/Gallup poll. The real value of the poll, the author says, comes from looking at each response and then thinking about the connective tissue between and among them. The poll's 47-year history adds yet another layer of rich context. Uniquely, the poll provides not a snapshot of public opinion, rather an…

  4. Snapshots of the “breaking” of the H–H bond in the oxidative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snapshots of the “breaking” of the H–H bond in the oxidative addition of H2 to a metal centre. SAIKAT DUTTA and BALAJI R JAGIRDAR*. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 e-mail: Abstract. Three new monocationic molecular hydrogen ...

  5. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). I. Survey description and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, G.H.; Pizzo, R.F.; Orrú, E.; Breton, R.P.; Carbone, D.; Ferrari, C.; Hardcastle, M.J.; Jurusik, W.; Macario, G.; Mulcahy, D.; Rafferty, D.; Asgekar, A.; Brentjens, M.; Fallows, R.A.; Frieswijk, W.; Toribio, M.C.; Adebahr, B.; Arts, M.; Bell, M.R.; Bonafede, A.; Bray, J.; Broderick, J.; Cantwell, T.; Carroll, P.; Cendes, Y.; Clarke, A.O.; Croston, J.; Daiboo, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Gregson, J.; Harwood, J.; Hassall, T.; Heesen, V.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Jones, D.; Kant, D.; Kokotanekov, G.; Martin, P.; McKean, J.P.; Morabito, L.K.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V.N.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pratley, L.; Riseley, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Sabater, J.; Scaife, A.M.M.; Scheers, L.H.A.; Sendlinger, K.; Shulevski, A.; Sipior, M.; Sobey, C.; Stewart, A.J.; Stroe, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tasse, C.; Trüstedt, J.; Varenius, E.; van Velzen, S.; Vilchez, N.; van Weeren, R.J.; Wijnholds, S.; Williams, W.L.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Nijboer, R.; Wise, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I.M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M.E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M.J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Breitling, F.; Brouw, W.N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H.R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J.E.; de Geus, E.; de Jong, A.; de Vos, M.; Deller, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A.W.; Hamaker, J.P.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H.A.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N.J.; Jütte, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W.F.A.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Noordam, J.E.; Norden, M.J.; Paas, H.; Polatidis, A.G.; Reich, W.; Renting, A.; Röttgering, H.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B.W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.


    We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic

  6. Ten Cities, 1997-1998: A Snapshot of Family Homelessness across America. (United States)

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    In 1997, the Institute for Children and Poverty of Homes for the Homeless joined with more than 58 organizations from 10 cities across the country to develop a national snapshot of family homelessness in the United States. Nearly 800 families were surveyed. This report presents the results of this research. The typical homeless family in the…

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Antigua and Barbuda; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Antigua and Barbuda, an independent nation in the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua and Barbuda’s utility rates are approximately $0.37 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  9. The new view of the irregular planetary satellite systems (United States)

    Petit, J.-M.; Gladman, B.; Holman, M.; Grav, T.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Nicholson, P.


    The giant planets in the Solar System each have two groups of satellites. The regular satellites move along nearly circular orbits in the planet's orbital plane, revolving about it in the same sense as the planet spins. In contrast, the so-called irregular satellites are generally smaller in size and are characterized by large orbits with significant eccentricity, inclination or both. The differences in their characteristics suggest that the regular and irregular satellites formed by different mechanisms. The regular satellites have most certainly formed in an accretion disk extending out to tens of planetary radii, like miniature Solar Systems. Irregular satellites, on the contrary, are believed to be planetesimals captured during the final stages of the planet's formation. Before 1997, the irregular satellite inventories of the gas giants where pourly known (Jupiter: 8, Saturn: 1, Uranus: 2, Neptune: 2). Since then, our team have been conducting a series of systematic and complete searches around the giant planets, discovering 12 confirmed satellites around Saturn, 6 around Uranus and 3 around Neptune plus a handfull of candidates. Sheppard et al. have identifyed 11 new irregular satellites around Jupiter while searching a small fraction of its stable region. These discoveries yield insights into the capture process of the satellites. Our team's tracking efforts have shown that the orbits of the Saturnian and Uranian irregular satellites fall into 'groups' in orbital space, ruling out independent capture and indicating that most of the moons we see today are the `children' of larger bodies that were captured long ago and then collisionally fragmented during the lifetime of the solar system.

  10. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko


    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  11. Iodine Satellite (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James


    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  12. A SNaPshot of next generation sequencing for forensic SNP analysis. (United States)

    Daniel, R; Santos, C; Phillips, C; Fondevila, M; van Oorschot, R A H; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V; McNevin, D


    Forensic phenotyping can provide useful intelligence regarding the biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of the donor of an evidentiary sample. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based inference of BGA and EVCs is performed most commonly using SNaPshot(®), a single base extension (SBE) assay. However, a single SNaPshot multiplex PCR is limited to 30-40 SNPs. Next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential to genotype hundreds to thousands of SNPs from multiple samples in a single experimental run. The PCR multiplexes from five SNaPshot assays (SNPforID 52plex, SNPforID 34plex, Eurasiaplex, IrisPlex and an unpublished BGA assay) were applied to three different DNA template amounts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ng) in three samples (9947A and 007 control DNAs and a male donor). The pooled PCR amplicons containing 136 unique SNPs were sequenced using Life Technologies' Ion Torrent™ PGM system. Approximately 72 Mb of sequence was generated from two 10 Mb Ion 314™ v1 chips. Accurate genotypes were readily obtained from all three template amounts. Of a total of 408 genotypes, 395 (97%) were fully concordant with SNaPshot across all three template amounts. Of those genotypes discordant with SNaPshot, six Ion Torrent sequences (1.5%) were fully concordant with Sanger sequencing across the three template amounts. Seven SNPs (1.7%) were either discordant between template amounts or discordant with Sanger sequencing. Sequence coverage observed in the negative control, and, allele coverage variation for heterozygous genotypes highlights the need to establish a threshold for background levels of sequence output and heterozygous balance. This preliminary study of the Ion Torrent PGM system has demonstrated considerable potential for use in forensic DNA analyses as a low to medium throughput NGS platform using established SNaPshot assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine Satellite (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  14. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  15. Capturing Nature's Diversity (United States)

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J.


    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  16. Carbon Capture and Storage Legal and Regulatory Review. Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects must be implemented by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to fully contribute to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. To help countries address the many legal and regulatory issues associated with such rapid deployment, the IEA launched the Carbon Capture and Storage Legal and Regulatory Review (CCS Review) in October 2010. The CCS Review gathers contributions by national and regional governments, as well as leading organisations engaged in CCS regulatory activities, to provide a knowledge-sharing forum that supports national-level CCS regulatory development. Each contribution provides a short summary of recent and anticipated developments and highlights a particular regulatory theme (such as financial contributions to long-term stewardship). To introduce each edition, the IEA provides a brief analysis of key advances and trends. Produced bi-annually, the CCS Review provides an up-to-date snapshot of global CCS regulatory developments. The theme for the second edition of the CCS Review, released in May 2011, is long-term liability for stored CO2. Other key issues addressed include: national progress towards implementation of the EU CCS Directive; developments in marine treaties relevant to CCS; international climate change negotiations; and the development process for CCS regulation.

  17. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  18. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C.


    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu 239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  19. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett


    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  20. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt


    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  2. Radiative electron capture [REC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vane, C.R.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.; Giese, J.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Jones, N.; Krause, H.; Miller, P.D.; Schoere, H.; Schulz, M.


    This paper contains experimental data on ion channeling in solids. The x-ray spectrum for 160 MeV sulfur ions passing through a silicon target is given. Peaks are due to target and projectile K x-rays and from L- and L-radiative electron capture (REC) processes in which a target electron is transfered to the L- or K-shell, respectively, of a bare- or one-electron sulfur projectile ion moving in the solid and a photon is emitted which carries away the excess energy.lso given is (1) the x-ray spectrum for 160 MeV bare sulfur ions axially channeled through silicon, (2) charge state distributions of sulfur ions exiting a silicon crystal in channeling and random orientations, (3) schematic representations of the REC process, (4) cross sections for radiative recombination and REC, (5) REC portions of x-ray spectra for bare sulfur ions channeled axially through a silicon crystal, (6) measured and calculated K-REC peak positions for bare- and one-electron sulfur ions channeled through silicon crystals, (7) measured and calculated widths of the K-REC peaks for bare sulfur ions channeled in silicon crystals, (8) K-REC peak centroid position results for 120 to 130 MeV sulfur 16+, (9) yield of K-REC x-rays from bare sulfur ions channeled through silicon crystals, (10) x-ray spectra generated by bare oxygen ions traversing a hydrogen gas, and (11) comparison between x-ray data and a computer generated simulation based on radiative electron capture from an atomic hydrogen target

  3. DOA estimation for attitude determination on communication satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bin


    Full Text Available In order to determine an appropriate attitude of three-axis stabilized communication satellites, this paper describes a novel attitude determination method using direction of arrival (DOA estimation of a ground signal source. It differs from optical measurement, magnetic field measurement, inertial measurement, and global positioning system (GPS attitude determination. The proposed method is characterized by taking the ground signal source as the attitude reference and acquiring attitude information from DOA estimation. Firstly, an attitude measurement equation with DOA estimation is derived in detail. Then, the error of the measurement equation is analyzed. Finally, an attitude determination algorithm is presented using a dynamic model, the attitude measurement equation, and measurement errors. A developing low Earth orbit (LEO satellite which tests mobile communication technology with smart antennas can be stabilized in three axes by corporately using a magnetometer, reaction wheels, and three-axis magnetorquer rods. Based on the communication satellite, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The method could be a backup of attitude determination to prevent a system failure on the satellite. Its precision depends on the number of snapshots and the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR with DOA estimation.

  4. A snapshot of catastrophic post-disaster health expenses after Typhoon Haiyan


    Espallardo, Noel; Geroy, Lester Sam; Villanueva, Raul; Gavino, Roy; Nievera, Lucille Angela; Hall, Julie Lyn


    Introduction: This paper provides a snapshot of the health-care costs, out-of-pocket expenditures and available safety nets post-Typhoon Haiyan. Methods: This descriptive study used a survey and document review to report direct and indirect health-care costs and existing financial protection mechanisms used by households in two municipalities in the Philippines at one week and at seven months post-Haiyan. Results: Reported out-of-pocket health-care expenses were high immediately aft...

  5. Snapshot hyperspectral imaging probe with principal component analysis and confidence ellipse for classification (United States)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham


    Hyperspectral imaging combines imaging and spectroscopy to provide detailed spectral information for each spatial point in the image. This gives a three-dimensional spatial-spatial-spectral datacube with hundreds of spectral images. Probe-based hyperspectral imaging systems have been developed so that they can be used in regions where conventional table-top platforms would find it difficult to access. A fiber bundle, which is made up of specially-arranged optical fibers, has recently been developed and integrated with a spectrograph-based hyperspectral imager. This forms a snapshot hyperspectral imaging probe, which is able to form a datacube using the information from each scan. Compared to the other configurations, which require sequential scanning to form a datacube, the snapshot configuration is preferred in real-time applications where motion artifacts and pixel misregistration can be minimized. Principal component analysis is a dimension-reducing technique that can be applied in hyperspectral imaging to convert the spectral information into uncorrelated variables known as principal components. A confidence ellipse can be used to define the region of each class in the principal component feature space and for classification. This paper demonstrates the use of the snapshot hyperspectral imaging probe to acquire data from samples of different colors. The spectral library of each sample was acquired and then analyzed using principal component analysis. Confidence ellipse was then applied to the principal components of each sample and used as the classification criteria. The results show that the applied analysis can be used to perform classification of the spectral data acquired using the snapshot hyperspectral imaging probe.

  6. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  7. Small satellite product assurance (United States)

    Demontlivault, J.; Cadelec, Jacques


    In order to increase the interest in small satellites, their cost must be reduced; reducing product assurance costs induced by quality requirements is a major objective. For a logical approach, small satellites are classified in three main categories: satellites for experimental operations with a short lifetime, operational satellites manufactured in small mass with long lifetime requirements, operational satellites (long lifetime required), of which only a few models are produced. The various requirements as regards the product assurance are examined for each satellite category: general requirements for space approach, reliability, electronic components, materials and processes, quality assurance, documentation, tests, and management. Ideal product assurance system integrates quality teams and engineering teams.

  8. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants. (United States)

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng


    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites.

  9. Tentacle -a Device to Facilitate Satellite Removal (United States)

    Knirsch, Uli

    The active removal of large scale objects, such as defunct satellites, clearly plays a role in combating space debris. However, it is hampered by the challenges of maneuvering, the risk of collision and the absence of standardized attachment points. This paper proposes an attachment module "TENTACLE" to alleviate all three problems. TENTACLE consists of a wire coil of several meters in length. Stowed in a dedicated module, it is to be attached to the outside of any future satellite. One end is connected to the host satellite, while the other attaches to an end mass, identified by color markings and/or an array of retro-reflectors. Furnished with a small standalone power supply, TENTACLE remains active even if the host satellite becomes defunct. An approaching tow spacecraft can trigger TENTACLE remotely. The adapter is ejected, the wire uncoils. Alternatively, TENTACLE triggers autonomously in case its power supply fails (i.e. fail safe). The mass at the end of the wire increases the moment of inertia of the satellite and thus reduces its rotational rate. The tow spacecraft can now easily capture the wire and attach -without threat of collision with appendages of the defunct satellite. Upon sufficient orbit lowering, the tow spacecraft severs the wire and ascends for another mission.

  10. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  11. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  12. Inland capture fisheries (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L.; Cowx, Ian G.; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai


    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. PMID:20713391

  13. Vehicle capture system (United States)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.


    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  14. Captured by Aliens (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel


    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  15. Capture of Planetesimals by Gas Drag from Circumplanetary Disks (United States)

    Fujita, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, K.; Tanigawa, T.


    The regular satellites of the giant planets (e.g. Galilean satellites) have nearly circular and coplanar prograde orbits, and are thought to have formed by accretion of solid particles in the circumplanetary disk. Because a significant amount of gas and solids are likely to be supplied to growing giant planets through the circumplanetary disk, the amount of solid material in circumplanetary disks is important not only for satellite formation but also for the growth and the origin of the heavy element content of giant planets. Solid particles smaller than meter-scale are strongly coupled with the gas flow from the protoplanetary disk and delivered into the disk with the gas. On the other hand, trajectories of large planetesimals are decoupled from the gas. When these large planetesimals approach a growing giant planet, their orbits can be perturbed by gas drag from the circumplanetary disk depending on their size and random velocity, and some of them would be captured by the disk. In the present work, we examine orbital evolution of planetesimals approaching a growing giant planet with a circumplanetary disks by integrating Hill’s equation including the gas drag term. We assume that the gas in the disk rotates in circular orbits around the planet. We found that the condition for capture of planetesimals approaching in the prograde direction (i.e., trajectory in the same direction as the circular motion of the gas) is different from that for those approaching in the retrograde trajectories. We obtained analytic expressions for energy dissipation, critical approach distance from the planet for capture, and capture probability for prograde and retrograde orbits in the coplanar case. We will discuss results of orbital integration for capture rates, including the cases of inclined orbits of planetesimals.

  16. The Generic Data Capture Facility (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.


    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  17. Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry Integration for Storm Surge Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Deng, X.


    Integrating coarse temporal sampling by the satellite altimeter in the deep ocean with the high temporal sampling at tide gauges in sparse location along the coast has been used to improve the forecast of high water in the North Sea along the Danish Coast and storm surges along the Northeast coast...... gauge recordings and investigated the capability of the satellite altimeters to capture these in the sea surface height. On the European coast we find that when two or more satellites are available we capture more than 90% of the extreme sea level events. In the Great Barrier Reef section...... tide gauges with satellite altimetry for forecasting high water at the city of Townville in North East Australia....

  18. Transfer and capture into distant retrograde orbits (United States)

    Scott, Christopher J.

    This dissertation utilizes theory and techniques derived from the fields of dynamical systems theory, astrodyanamics, celestial mechanics, and fluid mechanics to analyze the phenomenon of satellite capture and interrelated spacecraft transfers in restricted three-body systems. The results extend current knowledge and understanding of capture dynamics in the context of astrodynamics and celestial mechanics. Manifold theory, fast Lyapunov indicator maps, and the classification of space structure facilitate an analysis of the transport of objects from the chaotic reaches of the solar system to the distant retrograde region in the sun-Jupiter system. Apart from past studies this dissertation considers the role of the complex lobe structure encompassing stable regions in the circular restricted three-body problem. These structures are shown to be responsible for the phenomenon of sticky orbits and the transport of objects among stable regions. Since permanent capture can only be achieved through a change in energy, fast Lyapunov indicator maps and other methods which reveal the structure of the conservative system are used to discern capture regions and identify the underpinnings of the dynamics. Fast Lyapunov indicator maps provide an accurate classification of orbits of permanent capture and escape, yet monopolize computational resources. In anticipation of a fully three-dimensional analysis in the dissipative system a new mapping parameter is introduced based on energy degradation and averaged velocity. Although the study specifically addresses the sun-Jupiter system, the qualitative results and devised techniques can be applied throughout the solar system and to capture about extrasolar planets. Extending the analysis beyond the exterior of the stable distant retrograde region fosters the construction of transfer orbits from low-Earth orbit to a stable periodic orbit at the center of the stable distant retrograde region. Key to this analysis is the predictability of

  19. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.


    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Iodine neutron capture therapy (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S


    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  2. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  3. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  4. Measuring Behavior using Motion Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Kooij, Herman; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Spink, A.J.; Ballintijn, M.R.; Bogers, N.D.; Grieco, F; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Smit, G; Zimmerman, P.H.


    Motion capture systems, using optical, magnetic or mechanical sensors are now widely used to record human motion. Motion capture provides us with precise measurements of human motion at a very high recording frequency and accuracy, resulting in a massive amount of movement data on several joints of

  5. Nuclear muon capture - theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.


    Nuclear muon capture processes are considered with especial reference to particle physics interests and the possibility of probing aspects of nuclear structure such as nuclear symmetries, cluster correlations and giant resonance excitations. The question of the adequacy of the free muon-nucleon weak interaction inputs in an impulse approximation treatment of the muon capture by complex nuclei is examined. (U.K.)

  6. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.


    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  7. Prognostic models based on patient snapshots and time windows: Predicting disease progression to assisted ventilation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (United States)

    Carreiro, André V; Amaral, Pedro M T; Pinto, Susana; Tomás, Pedro; de Carvalho, Mamede; Madeira, Sara C


    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease and the most common neurodegenerative disorder of young adults. ALS patients present a rapidly progressive motor weakness. This usually leads to death in a few years by respiratory failure. The correct prediction of respiratory insufficiency is thus key for patient management. In this context, we propose an innovative approach for prognostic prediction based on patient snapshots and time windows. We first cluster temporally-related tests to obtain snapshots of the patient's condition at a given time (patient snapshots). Then we use the snapshots to predict the probability of an ALS patient to require assisted ventilation after k days from the time of clinical evaluation (time window). This probability is based on the patient's current condition, evaluated using clinical features, including functional impairment assessments and a complete set of respiratory tests. The prognostic models include three temporal windows allowing to perform short, medium and long term prognosis regarding progression to assisted ventilation. Experimental results show an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) in the test set of approximately 79% for time windows of 90, 180 and 365 days. Creating patient snapshots using hierarchical clustering with constraints outperforms the state of the art, and the proposed prognostic model becomes the first non population-based approach for prognostic prediction in ALS. The results are promising and should enhance the current clinical practice, largely supported by non-standardized tests and clinicians' experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, C.W.


    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana P Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1 apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2 ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3 neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4 limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots. Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in

  10. Spatial and temporal skin blood volume and saturation estimation using a multispectral snapshot imaging camera (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Larsson, Marcus; Salerud, E. Göran


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can estimate the spatial distribution of skin blood oxygenation, using visible to near-infrared light. HSI oximeters often use a liquid-crystal tunable filter, an acousto-optic tunable filter or mechanically adjustable filter wheels, which has too long response/switching times to monitor tissue hemodynamics. This work aims to evaluate a multispectral snapshot imaging system to estimate skin blood volume and oxygen saturation with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a snapshot imager, the xiSpec camera (MQ022HG-IM-SM4X4-VIS, XIMEA), having 16 wavelength-specific Fabry-Perot filters overlaid on the custom CMOS-chip. The spectral distribution of the bands is however substantially overlapping, which needs to be taken into account for an accurate analysis. An inverse Monte Carlo analysis is performed using a two-layered skin tissue model, defined by epidermal thickness, haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation, melanin concentration and spectrally dependent reduced-scattering coefficient, all parameters relevant for human skin. The analysis takes into account the spectral detector response of the xiSpec camera. At each spatial location in the field-of-view, we compare the simulated output to the detected diffusively backscattered spectra to find the best fit. The imager is evaluated for spatial and temporal variations during arterial and venous occlusion protocols applied to the forearm. Estimated blood volume changes and oxygenation maps at 512x272 pixels show values that are comparable to reference measurements performed in contact with the skin tissue. We conclude that the snapshot xiSpec camera, paired with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, permits us to use this sensor for spatial and temporal measurement of varying physiological parameters, such as skin tissue blood volume and oxygenation.

  11. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek


    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  12. Typing of 49 autosomal SNPs by SNaPshot in the Slovenian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnic, Katja; Børsting, Claus; Rockenbauer, Eszter


    A total of 157 unrelated individuals residing in Slovenia were typed for 49 of the autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNPforID 52plex with the SNaPshot assay. We obtained full SNP profiles in all but one individual and perfect concordance was obtained in duplicated analyses....... Allele frequencies are presented for the 49 SNPs. No deviation from HWE was observed for any SNP. F(IS) and F(ST) were estimated. A principal coordinate analysis performed on six populations (Slovenian, Danish, Somali, Greenland, Turkish and Chinese) showed that the Slovenian population grouped...

  13. Reduction of snapshots for MIMO radar detection by block/group orthogonal matching pursuit

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain El Hosiny


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar works on the principle of transmission of independent waveforms at each element of its antenna array and is widely used for surveillance purposes. In this work, we investigate MIMO radar target localization problem with compressive sensing. Specifically, we try to solve the problem of estimation of target location in MIMO radar by group and block sparsity algorithms. It will lead us to a reduced number of snapshots required and also we can achieve better radar resolution. We will use group orthogonal matching pursuit (GOMP) and block orthogonal matching pursuit (BOMP) for our problem. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. Design of a miniature SWIR hyperspectral snapshot imager utilizing multivariate optical elements (United States)

    Priore, Ryan; Dougherty, John; Cohen, Omer; Bikov, Leonid; Hirsh, Itay


    CIRTEMO, SCD and Pixelteq have co-developed a miniature short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral snapshot imager utilizing Multivariate Optical Elements (MOEs). The resultant product may address many of the detection challenges facing multiple markets including commercial, medical, security and defense. This paper highlights the design process of developing MOEs for a targeted application, as well as the technological challenges faced and solutions developed for successful integration of a micro-patterned mosaic array to an InGaAs focal plane array.

  15. The edge detection enhancement on satellite image using bilateral filter (United States)

    Fawwaz, I.; Zarlis, M.; Suherman; Rahmat, R. F.


    Satellite imagery is the image taken from satellites from outer space. It captures the appearance of the earth’s surface through remote sensing. Usually, satellite image’s object is hardly detected because many objects are covered with cloud shadows in the sky. Edge detection has an important role in image analysis. Edge detection aims to extract the boundary of an object contained in the image. Gaussian Filter is usually used on edge detection to smooth the image and reduce noise. However, in satellite image, we can improve it by using another filter. In this research, we compare gaussian filter with bilateral filter and analyze those two methods. We also using several operators to see the optimized process. After the experiment, by using the comparison parameter such as largest PSNR value, and the smallest MSE value, we can conclude that Bilateral Filter with Canny Operator is the most optimized edge detection for Satellite Imagery.

  16. Asymptotic Behavior of an Elastic Satellite with Internal Friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, E.; Bambusi, D.


    We study the dynamics of an elastic body whose shape and position evolve due to the gravitational forces exerted by a pointlike planet. The main result is that, if all the deformations of the satellite dissipate some energy, then under a suitable nondegeneracy condition there are only three possible outcomes for the dynamics: (i) the orbit of the satellite is unbounded, (ii) the satellite falls on the planet, (iii) the satellite is captured in synchronous resonance i.e. its orbit is asymptotic to a motion in which the barycenter moves on a circular orbit, and the satellite moves rigidly, always showing the same face to the planet. The result is obtained by making use of LaSalle’s invariance principle and by a careful kinematic analysis showing that energy stops dissipating only on synchronous orbits. We also use in quite an extensive way the fact that conservative elastodynamics is a Hamiltonian system invariant under the action of the rotation group

  17. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.


    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  18. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.


    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  19. Electron capture and stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.


    In order, to investigate the function of electron capture in the phenomenon of pre-supernovae gravitacional collapse, an hydrodynamic caculation was carried out, coupling capture, decay and nuclear reaction equation system. A star simplified model (homogeneous model) was adopted using fermi ideal gas approximation for tthe sea of free electrons and neutrons. The non simplified treatment from quasi-static evolution to collapse is presented. The capture and beta decay rates, as wellas neutron delayed emission, were calculated by beta decay crude theory, while the other reaction rates were determined by usual theories. The preliminary results are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Meteorological satellite accomplishments (United States)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.


    Meteorological satellites include experimental satellites operated by NASA and operational satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The operational system currently provides pictures of the entire globe, temperature measurements throughout the world, and wind measurements in selected parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Aspects of vertical sounding are discussed along with questions of parameter extraction technique development, macroscale phenomena, the heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system and the climate, and studies of ocean surface and hydrology.

  1. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) (United States)


    Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)known as CCShas attracted interest as a : measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) : emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentiall...

  2. MOTOR PROTEINS Kinesin's gait captured

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, E.J.G.


    Kinesin is a motor protein that drives intracellular transport by stepping along microtubules in a hand-over-hand manner. Advanced dark-field microscopy has made it possible to capture the gait of this motor with unprecedented resolution.

  3. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  4. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)


    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  5. CO2 capture-sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, Elisabeth


    CO 2 capture-sequestration could be an acceptable temporary solution for the abatement of greenhouse gas releases to the atmosphere, before the implementation of new carbon-free power generation means. This paper briefly summarizes the principles of this technology: capture (post-combustion, oxi-combustion, pre-combustion); CO 2 transport and sequestration (deep saline aquifers, injection in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs, injection in abandoned coal seams); examples of operations in progress

  6. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertl, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S.; Robertson, B.D.


    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.)

  7. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))


    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  8. Full-field pressure from snapshot and time-resolved volumetric PIV (United States)

    Laskari, A.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.


    This paper deals with pressure estimation from snapshot and time-resolved three-component (3C) volumetric PIV data using Taylor's hypothesis, an Eulerian and a pseudo-Lagrangian approach. The Taylor's hypothesis approach has been shown to provide accurate results for pressure in the case of 3C planar PIV data with an appropriate choice of convection velocity (de Kat and Ganapathisubramani 2013), and here we extend its use on 3C volumetric velocity snapshots. Application of the techniques to synthetic data shows that the Taylor's hypothesis approach performs best using the streamwise mean as the convection velocity and is affected the least by noise, while the Eulerian approach suffers the most. In terms of resolution, the pseudo-Lagrangian approach is the most sensitive. Its accuracy can be improved by increasing the frame time-separation when computing the material derivative, at the expense of volume loss from fluid parcels leaving the FOV. Comparison of the techniques on turbulent boundary layer data with DNS supports these observations and shows that the Taylor's hypothesis approach is the only way we can get pressure when time information is not present.

  9. A metagenomic snapshot of taxonomic and functional diversity in an alpine glacier cryoconite ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Arwyn; Pachebat, Justin A; Swain, Martin; Hegarty, Matt; Rassner, Sara M E; Hodson, Andrew J; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D L; Sattler, Birgit


    Cryoconite is a microbe–mineral aggregate which darkens the ice surface of glaciers. Microbial process and marker gene PCR-dependent measurements reveal active and diverse cryoconite microbial communities on polar glaciers. Here, we provide the first report of a cryoconite metagenome and culture-independent study of alpine cryoconite microbial diversity. We assembled 1.2 Gbp of metagenomic DNA sequenced using an Illumina HiScanSQ from cryoconite holes across the ablation zone of Rotmoosferner in the Austrian Alps. The metagenome revealed a bacterially-dominated community, with Proteobacteria (62% of bacterial-assigned contigs) and Bacteroidetes (14%) considerably more abundant than Cyanobacteria (2.5%). Streptophyte DNA dominated the eukaryotic metagenome. Functional genes linked to N, Fe, S and P cycling illustrated an acquisitive trend and a nitrogen cycle based upon efficient ammonia recycling. A comparison of 32 metagenome datasets revealed a similarity in functional profiles between the cryoconite and metagenomes characterized from other cold microbe–mineral aggregates. Overall, the metagenomic snapshot reveals the cryoconite ecosystem of this alpine glacier as dependent on scavenging carbon and nutrients from allochthonous sources, in particular mosses transported by wind from ice-marginal habitats, consistent with net heterotrophy indicated by productivity measurements. A transition from singular snapshots of cryoconite metagenomes to comparative analyses is advocated. (letter)

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey. IV - A summary of the search for gravitationally lensed quasars (United States)

    Maoz, D.; Bahcall, J. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Bahcall, N. A.; Djorgovski, S.; Doxsey, R.; Gould, A.; Kirhakos, S.; Meylan, G.; Yanny, B.


    We report the concluding results of the HST Snapshot Survey for gravitationally lensed quasars. New observations of 153 high-luminosity z above 1 quasars are presented, bringing to 498 the total number of quasars observed in the survey. The new observations do not reveal new candidates for gravitational lensing. We present tables summarizing all of the snapshot observations, with measured V-magnitudes, accurate to 0.1 mag, for each of the quasars successfully observed. The observed frequency of lensing of quasars into multiple images is 3-6 out of 502, depending on whether one counts candidates that are not yet securely confirmed and cases in which clusters play a role. This frequency is in the range predicted by calculations with a vanishing cosmological constant, assuming galaxies can be modeled by unevolving isothermal spheres dominated in their centers by dark matter. The observed frequency is an order of magnitude lower than expected in such models when the universe is strongly dominated by a cosmological constant. This conclusion is, however, sensitive to the model assumptions and to the precise number of actual lensed quasars.

  11. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture. (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W


    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  12. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  13. Satellite Communications Industry (United States)


    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  14. Partnership via Satellite. (United States)

    Powell, Marie Clare


    Segments of the 1980 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) conference were to be telecast nationally by satellite. The author briefly explains the satellite transmission process and advises Catholic educators on how to pick up the broadcast through their local cable television system. (SJL)

  15. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.


    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  16. A satellite for Asia (United States)

    Lawrence, John D. R.

    In April 1990, an American satellite will be launched by China on the Long March 3 rocket. This satellite, called AsiaSat 1 will provide domestic telecommunications service to the countries of Asia. AsiaSat 1 is designed to provide satellite communications services to China, Thailand and Pakistan. These services will also be available for the use of neighboring countries such as Korea, Hong Kong, Burma and Nepal. As an independently financed satellite, it will provide services to each of these countries on an equal access basis and will be shared by these countries depending on their needs. The satellite's 24 C-band transponders will be leased or sold to customers in each of these countries. Transponders will be used for many purposes including back-up to national telephone networks, new private network services and the distribution of television programs.

  17. Value-driven attentional capture. (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A; Laurent, Patryk A; Yantis, Steven


    Attention selects which aspects of sensory input are brought to awareness. To promote survival and well-being, attention prioritizes stimuli both voluntarily, according to context-specific goals (e.g., searching for car keys), and involuntarily, through attentional capture driven by physical salience (e.g., looking toward a sudden noise). Valuable stimuli strongly modulate voluntary attention allocation, but there is little evidence that high-value but contextually irrelevant stimuli capture attention as a consequence of reward learning. Here we show that visual search for a salient target is slowed by the presence of an inconspicuous, task-irrelevant item that was previously associated with monetary reward during a brief training session. Thus, arbitrary and otherwise neutral stimuli imbued with value via associative learning capture attention powerfully and persistently during extinction, independently of goals and salience. Vulnerability to such value-driven attentional capture covaries across individuals with working memory capacity and trait impulsivity. This unique form of attentional capture may provide a useful model for investigating failures of cognitive control in clinical syndromes in which value assigned to stimuli conflicts with behavioral goals (e.g., addiction, obesity).

  18. Evaluation of satellite-retrieved extreme precipitation using gauge observations (United States)

    Lockhoff, M.; Zolina, O.; Simmer, C.; Schulz, J.


    Precipitation extremes have already been intensively studied employing rain gauge datasets. Their main advantage is that they represent a direct measurement with a relatively high temporal coverage. Their main limitation however is their poor spatial coverage and thus a low representativeness in many parts of the world. In contrast, satellites can provide global coverage and there are meanwhile data sets available that are on one hand long enough to be used for extreme value analysis and that have on the other hand the necessary spatial and temporal resolution to capture extremes. However, satellite observations provide only an indirect mean to determine precipitation and there are many potential observational and methodological weaknesses in particular over land surfaces that may constitute doubts concerning their usability for the analysis of precipitation extremes. By comparing basic climatological metrics of precipitation (totals, intensities, number of wet days) as well as respective characteristics of PDFs, absolute and relative extremes of satellite and observational data this paper aims at assessing to which extent satellite products are suitable for analysing extreme precipitation events. In a first step the assessment focuses on Europe taking into consideration various satellite products available, e.g. data sets provided by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). First results indicate that satellite-based estimates do not only represent the monthly averaged precipitation very similar to rain gauge estimates but they also capture the day-to-day occurrence fairly well. Larger differences can be found though when looking at the corresponding intensities.

  19. CC-MUSIC: An Optimization Estimator for Mutual Coupling Correction of L-Shaped Nonuniform Array with Single Snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguan Hou


    Full Text Available For the case of the single snapshot, the integrated SNR gain could not be obtained without the multiple snapshots, which degrades the mutual coupling correction performance under the lower SNR case. In this paper, a Convex Chain MUSIC (CC-MUSIC algorithm is proposed for the mutual coupling correction of the L-shaped nonuniform array with single snapshot. It is an online self-calibration algorithm and does not require the prior knowledge of the correction matrix initialization and the calibration source with the known position. An optimization for the approximation between the no mutual coupling covariance matrix without the interpolated transformation and the covariance matrix with the mutual coupling and the interpolated transformation is derived. A global optimization problem is formed for the mutual coupling correction and the spatial spectrum estimation. Furthermore, the nonconvex optimization problem of this global optimization is transformed as a chain of the convex optimization, which is basically an alternating optimization routine. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improve the resolution ability and the estimation accuracy of the multisources with the single snapshot.

  20. FELIX: an algorithm for indexing multiple crystallites in X-ray free-electron laser snapshot diffraction images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr


    A novel algorithm for indexing multiple crystals in snapshot X-ray diffraction images, especially suited for serial crystallography data, is presented. The algorithm, FELIX, utilizes a generalized parametrization of the Rodrigues-Frank space, in which all crystal systems can be represented without...

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Curacao; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Curacao, an autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela. Curacao’s utility rates are approximately $0.26 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  2. A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today : Institutions, Outcomes, and a Closer Look at Racial and Geographic Differences


    Gukovas, Renata; Muller, Miriam; Pereira, Ana Claudia; Reimao, Maira Emy


    The Gender Diagnostic: ‘A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today: Institutions, Outcomes, and a Closer Look at Racial and Geographic Differences Gender issues in Brazil’ highlights progress on gender equality in the country and lays out the main areas of persisting challenges. It details gender outcomes beyond the national aggregate and emphasizes that gender inequality in Brazil has to be und...

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Barbados; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Barbados, an independent nation in the Lesser Antilles island chain in the eastern Caribbean. Barbados’ electricity rates are approximately $0.28 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Palau; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Palau, an independent island nation geographically located in the Micronesia region. Palau’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.28 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - American Samoa; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of American Samoa, the southernmost territory of the United States. American Samoa’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.29 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  8. Low-complexity DOA estimation from short data snapshots for ULA systems using the annihilating filter technique (United States)

    Bellili, Faouzi; Amor, Souheib Ben; Affes, Sofiène; Ghrayeb, Ali


    This paper addresses the problem of DOA estimation using uniform linear array (ULA) antenna configurations. We propose a new low-cost method of multiple DOA estimation from very short data snapshots. The new estimator is based on the annihilating filter (AF) technique. It is non-data-aided (NDA) and does not impinge therefore on the whole throughput of the system. The noise components are assumed temporally and spatially white across the receiving antenna elements. The transmitted signals are also temporally and spatially white across the transmitting sources. The new method is compared in performance to the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB), the root-MUSIC algorithm, the deterministic maximum likelihood estimator and another Bayesian method developed precisely for the single snapshot case. Simulations show that the new estimator performs well over a wide SNR range. Prominently, the main advantage of the new AF-based method is that it succeeds in accurately estimating the DOAs from short data snapshots and even from a single snapshot outperforming by far the state-of-the-art techniques both in DOA estimation accuracy and computational cost.

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Bonaire; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Bonaire, a special municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela. Bonaire’s utility rates are approximately $0.35 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  10. A Little More Madness in Our Methods? A Snapshot of How the Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Field Conducts Research (United States)

    Thomson, Pat


    The field of educational leadership, management and administration (ELMA) uses methods drawn primarily from cognate educational disciplines. But does this matter? This paper explores the methods used in recently published papers through a snapshot of six issues of six ELMA journals. The analysis showed a preponderance of survey, interview and case…

  11. Carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie


    The author first defines what carbon capture and storage (CCS)is, describes more precisely the various technologies, methods and processes involved in carbon capture, carbon transport, and carbon geological storage. He briefly evokes the various applications and uses of CCS. In the second part, he proposes an overview of advances and deadlocks of CCS in the world, of the status of installations and projects, of the development of capture practices in the industry, of some existing and important storage sites, of some pilot installations developed by various industrial actors in different countries (26 installations in the world). He indicates power stations equipped for CCS (in Canada, USA, United-Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, China, South Korea and United Arab Emirates). He evokes projects which have been given up or postponed. He proposes an overview of policies implemented in different countries (USA, Canada, European Union, Australia, and others) to promote CCS

  12. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.


    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  13. Can we capture energy in space?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The vagaries of the weather here on earth and the nightly blackout limit the power we can get from solar energy. But this energy could take on a whole new dimension if it can be captured in space 24 hours a day by gigantic stations and transmitted to earth. It is not a new idea. The concept involves transmitting several gigawatts of energy from space to earth via microwaves using geosynchronous satellites equipped with solar collectors. The concept keeps resurfacing every ten years or so, triggering assessments by various businesses and institutions, mostly American, such as the US Department of Energy, NASA, Raytheon, Lockheed Martin and Boeing. Despite all the resources available, the various technical solutions considered have never sparked joint programs, for lack of a real commitment to cooperation. Today, the required funding will likely have to come from international cooperation. A number of private companies have recently been created to begin the process of raising funds and pooling the necessary capabilities. The goal is to develop mature, economically viable technologies for commercial deployment in around 2030

  14. Capturing, Harmonizing and Delivering Data and Quality Provenance (United States)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, Christopher


    Satellite remote sensing data have proven to be vital for various scientific and applications needs. However, the usability of these data depends not only on the data values but also on the ability of data users to assess and understand the quality of these data for various applications and for comparison or inter-usage of data from different sensors and models. In this paper, we describe some aspects of capturing, harmonizing and delivering this information to users in the framework of distributed web-based data tools.

  15. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutkiewicz


    This new model that captures bio-optical feedbacks will be important for improving our understanding of the role of light and optical constituents on ocean biogeochemistry, especially in a changing environment. Further, resolving surface upwelling irradiance will make it easier to connect to satellite-derived products in the future.

  16. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging. (United States)

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J L


    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems.

  17. Single-particle structure determination by correlations of snapshot X-ray diffraction patterns (United States)

    Starodub, D.; Aquila, A.; Bajt, S.; Barthelmess, M.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Coppola, N.; Doak, R. B.; Epp, S. W.; Erk, B.; Foucar, L.; Gumprecht, L.; Hampton, C. Y.; Hartmann, A.; Hartmann, R.; Holl, P.; Kassemeyer, S.; Kimmel, N.; Laksmono, H.; Liang, M.; Loh, N. D.; Lomb, L.; Martin, A. V.; Nass, K.; Reich, C.; Rolles, D.; Rudek, B.; Rudenko, A.; Schulz, J.; Shoeman, R. L.; Sierra, R. G.; Soltau, H.; Steinbrener, J.; Stellato, F.; Stern, S.; Weidenspointner, G.; Frank, M.; Ullrich, J.; Strüder, L.; Schlichting, I.; Chapman, H. N.; Spence, J. C. H.; Bogan, M. J.


    Diffractive imaging with free-electron lasers allows structure determination from ensembles of weakly scattering identical nanoparticles. The ultra-short, ultra-bright X-ray pulses provide snapshots of the randomly oriented particles frozen in time, and terminate before the onset of structural damage. As signal strength diminishes for small particles, the synthesis of a three-dimensional diffraction volume requires simultaneous involvement of all data. Here we report the first application of a three-dimensional spatial frequency correlation analysis to carry out this synthesis from noisy single-particle femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns of nearly identical samples in random and unknown orientations, collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Our demonstration uses unsupported test particles created via aerosol self-assembly, and composed of two polystyrene spheres of equal diameter. The correlation analysis avoids the need for orientation determination entirely. This method may be applied to the structural determination of biological macromolecules in solution.

  18. Snapshots of the Past, by Brian Fagan. Alta Mira Press (Sage Publications. Walnut Creek, CA, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W. Bostwick


    Full Text Available Brian Fagan is well known for his archaeology books written for a general public as well as his textbooks. This book is a collection of his articles originally published as bimonthly 'Timelines' columns in Archaeol­ogy Magazine. As he states in the preface of the book, his articles were meant to entertain, inform and sometimes wax indignant on a wide variety of archaeological subjects. His intent was to make available to a wide audience short stories that "navigated through the maze of detailed and specialized literature, creating snapshots of archaeology, archaeologists, and our complex, multifaceted past." The collection of 27 articles he chose for the book were published between 1988 and 1995; in addition, Fagan wrote two new articles for the book (one on prehistoric art and the other on the lives of Egyptian townspeople, for a total 29 articles.

  19. Student Snapshots: An Alternative Approach to the Visual History of American Indian Boarding Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Strathman


    Full Text Available Photographs of American Indian boarding school students have often been usedto illustrate the federal forced assimilation practices of the 1870s–1930s. Taken by officialschool photographers, these propagandistic images were produced to emphasize the“civilizing” benefits of the boarding school system. Although some Native studentsobtained cameras and recorded their own boarding school experiences, the visual historystill relies on the institutionally-produced images. Using a collection of photographscreated by Parker McKenzie (Kiowa and his classmates while attending Rainy Mountainand Phoenix Indian Schools, this paper intends to rectify that exclusion through a readingof these snapshots as examples of visual sovereignty. The concept of visual sovereigntyinvolves examining Native self-representations as the (reclaiming of indigenous identitiesin order to counter colonial imagery that has dominated the archives.

  20. Overview of commercial satellite communications (United States)

    Beakley, G. W.


    A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered along with maritime satellite communications, the U.S. domestic satellite systems, Alaskan satellite communications, cable television, broadcast TV stations, print media, the hotel/motel industry as a large market for satellite communications terminals, the opening of a minicable and satellite master antenna TV market for TV receive-only systems, and business telecommunications earth terminals. Attention is also given to future directions regarding satellite positions, the concept of 'video-plus', and direct broadcast satellites.

  1. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison


    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation

  2. Provenance Datasets Highlighting Capture Disparities (United States)


    academic use case that has corollaries in offices everywhere. We also describe two distinct possibilities for provenance capture methods within this domain...Figure 1: Sample provenance graph of the librarians preparing the requested report, from the “Complete” dataset. The tool, SpectorSoft,2 was

  3. Capturing C2-datacommunication needlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin, R.; Jongenelis, W.J.M.


    This paper deals with the C2- datacommunication needlines as obtained during two army exercises where ISIS (lntegrated Staff Information System) has been operationally used. The capturing and analysis method is discussed in detail. Various traffÌc measures are dealt with and are mutually compared

  4. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; von Egidy, T.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Wright, D.H.; Henderson, R.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Doyle, B.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Bertl, W.; Gorringe, T.P.; Robertson, B.C.


    The induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g P , of the weak hadronic current can be determined from the measurement of the branching ratio of radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen. This rare process is being investigated in the TRIUMF RMC experiment which is now taking data. This paper describes the experiment and indicates the status of the data analysis. (Author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  5. Single versus mixture Weibull distributions for nonparametric satellite reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.


    Long recognized as a critical design attribute for space systems, satellite reliability has not yet received the proper attention as limited on-orbit failure data and statistical analyses can be found in the technical literature. To fill this gap, we recently conducted a nonparametric analysis of satellite reliability for 1584 Earth-orbiting satellites launched between January 1990 and October 2008. In this paper, we provide an advanced parametric fit, based on mixture of Weibull distributions, and compare it with the single Weibull distribution model obtained with the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. We demonstrate that both parametric fits are good approximations of the nonparametric satellite reliability, but that the mixture Weibull distribution provides significant accuracy in capturing all the failure trends in the failure data, as evidenced by the analysis of the residuals and their quasi-normal dispersion.

  6. Multiple Satellite Trajectory Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendy Jr, Paul B


    This thesis develops and validates a satellite trajectory optimization model. A summary is given of the general mathematical principles of dynamic optimal control to minimize fuel consumed or transfer time...

  7. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  8. Virophages or satellite viruses? (United States)

    Krupovic, Mart; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, Virginija


    It has been argued that the smaller viruses associated with giant DNA viruses are a new biological entity. However, Mart Krupovic and Virginija Cvirkaite-Krupovic argue here that these smaller viruses should be classified with the satellite viruses.

  9. Domestic Communication Satellites (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew


    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


  11. Small Satellite Transporter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  12. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz


    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  13. Single Purpose Satellite Systems


    Watkins, Warren


    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  14. Finding a needle in the virus metagenome haystack--micro-metagenome analysis captures a snapshot of the diversity of a bacteriophage armoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ray

    Full Text Available Viruses are ubiquitous in the oceans and critical components of marine microbial communities, regulating nutrient transfer to higher trophic levels or to the dissolved organic pool through lysis of host cells. Hydrothermal vent systems are oases of biological activity in the deep oceans, for which knowledge of biodiversity and its impact on global ocean biogeochemical cycling is still in its infancy. In order to gain biological insight into viral communities present in hydrothermal vent systems, we developed a method based on deep-sequencing of pulsed field gel electrophoretic bands representing key viral fractions present in seawater within and surrounding a hydrothermal plume derived from Loki's Castle vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The reduction in virus community complexity afforded by this novel approach enabled the near-complete reconstruction of a lambda-like phage genome from the virus fraction of the plume. Phylogenetic examination of distinct gene regions in this lambdoid phage genome unveiled diversity at loci encoding superinfection exclusion- and integrase-like proteins. This suggests the importance of fine-tuning lyosgenic conversion as a viral survival strategy, and provides insights into the nature of host-virus and virus-virus interactions, within hydrothermal plumes. By reducing the complexity of the viral community through targeted sequencing of prominent dsDNA viral fractions, this method has selectively mimicked virus dominance approaching that hitherto achieved only through culturing, thus enabling bioinformatic analysis to locate a lambdoid viral "needle" within the greater viral community "haystack". Such targeted analyses have great potential for accelerating the extraction of biological knowledge from diverse and poorly understood environmental viral communities.

  15. ISDN - The case for satellites (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; McDougal, P. J.


    The role of satellites in the proposed Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is examined. ISDN is to be a unified global network providing international telecommunication services. The delay time connected with satellite communications is considered. The advantages of using satellites in ISDN are: (1) the digital services available with satellites (time-division multiple access, intermediate data rate, and Intelsat business services); (2) satellite networking features; (3) flexibility; and (4) global interconnectivity. It is noted that with the use of powerful transmitters on satellites, the growth of small earth stations, and developments in band switching and intersatellite links that satellites are applicable to ISDN.

  16. Satellite Communications for ATM (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.


    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  17. Radiative muon capture in calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.D.; Cox, C.R.; Dodson, G.W.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J.R.; Pandey, M.S.; Rushton, A.M.; Siegel, R.T.; Welsh, R.E.


    The branching ratio relative to ordinary muon capture and the photon asymmetry relative to the muon-spin direction were measured for radiative muon capture in /sup 40/Ca. For approx. 1200 photon events, the partial branching ratio is R/sub k>/sub 57/MeV/ = (21.1 +- 1.4) x 10/sup -6/, and the asymmetry for k > 63.5 MeV is +0.90 +- 0.50. A fit of the photon spectrum to the theory of Rood, Yano, and Yano gives the value g/sub p//sup = (6.5 +- 1.6) g/sub A/ for the pseudoscalar-coupling constants. These results are in disagreement with earlier experiments.

  18. Space debris removal system using a small satellite (United States)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Kawamoto, Satomi; Okawa, Yasushi; Terui, Fuyuto; Kitamura, Shoji


    Since the number of satellites in Earth orbit is steadily increasing, space debris will eventually pose a serious problem to near-Earth space activities if left unchecked, and so effective measures to mitigate it are becoming urgent. Equipping new satellites with an end-of-life de-orbit or orbital lifetime reduction capability could be an effective means of reducing the amount of debris by reducing the probability of the collisions between objects. On the other hand, the active removal of space debris and the retrieval of failed satellites by spacecraft are other possible measures. The Institute of Aerospace Technology, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is studying a micro-satellite system for active space debris removal, and is examining the applicability of electro-dynamic tether (EDT) technology as its high efficiency orbital transfer system. A small EDT package provides a possible means for lowering the orbits of objects without the need for propellant. Capture is indispensable for the retrieval of large space debris objects, and we propose a flexible robot arm for this purpose. This paper discusses a space debris removal satellite system and describes the development status of prototypes of the EDT package and a new robot arm for capturing non-cooperative targets.

  19. Development of Harpoon System for Capturing Space Debris (United States)

    Reed, Jame; Barraclough, Simon


    Active removal of large space debris has been identified as a key activity to control the growth in the debris population and to limit the risk to active satellites. Astrium is developing technologies to enable such a mission, including a harpoon capture system. The harpoon is simple, compact and lightweight. Since the capture is fast (typically barbs to robustly hold the target, a crushable section to absorb excess impact energy, and a tether to connect to the chaser vehicle. The baseline firing system uses compressed gas, although a simpler one-shot system has also been designed. To understand how a harpoon could be applicable to active debris removal an on-ground prototype and test-rig has been developed for trials with real structural elements of satellites and rocket bodies. Testing has demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and this paper describes the results as well as the next steps. A number of design variants are also proposed which could simplify the system design of an ADR mission.

  20. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter (United States)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.


    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  1. The Market of Biopharmaceutical Medicines: A Snapshot of a Diverse Industrial Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Moorkens


    Full Text Available Background: Biopharmaceutical medicines represent a growing share of the global pharmaceutical market, and with many of these biopharmaceutical products facing loss of exclusivity rights, also biosimilars may now enter the biopharmaceutical market.Objectives: This study aims to identify and document which investment and development strategies are adopted by industrial players in the global biopharmaceutical market.Methods: A descriptive analysis was undertaken of the investment and development strategies of the top 25 pharmaceutical companies according to 2015 worldwide prescription drug sales. Strategies were documented by collecting data on manufacturing plans, development programs, acquisition and collaboration agreements, the portfolio and pipeline of biosimilar, originator and next-generation biopharmaceutical products. Data were extracted from publicly available sources.Results: Various investment and development strategies can be identified in the global biopharmaceutical market: (a development of originator biopharmaceuticals, (b investment in biotechnology, (c development of next-generation biopharmaceuticals, (d development of biosimilars, (e investment in emerging countries, and (f collaboration between companies. In the top 25 pharmaceutical companies almost every company invests in originator biopharmaceuticals and in biotechnology in general, but only half of them develops next-generation biopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, only half of them invest in development of biosimilars. The companies' biosimilar pipeline is mainly focused on development of biosimilar monoclonal antibodies and to some extent on biosimilar insulins. A common strategy is collaboration between companies and investment in emerging countries.Conclusions: A snapshot of investment and development strategies used by industrial players in the global biopharmaceutical market shows that all top 25 pharmaceutical companies are engaged in the biopharmaceutical market and

  2. AVS on satellite (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang


    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  3. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M


    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  4. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guam; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guam, an island territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. Guam’s electricity rates for residential customers start at $0.21 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.1,2 Like

  6. Domestic satellite communications overview (United States)

    Nickelson, R. L.


    The current status and future planning of satellite systems for intranational communication are examined in a summary of presentations given at the CCIR international seminar on domestic satellite communications held in Shanghai in October 1983. Topics discussed include operational and planned systems in Australia, Japan, the U.S., India, China, France, Brazil, Italy, Thailand, and the European region; development and planning by NASA and Intelsat; systems for rural areas or light traffic; modulation and multiple access; antennas, propagation, and interference; geostationary orbits; and economics, planning, and implementation.

  7. MIST Student Satellite


    Gårdebäck, Agnes; Haugdahl, Vincent


    In this report, parts of the systems engineering of a spacecraft are presented. In 2014 the Royal Institute of Technology KTH initiated a new space technology and research platform, the KTH Space Centre. The first student project at KTH Space Centre was the MIST student satellite with the scope of the system design and construction of a real satellite due for launch in 2017. As part of the MIST project this bachelor thesis covers the mission analysis and parts of the system design. The system...

  8. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry


    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  9. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite (United States)

    Conti, Livio


    parameters and stability of Van Allen belt are constantly modified by natural non-seismic and man-made processes. Therefore, in order to identify seismo-associated perturbations, it is needed to reject the "normal" background effects of the e.m. emissions due to: geomagnetic storms, tropospheric phenomena, and artificial sources (such as power lines, VLF transmitters, HF stations, etc.). Currently, the only available large database is that collected by the Demeter satellite and by rare observations made by some previous space missions, non-dedicated to this purpose. The CSES satellite aims at continuing the exploration started by Demeter with advanced multi-parametric measurements. The configuration of the CSES sensors foresees measurements of energetic particle fluxes, ionospheric plasma parameters and electromagnetic fields, in a wide range of energy and frequencies. The main sensors onboard the satellite are: the HEPD (High Energy Particle Detector) developed by the Italian participants, and the following Chinese sensors: LEPD (Low Energy Particle Detector), LP (Langmuir Probes), IDM (Ion Drift Meter), ICM (Ion Capture Meter), RPA (Retarding Potential Analyzer), EFD (Electric Field Detectors) developed in collaboration with Italian team, HPM (High Precision Magnetometer) and SCM (Search-Coil Magnetometer). The research activity is at an advanced phase, being the various payloads already built and, right now, an intense activity is going on for calibration of the various sensors. In particular, the Italian payload HEPD is under test at the laboratories of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) and the Chinese payloads LP, IDM, ICM, RPA and EFD are tested at the INAF-IAPS "Plasma Chamber" in Rome, which is a facility where the response of the sensors, and their compatibility with ionospheric plasma, can be verified in environmental conditions very similar to those met by the satellite in orbit.

  10. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))


    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  11. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.


    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  12. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo


    Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...... for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used...

  13. Astronauts Capture Moon Illusion Photo (United States)


    Many odd looking moon photos have been captured over the years by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. Even so, this photograph, taken by the crew over Russia on May 11, 2003, must have come as a surprise. The moon which is really a quarter of a million miles away, appears to be floating inside the Earth's atmosphere. The picture is tricky because of its uneven lighting. With the sun's elevation angle at only 6 degrees, night is falling on the left side of the image while it is still broad daylight on the right side. This gradient of sunlight is the key to the illusion.

  14. Quasi-Isochronous Muon Capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Neuffer, D.; Yonehara, K.


    Intense muon beams have many potential applications, including neutrino factories and muon colliders. However, muons are produced as tertiary beams, resulting in diffuse phase space distributions. To make useful beams, the muons must be rapidly cooled before they decay. An idea conceived recently for the collection and cooling of muon beams, namely, the use of a Quasi-Isochronous Helical Channel (QIHC) to facilitate capture of muons into RF buckets, has been developed further. The resulting distribution could be cooled quickly and coalesced into a single bunch to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider. After a brief elaboration of the QIHC concept, some recent developments are described.

  15. Flexible Electrostatic Technology for Capture and Handling Project (United States)

    Keys, Andrew; Bryan, Tom; Horwitz, Chris; Rakoczy, John; Waggoner, Jason


    To NASA unfunded & planned missions: This new capability to sense proximity, flexibly align to, and attractively grip and capture practically any object in space without any pre-designed physical features or added sensors or actuators will enable or enhance many of MSFC's strategic emphasis areas in space transportation, and space systems such as: 1. A Flexible Electrostatic gripper can enable the capture, gripping and releasing of an extraterrestrial sample of different minerals or a sample canister (metallic or composite) without requiring a handle or grapple fixture.(B) 2. Flexible self-aligning in-space capture/soft docking or berthing of ISS resupply vehicles, pressurized modules, or nodes for in-space assembly and shielding, radiator, and solar Array deployment for space habitats (C) 3. The flexible electrostatic gripper when combined with a simple steerable extendible boom can grip, position, and release objects of various shapes and materials with low mass and power without any prior handles or physical accommodations or surface contamination for ISS experiment experiments and in-situ repair.(F)(G) 4. The Dexterous Docking concept previously proposed to allow simple commercial resupply ships to station-keep and capture either ISS or an Exploration vehicle for supply or fluid transfer lacked a self-sensing, compliant, soft capture gripper like FETCH that could retract and attach to a CBM. (I) 5. To enable a soft capture and de-orbit of a piece of orbital debris will require self-aligning gripping and holding an object wherever possible (thermal coverings or shields of various materials, radiators, solar arrays, antenna dishes) with little or no residual power while adding either drag or active low level thrust.(K) 6. With the scalability of the FETCH technology, small satellites can be captured and handled or can incorporate FETCH gripper to dock to and handle other small vehicles and larger objects for de-orbiting or mitigating Orbital debris (L) 7. Many of

  16. Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants in China by Issuing Capture Options


    Liang, Xi; Reiner, David; Gibbons, Jon; Li, Jia


    Capture Ready’ is a design concept enabling fossil fuel plants to be retrofitted more economically with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies, however financing the cost of capture ready can be problematic, especially in the developing world. We propose that fossil fuel plants issue tradable Capture Options to acquire financing. The Capture Option concept could move CCS forward politically in countries such as China, speed up CCS technology development, help Capture Ready inv...

  17. Snapshot fecal survey of domestic animals in rural Ghana for Mycobacterium ulcerans. (United States)

    Tobias, Nicholas J; Ammisah, Nana Ama; Ahortor, Evans K; Wallace, John R; Ablordey, Anthony; Stinear, Timothy P


    Identifying the source reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans is key to understanding the mode of transmission of this pathogen and controlling the spread of Buruli ulcer (BU). In Australia, the native possum can harbor M. ulcerans in its gastrointestinal tract and shed high concentrations of the bacteria in its feces. To date, an analogous animal reservoir in Africa has not been identified. Here we tested the hypothesis that common domestic animals in BU endemic villages of Ghana are reservoir species analogous to the Australian possum. Using linear-transects at 10-meter intervals, we performed systematic fecal surveys across four BU endemic villages and one non-endemic village in the Asante Akim North District of Ghana. One hundred and eighty fecal specimens from a single survey event were collected and analyzed by qPCR for the M. ulcerans diagnostic DNA targets IS2404 and KR-B. Positive and negative controls performed as expected but all 180 test samples were negative. This structured snapshot survey suggests that common domestic animals living in and around humans do not shed M. ulcerans in their feces. We conclude that, unlike the Australian native possum, domestic animals in rural Ghana are unlikely to be major reservoirs of M. ulcerans.

  18. Inpatient management of sickle cell pain: a 'snapshot' of current practice. (United States)

    Miller, Scott T; Kim, Hae-Young; Weiner, Debra; Wager, Carrie G; Gallagher, Dianne; Styles, Lori; Dampier, Carlton D


    The Sickle Cell Disease Clinical Research Network (SCDCRN) designed the PROACTIVE Feasibility Study ( NCT00951808) to determine whether elevated serum levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) during hospitalization for pain would permit preemptive therapy of sickle cell acute chest syndrome (ACS) by blood transfusion. While PROACTIVE was not designed to assess pain management and was terminated early due to inadequate patient accrual, collection of clinical data allowed a "snapshot" of current care by expert providers. Nearly half the patients admitted for pain were taking hydroxyurea; hydroxyurea did not affect length of stay. Providers commonly administered parenteral opioid analgesia, usually morphine or hydromorphone, to adults and children, generally by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Adult providers were more likely to prescribe hydromorphone and did so at substantially higher morphine equivalent doses than were given to adults receiving morphine; the latter received doses similar to children who received either medication. All subjects treated with PCA received higher daily doses of opioids than those treated by time-contingent dosing. Physicians often restricted intravenous fluids to less than a maintenance rate and underutilized incentive spirometry, which reduces ACS in patients hospitalized for pain.

  19. Structural snapshots of concerted double E-H bond activation at a transition metal centre (United States)

    Abdalla, Joseph A. B.; Caise, Alexa; Sindlinger, Christian P.; Tirfoin, Rémi; Thompson, Amber L.; Edwards, Alison J.; Aldridge, Simon


    Bond activation at a transition metal centre is a key fundamental step in numerous chemical transformations. The oxidative addition of element-hydrogen bonds, for example, represents a critical step in a range of widely applied catalytic processes. Despite this, experimental studies defining steps along the bond activation pathway are very rare. In this work, we report on fundamental studies defining a new oxidative activation pathway: combined experimental and computational approaches yield structural snapshots of the simultaneous activation of both bonds of a β-diketiminate-stabilized GaH2 unit at a single metal centre. Systematic variation of the supporting phosphine ligands and single crystal X-ray/neutron diffraction are exploited in tandem to allow structural visualization of the activation process, from a η2-H,H σ-complex showing little Ga-H bond activation, through species of intermediate geometry featuring stretched Ga-H and compressed M-H/M-Ga bonds, to a fully activated metal dihydride featuring a neutral (carbene-type) N-heterocyclic GaI ligand.

  20. Cereal Consumption among Subjects with Celiac Disease: A Snapshot for Nutritional Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Valitutti


    Full Text Available Background: To our knowledge no study has focused on the pattern of cereal-based products (CBP consumption among people with celiac disease (CD. Our study aimed at evaluating the dietary intake of CBP among patients with CD and comparing it with a control population. Methods: Eighty-two volunteers with CD and 77 non-CD volunteers enrolled throughout Italy were asked to register their consumption of CBP on specific diaries for three days. Results: CD patients’ median three-day intake of biscuits and crackers was higher compared to controls (65.8 g vs. 22.7 g and 44.7 g vs. 10.6 g, p < 0.05 respectively, Mann–Whitney test. A significant difference was observed also comparing the two groups for median three-day bread consumption, with the CD group consuming less bread than controls (109.5 g vs. 150.7 g, p < 0.05, Mann–Whitney test. When assessing regional and gender-related CBP consumption patterns, significantly higher rice consumption was found among CD women from Northern Italy compared to CD women from Central and Southern Italy (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 respectively, Fisher’s exact test. No other significant differences were observed. Conclusions: Our results provide a snapshot of the overall consumption of CBP among Italian subjects with CD. Altogether, these data show that, despite minor differences, dietary consumption of CBP among CD patients is similar to the general population.

  1. A SNAPshot Emission-line Imaging Survey of Very Low Excitation Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra


    We propose a "snapshot" emission-line imaging survey of a set of 30 very young planetary nebulae {PNe} selected on the basis of their very low excitation {VLE} characteristics, as evidenced by their very low O IIILambda5007, 4959 to H Alpha line flux ratios. These data will provide a unique, comprehensive dataset of images to address the issue of how AGB stars evolve into PNe. Planetary nebulae show a dazzling variety of structures not apparent in the circumstellar envelopes of the AGB stars from which they evolve. It is believed that the physical phenomena which shape the PNe occur early in thee formation history, involving the hydrodynamic interaction of one or more fast winds with the slower AGB mass-outflow. However, since the youngest PNe, which retain the clearest visible signatures of these phenomena, are very compact {VLE PNe, which together with distances and expansion velocities, will allow detailed tests of stellar evolutionary models. Classification of the morphological structures observed in this sample of very young PNe, and statistical comparisons with more evolved PNe populations, will set new constraints on hydrodynamical models of nebular evolution.

  2. Stable panoramic views facilitate snap-shot like memories for spatial reorientation in homing pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Pecchia

    Full Text Available Following spatial disorientation, animals can reorient themselves by relying on geometric cues (metric and sense specified both by the macroscopic surface layout of an enclosed space and prominent visual landmarks in arrays. Whether spatial reorientation in arrays of landmarks is based on explicit representation of the geometric cues is a matter of debate. Here we trained homing pigeons (Columba livia to locate a food-reward in a rectangular array of four identical or differently coloured pipes provided with four openings, only one of which allowed the birds to have access to the reward. Pigeons were trained either with a stable or a variable position of the opening on pipes, so that they could view the array either from the same or a variable perspective. Explicit mapping of configural geometry would predict successful reorientation irrespective of access condition. In contrast, we found that a stable view of the array facilitated spatial learning in homing pigeons, likely through the formation of snapshot-like memories.

  3. A snapshot of catastrophic post-disaster health expenses post-Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Espallardo


    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides a snapshot of the health-care costs, out-of-pocket expenditures and available safety nets post-Typhoon Haiyan. Methods: This descriptive study used a survey and document review to report direct and indirect health-care costs and existing financial protection mechanisms used by households in two municipalities in the Philippines at one week and at seven months post-Haiyan. Results: Reported out-of-pocket health-care expenses were high immediately after the disaster and increased after seven months. The mean reported out-of-pocket expenses were higher than the reported average household income (US$ 24 to US$ 59. Discussion: The existing local and national mechanisms for health financing were promising and should be strengthened to reduce out-of-pocket expenses and protect people from catastrophic expenditures. Longer-term mechanisms are needed to ensure financial protection, especially among the poorest, beyond three months when most free services and medicines have ended. Preparedness should include prior registration of households that would ensure protection when a disaster comes.

  4. Continuing a Snapshot Survey of the Sites of Recent, Nearby Supernovae: Cycles 25 & 26 (United States)

    Filippenko, Alex


    During the past two decades, robotic (or highly automated) searches for supernovae (SNe), including our Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS), have found over 1000 SNe, many of them in quite nearby galaxies (cz < 4000 km/s). Most of the objects were discovered before maximum brightness, and have follow-up photometry and spectroscopy; they include some of the best-studied SNe to date. We propose to continue our successful program of imaging the sites of some of these nearby objects, to obtain late-time photometry that will help reveal the origin of their lingering energy. We will also search for possible stellar remnants of Type Iax SNe, an intriguing new possibility. Moreover, the images will provide high-resolution information on the local environments of SNe that are far superior to what we can procure from the ground. For example, we will obtain color-magnitude diagrams of stars in these SN sites, to constrain the reddening and SN progenitor masses. We will search for light echoes around SNe, an important clue to their progenitor systems. We also propose to image some SN impostors - faint SNe IIn with massive progenitors - to verify whether they are indeed superoutbursts of luminous blue variables and survived the explosions, or a new/weak class of massive-star explosions. Our proposed snapshots in Cycles 25 and 26 will complement and extend the set of targets we imaged in previous Cycles under this program.

  5. Snapshot fecal survey of domestic animals in rural Ghana for Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Tobias


    Full Text Available Identifying the source reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans is key to understanding the mode of transmission of this pathogen and controlling the spread of Buruli ulcer (BU. In Australia, the native possum can harbor M. ulcerans in its gastrointestinal tract and shed high concentrations of the bacteria in its feces. To date, an analogous animal reservoir in Africa has not been identified. Here we tested the hypothesis that common domestic animals in BU endemic villages of Ghana are reservoir species analogous to the Australian possum. Using linear-transects at 10-meter intervals, we performed systematic fecal surveys across four BU endemic villages and one non-endemic village in the Asante Akim North District of Ghana. One hundred and eighty fecal specimens from a single survey event were collected and analyzed by qPCR for the M. ulcerans diagnostic DNA targets IS2404 and KR-B. Positive and negative controls performed as expected but all 180 test samples were negative. This structured snapshot survey suggests that common domestic animals living in and around humans do not shed M. ulcerans in their feces. We conclude that, unlike the Australian native possum, domestic animals in rural Ghana are unlikely to be major reservoirs of M. ulcerans.

  6. A snapshot of catastrophic post-disaster health expenses after Typhoon Haiyan. (United States)

    Espallardo, Noel; Geroy, Lester Sam; Villanueva, Raul; Gavino, Roy; Nievera, Lucille Angela; Hall, Julie Lyn


    This paper provides a snapshot of the health-care costs, out-of-pocket expenditures and available safety nets post-Typhoon Haiyan. This descriptive study used a survey and document review to report direct and indirect health-care costs and existing financial protection mechanisms used by households in two municipalities in the Philippines at one week and at seven months post-Haiyan. Reported out-of-pocket health-care expenses were high immediately after the disaster and increased after seven months. The mean reported out-of-pocket expenses were higher than the reported average household income (US$ 24 to US$ 59). The existing local and national mechanisms for health financing were promising and should be strengthened to reduce out-of-pocket expenses and protect people from catastrophic expenditures. Longer-term mechanisms are needed to ensure financial protection, especially among the poorest, beyond three months when most free services and medicines have ended. Preparedness should include prior registration of households that would ensure protection when a disaster comes.

  7. At Baltic crossroads: a molecular snapshot of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population diversity in Kaliningrad, Russia. (United States)

    Mokrousov, Igor; Otten, Tatiana; Zozio, Thierry; Turkin, Eugeni; Nazemtseva, Vera; Sheremet, Aleksandra; Vishnevsky, Boris; Narvskaya, Olga; Rastogi, Nalin


    The Kaliningrad region is the westernmost part of the Russian Federation; it includes an enclave on the Baltic Sea inside the European Union separated from mainland Russia by Lithuania and Poland. The incidence of tuberculosis in Kaliningrad has shown a steady and dramatic increase from 83/100,000 in 2000 to 134/100,000 in 2006; the rate of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-tuberculosis) in the Kaliningrad region was reported to be 30.5% among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients. This study presents a first molecular snapshot of the population diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in this region. A total of 90 drug-resistant and susceptible M. tuberculosis strains from Kaliningrad were subjected to spoligotyping, 12-locus MIRU typing and mutation analysis of the drug resistance genes rpoB and katG. A comparison with international databases showed that the M. tuberculosis population in this region shares a joint pool of strains with the European part of Russia, and also exhibits a certain affinity with those of its northern European neighbours, such as Poland and Germany. Comparison of the genotyping and drug resistance data emphasized that the high prevalence of the MDR Beijing genotype strains is a major cause of the adverse epidemiological situation of MDR-tuberculosis in the Kaliningrad region.

  8. Snapshots of Dynamics in Synthesizing N6-isopentenyladenosine at tRNA Anticodon†,‡ (United States)

    Chimnaronk, Sarin; Forouhar, Farhad; Sakai, Junichi; Yao, Min; Tron, Cecile M.; Atta, Mohamed; Fontecave, Marc; Hunt, John F.; Tanaka, Isao


    Bacterial and eukaryotic transfer RNAs that decode codons starting with uridine have a hydrophobically-hypermodified adenosine at the position 37 (A37) adjacent to the 3′-end of the anticodon, which is essential for efficient and highly accurate protein translation by the ribosome. However, it remains unclear how the corresponding tRNAs are selected to be modified by alkylation at the correct position of the adenosine base. We have determined a series of the crystal structures of bacterial tRNA isopentenyltransferase (MiaA) in apo- and tRNA-bound forms, which completely render snapshots of substrate selections during modification of RNA. A compact evolutionary inserted domain (herein ‘swinging domain’) in MiaA that exhibits as a highly mobile entity moves around the catalytic domain as likely to reach and trap the tRNA substrate. Thereby, MiaA clamps the anticodon stem loop of tRNA substrate between the catalytic and swinging domains, where the two conserved elongated residues from the swinging domain pinch the two flanking A36 and A38 together to squeeze out A37 into the reaction tunnel. The site-specific isopentenylation of RNA is thus ensured by a characteristic pinch-and-flip mechanism and by a reaction tunnel to confine the substrate selection. Furthermore, combining information from soaking experiments with structural comparisons, we propose a mechanism for the ordered substrate-binding of MiaA. PMID:19435325

  9. Snapshot Views of the Romanian Economy on Regional Level Using Input-Output Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Our present paper proposes to give snapshot views on the status-quo of the Romanian economy at the level of development regions. From a methodological perspective, the study is based on the construction of an aggregated national Input-Output table from the more detailed one of the National Institute of Statistics, followed by the derivation of regional tables using the non-survey GRIT technique. Quantitative sectoral interrelationships are going to be analysed based on multipliers, backward and forward linkages in order to identify key sectors within regional economies. This could serve as a baseline for assessing the impact of several policies of the European Union on the Romanian economy, such as the Cohesion Policy and the Common Agricultural Policy. The lower territorial approach – i.e. the construction of regional Input-Output models – used within the present study is in accordance with the European Union’s NUTS2 level policy design and planning philosophy on the one hand. On the other hand, this analytic direction makes possible the use of the results as a base for regional economic development strategy design, highlighting structural specificities and discrepancies among regions of the same country.

  10. Snapshots of the Universe: A Multi-Lingual Astronomy Art Book (United States)

    Beaton, Rachael; Jackson, L.; Carlberg, J.; Johnson, K.; Marchand, R.; Sivakoff, G.; Czekala, I.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Martinez, O.; Wong, A.; Zasowski, G.; Skies, Dark; Kids, Bright


    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a dynamic education and public outreach organization at the University of Virginia, focused on enhancing elementary level science education in rural and underserved communities. DSBK thrives on the efforts of undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral volunteers. Early in the program, our volunteers encountered difficulties connecting with “English as a second language” students. To meet that challenge, DSBK volunteers created art with short descriptions of astronomical objects in both Spanish and English to help communicate concepts across the language barrier. Building on this initial success, our simple art project has evolved into a full educational children’s book targeted at 2nd - 5th grade students. Though originally in Spanish and English, a partnership with the University of Alberta (Canada) has produced a French translation of the text, broadening the outreach potential of the book. Here we present our 'Snapshots of the Universe' for broad distribution to classrooms, school libraries and homes, with emphasis on those serving multi-lingual populations, as a unique tool for introducing astronomy concepts at the elementary school level.

  11. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies (United States)

    Gregg, Michael


    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hauser


    Full Text Available Spectral imaging (SI refers to the acquisition of the three-dimensional (3D spectral cube of spatial and spectral data of a source object at a limited number of wavelengths in a given wavelength range. Snapshot spectral imaging (SSI refers to the instantaneous acquisition (in a single shot of the spectral cube, a process suitable for fast changing objects. Known SSI devices exhibit large total track length (TTL, weight and production costs and relatively low optical throughput. We present a simple SSI camera based on a regular digital camera with (i an added diffusing and dispersing phase-only static optical element at the entrance pupil (diffuser and (ii tailored compressed sensing (CS methods for digital processing of the diffused and dispersed (DD image recorded on the image sensor. The diffuser is designed to mix the spectral cube data spectrally and spatially and thus to enable convergence in its reconstruction by CS-based algorithms. In addition to performing SSI, this SSI camera is capable to perform color imaging using a monochromatic or gray-scale image sensor without color filter arrays.

  13. Real-time, profile-corrected single snapshot imaging of optical properties (United States)

    van de Giessen, Martijn; Angelo, Joseph P.; Gioux, Sylvain


    A novel acquisition and processing method that enables real-time, single snapshot of optical properties (SSOP) and 3-dimensional (3D) profile measurements in the spatial frequency domain is described. This method makes use of a dual sinusoidal wave projection pattern permitting to extract the DC and AC components in the frequency domain to recover optical properties as well as the phase for measuring the 3D profile. In this method, the 3D profile is used to correct for the effect of sample’s height and angle and directly obtain profile-corrected absorption and reduced scattering maps from a single acquired image. In this manuscript, the 3D-SSOP method is described and validated on tissue-mimicking phantoms as well as in vivo, in comparison with the standard profile-corrected SFDI (3D-SFDI) method. On average, in comparison with 3D-SFDI method, the 3D-SSOP method allows to recover the profile within 1.2mm and profile-corrected optical properties within 12% for absorption and 6% for reduced scattering over a large field-of-view and in real-time. PMID:26504653

  14. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  15. Lunar Sulfur Capture System, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  16. Capturing Reality at Centre Block (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.


    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boulanger


    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  18. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Jr., Richard A; Elsea, Jennifer K


    ... and law enforcement purposes, in addition to the civil applications that have been supported for years. In 2007, it moved to transfer responsibility for coordinating civilian use of satellites to the Department of Homeland Security. The transfer occurred, however, apparently without notification of key congressional oversight committees.

  19. Simulation of satellite breakups (United States)

    Culp, R. D.; McKnight, D. S.


    Nearly ninety satellites have fragmented in orbit since the first satellite breakup in 1961 and the resulting debris constitutes over half of the trackable objects now orbiting the earth. The analysis of these events is severely limited since an estimated sixty to ninety percent of the debris produced is too small to be detected with present tracking devices. The inability to track most orbital debris makes distinguishing the cause of breakup and the accurate assessment of the debris environment difficult. Computer simulations of satellite breakups are used to bridge this gap. A program has been written to produce fragmentation events whose magnitude, mass distribution, velocity distribution, geometry, and location of breakup may all be controlled. After breakup, the particles' orbits are propagated under the influence of drag and the J2 gravitational term. Constraints are applied to the model to replicate characteristics of collision-induced and explosion-induced breakups. It is shown that simulation aids in the classification of satellite breakups and in providing a more accurate assessment of the debris environment.

  20. Cibola flight experiment satellite (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart


    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  1. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  2. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.


    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  3. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.


    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  4. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  5. Monitoring Cyanobacteria with Satellites Webinar (United States)

    real-world satellite applications can quantify cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms and related water quality parameters. Provisional satellite derived cyanobacteria data and different software tools are available to state environmental and health agencies.

  6. Satellite business networks and systems (United States)

    Kadar, I.; Eaves, R. E.


    A compilation of articles concerning the technical aspects of satellite business networks is presented. Among the topics discussed are: flexible satellite data services; service satellite systems for the Atlantic Ocean region; and the design of a 30/20 GHz international business teleconferencing system. Consideration is also given to issues of network architecture including the performance of computer networks in accessing satellite links; advanced satellite communications systems with integrated transponders; full duplex teleconferencing via Intelsat V F-2 and OTS-2 at ll/14 GHz; and digital facsimile communication over satellite links. Among other topics discussed are: cryptographic techniques for satellite networks; a Codec system for world wide video conferencing; and regenerative SCPC satellite communications systems.

  7. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  8. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  9. CDDIS_GNSS_satellite_data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data consists of the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS)...

  10. Triple Play over Satellite, Ka-Band Making the Difference (United States)

    Benoit, Guillaume; Fenech, Hector; Pezzana, Stefano

    Over the last years a number of operators have been deploying satellite-based consumer internet access services to reduce the digital divide and capture the market of households not covered by ADSL, cable or wireless broadband. These operators are proposing a step change improvement in the economics of consumer service, with lower terminal costs, broadband access with monthly fees comparable to ADSL and an integrated technology simplifying the process of terminal installation, provisioning and management.

  11. Mobile satellite service for Canada (United States)

    Sward, David


    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  12. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite. (United States)

    Liu, Rosa


    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  13. Using satellite altimetry and tide gauges for storm surge warning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. B.; Cheng, Yongcun; Deng, X.


    The combination of the coarse temporal sampling by satellite altimeters in the deep ocean with the high temporal sampling at sparsely located tide gauges along the coast has been used to improve the forecast of high water for the North Sea along the Danish Coast and for the northeast coast...... selected several representative high water events on the two continents based on tide gauge recordings and investigated the capability of satellite altimetry to capture these events in the sea surface height data. Due to the lack of recent surges in the North Sea we focused on general high water level...... coast in March 2006 and caused both loss of lives as well as huge devastation. Here we demonstrate the importance of integrating tide gauges with satellite altimetry for forecasting high water at the city of Townsville in northeast Australia....

  14. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide (United States)

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.


    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  15. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR) This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters. This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic. This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  16. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.


    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior

  17. Bad data packet capture device (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Vranas, Pavlos


    An apparatus and method for capturing data packets for analysis on a network computing system includes a sending node and a receiving node connected by a bi-directional communication link. The sending node sends a data transmission to the receiving node on the bi-directional communication link, and the receiving node receives the data transmission and verifies the data transmission to determine valid data and invalid data and verify retransmissions of invalid data as corresponding valid data. A memory device communicates with the receiving node for storing the invalid data and the corresponding valid data. A computing node communicates with the memory device and receives and performs an analysis of the invalid data and the corresponding valid data received from the memory device.

  18. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.


    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann


    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  20. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)


    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  1. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.


    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Muon capture by helium-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual de Sanz, R.


    In this paper we study the capture of a negative muon by H e 3 in the channel μ-+H e 3 +V. Following Primakoff we use the V-A theory of the weak interactions. We include also first order relativistic terms. To describe the initial and final nuclei we have used the most general wave function allowed by the Paul is exclusion principle, assuming that these nuclei are a mixture of an isospin doublet and quadruplet. For the part of the wave function depending on the inter nucleonic distances, we have taken four different function without hard-core, a gaussian and three kinds of Irving type. We present in several tables the results obtained varying g p /g v and g A /g y as well as the amplitudes of the fourteen terms forming the nuclear wave function. (Author) 35 refs

  3. Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, H.; Physics


    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8 B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7 Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  4. Radiative Capture versus Coulomb Dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, Henning


    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  5. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.H.; Ahmad, S.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.


    In the Standard Model, the weak interaction is purely V-A in character. However in semileptonic reactions the strong force induces additional couplings. One of these, the induced pseudoscalar coupling g p , is still very poorly determined experimentally. Using PCAC and the Goldberger-Treiman relation, one can obtain the estimate g p /g a = 6.8 for the nucleon. At present, the world average of 5 measurements of the rate of ordinary muon capture (each with an error in excess of 40%) yields g p /g a = 6.9 ± 1.5. Radiative Muon Capture (RMC) is considerably more sensitive to the pseudoscalar coupling. Due to the extremely small branching ratio (∼ 6 x 10 -8 ), the elementary reaction μ - p→ μnγ has never been measured. Effort to date has concentrated on nuclear RMC where the branching ratio is much larger, but the interpretation of these results is hindered by nuclear structure uncertainties. A measurement is being carried out at TRIUMF to determine the rate of RMC on hydrogen to a precision of 8% leading to a determination of g p with an error of 10%. The detection system is based on a large-volume drift chamber acting as a pair spectrometer. The drift chamber covers a solid angle of about 2π. At a magnetic field of 2.4 kG the acceptance for 70 MeV photons is about 0.9% using a 1.2 mm thick Pb photon converter. The expected photon energy resolution is about 10% FWHM. A detailed discussion of the systematic errors expected in the experiment and the preliminary results on the performance of the detector will be presented

  6. Small Sar Satellite Using Small Standard Bus


    Ono, Kiyonobu; Fujimura, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshiaki; Kimura, Tsunekazu


    This paper introduces a new small SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellite that follows the small optical sensor satellite, ASNARO. USEF, NEDO and NEC are developing ASNARO satellite, which is a small LEO satellite (total mass

  7. Advance Technology Satellites in the Commercial Environment. Volume 2: Final Report (United States)


    A forecast of transponder requirements was obtained. Certain assumptions about system configurations are implicit in this process. The factors included are interpolation of baseline year values to produce yearly figures, estimation of satellite capture, effects of peak-hours and the time-zone staggering of peak hours, circuit requirements for acceptable grade of service capacity of satellite transponders, including various compression methods where applicable, and requirements for spare transponders in orbit. The graphical distribution of traffic requirements was estimated.

  8. Snapshot Software Receiver for GNSS in Weak Signal Environments : An Innovative Approach for Galileo E5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrasco-Martos, S.; López-Risueño, G.; Jiménez-Baños, D.; Gill, E.K.A.


    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning has turned out to be an enabler of Location-Based Services (LBS). This has motivated in recent years an increasing research activity on signal processing techniques for GNSS receivers. However, one main limitation faced by these GNSS receivers is

  9. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J


    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  10. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo


    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  11. In vivo oximetry of human bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature using snapshot multispectral imaging. (United States)

    MacKenzie, L E; Choudhary, T R; McNaught, A I; Harvey, A R


    Multispectral imaging (MSI) is a well-established technique for non-invasive oximetry of retinal blood vessels, which has contributed to the understanding of a variety of retinal conditions, including glaucoma, diabetes, vessel occlusion, and retinal auto-regulation. We report the first study to use snapshot multi-spectral imaging (SMSI) for oximetry of the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature in the anterior segment of the eye. We report the oxygen dynamics of the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature at normoxia and at acute mild hypoxia conditions. A retinal-fundus camera fitted with a custom Image-Replicating Imaging Spectrometer was used to image the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature in ten healthy human subjects at normoxia (21% Fraction of Inspired Oxygen [FiO2]) and acute mild hypoxia (15% FiO2) conditions. Eyelid closure was used to control oxygen diffusion between ambient air and the sclera surface. Four subjects were imaged for 30 seconds immediately following eyelid opening. Vessel diameter and Optical Density Ratio (ODR: a direct proxy for oxygen saturation) of vessels was computed automatically. Oximetry capability was validated using a simple phantom that mimicked the scleral vasculature. Acute mild hypoxia resulted in a decrease in blood oxygen saturation (SO2) (i.e. an increase in ODR) when compared with normoxia in both bulbar conjunctival (p image oxygen dynamics of bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature, and consequently, the first study to directly observe the rapid reoxygenation of hypoxic bulbar conjunctival vessels when exposed to ambient air. Oximetry of bulbar conjunctival vessels could potentially provide insight into conditions where oxygen dynamics of the microvasculature are not fully understood, such as diabetes, sickle-cell diseases, and dry-eye syndrome. Oximetry in the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature could be complimentary or alternative to retinal

  12. More coral, more fish? Contrasting snapshots from a remote Pacific atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Beldade


    Full Text Available Coral reefs are in decline across the globe as a result of overexploitation, pollution, disease and, more recently, climate change. The impacts of changes in coral cover on associated fish communities can be difficult to predict because of the uneven dependence of reef fish species on corals for food, shelter or the three-dimensional structure they provide. We compared live coral cover, reef fish community metrics, and their associations in two surveys of the lagoon of the remote atoll of Mataiva (French Polynesia carried out 31 years apart. In contrast to the general pattern of decreasing coral cover reported for many parts of the Indo-Pacific region, live coral cover increased 6–7 fold at Mataiva between 1981 and 2012, and fish density nearly doubled. The stable overall reef fish species richness belied a significant shift in community structure. There was little overlap in community composition across years, and fish assemblages in 2012 were more homogeneous in composition than they were in 1981. Changes in species abundance were not clearly related to species-specific reliance on corals. The strong positive relationships between live coral cover and fish diversity and abundance noted in 1981, when coral cover rarely exceeded 10%, were no longer present in 2012, when coral cover rarely fell below this value. The most parsimonious explanation for these contrasting relationships is that, over the combined range of coral cover observed in the 1981 and 2012 snapshots, there is a rapidly asymptotic relationship between coral and fish. Our results, and other data from the south and west Pacific, suggest that fish diversity and abundance might accumulate rapidly up to a threshold of approximately 10% live coral cover. Such a relationship would have implications for our expectations of resistance and recovery of reef fish communities facing an increasingly severe regime of coral reef disturbances.

  13. The International Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy Survey (IPOEMS): a snapshot of the global POEM experience. (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Modayil, Rani J; Friedel, David; Savides, Thomas


    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) approach to Heller myotomy. Even though we are now entering an exponential phase of growth with a large number of centers interested in POEM, published data to guide them are limited. As part of the July 2012 NOSCAR meeting, a conference was organized to review POEM and develop a consensus document. Authors SNS and TS who chaired the NOSCAR panel recognized the dearth of published data, which also may lag the rapid developments in POEM. Therefore, they undertook a survey of early POEM adopters around the world to rapidly obtain global, extensive, and current data on POEM. The raw survey data were made available to NOSCAR panel participants to assist with their presentations. We summarize the salient findings of the survey. A comprehensive POEM survey was created and tested. The final survey instrument consisted of 197 questions that covered all aspects of POEM, including operator discipline, prior training, patient selection, setting, technique preference, results, adverse events, regulatory requirements, and perspectives on the future. An automated online response collector was used. The International Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy Survey (IPOEMS) involved 16 expert centers, 7 in North America, 5 in Asia, 4 in Europe, including all high-volume centers (≥30 POEMs per center), as of July 2012. These centers had performed 841 POEMs. There were modest variations among centers in technique and periprocedural management, but all centers uniformly reported excellent efficacy and safety outcomes. The international POEM survey provides a "global snapshot" of the experience of early adopters. The excellent outcomes over a large cumulative volume of procedures are in line with those of published small series and lend further support to the notion that POEM represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of achalasia.

  14. A Snapshot Study of Current Practices among Sellers of Translation Services between Japanese and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stephen Crabbe


    Full Text Available A two-part study was launched in light of the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement in its guide, 翻訳で失敗しないために翻訳発注の手引き [lit. For not getting it wrong with translation: a guide to ordering translation], that “外国語の文書を母国語に翻訳するのがプロの原則です” [lit. It is a fundamental principle that professional translators work into their native languages] (Japan Translation Federation, 2012, p. 15. The key goal is to gauge the extent to which this 2012 statement is reflected in current practices among the sellers and buyers of translation services between Japanese and English. In this paper, which describes the first part of the study, the focus is on the practices of sellers of translation services between Japanese and English: specifically, professional freelance translators. Twenty-four professional freelance translators completed an online questionnaire. The results of this questionnaire, first, suggest that current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English are consistent with the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement and, second, broadly support secondary literature on L1 translation (translation into the first language and L2 translation (translation into the second language. Whilst this is only a snapshot of current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English, the overall results are informative. In the second, follow-up part of the study the focus will be on the current practices of buyers of translation services between Japanese and English.

  15. Operation resistance: A snapshot of falsified antibiotics and biopharmaceutical injectables in Europe. (United States)

    Venhuis, Bastiaan J; Keizers, Peter H J; Klausmann, Rüdiger; Hegger, Ingrid


    Operation Pangea is an annual international week of action combating pharmaceutical crime. In this study, called Operation Resistance, we asked the national agencies in Europe to search for falsified antibiotics and biopharmaceutical injectables (peptides and proteins) amongst the medicines seized in Pangea 7 (2014). Reports were received from Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Spain, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Switzerland. The countries reported seizing about 21,000 dose units (e.g. tablets, capsules) of falsified antibiotics in total. Most of the antibiotics were unlicensed medicines with common antibiotic drugs. In this study week, very few falsified biopharmaceutical injectables were reported. Laboratories reported human growth hormone, sermorelin, melanotan II, and no active ingredients. The average shipment size seemed too large for personal use indicating that a substantial part was intended for resale. This study provides a snapshot of the falsified antibiotics and biopharmaceuticals that enter European countries. How much is actually reaching users during Pangea week - in on other weeks - remains unknown. The shipment sizes indicate falsified antibiotics and biopharmaceuticals are imported for both personal use and resale. The use of antibiotics from unreliable sources is a health risk, contributes to antimicrobial resistance, and may obscure a source of infection from health agencies. The falsified biopharmaceuticals are a health risk because they lack all labelling and may contain unlicensed drugs for injection. It seems important to raise awareness among health-care professionals that falsified medicines in Europe are not restricted to erectile dysfunction drugs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. More coral, more fish? Contrasting snapshots from a remote Pacific atoll. (United States)

    Beldade, Ricardo; Mills, Suzanne C; Claudet, Joachim; Côté, Isabelle M


    Coral reefs are in decline across the globe as a result of overexploitation, pollution, disease and, more recently, climate change. The impacts of changes in coral cover on associated fish communities can be difficult to predict because of the uneven dependence of reef fish species on corals for food, shelter or the three-dimensional structure they provide. We compared live coral cover, reef fish community metrics, and their associations in two surveys of the lagoon of the remote atoll of Mataiva (French Polynesia) carried out 31 years apart. In contrast to the general pattern of decreasing coral cover reported for many parts of the Indo-Pacific region, live coral cover increased 6-7 fold at Mataiva between 1981 and 2012, and fish density nearly doubled. The stable overall reef fish species richness belied a significant shift in community structure. There was little overlap in community composition across years, and fish assemblages in 2012 were more homogeneous in composition than they were in 1981. Changes in species abundance were not clearly related to species-specific reliance on corals. The strong positive relationships between live coral cover and fish diversity and abundance noted in 1981, when coral cover rarely exceeded 10%, were no longer present in 2012, when coral cover rarely fell below this value. The most parsimonious explanation for these contrasting relationships is that, over the combined range of coral cover observed in the 1981 and 2012 snapshots, there is a rapidly asymptotic relationship between coral and fish. Our results, and other data from the south and west Pacific, suggest that fish diversity and abundance might accumulate rapidly up to a threshold of approximately 10% live coral cover. Such a relationship would have implications for our expectations of resistance and recovery of reef fish communities facing an increasingly severe regime of coral reef disturbances.

  17. Snapshot and crystallographic observations of kinetic and thermodynamic products for NO2S2 macrocyclic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Hyeok Park


    Full Text Available Direct observation and structural characterization of a kinetic product and a thermodynamic product for complexes with an NO2S2 macrocycle (L are reported. L reacts with copper(I iodide to give a mononuclear complex [Cu(L]2(Cu2I4·2CH2Cl2 (1, featuring three separate units. When cadmium(II iodide was reacted with L, an anion-coordinated complex [Cd(LI]2(Cd2I6·4CH3CN (2 with a needle-type crystal shape was formed as the kinetic product. Interestingly, when the needle-type kinetic product was left undisturbed in the mother solution it gradually transformed to the pseudo-dimer complex [Cd2(L2I2](Cd2I6 (3 with a brick-type crystal shape as the thermodynamic product. The dissolution–recrystallization process resulted in the elimination of the lattice solvent molecules (acetonitrile in 2 and the contraction of two neighboring macrocyclic complex units [Cd(LI]+, forming the pseudo-dimer 3 via an intermolecular Cd...I interaction between two monomers. For the entire process from kinetic to thermodynamic products, it was possible to obtain sequential photographic snapshots, single-crystal X-ray structures and powder X-ray diffraction patterns. For the copper(I and cadmium(II complexes, competitive NMR results agree with the solid-state data that show copper(I has a higher affinity for L than does cadmium(II.

  18. A snapshot evaluation of stream environmental quality in the Little Conestoga Creek basin, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Davis, Ryan C.


    Many Lancaster County residents are interested in stream monitoring and habitat restoration to maintain or improve stream water quality and to keep contaminants from reaching ground water used to supply drinking water. To promote resident involvement and environmental stewardship, the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay (ACB) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) designed this “snapshot” study of water quality and aquatic-insect communities in the Little Conestoga Creek Basin. Citizen-based restoration programs can improve water quality at a local level; such efforts will ultimately improve the ecological integrity of the Lower Susquehanna River and the Chesapeake Bay.The Little Conestoga Creek Basin was studied for several reasons. It was felt the project should benefit Lancaster County residents because funding was provided by Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection funds generated in Lancaster County. The small drainage area size, 65.5 mi2 (square miles), allowed resident involvement in the necessary training and the snapshot sampling plan. Also, a previous study within south-central Pennsylvania reported the highest nutrient yields entering the Susquehanna River are contributed by the Conestoga River and its tributary subbasins, and the Basin’s location within the Conestoga River watershed made it a potential contributor of high nutrient loads. However, few data had been collected in this Basin to characterize the water quality and aquatic-insect populations. Ongoing studies by a “stream team” from Lancaster County Academy and by students and staff at Millersville University did not fully document the level of stream impairment throughout the Basin.

  19. Optimal arrays for compressed sensing in snapshot-mode radio interferometry (United States)

    Fannjiang, Clara


    Context. Radio interferometry has always faced the problem of incomplete sampling of the Fourier plane. A possible remedy can be found in the promising new theory of compressed sensing (CS), which allows for the accurate recovery of sparse signals from sub-Nyquist sampling given certain measurement conditions. Aims: We provide an introductory assessment of optimal arrays for CS in snapshot-mode radio interferometry, using orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), a widely used CS recovery algorithm similar in some respects to CLEAN. We focus on comparing centrally condensed (specifically, Gaussian) arrays to uniform arrays, and randomized arrays to deterministic arrays such as the VLA. Methods: The theory of CS is grounded in a) sparse representation of signals and b) measurement matrices of low coherence. We calculate the mutual coherence of measurement matrices as a theoretical indicator of arrays' suitability for OMP, based on the recovery error bounds in Donoho et al. (2006, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 52, 1289). OMP reconstructions of both point and extended objects are also run from simulated incomplete data. Optimal arrays are considered for objects represented in 1) the natural pixel basis and 2) the block discrete cosine transform (BDCT). Results: We find that reconstructions of the pixel representation perform best with the uniform random array, while reconstructions of the BDCT representation perform best with normal random arrays. Slight randomization to the VLA also improves it dramatically for CS recovery with the pixel basis. Conclusions: In the pixel basis, array design for CS reflects known principles of array design for small numbers of antennas, namely of randomness and uniform distribution. Differing results with the BDCT, however, emphasize the need to study how sparsifying bases affect array design before CS can be optimized for radio interferometry.

  20. Snapshot of Teleretinal Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy at the West Los Angeles Medical Center. (United States)

    Tsui, Irena; Havunjian, Margaret A; Davis, John A; Giaconi, JoAnn A


    The West Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Medical Center is a large urban facility with a robust teleretinal screening program in primary care clinic, established in 2006. The purpose of this article is to provide a snapshot of teleretinal screening at this site. Diabetic patients from 2012 were analyzed with a prospective cohort study. Demographic information, results of teleretinal screening, referral to eye clinic, and loss to follow-up (defined as no eye care within 2 years) were collected. Of 516 patients with diabetes screened with teleretinal imaging, 120 patient charts were reviewed for data analysis. Teleretinal imaging diagnosed 15% (18/120) of patients with varying stages of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). Of patients screened, 55.8% (67/120) of the patients were referred to an eye clinic for further ophthalmic evaluation. Nondiabetic retinopathy reasons for eye clinic referral included glaucoma suspect (13.3%, 16/120) and age-related macular degeneration (10.0%, 12/120). Of all patients screened, 37.5% (45/120) of them were lost to follow-up, defined as no teleretinal screening or eye clinic appointment within 2 years. Patients who lived farther away from clinic had a higher risk of loss to follow-up (p = 0.04). We found, although only 15% of patients were diagnosed with DR from teleretinal screening, more than 50% of patients were referred to eye clinic. In addition, of all screened patients, there was a high rate of not returning to the Veterans Affairs (VA) for eye care.

  1. Small Satellites Big Business?


    A. Marchetto, Carl


    Biography-Carl A. Marchetto is Senior Vice President and President, ATK Space Systems for Alliant Tech¬systems (ATK). Prior to joining ATK in January 2008, Carl was Executive Vice President and General Manager Space Sys¬tems group for Orbital Sciences, where he led an organization designing, building, and servicing communication, space research and earth imaging satellites for commercial, gov¬ernment and academic customers. Carl’s previous experience includes a decade at Eastman Kodak that sa...

  2. Monitoring Satellite Data Ingest and Processing for the Atmosphere Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) (United States)

    Witt, J.; Gumley, L.; Braun, J.; Dutcher, S.; Flynn, B.


    The Atmosphere SIPS (Science Investigator-led Processing Systems) team at the Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC), which is funded through a NASA contract, creates Level 2 cloud and aerosol products from the VIIRS instrument aboard the S-NPP satellite. In order to monitor the ingest and processing of files, we have developed an extensive monitoring system to observe every step in the process. The status grid is used for real time monitoring, and shows the current state of the system, including what files we have and whether or not we are meeting our latency requirements. Our snapshot tool displays the state of the system in the past. It displays which files were available at a given hour and is used for historical and backtracking purposes. In addition to these grid like tools we have created histograms and other statistical graphs for tracking processing and ingest metrics, such as total processing time, job queue time, and latency statistics.

  3. A satellite anemometer (United States)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.


    This report describes the design, development, and testing of components of a satellite anemometer, an instrument for measuring neutral winds in the upper atmosphere from a satellite platform. The device, which uses four nearly identical pressure sensors, measures the angle of arrival of the bulk neutral flow in the satellite frame of reference. It could also be used in a feedback loop to control spacecraft attitude with respect to the ram velocity direction. We have now developed miniaturized ionization pressure gauges that will work well from the slip flow region near 115 km up to the base of the exosphere, which covers the entire altitude range currently being considered for Tether. Laboratory tests have demonstrated a very linear response to changes in ram angle out to +/- 20 deg. (transverse wind component of 2.7 km s(exp -1)) from the ram, and a monotonic response to out beyond 45 deg. Pitch (vertical wind) and yaw (horizontal wind) can be sampled simultaneously and meaningfully up to 10 Hz. Angular sensitivity of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 ms(exp -1) is readily attainable, but absolute accuracy for winds will be approximately 1 deg (130 m/s) unless independent attitude knowledge is available. The critical elements of the design have all been tested in the laboratory.

  4. Accelerators and neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Valda, A.


    Within the frame of Accelerator Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, relatively near its energy threshold is one of the most promising, due to its high yield and low neutron energy. In this work a thick LiF target irradiated with a proton beam was studied as a neutron source. The 1.88-2.0 MeV proton beam was produced by the tandem accelerator TANDAR at CNEA's facilities in Buenos Aires. A water-filled phantom, containing a boron sample was irradiated with the resulting neutron flux. The 10B(n,αγ)7Li boron neutron capture reaction produces a 0.478 MeV gamma ray in 94% of the cases. The neutron yield was measured through the detection of this gamma ray using a hyperpure germanium detector with an anti-Compton shield. In addition, the thermal neutron flux was evaluated at different depths inside the phantom using bare and Cd-covered gold foils. A maximum neutron thermal flux of 1.4x108 cm-2s-1mA-1 was obtained at 4.2 cm from the phantom surface. In order to optimize the design of the neutron production target and the beam shaping assembly extensive Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon (MCNP) simulations have been performed. Neutron fields from a thick LiF and a Li metal target (with both a D2O-graphite and a Al/AlF3-graphite moderator/reflector assembly) were evaluated along the centerline of a head and a whole body phantom. Simulations were carried out for 1.89, 2.0 and 2.3 MeV proton beams. The results show that it is more advantageous to irradiate the target with 2.3 MeV near-resonance protons, instead of very near threshold, because of the higher neutron yield at this energy. On the other hand, the Al/AlF3-graphite exhibits a more efficient performance than D2O in terms of tumor to maximum healthy tissue dose ratio. Treatment times of less than 15 min and tumor control probabilities larger than 98% are obtained for a 50 mA, 2.3 MeV proton beam. The alternative neutron-producing reaction 13C(d,n) is also briefly reviewed. A proposal

  5. Revisiting the Capture of Mercury into Its 3:2 Spin-orbit Resonance (United States)


    well before differentiation. Keywords. celestial mechanics, planets and satellites: individual ( Mercury ) 1. Previous studies In the literature hitherto...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Revisiting the capture of Mercury into its 3:2 spin-orbit...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME (S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Naval Observatory,,Washington,,DC,20392 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  6. Transport and Capture of Comets (United States)

    Ross, S. D.; Koon, W. S.; Lo, M. W.; Marsden, J. E.


    The dynamics of comets and other solar system objects which have a three-body energy close to that of the collinear libration points are known to exhibit a complicated array of behaviors such as rapid transition between the interior and exterior Hill's regions, temporary capture, and collision. The invariant manifold structures of the collinear libration points for the restricted three-body problem, which exist for a range of energies, provide the framework for understanding these transport phenomena from a geometric point of view. In particular, the stable and unstable invariant manifold "tubes" associated to libration point orbits are the phase space conduits transporting material to and from the smaller primary body (e.g., Jupiter), and between primary bodies for separate three-body systems (e.g., Saturn and Jupiter). This point of view has worked well in describing the planar circular restricted three-body problem. The current work seeks to extend the results to three degrees of freedom. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. KDI/ATM-9873133 under a contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.


    The author first highlights the reasons why storing carbon dioxide in geological formations could be a solution in the struggle against global warming and climate change. Thus, he comments various evolutions and prospective data about carbon emissions or fossil energy consumption as well as various studies performed by international bodies and agencies which show the interest of carbon dioxide storage. He comments the evolution of CO 2 contributions of different industrial sectors and activities, notably in France. He presents the different storage modes and methods which concern different geological formations (saline aquifers, abandoned oil or gas fields, not exploitable coal seams) and different processes (sorption, carbonation). He discusses the risks associated with these storages, the storable quantities, evokes some existing installations in different countries. He comments different ways to capture carbon dioxide (in post-combustion, through oxy-combustion, by pre-combustion) and briefly evokes some existing installations. He evokes the issue of transport, and discusses efficiency and cost aspects, and finally has few words on legal aspects and social acceptability

  8. Beyond MACS: A Snapshot Survey of the Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies at z>0.5 (United States)

    Ebeling, Harald


    Truly massive galaxy clusters play a pivotal role for a wealth of extragalactic and cosmological research topics, and SNAPshot observations of these systems are ideally suited to identify the most promising cluster targets for further, in-depth study. The power of this approach was demonstrated by ACS/WFC3 SNAPshots of X-ray selected MACS and eMACS clusters at z>0.3 obtained by us in previous Cycles (44 of them in all of F606W, F814W, F110W, and F140W). Based on these data, the CLASH MCT program selected 16 out of 25 of their targets to be MACS clusters. Similarly, all but one of the six most powerful cluster lenses selected for in-depth study by the HST Frontier Fields initiative are MACS detections, and so are 16 of the 29 z>0.3 clusters targeted by the RELICS legacy program.We propose to extend our spectacularly successful SNAPshot survey of the most X-ray luminous distant clusters to a redshift-mass regime that is poorly sampled by any other project. Targeting only extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 from the X-ray selected eMACS sample (median velocity dispersion: 1180 km/s), the proposed program will (a) identify the most powerful gravitational telescopes at yet higher redshift for the next generation of in-depth studies of the distant Universe with HST and JWST, (b) provide constraints on the mass distribution within these extreme systems, (c) help improve our understanding of the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and (d) unveil Balmer Break Galaxies at z 2 and Lyman-break galaxies at z>6 as F814W dropouts.Acknowledging the broad community interest in our sample we waive our data rights for these observations.

  9. Device of capturing for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kimichika.


    Purpose: To increase the area of contact between the capturing materials for the radioactive corrosion products contained in the coolants and the coolants by producing stirred turbulent flows in the coolant flow channel of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Constituent materials for the nuclear fuel elements or the reactor core structures are activated under the neutron irradiation, corroded and transferred into the coolants. While capturing devices made of pure metal nickel are used for the elimination of the corrosion products, since the coolants form laminar flows due to the viscosity thereof near the surface of the capturing materials, the probability that the corrosion products in the coolants flowing through the middle portion of the channel contact the capturing materials is reduced. In this invention, rotating rolls and flow channels in which the balls are rotated are disposed at the upstream of the capturing device to forcively disturb the flow of the liquid sodium, whereby the radioactive corrosion products can effectively be captured. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Understanding and capturing NSSS design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palo, W.J.; Miller, B.


    Changes to, and technical evaluations of nuclear generating station designs are often warranted. Comprehensive documentation and understanding of the NSSS Design Basis are essential to support these activities. Effective configuration management tools are also needed to maintain the plant within design basis limits. Efficient design basis reconstitution can be realized via: In-depth understanding of the design process; Utilization of effective data collection methodology; State of the art data basing tools. A database can be created to generate a Design Basis Manual (DBM). This database can communicate electronically with other plant databases. A living document vice a static snapshot of the plant design is the goal. A design basis database can serve as the cornerstone for a global electronic information control system

  11. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka


    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  12. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.


    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  13. Mobile satellite service communications tests using a NASA satellite (United States)

    Chambers, Katherine H.; Koschmeder, Louis A.; Hollansworth, James E.; ONeill, Jack; Jones, Robert E.; Gibbons, Richard C.


    Emerging applications of commercial mobile satellite communications include satellite delivery of compact disc (CD) quality radio to car drivers who can select their favorite programming as they drive any distance; transmission of current air traffic data to aircraft; and handheld communication of data and images from any remote corner of the world. Experiments with the enabling technologies and tests and demonstrations of these concepts are being conducted before the first satellite is launched by utilizing an existing NASA spacecraft.

  14. Tidal effects in the evolution of natural satellites (United States)

    Mignard, F.


    The effects of tidal friction in the orbital evolution of natural satellites are considered, and constraints set by tidal effects on the evolution of the earth-moon system, Phobos and Deimos and the Pluto-Charon system are discussed. The energy dissipated by tidal friction is shown to lead eventually to a stable state in a planetary system determined by the initial angular velocities and orbital directions of the planet and satellite(s), with the satellite in a circular equatorial orbit with the same face turned to the planet in the final state of orbital evolution. For the case of the Martian system, results of integrations of satellite motion into the past and future are presented which demonstrate the decrease in the eccentricity and orbital inclination with respect to the Martian equator of Phobos, which may have been captured from an orbit in the plane of the ecliptic or formed by accretion in the Mars equatorial plane, and its eventual fate in a collision with Mars. The effects of tidal dissipation on the history of the inclination of the lunar orbit on the ecliptic, the obliquity of the ecliptic and the eccentricity of the lunar orbit are also illustrated, and the secular acceleration of the moon and the lengthening of the day are noted. Finally, the observed day length on Pluto close to the revolution period of Charon is discussed as an example of the final state of tidal evolution.

  15. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  16. Satellite Laser Ranging Satellite Orbit Product from NASA CDDIS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLR Satellite Orbit solutions available from the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Precise Orbit Determination (POD) solutions in Standard Product 3...

  17. Nano-Satellite Avionics (United States)

    Culver, Harry


    Abstract NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a new class of satellites called the nano-satellite (nano-sat). A major objective of this development effort is to provide the technology required to enable a constellation of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites to make both remote and in-situ measurements from space. The Nano-sat will be a spacecraft weighing a maximum of 10 kg, including the propellant mass, and producing at least 5 Watts of power to operate the spacecraft. The electronics are required to survive a total radiation dose rate of 100 krads for a mission lifetime of two years. There are many unique challenges that must be met in order to develop the avionics for such a spacecraft. The first challenge is to develop an architecture that will operate on the allotted 5 Watts and meet the diverging requirements of multiple missions. This architecture will need to incorporate a multitude of new advanced microelectronic technologies. The microelectronics developed must be a modular and scalable packaging of technology to solve the problem of developing a solution to both reduce cost and meet the requirements of various missions. This development will utilize the most cost effective approach, whether infusing commercially driven semiconductor devices into spacecraft applications or partnering with industry to design and develop low cost, low power, low mass, and high capacity data processing devices. This paper will discuss the nano-sat architecture and the major technologies that will be developed. The major technologies that will be covered include: (1) Light weight Low Power Electronics Packaging, (2) Radiation Hard/Tolerant, Low Power Processing Platforms, (3) High capacity Low Power Memory Systems (4) Radiation Hard reconfiguragble field programmable gate array (rFPGA)

  18. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue


    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  19. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat


    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  20. Radio broadcasting via satellite (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.


    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  1. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian


    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  2. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils


    The natural variations of the Earth's magnetic field of periods spanning from milliseconds to decades can be used to infer the conductivity-depth profile of the Earth's interior. Satellites provide a good spatial coverage of magnetic measurements, and forthcoming missions will probably allow....... This paper reviews and discusses the possibilities for induction studies using high-precision magnetic measurements from low-altitude satellites. The different methods and various transfer functions are presented, with special emphasis on the differences in analysing data from ground stations and from...... satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results...

  3. Monitoring Land Use: Capturing Change through an Information Fusion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Altaweel


    Full Text Available Social and environmental factors affecting land use change are among the most significant drivers transforming the planet. Such change has been and continues to be monitored through the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and technical reports. While these monitoring tools are useful in observing the empirical results of land use change and issues of sustainability, the data they provide are often not useful in capturing the fundamental policies, social drivers, and unseen factors that shape how landscapes are transformed. In addition, some monitoring approaches can be prohibitively expensive and too slow in providing useful data at a timescale in which data are needed. This paper argues that techniques using information fusion and conducting assessments of continuous data feeds can be beneficial for monitoring primary social and ecological mechanisms affecting how geographic settings are changed over different time scales. We present a computational approach that couples open source tools in order to conduct an analysis of text data, helping to determine relevant events and trends. To demonstrate the approach, we discuss a case study that integrates varied newspapers from two Midwest states in the United States, Iowa and Nebraska, showing how potentially significant issues and events can be captured. Although the approach we present is useful for monitoring current web-based data streams, we argue that such a method should ultimately be integrated closely with less managed systems and modeling techniques to enhance not only land use monitoring but also to better forecast and understand landscape change.

  4. Optimal control of electrodynamic tether satellites (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.

    Low thrust propulsion systems offer a fuel-efficient means to maneuver satellites to new orbits, however they can only perform such maneuvers when they are continuously operated for a long time. Such long-term maneuvers occur over many orbital revolutions often rendering short time scale trajectory optimization methods ineffective. An approach to multirevolution, long time scale optimal control of an electrodynamic tether is investigated for a tethered satellite system in Low Earth Orbit with atmospheric drag. Control is assumed to be periodic over several orbits since under the assumptions of a nearly circular orbit, periodic control yields the only solution that significantly contributes to secular changes in the orbital parameters. The optimal control problem is constructed in such a way as to maneuver the satellite to a new orbit while minimizing a cost function subject to the constraints of the time-averaged equations of motion by controlling current in the tether. To accurately capture the tether orbital dynamics, libration is modeled and controlled over long time scales in a similar manner to the orbital states. Libration is addressed in two parts; equilibrium and stability analysis, and control. Libration equations of motion are derived and analyzed to provide equilibrium and stability criteria that define the constraints of the design. A new libration mean square state is introduced and constrained to maintain libration within an acceptable envelope throughout a given maneuver. Optimal control solutions are achieved using a pseudospectral method that maneuver an electrodynamic tether to new orbits over long time scales while managing librational motion using only current in a wire.

  5. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael


    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  6. Communication Satellites 1958 to 1986 (United States)


    CATALOG NUMBER S. TYRE OF REPORT * PERIOD COVERED Interim S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER TR-0084A(5417-03)-l S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMRERT...Intelsat Leases 7-211 Other Systems 7-215 The Philippines 7-215 Malaysia 7-215 Planned Systems 7-215 OTHER SATELLITES 8-1 Satellites for... industry . ( The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the technical details of each type of communication satellite for the years 1958 to

  7. Parachute satellites for earth observation (United States)

    Massonnet, Didier


    The "parachute" concept presented here is a generic definition for earth observation systems essentially made of a reflector under which a detector associated with a telemetry antenna is suspended [D. Massonnet, (Applicant), Satellite, method and a fleet of satellites for observing a celestial body, Patent 0509-1112, 2006. [1]; D. Massonnet, (Déposant), Satellite, procédé et flotte de satellites d'observation d'un corps céleste, Priorité 04-04327, 2004. [2

  8. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  9. An OPMA for Robust Mutual Coupling Coefficients Estimation of URA with Single Snapshot in MIMO HF Sky-Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguan Hou


    Full Text Available Due to the fluctuation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the single snapshot case in the MIMO HF sky-wave radar system, the accuracy of the online estimation of the mutual coupling coefficients matrix of the uniform rectangle array (URA might be degraded by the classical approach, especially in the case of low SNR. In this paper, an Online Particle Mean-Shift Approach (OPMA is proposed, which is to get a relatively more effective estimation of the mutual coupling coefficients matrix with the low SNR. Firstly, the spatial smoothing technique combined with the MUSIC algorithm of URA is introduced for the DOA estimation of the multiple targets in the case of single snapshot which are taken as coherent sources. Then, based on the idea of the particle filter, the online particles with a moderate computational complexity are used to generate some different estimation results. Finally, the mean-shift algorithm is applied to get a more robust estimate of the equivalent mutual coupling coefficients matrix. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach in terms of the success probability, the statistics of bias, and the variance. The proposed approach is more robust and more accurate than the other two approaches.

  10. Snapshots of simulation: creative strategies used by Australian educators to enhance simulation learning experiences for nursing students. (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Downer, Teresa; Harrison, Penelope; Harvey, Theresa; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Lynch, Kathy; Arthur, Carol; Layh, Janice; Calleja, Pauline


    Simulation in nursing is a flourishing area for nurse educators' practice. Defined as learning that amplifies, mimics or replaces real-life clinical situations, simulation aims to give students opportunity to reason through a clinical problem and make decisions, without the potential for harming actual patients. Educators in nursing are contributing to simulation learning in diverse and creative ways. Yet much of their craft is not being widely disseminated because educators are not always confident in publishing their work. This paper aims to stimulate creative development in simulation by providing short summaries, or snapshots, of diverse approaches that nurse educators are using. The objective is to inspire others to share other ideas in development or in practice that are improving learning for nursing students and practitioners, so that simulation scholarship is advanced. The snapshots presented range from approaches that: better support educators to attend to the whole process of simulation education, give students quick access to short skill-based videos, orientate students to the laboratory environment, harness the power of the group to develop documentation skills, use simulation to enrich lectures, develop multidisciplinary knowledge, and finally, which teach therapeutic communication with children in a fun and imaginative way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Snapshot gradient-recalled echo-planar images of rat brains at long echo time at 9.4 T. (United States)

    Lei, Hongxia; Mlynárik, Vladimir; Just, Nathalie; Gruetter, Rolf


    With improved B 0 homogeneity along with satisfactory gradient performance at high magnetic fields, snapshot gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) would perform at long echo times (TEs) on the order of T2*, which intrinsically allows obtaining strongly T2*-weighted images with embedded substantial anatomical details in ultrashort time. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and quality of long TE snapshot GRE-EPI images of rat brain at 9.4 T. When compensating for B 0 inhomogeneities, especially second-order shim terms, a 200 x 200 microm2 in-plane resolution image was reproducibly obtained at long TE (>25 ms). The resulting coronal images at 30 ms had diminished geometric distortions and, thus, embedded substantial anatomical details. Concurrently with the very consistent stability, such GRE-EPI images should permit to resolve functional data not only with high specificity but also with substantial anatomical details, therefore allowing coregistration of the acquired functional data on the same image data set.

  12. Search for doubly radiative np capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.


    In the lecture the attempts are briefly reviewed that try to explain the 8% discrepancy between the experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the np capture cross section. The experiment on doubly radiative np capture using two Na 1 (Tl) crystals with two RCA type 4522 fast photomultipliers is described

  13. Screen captures to support switching attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans


    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  14. Capturing, annotating and reflecting video footage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Max Roald; Wagner, Johannes

    A presentation of interaction field data capturing setups for uninterrupted long term capturing. Two setups were described: the AMU forklift driving school with 17 cameras and the Digital Days 2016 at University College Nord in Aalborg with 16 kameras, 14 audio recorders, and two HDMI recorders....

  15. New Methods for Air Quality Model Evaluation with Satellite Data (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Harkey, M.


    Despite major advances in the ability of satellites to detect gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, there remains significant, untapped potential to apply space-based data to air quality regulatory applications. Here, we showcase research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to support operational air quality management, focused on model evaluation. Particular emphasis is given to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite, and evaluation of simulations from the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. This work is part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and is motivated by ongoing dialog with state and federal air quality management agencies. We present the response of satellite-derived NO2 to meteorological conditions, satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, and the ability of models to capture these sensitivities over the continental U.S. In the case of NO2-weather sensitivities, we find boundary layer height, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity to be the most important variables in determining near-surface NO2 variability. CMAQ agreed with relationships observed in satellite data, as well as in ground-based data, over most regions. However, we find that the southwest U.S. is a problem area for CMAQ, where modeled NO2 responses to insolation, boundary layer height, and other variables are at odds with the observations. Our analyses utilize a software developed by our team, the Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites (WHIPS): a free, open-source program designed to make satellite-derived air quality data more usable. WHIPS interpolates level 2 satellite retrievals onto a user-defined fixed grid, in effect creating custom-gridded level 3 satellite product. Currently, WHIPS can process the following data products: OMI NO2 (NASA retrieval); OMI NO2 (KNMI retrieval); OMI

  16. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos


    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  17. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  18. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture. (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D


    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  19. Multiscatter stellar capture of dark matter (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph; Delgado, Antonio; Martin, Adam


    Dark matter may be discovered through its capture in stars and subsequent annihilation. It is usually assumed that dark matter is captured after a single scattering event in the star; however this assumption breaks down for heavy dark matter, which requires multiple collisions with the star to lose enough kinetic energy to become captured. We analytically compute how multiple scatters alter the capture rate of dark matter and identify the parameter space where the effect is largest. Using these results, we then show how multiscatter capture of dark matter on compact stars can be used to probe heavy mX≫TeV dark matter with remarkably small dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections. As one example, it is demonstrated how measuring the temperature of old neutron stars in the Milky Way's center provides sensitivity to high mass dark matter with dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections smaller than the xenon direct detection neutrino floor.

  20. Capturing variations in inundation with satellite remote sensing in a morphologically complex, large lake (United States)

    Wu, Guiping; Liu, Yuanbo


    Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China, with high morphological complexity from south to north. In recent years, the lake has experienced expansion and shrinkage processes over both short- and long-term scales, resulting in significant hydrological, ecological and economic problems. Exactly how and how rapidly the processes of spatial change have occurred in the lake during the expansion and shrinkage periods is unknown. Such knowledge is of great importance for policymakers as it may help with flood/drought prevention, land use planning and lake ecological conservation. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution and changing processes of inundation in Poyang Lake based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level-1B data from 2000 to 2011. A defined water variation rate (WVR) and inundation frequency (IF) indicator revealed the water surface submersion and exposure processes of lake expansion and shrinkage in different zones which were divided according to the lake's hydrological and topographic features. Regional differences and significant seasonality variability were found in the annual and monthly mean IF. The monthly mean IF increased slowly from north to south during January-August but decreased quickly from south to north during September-December. During the lake expansion period, the lake-type water body zone (Zone II) had the fastest expansion rate, with a mean monthly WVR value of 34.47% in February-March, and was followed by the channel-type water body zone (Zone I) in March-May (22.47%). However, during the lake shrinkage period, rapid shrinkage first appeared around the alluvial delta zones in August-October. The sequence of lake surface shrinkage from August to December is exactly opposite to that of lake expansion from February to July. These complex inundation characteristics and changing process were driven by the high temporal variability of the river flows, the morphological diversity of the benthic landforms and the patterns of water movement. These results provide a foundation for basic hydrological and ecological studies and are valuable for the conservation and management of water resources in Poyang Lake.

  1. The Sentinel satellites revolutionise environmental observation; Los satelites Sentinel revolucionan la observacion medioambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    River, A.


    Europe has in orbit three Sentinel satellites that are the backbone of the ambitious Copernicus system. Aimed at revolutionising environmental observation from both the scientific and commercial points of view, their objective is to capture massive volumes of data on the Earth with a view to ensuring progress in research into climate change, the oceans and the evolution of ice formations. (Author)

  2. Observing and Modelling the HighWater Level from Satellite Radar Altimetry During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaoli; Gharineiat, Zahra; Andersen, Ole Baltazar


    that altimetry data can capture high water levels induced by Larry and Yasi through a careful re-processing and re-editing of the data. About 18 years of data from multi-satellite altimetry missions including TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2, and seven tide gauges around the northern Australian coast...

  3. Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a generic name given to a group of several satellite constellations such as the. Global Positioning System (GPS), GLObal NAvigation Satellite. System (GLONASS), Galileo, and Compass. The satellite con- stellations (navigation satellites) broadcast their positions and tim-.

  4. The Future of Satellite Communications Technology. (United States)

    Nowland, Wayne


    Discusses technical advances in satellite technology since the 1960s, and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization's role in these developments; describes how AUSSAT, Australia's domestic satellite system, exemplifies the latest developments in satellite technology; and reviews satellite system features, possible future…

  5. Object-Based Assessment of Satellite Precipitation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Li


    Full Text Available An object-based verification approach is employed to assess the performance of the commonly used high-resolution satellite precipitation products: Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN, Climate Prediction center MORPHing technique (CMORPH, and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT. The evaluation of the satellite precipitation products focuses on the skill of depicting the geometric features of the localized precipitation areas. Seasonal variability of the performances of these products against the ground observations is investigated through the examples of warm and cold seasons. It is found that PERSIANN is capable of depicting the orientation of the localized precipitation areas in both seasons. CMORPH has the ability to capture the sizes of the localized precipitation areas and performs the best in the overall assessment for both seasons. 3B42RT is capable of depicting the location of the precipitation areas for both seasons. In addition, all of the products perform better on capturing the sizes and centroids of precipitation areas in the warm season than in the cold season, while they perform better on depicting the intersection area and orientation in the cold season than in the warm season. These products are more skillful on correctly detecting the localized precipitation areas against the observations in the warm season than in the cold season.

  6. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements....

  7. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls


    damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  8. Mobility management in satellite networks (United States)

    Johanson, Gary A.


    This paper addresses the methods used or proposed for use in multi-beam and/or multi-satellite networks designed to provide Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). Specific topics include beam crossover in the North American Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system as well as registration and live call hand-off for a multi-regional geosynchronous (GEO) satellite based system and a global coverage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) system. In the MSAT system, the individual satellite beams cover very large geographic areas so the need for live call hand-off was not anticipated. This paper discusses the methods used to keep track of the beam location of the users so that incoming call announcements or other messages may be directed to them. Proposed new GEO systems with large numbers of beams will provide much smaller geographic coverage in individual beams and thus the need arises to keep track of the user's location as well as to provide live call hand-off as the user traverses from beam to beam. This situation also occurs in proposed LEO systems where the problems are worsened by the need for satellite to satellite hand-off as well as beam to beam hand-off within a single satellite. The paper discusses methods to accomplish these handoffs and proposes system architectures to address the various hand-off scenarios.

  9. Newspaper Uses of Satellite Technology. (United States)

    Johns, David

    Replacing slower mail service, satellite transmission now gives the newspaper industry a practical and almost spontaneous method for sending all kinds of information to any newspaper across the country. Unlike other communication industries, newspapers did not begin to make widespread use of satellite technology until 1979, when government…

  10. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology. (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others


    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  11. A Primer on Satellite Equipment. (United States)

    Doan, Michael


    Information provided for school districts desiring to offer distance education courses to their students describes the kind of satellite dish needed; its size, sturdiness, placement, and number of dishes needed; satellite receivers; the function of a descrambler; copyright restrictions; features of an Integrated Receiver/Descrambler; selecting a…

  12. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell (United States)


    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  13. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    made in recent years in India in electronics. In comparison, information on rocket technology is much more restricted. Thus it came about that when in 1972 the USSR. Academy of Sciences offered us assistances to launch an Indian made satellite with a. Soviet rocket - the Indian Scientific Satellite Project came into being.

  14. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.


    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  15. Satellite DNA and related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich J.


    Full Text Available Satellite DNA, also known as tandemly repeated DNA, consists of clusters of repeated sequences and represents a diverse class of highly repetitive elements. Satellite DNA can be divided into several classes according to the size of an individual repeat: microsatellites, minisatellites, midisatellites, and macrosatellites. Originally considered as «junk» DNA, satellite DNA has more recently been reconsidered as having various functions. Moreover, due to the repetitive nature of the composing elements, their presence in the genome is associated with high frequency mutations, epigenetic changes and modifications in gene expression patterns, with a potential to lead to human disease. Therefore, the satellite DNA study will be beneficial for developing a treatment of satellite-related diseases, such as FSHD, neurological, developmental disorders and cancers.

  16. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les


    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  17. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda


    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  18. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto


    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  19. Radiative electron capture by channeled ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitarke, J.M.; Ritchie, R.H.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN


    Considerable experimental data have been accumulated relative to the emission of photons accompanying electron capture by swift, highly stripped atoms penetrating crystalline matter under channeling conditions. Recent data suggest that the photon energies may be less than that expected from simple considerations of transitions from the valence band of the solid to hydrogenic states on the moving ion. We have studied theoretically the impact parameter dependence of the radiative electron capture (REC) process, the effect of the ion's wake and the effect of capture from inner shells of the solid on the photon emission probability, using a statistical approach. Numerical comparisons of our results with experiment are made. 13 refs., 6 figs

  20. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO 2 generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO 2 capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO 2 transport options, the geological storage of the CO 2 and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  1. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  2. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Jefferson County Public Schools (Louisville, KY). Grade 4, Public Schools (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010


    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Jefferson County Public Schools' student achievement in reading. In 2009, the…

  3. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Jefferson County Public Schools (Louisville, KY). Grade 8, Public Schools (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010


    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Jefferson County Public Schools' student achievement in reading. In 2009, the…

  4. Assessing satellite-based fire data for use in the National Emissions Inventory (United States)

    Soja, Amber J.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Giglio, Louis; Randall, Dave; Kittaka, Chieko; Pouliot, George; Kordzi, Joseph J.; Raffuse, Sean; Pace, Thompson G.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Moore, Tom; Roy, Biswadev; Pierce, R. Bradley; Szykman, James J.


    Biomass burning is significant to emission estimates because: (1) it is a major contributor of particulate matter and other pollutants; (2) it is one of the most poorly documented of all sources; (3) it can adversely affect human health; and (4) it has been identified as a significant contributor to climate change through feedbacks with the radiation budget. Additionally, biomass burning can be a significant contributor to a regions inability to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM 2.5 and ozone, particularly on the top 20% worst air quality days. The United States does not have a standard methodology to track fire occurrence or area burned, which are essential components to estimating fire emissions. Satellite imagery is available almost instantaneously and has great potential to enhance emission estimates and their timeliness. This investigation compares satellite-derived fire data to ground-based data to assign statistical error and helps provide confidence in these data. The largest fires are identified by all satellites and their spatial domain is accurately sensed. MODIS provides enhanced spatial and temporal information, and GOES ABBA data are able to capture more small agricultural fires. A methodology is presented that combines these satellite data in Near-Real-Time to produce a product that captures 81 to 92% of the total area burned by wildfire, prescribed, agricultural and rangeland burning. Each satellite possesses distinct temporal and spatial capabilities that permit the detection of unique fires that could be omitted if using data from only one satellite.

  5. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M


    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods. (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T


    Excess carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO 2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO 2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO 2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian...

  8. Capturing American black ducks in tidal waters (United States)

    Harrison, M.K.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Stotts, D.B.


    We modified conventional, funnel-entrance dabbling duck bait traps to increase captures for banding of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) in tidal saltmarsh habitats of Smith Island, Maryland, one of the few remaining strongholds for breeding Black Ducks in the Chesapeake Bay. Traps and trapping techniques were adapted to tidal creeks and refined to improve capture rate, reduce mortality, and minimize interference by gulls. Best results were achieved by synchronizing trapping with predawn, low-tide foraging patterns of Black Ducks. Trap entrances were critical to retaining ducks, and use of loafing platforms reduced overall mortality to 3% of captures per year. We captured 3071 Black Ducks during the 14-year period, 1984-199

  9. Assisted living captures profitable market niche. (United States)

    Pallarito, K


    The $15 billion assisted-living industry has captured a profitable market niche and created a star on Wall Street. Sunrise Retirement Home of Falls Church (Va.), right, is a facility of the nation's largest assisted-living provider.

  10. Lunar Sulfur Capture System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  11. Stochastic Capability Models for Degrading Satellite Constellations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulyas, Cole W


    This thesis proposes and analyzes a new measure of functional capability for satellite constellations that incorporates the instantaneous availability and mission effectiveness of individual satellites...

  12. Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio Satellite Base Station (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Sims, Herb


    With the explosion of the CubeSat, small sat, and nanosat markets, the need for a robust, highly capable, yet affordable satellite base station, capable of telemetry capture and relay, is significant. The Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) is NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) software-defined digital radio, developed with previous Technology Investment Programs and Technology Transfer Office resources. The current PULSAR will have achieved a Technology Readiness Level-6 by the end of FY 2014. The extensibility of the PULSAR will allow it to be adapted to perform the tasks of a mobile base station capable of commanding, receiving, and processing satellite, rover, or planetary probe data streams with an appropriate antenna.

  13. Field Testing of Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Aaron [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Frankman, Dave [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Andrew [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Stitt, Kyler [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Larry [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)


    Sustainable Energy Solutions has been developing Cryogenic Carbon Capture™ (CCC) since 2008. In that time two processes have been developed, the External Cooling Loop and Compressed Flue Gas Cryogenic Carbon Capture processes (CCC ECL™ and CCC CFG™ respectively). The CCC ECL™ process has been scaled up to a 1TPD CO2 system. In this process the flue gas is cooled by an external refrigerant loop. SES has tested CCC ECL™ on real flue gas slip streams from subbituminous coal, bituminous coal, biomass, natural gas, shredded tires, and municipal waste fuels at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, cement kilns, and pilot-scale research reactors. The CO2 concentrations from these tests ranged from 5 to 22% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at a modest rate. The CCC CFG™ process has been scaled up to a .25 ton per day system. This system has been tested on real flue gas streams including subbituminous coal, bituminous coal and natural gas at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, and pilot-scale research reactors. CO2 concentrations for these tests ranged from 5 to 15% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at 90+%. Hg capture was also verified and the resulting effluent from CCC CFG™ was below a 1ppt concentration. This paper will focus on discussion of the capabilities of CCC, the results of field testing and the future steps surrounding the development of this technology.

  14. Capturing Design Decision Rationale with Decision Cards


    Gutierrez Lopez , Marisela; Rovelo , Gustavo; Haesen , Mieke; Luyten , Kris; Coninx , Karin


    In the design process, designers make a wide variety of decisions that are essential to transform a design from a conceptual idea into a concrete solution. Recording and tracking design decisions, a first step to capturing the rationale of the design process, are tasks that until now are considered as cumbersome and too constraining. We used a holistic approach to design, deploy, and verify decision cards; a low threshold tool to capture, externalize, and contextualize design decisions during...

  15. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.H.; Gahbauer, R.; Clendenon, N.


    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  16. Handbook of capture-recapture analysis (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, Trent L.; Manly, Bryan F.J.


    Every day, biologists in parkas, raincoats, and rubber boots go into the field to capture and mark a variety of animal species. Back in the office, statisticians create analytical models for the field biologists' data. But many times, representatives of the two professions do not fully understand one another's roles. This book bridges this gap by helping biologists understand state-of-the-art statistical methods for analyzing capture-recapture data. In so doing, statisticians will also become more familiar with the design of field studies and with the real-life issues facing biologists.Reliable outcomes of capture-recapture studies are vital to answering key ecological questions. Is the population increasing or decreasing? Do more or fewer animals have a particular characteristic? In answering these questions, biologists cannot hope to capture and mark entire populations. And frequently, the populations change unpredictably during a study. Thus, increasingly sophisticated models have been employed to convert data into answers to ecological questions. This book, by experts in capture-recapture analysis, introduces the most up-to-date methods for data analysis while explaining the theory behind those methods. Thorough, concise, and portable, it will be immensely useful to biologists, biometricians, and statisticians, students in both fields, and anyone else engaged in the capture-recapture process.

  17. A Determination of an Abrupt Motion of the Sea Bottom by Using Snapshot Data of Water Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Jang


    Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse problem and its solution procedure, which are aimed at identifying a sudden underwater movement of the sea bottom. The identification is mathematically shown to work with a known snapshot data of generated water wave configurations. It is also proved that the problem has a unique solution. However, the inverse problem is involved in an integral equation of the first kind, resulting in an ill-posed problem in the sense of stability. That is, the problem lacks solution stability properties. To overcome the difficulty of solution instability, in this paper, a stabilization technique, called regularization, is incorporated in the present solution procedure for the identification of the sea bottom movement. A numerical experiment is presented to demonstrate that the proposed (numerical solution procedure operates.

  18. VIIRS captures phytoplankton vertical migration in the NE Gulf of Mexico. (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B; Lee, Zhongping


    In summer 2014, a toxic Karenia brevis bloom (red tide) occurred in the NE Gulf of Mexico, during which vertical migration of K. brevis has been observed from glider measurements. The current study shows that satellite observations from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) can capture changes in surface reflectance and chlorophyll concentration occurring within 2h, which may be attributed this K. brevis vertical migration. The argument is supported by earlier glider measurements in the same bloom, by the dramatic changes in the VIIRS-derived surface chlorophyll, and by the consistency between the short-term reflectance changes and those reported earlier from field-measured K. brevis vertical migration. Estimates using the quasi-analytical algorithm also indicate significant increases in both total absorption coefficient and backscattering coefficient in two hours. The two observations in a day from a single polar-orbiting satellite sensor are thus shown to be able to infer phytoplankton vertical movement within a short timeframe, a phenomenon difficult to capture with other sensors as each sensor can provide at most one observation per day, and cross-sensor inconsistency may make interpretation of merged-sensor data difficult. These findings strongly support geostationary satellite missions to study short-term bloom dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.


    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  20. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David


    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  1. Near Real-Time Disturbance Detection in Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Satellite Image Time Series: Drought Detection in Somalia


    Jan Verbesselt; Achim Zeileis; Martin Herold


    Near real-time monitoring of ecosystem disturbances is critical for addressing impacts on carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and socio-ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing enables cost-effective and accurate monitoring at frequent time steps over large areas. Yet, generic methods to detect disturbances within newly captured satellite images are lacking. We propose a generic time series based disturbance detection approach by modelling stable historical behaviour to enable detection of a...

  2. Composition of Jupiter irregular satellites sheds light on their origin (United States)

    Bhatt, M.; Reddy, V.; Schindler, K.; Cloutis, E.; Bhardwaj, A.; Corre, L. L.; Mann, P.


    Context. Irregular satellites of Jupiter with their highly eccentric, inclined and distant orbits suggest that their capture took place after the giant planet migration. Aims: We aim to improve our understanding of the surface composition of irregular satellites of Jupiter to gain insight into a narrow time window when our solar system was forming. Methods: We observed three Jovian irregular satellites, Himalia (JVI), Elara (JVII), and Carme (JXI), using a medium-resolution 0.8-5.5 μm spectrograph, SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Using a linear spectral unmixing model we have constrained the major mineral phases on the surface of these three bodies. Results: Our results confirm that the surface of Himalia (JVI), Elara (JVII), and Carme (JXI) are dominated by opaque materials such as those seen in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Our spectral modeling of NIR spectra of Himalia and Elara confirm that their surface composition is the same and magnetite is the dominant mineral. A comparison of the spectral shape of Himalia with the two large main C-type asteroids, Themis (D 176 km) and Europa (D 352 km), suggests surface composition similar to Europa. The NIR spectrum of Carme exhibits blue slope up to 1.5 μm and is spectrally distinct from those of Himalia and Elara. Our model suggests that it is compositionally similar to amorphous carbon. Conclusions: Himalia and Elara are compositionally similar but differ significantly from Carme. These results support the hypotheses that the Jupiter's irregular satellites are captured bodies that were subject to further breakup events and clustered as families based on their similar physical and surface compositions.

  3. Development of a Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope for the Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang


    Full Text Available Long term observations of full-disk Lyman-α irradiance have been made by the instruments on various satellites. In addition, several sounding rockets dating back to the 1950s and up through the present have measured the Lyman-α irradiance. Previous full disk Lyman-α images of the sun have been very interesting and useful scientifically, but have been only five-minute ``snapshots" obtained on sounding rocket flights. All of these observations to date have been snapshots, with no time resolution to observe changes in the chromospheric structure as a result of the evolving magnetic field, and its effect on the Lyman-α intensity. The Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope(LIST can provide a unique opportunity for the study of the sun in the Lyman-α region with the high time and spatial resolution for the first time. Up to the 2nd year development, the preliminary design of the optics, mechanical structure and electronics system has been completed. Also the mechanical structure analysis, thermal analysis were performed and the material for the structure was chosen as a result of these analyses. And the test plan and the verification matrix were decided. The operation systems, technical and scientific operation, were studied and finally decided. Those are the technical operation, mechanical working modes for the observation and safety, the scientific operation and the process of the acquired data. The basic techniques acquired through the development of satellite based solar telescope are essential for the construction of space environment forecast system in the future. The techniques which we developed through this study, like mechanical, optical and data processing techniques, could be applied extensively not only to the process of the future production of flight models of this kind, but also to the related industries. Also, we can utilize the scientific achievements which are obtained throughout the project. And these can be utilized to build a high

  4. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.


    We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

  5. Satellite Observations of Arctic Change (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this site is to expose NASA satellite data and research on Arctic change in the form of maps that illustrate the changes taking place in the Arctic...

  6. European global navigation satellite launches (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.

  7. Satellite tracking of threatened species (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.


    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  8. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean. (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.


    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  9. The Educational Satellite in Perspective (United States)

    Fraser, D. O.


    A discussion which contends that there is merit in not gearing satellite systems solely to educational broadcasting and that they should be designed for general communication, including telephony and television entertainment. (Author/HB)

  10. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls


    -damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...... damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  11. Improved Radio Emissivities for Satellites of Saturn (United States)

    Ries, Paul


    The size distribution of TNOs is one of the most important constraints on the history of the early solar system. However, while TNOs are most detectable in the visible and near-IR wavelengths, their albedos vary substantially, thus creating uncertainty in their sizes when determined from reflected light alone. One way of determining the size distribution for a large number of TNOs is to measure their thermal emission, such as has been done with Spitzer and Herschel. However, in just a few year's time, ALMA will be coming online, and will be able to detect thermal emission from even more TNOs. However, thermal emission from Solar System bodies in the millimeter and submillimeter, such as that which ALMA will detect, is not that of a pure blackbody. Pluto, the Gallillean satellites, and Vesta have all shown deviations from unity emissivity. However, the cause of this variation is not well understood. Here we re-analayze data from the Cassini RADAR instrument at 2.5 cm. Cassini RADAR measured the brightness temperature and emissivity of several of Saturn's icy satellites, at least one of which, Phoebe, is thought to be a captured TNO. Previous emissivity determinations relied on relatively simple thermal models. We recalculate emissivities using thermal models based on recent data obtained with the CIRS (infrared) instrument on Cassini which account for, among other things, diurnal effects and the rotation during the RADAR observations. For one important result, we demonstrate that deviation from unity emissivity on Iapetus is due solely to surface depth effects at long wavelengths when RADAR data at 2.5 cm is combined with data obtained at 3.3 mm on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This research is supported by a grant under the NRAO Student Observing Support program.

  12. Intra-enterprise telecommunication satellites (United States)

    Henry, A. J.


    Information transfer in the mid 1980's is sketched. The use of geostationary satellites for internal requirements of businesses is an important factor in the growth of information transfer. Protection of transferred information is achieved through encryption. The companies which use satellites are those whose telecommunication costs are already significant; who have large computing capabilities including distributed data processing; who use national and international leased circuits; and whose establishments are dispersed. Uses include teleconferencing, voice and data transmission, and text and facsimile communication.

  13. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.


    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Communication Satellites, 1958-1992 (United States)


    by: cess capacity on its spare satellites. This is still true: hut iii addi- Argentina Israel tion. some older satellites not needed as spares ha\\e...additional telemetry subsystem and transmitter as its unique payload. This subsystem \\was built by radio amateurs in Argentina and is the first spare...International Telemarketing Conference Proceedings (Octo- Ohm, G., T. Wiesmann, and E. Hieber, "Design anti Pvformance ber 1983). of a Repeater for Optical

  15. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.


    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  16. Radiative capture reactions via indirect methods (United States)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Rogachev, G. V.


    Many radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest occur at such low energies that their direct measurement is hardly possible. Until now the only indirect method, which was used to determine the astrophysical factor of the astrophysical radiative capture process, was the Coulomb dissociation. In this paper we address another indirect method, which can provide information about resonant radiative capture reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. This method can be considered an extension of the Trojan horse method for resonant radiative capture reactions. The idea of the suggested indirect method is to use the indirect reaction A (a ,s γ )F to obtain information about the radiative capture reaction A (x ,γ )F , where a =(s x ) and F =(x A ) . The main advantage of using the indirect reactions is the absence of the penetrability factor in the channel x +A , which suppresses the low-energy cross sections of the A (x ,γ )F reactions and does not allow one to measure these reactions at astrophysical energies. A general formalism to treat indirect resonant radiative capture reactions is developed when only a few intermediate states contribute and a statistical approach cannot be applied. The indirect method requires coincidence measurements of the triple differential cross section, which is a function of the photon scattering angle, energy, and the scattering angle of the outgoing spectator particle s . Angular dependence of the triple differential cross section at fixed scattering angle of the spectator s is the angular γ -s correlation function. Using indirect resonant radiative capture reactions, one can obtain information about important astrophysical resonant radiative capture reactions such as (p ,γ ) , (α ,γ ) , and (n ,γ ) on stable and unstable isotopes. The indirect technique makes accessible low-lying resonances, which are close to the threshold, and even subthreshold bound states located at negative energies. In this paper, after

  17. Formation of double galaxies by tidal capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alladin, S.M.; Potdar, A.; Sastry, K.S.


    The conditions under which double galaxies may be formed by tidal capture are considered. Estimates for the increase in the internal energy of colliding galaxies due to tidal effects are used to determine the magnitudes Vsub(cap) and Vsub(dis) of the maximum relative velocities at infinite separation required for tidal capture and tidal disruption respectively. A double galaxy will be formed by tidal capture without tidal disruption of a component if Vsub(cap)>Vsub(i) and Vsub(cap)>Vsub(dis) where Vsub(i) is the initial relative speed of the two galaxies at infinite separation. If the two galaxies are of the same dimension, formulation of double galaxies by tidal capture is possible in a close collision either if the two galaxies do not differ much in mass and density distribution or if the more massive galaxy is less centrally concentrated than the other. If it is assumed as statistics suggest, that the mass of a galaxy is proportional to the square of its radius, it follows that the probability of the formation of double galaxies by tidal capture increases with the increase in mass of the galaxies and tidal distribution does not occur in a single collision for any distance of closest approach of the two galaxies. (Auth.)

  18. Last chance for carbon capture and storage (United States)

    Scott, Vivian; Gilfillan, Stuart; Markusson, Nils; Chalmers, Hannah; Haszeldine, R. Stuart


    Anthropogenic energy-related CO2 emissions are higher than ever. With new fossil-fuel power plants, growing energy-intensive industries and new sources of fossil fuels in development, further emissions increase seems inevitable. The rapid application of carbon capture and storage is a much heralded means to tackle emissions from both existing and future sources. However, despite extensive and successful research and development, progress in deploying carbon capture and storage has stalled. No fossil-fuel power plants, the greatest source of CO2 emissions, are using carbon capture and storage, and publicly supported demonstration programmes are struggling to deliver actual projects. Yet, carbon capture and storage remains a core component of national and global emissions-reduction scenarios. Governments have to either increase commitment to carbon capture and storage through much more active market support and emissions regulation, or accept its failure and recognize that continued expansion of power generation from burning fossil fuels is a severe threat to attaining objectives in mitigating climate change.

  19. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  20. Satellites You Can See for Homework (United States)

    Broderick, Stephen


    Artificial satellites are easily observed most nights when the weather is fine. The website called "Heavens Above" at will help locate these satellites flying over one's location. It also includes how bright they will appear. The direction of travel of each satellite in the night sky also indicates the type of satellite. For…

  1. Satellite derived bathymetry: mapping the Irish coastline (United States)

    Monteys, X.; Cahalane, C.; Harris, P.; Hanafin, J.


    Ireland has a varied coastline in excess of 3000 km in length largely characterized by extended shallow environments. The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and costly environment in which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods or airborne LiDAR techniques as demonstrated in the Irish INFOMAR program. Thus, large coastal areas in Ireland, and much of the coastal zone worldwide remain unmapped using modern techniques and is poorly understood. Earth Observations (EO) missions are currently being used to derive timely, cost effective, and quality controlled information for mapping and monitoring coastal environments. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to different depths and are routinely sensed by EO satellites. A large selection of multispectral imagery (MS) from many platforms were examined, as well as from small aircrafts and drones. A number of bays representing very different coastal environments were explored in turn. The project's workflow is created by building a catalogue of satellite and field bathymetric data to assess the suitability of imagery captured at a range of spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Turbidity indices are derived from the multispectral information. Finally, a number of spatial regression models using water-leaving radiance parameters and field calibration data are examined. Our assessment reveals that spatial regression algorithms have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of the predictions up to 10m WD and offer a better handle on the error and uncertainty budget. The four spatial models investigated show better adjustments than the basic non-spatial model. Accuracy of the predictions is better than 10% WD at 95% confidence. Future work will focus on improving the accuracy of the predictions incorporating an analytical model in conjunction with improved empirical methods. The recently launched ESA Sentinel 2 will become the

  2. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  3. Satellite Imagery and In-situ Data Overlay Approach for Fishery Zonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardhi Adria


    Full Text Available Remote sensing technology can be used to better understand the earth’s characteristics. SeaWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor is one of remote sensors used to observe global ocean phenomena. Previous studies showed that the distribution of chlorophyll-a in the ocean indicates the presence of fish. However, only a few studies tried to directly relate the chlorophyll-a distribution obtained through interpretation of satellite imagery to in-situ data of fish distribution. This paper investigates the relation between chlorophyll-a distribution and fish-capturing points in Aceh Province sea waters using overlay image analysis. The results are then used to identify the potential fishing ground in Aceh. The profile of chlorophyll-a concentration is derived from SeaWIFS satellite imagery. Fish-capturing points data is obtained from the fisherman communities of Banda Aceh, starting from June to November 2008. The results showed that the chlorophyll-a profile derived from satellite imagery has a positive relationship to fish-capturing point data. The most potential fish-capturing zone in Aceh sea waters is identified at 5-8º north latitude (N and 96-99º east longitude (E.

  4. Rebuild of Capture Cavity 1 at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, E. [Fermilab; Arkan, T. [Fermilab; Borissov, E. [Fermilab; Dhanaraj, N. [Fermilab; Hocker, A. [Fermilab; Orlov, Y. [Fermilab; Peterson, T. [Fermilab; Premo, K. [Fermilab


    The front end of the proposed Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab employs two single cavity cryomodules, known as 'Capture Cavity 1' and 'Capture Cavity 2', for the first stage of acceleration. Capture Cavity 1 was previously used as the accelerating structure for the A0 Photoinjector to a peak energy of ~14 MeV. In its new location a gradient of ~25 MV/m is required. This has necessitated a major rebuild of the cryomodule including replacement of the cavity with a higher gradient one. Retrofitting the cavity and making upgrades to the module required significant redesign. The design choices and their rationale, summary of the rebuild, and early test results are presented.

  5. Electron capture in carbon dwarf supernovae (United States)

    Mazurek, T. J.; Truran, J. W.; Cameron, A. G. W.


    The rates of electron capture on heavier elements under the extreme conditions predicted for dwarf star supernovae have been computed, incorporating modifications that seem to be indicated by present experimental results. An estimate of the maximum possible value of such rates is also given. The distribution of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium has been calculated for the range of expected supernovae conditions, including the effects of the temperature dependence of nuclear partition functions. These nuclide abundance distributions are then used to compute nuclear equilibrium thermodynamic properties. The effects of the electron capture on such equilibrium matter are discussed. In the context of the 'carbon detonation' supernova model, the dwarf central density required to ensure core collapse to a neutron star configuration is found to be slightly higher than that obtained by Bruenn (1972) with the electron capture rates of Hansen (1966).-

  6. Constant-parameter capture-recapture models (United States)

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.


    Jolly (1982, Biometrics 38, 301-321) presented modifications of the Jolly-Seber model for capture-recapture data, which assume constant survival and/or capture rates. Where appropriate, because of the reduced number of parameters, these models lead to more efficient estimators than the Jolly-Seber model. The tests to compare models given by Jolly do not make complete use of the data, and we present here the appropriate modifications, and also indicate how to carry out goodness-of-fit tests which utilize individual capture history information. We also describe analogous models for the case where young and adult animals are tagged. The availability of computer programs to perform the analysis is noted, and examples are given using output from these programs.

  7. Partial radiative capture of resonance neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samour, C.


    The radiative capture of resonance neutrons has been studied near the Saclay linac between 0.5 and 700 eV with time-of-flight method and a Ge(Li) detector. 195 Pt + n and 183 W + n allow the study of the distribution of partial radiative widths and their eventual correlation and also the variation of γ i > with E γ . The mean values of Ml and El transition intensities are compared in several tin isotopes. Interference effects, either between resonances or between direct capture and resonant capture are found in 195 Pt + n, 197 Au + n and 59 Co + n. The excited level schemes of a great deal of nuclei are obtained and compared with theoretical predictions. This study has been completed by an analysis of thermal spectrum. (author) [fr

  8. Approach to magnetic neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Podoynitsyn, Sergey N.; Filippov, Victor I.; Komissarova, Lubov Kh.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.


    Purpose: The method of magnetic neutron capture therapy can be described as a combination of two methods: magnetic localization of drugs using magnetically targeted carriers and neutron capture therapy itself. Methods and Materials: In this work, we produced and tested two types of particles for such therapy. Composite ultradispersed ferro-carbon (Fe-C) and iron-boron (Fe-B) particles were formed from vapors of respective materials. Results: Two-component ultradispersed particles, containing Fe and C, were tested as magnetic adsorbent of L-boronophenylalanine and borax and were shown that borax sorption could be effective for creation of high concentration of boron atoms in the area of tumor. Kinetics of boron release into the physiologic solution demonstrate that ultradispersed Fe-B (10%) could be applied for an effective magnetic neutron capture therapy. Conclusion: Both types of the particles have high magnetization and magnetic homogeneity, allow to form stable magnetic suspensions, and have low toxicity

  9. Chemical processes in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.


    Research into the radiation chemical effects of neutron capture therapy are described. In the use of neutron capture therapy for the treatment of brain tumours, compounds containing an activatable nuclide are selectively concentrated within tumour tissue and irradiated with neutrons. Target compounds for use in therapy must accumulate selectively in high concentrations in the tumour and must be non toxic to the patient. The most suitable of these are the boron hydrides. Radiation dosages, resulting from neutron capture in normal tissue constituents are tabulated. As part of the program to study the radiation-induced chemical processes undergone by boron target compounds, the radiolytic degredation of boron hydride and phenyl boric acid system was investigated. No direct dependence between the yield of the transient radiolytic species and the concentration of the B-compound was observed. (author)

  10. Neutron capture by hook or by crook (United States)

    Mosby, Shea


    The neutron capture reaction is a topic of fundamental interest for both heavy element (A>60) nucleosynthesis and applications in such fields as nuclear energy and defense. The full suite of interesting isotopes ranges from stable nuclei to the most exotic, and it is not possible to directly measure all the relevant reaction rates. The DANCE instrument at Los Alamos provides direct access to the neutron capture reaction for stable and long-lived nuclei, while Apollo coupled to HELIOS at Argonne has been developed as an indirect probe for cases where a direct measurement is impossible. The basic techniques and their implications will be presented, and the status of ongoing experimental campaigns to address neutron capture in the A=60 and A=100 mass regions will be discussed.

  11. Capturing device for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi.


    Purpose: To render the flow channel area uniform for each of coolants over the entire capturing device and reduce the corrosion of capturing materials due to coolants. Constitution: Most of radioactivity caused by radioactive corrosion products are due to Mn-54 radioactive nuclides and it has been known that the nuclides are readily deposited to the surface of nickel material in sodium at high temperature. It is difficult in a conventional capturing device constituted by winding a nickel plate fabricated with protrusions in a multiple-coaxial configuration, that the flow channel area is reduced in a portion of the flow channel and it is difficult to make the flow of the coolants uniform. In view of the above, by winding a nickel plate having a plurality of protrusions at the surface formed integrally by way of an electrolytic process into a multiple-coaxial or spiral shape, those having high resistance to the coolant corrosion can be obtained. (Takahashi, M.)

  12. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder


    This paper is concerned with the question of how we can capture creativity in collaborative design processes consisting of two or more individuals collaborating in the process of producing innovative outputs. Traditionally, methods for detecting creativity are focused on the cognitive and mental...... processes of the solitary individual. A new framework for studying and capturing creativity, which goes beyond individual cognitive processes by examining the applied creative process of individuals in context, is proposed. We apply a context sensitive framework that embraces the creative collaborative...... process and present the process in a visual overview with the use of a visual language of symbols. The framework, entitled C3, Capturing Creativity in Context, is presented and subsequently evaluated based on a pilot study utilizing C3. Here it was found that the framework was particularly useful...

  13. Satellite cluster concept for space communications. I - Holonic cluster satellite communications system (United States)

    Wakana, H.; Kawase, S.

    A satellite cluster system is a promising candidate for future reliable satellite systems. This concept means the colocation of many different satellites, which are connected with each other by intersatellite links, on geostationary orbit. This paper presents the concept of an advanced satellite cluster system, the 'holonic satellite cluster system'.

  14. Centriolar Satellites Control GABARAP Ubiquitination and GABARAP-Mediated Autophagy. (United States)

    Joachim, Justin; Razi, Minoo; Judith, Delphine; Wirth, Martina; Calamita, Emily; Encheva, Vesela; Dynlacht, Brian D; Snijders, Ambrosius P; O'Reilly, Nicola; Jefferies, Harold B J; Tooze, Sharon A


    Autophagy maintains cellular health and homeostasis during stress by delivering cytosolic material captured by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation is complex: initiated by the recruitment of autophagy (Atg) proteins to the formation site, it is sustained by activation of Atg proteins to allow growth and closure of the autophagosome. How Atg proteins are translocated to the forming autophagosome is not fully understood. Transport of the ATG8 family member GABARAP from the centrosome occurs during starvation-induced autophagosome biogenesis, but how centrosomal proteins regulate GABARAP localization is unknown. We show that the centriolar satellite protein PCM1 regulates the recruitment of GABARAP to the pericentriolar material. In addition to residing on the pericentriolar material, GABARAP marks a subtype of PCM1-positive centriolar satellites. GABARAP, but not another ATG8 family member LC3B, binds directly to PCM1 through a canonical LIR motif. Loss of PCM1 results in destabilization of GABARAP, but not LC3B, through proteasomal degradation. GABARAP instability is mediated through the centriolar satellite E3 ligase Mib1, which interacts with GABARAP through its substrate-binding region and promotes K48-linked ubiquitination of GABARAP. Ubiquitination of GABARAP occurs in the N terminus, a domain associated with ATG8-family-specific functions during autophagosome formation, on residues absent in the LC3 family. Furthermore, PCM1-GABARAP-positive centriolar satellites colocalize with forming autophagosomes. PCM1 enhances GABARAP/WIPI2/p62-positive autophagosome formation and flux but has no significant effect on LC3B-positive autophagosome formation. These data suggest a mechanism for how centriolar satellites can specifically regulate an ATG8 ortholog, the centrosomal GABARAP reservoir, and centrosome-autophagosome crosstalk. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.


    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  16. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  17. Using Cell Phones From Satellites (United States)

    Horan, Stephen


    During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

  18. Comparison of Multiple Satellite Soil Moisture Products Using In-Situ Soil Moisture Observations Over the Continental United States (United States)

    Chavez, N.; Galvan, J., III; McRoberts, D. B.; Quiring, S. M.; Ford, T.


    We evaluate the skill of multiple satellite-derived soil moisture products using in-situ soil moisture observations from over 50 long-record stations in the continental United States. The satellite products compared include AMSR-E, ASCAT, SMOS, TMI, ESA CCI, and SMAP. Daily volumetric water content and percentiles of volumetric water content from each satellite product is compared with the observations from the corresponding station. We evaluate the similarity between the satellite and in-situ products with regard to the climate and biome conditions of the area as well as the representativeness of the in-situ station for the satellite footprint. We find moderate-to-strong correspondence between all satellite products and in-situ soil moisture observations. Differences between the satellite and observation datasets are attributed to varying land cover conditions, snow cover, and the spatial mismatch of the point observation with the satellite product grid cell. In general, our results suggest that the satellite products evaluated can accurately capture temporal variability of soil moisture near the surface, but do show systematic offsets at several stations across the study region.

  19. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.


    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  20. Stratospheric dryness: model simulations and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld


    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the extreme dryness of the stratosphere have been debated for decades. A key difficulty has been the lack of comprehensive models which are able to reproduce the observations. Here we examine results from the coupled lower-middle atmosphere chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 together with satellite observations. Our model results match observed temperatures in the tropical lower stratosphere and realistically represent the seasonal and inter-annual variability of water vapor. The model reproduces the very low water vapor mixing ratios (below 2 ppmv periodically observed at the tropical tropopause near 100 hPa, as well as the characteristic tape recorder signal up to about 10 hPa, providing evidence that the dehydration mechanism is well-captured. Our results confirm that the entry of tropospheric air into the tropical stratosphere is forced by large-scale wave dynamics, whereas radiative cooling regionally decelerates upwelling and can even cause downwelling. Thin cirrus forms in the cold air above cumulonimbus clouds, and the associated sedimentation of ice particles between 100 and 200 hPa reduces water mass fluxes by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to air mass fluxes. Transport into the stratosphere is supported by regional net radiative heating, to a large extent in the outer tropics. During summer very deep monsoon convection over Southeast Asia, centered over Tibet, moistens the stratosphere.

  1. X-ray Kα satellites of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskil, N.; Deutsch, M.


    The supra-Kα 1 satellite spectrum of Cu was measured using a high-resolution monolithic-double-crystal spectrometer. Its total intensity relative to that of the Kα 1 line was found to be 6 x 10/sup -3/, in good agreement with the only published measurement and the theoretical predictions. The spectrum includes fine structure. Relativistic Dirac-Fock (RDF) and nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out and compared with the measured data in detail. The RDF calculations allow assignment of all seven structural features detected in the measured spectrum to 2p-spectator-hole transitions, with a possible small contribution from 2s-spectator-hole transitions. The new line assignments are discussed and compared to earlier work. Similar measurements were also done in the energy range between the Kα 1 and Kα 2 lines. Only one possible feature, on the limit of statistical significance, was found close to the energy predicted for a radiative Auger transition involving a 3d electron. Its relative intensity, 5 x 10/sup -4/, is much lower than predicted theoretically but within a factor of 2 from recent measurements of equivalent electron-capture-excited transitions

  2. Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) (United States)

    Sakoda, D.; Hiser, J. K.


    The Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Space Systems Academic Group (SSAG) is designing and developing a small communications satellite for launch aboard the shuttle as a complex autonomous payload (CAP). The objectives of PANSAT are three-fold. First, PANSAT will provide an ideal educational tool for the officer students at NPS supporting Space Systems Engineering and Space Systems Operations with hands-on hardware development. Second, the satellite will provide digital store-and-forward communications, or packet radio, for the amateur radio community. The third objective is to provide a low-cost, space-based platform for small experiments. PANSAT will be launched from the shuttle at a nominal altitude of 200 n.m. and an inclination of at least 37 degrees. The satellite weight is 150 lbs. Since there is no attitude control, eight dipole whip antennas will be used to provide isotropic ground coverage for communications. FM digital communications will be used with up-link and down-link on a single frequency in the amateur band of 437.25 MHz. A maximum 50 kHz of bandwidth is envisioned for the satellite. The expected lifetime of the satellite is 1 1/2 to 2 years before atmospheric reentry. The PANSAT design consists of the following: communications subsystem (COMM); computer, or data processor and sequencer (DP&S); power subsystem; structure subsystem; and experiment payload.

  3. Choosing ESRO's first scientific satellites (United States)

    Russo, Arturo


    The choice of the scientific payloads of the European Space Research Organization's (ESRO's) first generation of satellites is analyzed. Concentration is on those aspects of the decision process that involved more directly the scientific community and that emerged as major issues in the discussion of the Launching Program Advisory Committee (LPAC). The main theme was the growing competition between the various fields of space science within the progressive retrenching of the Organization's financial resources available for the satellite program. A general overview of the status of the program by the end of 1966 is presented. The choice of the first small satellites' payloads (ESRO 1 and 2, and HEOS-A) and the difficult definition of the TD satellite program are discussed. This part covers a time span going from early 1963 to the spring of 1966. In the second part, the narrative starts from the spring of 1967, when the decision to recommend a second HEOS-type satellite was taken, and then analyzes the complex situation determined by the crisis of the TD program in 1968, and the debates which eventually led to the abandonment of TD-2 and the start of the far less ambitious ESRO 5 project.

  4. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic. (United States)

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A


    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  5. Satellite Cell Self-Renewal. (United States)

    Giordani, Lorenzo; Parisi, Alice; Le Grand, Fabien


    Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells to maintain the stem cell population throughout life. This process is controlled by cell-intrinsic transcription factors regulated by cell-extrinsic signals from the niche and the microenvironment. This chapter provides an overview about the general aspects of satellite cell biology and focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects of satellite cell self-renewal. To date, we are still far from understanding how a very small proportion of the satellite cell progeny maintain their stem cell identity when most of their siblings progress through the myogenic program to construct myofibers. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts (United States)

    Little, Frank E.


    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  7. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr (United States)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron; Krtička, Milan; Mosby, Shea; Reifarth, René; O'Donnell, John; Rusev, Gencho; Ullmann, John; Weigand, Mario; Wolf, Clemens


    Neutron capture and β- -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  8. Dynamics of RF captured cooled proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kells, W.; Mills, F.


    In the course of electron cooling experiments at the Electron Cooling Ring (ECR) at Fermilab, several peculiar features of the longitudinal phase space of cold protons (200 MeV) captured in RF buckets were observed. Here we present the experimental facts, present a simple theory, and summarize computer simulation results which support the theory and facts

  9. Chromatin conformation capture strategies in molecular diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vree, Pauline J.P.


    In this thesis I have explored the clinical potential of the 4C-technology and worked on development of a novel chromatin conformation capture based technology, called TLA. In chapter 2 I describe how the 4C-technology can be applied as a targeted strategy to identify putative fusion-genes or

  10. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair


    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  11. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilico, Justin Derrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davis, Warren Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dixon, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Nathaniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wendt, Jeremy Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  12. Capturing Value from Public-Private Collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reypens, C.; Lievens, A.; Blazevic, V.


    Although public-private collaborations offer opportunities to create unique value for a wide range of stakeholders, participating organizations often struggle to capture value from them. We focus on this challenge using a practice perspective and aim to understand how organizations attempt to

  13. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven


    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  14. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration. (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T


    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiative muon capture on 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.; Gmitro, M.


    Predictions of the photon spectrum of radiative muon capture on 16 O are given within a phenomenological approach for a realistic nuclear excitation spectrum which includes low-lying excited states preliminary experimental results are totally at variance with the predictions based on the canonical value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant gsub(P)

  16. Water surface capturing by image processing (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  17. Spectral tailoring for boron Neutron capture therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.


    In several places in the world, such as Petten and Delft in the Netherlands, investigations are in progress in the fight against certain types of cancer with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The basic idea is very simple: boron is loaded only into the cancer cells, using a special drug, after which

  18. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander


    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  19. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J.L.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)


    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on {sup 235}U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in {sup 236}U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables. (orig.)

  20. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan


    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  1. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.


    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  2. Soft-Capture Mechanism For Collet Joint (United States)

    Huff, John E., Jr.


    Soft-capture mechanism part of latching-and-rigidifying mechanism joining strut rigidly to node on truss. Latching-and-rigidifying mechanism of spreading-collet type, in which collet inserted into base that mates with collet to assure proper alignment, then collet spread to rigidify joint, fixing alignment. Designed to be operable by heavily gloved hand or by robot.

  3. Analysis of capture-recapture data

    CERN Document Server

    McCrea, Rachel S


    An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...

  4. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder


    process and present the process in a visual overview with the use of a visual language of symbols. The framework, entitled C3, Capturing Creativity in Context, is presented and subsequently evaluated based on a pilot study utilizing C3. Here it was found that the framework was particularly useful...

  5. Radiative muon capture on nuclei and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuelos, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Poutissou, R.; Ahmad, S.; Burnham, A.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Zhang, N.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.


    A brief review is made of the study of gp, the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, in radiative muon capture on light nuclei, and of motivations for a measurement on hydrogen, with particular emphasis on recent and ongoing experiments at TRIUMF [fr

  6. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Burnham, R.A.; Gorringe, T.P.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Azuelos, G.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Poutissou, J.M.; Summhammer, J.; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Wright, D.H.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Mes, H.; Robertson, B.C.


    Radiative muon capture rates have been measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g ρ when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurement on hydrogen is also given. (Author) 16 refs., 2 figs., tab

  7. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    , the capacity of synthetic raw meal was similar to that of pure limestone, whereas at 950 °C in N2 and in a CO2-rich atmosphere there was a significant difference. The SEM and BET analyses indicate that sintering is the main reason for the lower capture capacity of the limestone in the raw meal. The main...

  8. Radiative muon capture in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasinoff, M.D.; Ahmad, S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Burnham, R.A.; Gorringe, T.P.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Egidy, T. von; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Serne-angel, A.; Wright, D.H.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Numano, T.; Summhammer, J.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Mes, H.; Robertson, B.C.


    This paper reports on radiative muon capture rates measured for carbon, oxygen and calcium targets. The carbon and oxygen rates yield large values for g p when compared to detailed microscopic calculations but the conventional Goldberger-Treiman value when compared to phenomenological model calculations. A progress report on the TRIUMF RMC measurements on hydrogen is also given

  9. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava


    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  10. OH Airglow and Equatorial Variations Observed by ISUAL Instrument on Board the FORMOSAT 2 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Bai Nee


    Full Text Available OH airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning instrument on board the FORMOSAT 2 satellite is reported in this paper. The satellite is sun-synchronous and it returns to the same orbit at the same local time daily. By using this property, we can study the upper atmosphere in detail. With a CCD camera, ISUAL has measured the emission layers of OH Meinel band at 630 nm for several two-week periods in 2004 and 2007 in equatorial regions. ISUAL images are snapshots of the atmosphere 250 km (height ¡_ 1200 km (horizontal distance. These images of OH airglow are analyzed to derive its peak height and latitudinal variations. ISUAL observation is unique in its capability of continuous observation of the upper atmosphere as the satellite travels from south to north along a specific orbit. However, 630 nm filter also measured O(1D at 200 km, and there are interferences between O(1D and OH airglows as as observed from a distance in space. We have studied the overlap of two airglows by simulations, and our final analyses show that OH airglow can be correctly derived with its average peak height of 89 ¡_ 2.1 km usually lying within ¡_10¢X latitude about the equator. ISUAL data reveal detailed structures of equatorial OH airglow such as the existences of a few secondary maxima within the equatorial regions, and the oscillations of the peak latitudes. These results are discussed and compared with previous reports.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a commonwealth in political union with the United States that is located in the northern Pacific Ocean. CNMI’s electricity rates for residential customers range from $0.19 to $0.33 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  13. Landsat—Earth observation satellites (United States)



    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  14. Advanced satellite servicing facility studies (United States)

    Qualls, Garry D.; Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.


    A NASA-sponsored systems analysis designed to identify and recommend advanced subsystems and technologies specifically for a manned Sun-synchronous platform for satellite management is discussed. An overview of system design, manned and unmanned servicing facilities, and representative mission scenarios are given. Mission areas discussed include facility based satellite assembly, checkout, deployment, refueling, repair, and systems upgrade. The ferrying of materials and consumables to and from manufacturing platforms, deorbit, removal, repositioning, or salvage of satellites and debris, and crew rescue of any other manned vehicles are also examined. Impacted subsytems discussed include guidance navigation and control, propulsion, data management, power, thermal control, structures, life support, and radiation management. In addition, technology issues which would have significant impacts on the system design are discussed.

  15. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S


    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  16. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations (United States)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny


    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  17. Determination of inadvertent atrial capture during para-Hisian pacing. (United States)

    Obeyesekere, Manoj; Leong-Sit, Peter; Skanes, Allan; Krahn, Andrew; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J; Bennett, Matthew; Klein, George J


    Inadvertent capture of the atrium will lead to spurious results during para-Hisian pacing. We sought to establish whether the stimulation-to-atrial electrogram interval at the proximal coronary sinus (stim-PCS) or high right atrium (stim-HRA) could signal inadvertent atrial capture. Para-Hisian pacing with and without intentional atrial capture was performed in 31 patients. Stim-HRA and stim-PCS intervals were measured with atrial capture, His plus para-Hisian ventricular (H+V) capture, and para-Hisian ventricular (V) capture alone. The mean stim-HRA interval was significantly shorter with atrial capture (66 ± 18 ms) than with H+V (121 ± 27 ms, P capture alone (174 ± 38 ms, P capture (51 ± 16 ms) than with H+V (92 ± 22 ms, Pcapture alone (146 ± 33 ms, P capture. A stim-PCS >90 ms (stim-HRA >100 ms) was observed only in the absence of atrial capture. A stim-HRA of capture. Stim-HRA intervals of 75 to 97 ms and stim-PCS intervals of 65 to 88 ms were observed with either atrial, His, or para-Hisian ventricular capture without atrial capture. In this overlap zone, all patients demonstrated a stim-PCS or stim-HRA interval prolongation of at least 20 ms when the catheter was advanced to avoid deliberate atrial pacing. The QRS morphology was of limited value in distinguishing atrial capture due to concurrent ventricular or H+V capture, as observed in 20 of 31 (65%) patients. Stim-PCS and stim-HRA intervals can be used to monitor for inadvertent atrial capture during para-Hisian pacing. A stim-PCS 90 ms (or stim-HRA > 100 ms) were observed only with and without atrial capture, respectively, but there was significant overlap between these values. Deliberate atrial capture and loss of capture reliably identifies atrial capture regardless of intervals.

  18. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Olmstead, Dean A.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    The benefits that will be offered by the NASA-sponsored communication spacecraft ACTS which is scheduled for launch in 1992 are described together with examples of demonstrations on proposed data, video, and voice applications supported by the advanced ACTS technologies. Compared to existing satellite service, the ACTS will provide lower cost, better service, greater convenience, and improved service reliability of telecommunications to customers around the world. In addition, the pioneering ACTS technology will provide many capabilities qualitatively different from those of current satellite systems, such as on-demand assignment, frequency reuse, and the flexible targeting of spot beams directly to the very-small-aperture terminals at customer premises.

  19. Satellite communications: possibilities and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, M.


    Communication links via satellites are becoming available in Europe, both as part of the development of the telephone system and as special services aimed at data traffic. They offer the possibility of speeds between 50 kb/s and 2 Mb/s, without the problems and long term commitments of long distance land lines. Such links are provided by the PTT's as circuits which can be booked for variable periods, and have error rates which can be very low and well controlled. Problems in networking can arise from the satellite delay, particularly if errors occur in the local connections, and from the leased circuit and tariff philosophies of the PTT's. (Auth.)

  20. Satellites, tweets, forecasts: the future of flood disaster management? (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Wania, Annett; Pappenberger, Florian; Salamon, Peter; Ramos, Maria Helena; Cloke, Hannah; Castillo, Carlos


    Floods have devastating effects on lives and livelihoods around the world. Structural flood defence measures such as dikes and dams can help protect people. However, it is the emerging science and technologies for flood disaster management and preparedness, such as increasingly accurate flood forecasting systems, high-resolution satellite monitoring, rapid risk mapping, and the unique strength of social media information and crowdsourcing, that are most promising for reducing the impacts of flooding. Here, we describe an innovative framework which integrates in real-time two components of the Copernicus Emergency mapping services, namely the European Flood Awareness System and the satellite-based Rapid Mapping, with new procedures for rapid risk assessment and social media and news monitoring. The integrated framework enables improved flood impact forecast, thanks to the real-time integration of forecasting and monitoring components, and increases the timeliness and efficiency of satellite mapping, with the aim of capturing flood peaks and following the evolution of flooding processes. Thanks to the proposed framework, emergency responders will have access to a broad range of timely and accurate information for more effective and robust planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.