WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite sighting information

  1. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  2. Information seeking by blind and sight impaired citizens: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports a study which investigated information seeking by blind and sight impaired people, with particular emphasis on the role of the Internet. A literature review revealed a paucity of studies about the information-seeking behaviour of groups of people with disabilities, including blind and sight impaired people. The study focussed very specifically on both personal lives and broader social contexts. The techniques for collecting qualitative data included two focus groups involving 16 participants and 15 individual interviewees, from both city and country settings. The findings of the study address issues of information needs, information sources, the role of the Internet in meeting needs and the barriers to the use of the Internet. A major conclusion is that people who are blind and sight impaired deserve to be provided with a range of ways of meeting information needs, as are available for people with normal sight. Given the inexorable continuing impact of the information age, it is also concluded that ways must be found so that people with disabilities can participate equitably in the information economy.

  3. An Analysis of Marine Corps Beyond Line of Sight Wideband Satellite Communications Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Network (SWAN) ............................................40 9. Tropo /Satellite Support Radio (TSSR) ............................................42...Service Tactical Communications Program TROPO ...tropospheric scatter TSSR..................................................tropospheric scatter ( TROPO )-satellite support radio TSST

  4. About Non-Line-Of-Sight Satellite Detection and Exclusion in a 3D Map-Aided Localization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Peyret

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue: actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results.

  5. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  6. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, P.; Bay Hasager, C.

    2004-11-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resource studies. Comparison results from complex terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined with roughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEM and land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation of SAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain data as similar as possible to mast observations. Maximum-likelihood fitting is used to calculate the Weibull A and k parameters from the constrained data set. Satellite SAR wind maps cover the coastal zone from 3 km and offshore with very detailed information of 400 m by 400 m grid resolution. Spatial trends in mean wind, energy density, Weibull A and k and uncertainty values are provided for the area of interest. Satellite scatterometer wind observations have a spatial resolution of 25 km by 25 km. These data typically represent a site further offshore, and the tab-file statistics should be used in WASP combined with topography and roughness information to assess the coastal wind power potential. Scatterometer wind data are observed {approx} twice per day, whereas SAR only

  7. Obstacle avoidance during locomotion using haptic information in normally sighted humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Aftab E; Davies, T Claire; Niechwiej, Ewa

    2004-03-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the accuracy and precision of control of adaptive locomotion using haptic information in normally sighted humans before and after practice. Obstacle avoidance paradigm was used to study adaptive locomotion; individuals were required to approach and step over different sizes of obstacles placed in the travel path under three sensory conditions: full vision (FV); restricted lower visual field (RLVF) using blinders on custom glass frames; and no vision (NV) using haptic information only. In the NV condition, individuals were a given an appropriate-sized cane to guide their locomotion. Footfall patterns were recorded using the GAITRite system, and lead and trail limb trajectories were monitored using the OPTOTRAK system, which tracked infrared diodes placed on the toes and the cane. Approach step lengths were reduced for the haptic condition: this slowed the forward progression and allowed greater time for haptic exploration, which ranged from 2.5 to 4 s and consisted of horizontal cane movements (to detect the width and relative location of the obstacle) and vertical cane movements (to detect the height of the obstacle). Based on feed-forward and on-line sensory (under both vision and haptic conditions) information about location of the obstacle relative to the individual, variability of foot placement reduced as the individual came closer to the obstacle, as has been shown in the literature. The only difference was that the reduction in variability of foot placement under haptic condition occurred in the last step compared with earlier under vision. Considering that the obstacle is detected only when the cane comes in contact, as opposed to vision condition when it is visible earlier, this difference is understandable. Variability and magnitude of lead and trail limb elevation for the haptic condition was higher than the RLVF and FV conditions. In contrast, only the magnitude of lead and trail limb elevation was higher in the RLVF

  8. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation ofSAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain...... an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface...

  9. Haptic Identification of Raised-Line Drawings When Categorical Information Is Given: A Comparison between Visually Impaired and Sighted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Mazella, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Research into haptic picture perception has mostly concerned adult participants, and little is known about haptic picture perception in visually impaired and sighted children. In the present study, we compared 13 visually impaired children (early blind and low vision) aged 9-10 years and 13 agematched blindfolded sighted children on their ability…

  10. Satellite Data Inform Forecasts of Crop Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    During a Stennis Space Center-led program called Ag 20/20, an engineering contractor developed models for using NASA satellite data to predict crop yield. The model was eventually sold to Genscape Inc., based in Louisville, Kentucky, which has commercialized it as LandViewer. Sold under a subscription model, LandViewer software provides predictions of corn production to ethanol plants and grain traders.

  11. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  12. THE STOCHASTIC ESTIMATION OF SATELLITE CLOCK CORRECTION INFORMATION IN WADGPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using autocorrelation information of the pseudorange errors generated by se lective availability (SA) frequency dithering, we have constructed a simple first order stochas tic model for SA effects. This model has been used in a Kalman filter to account for the stochastic behavior of SA dithering in estimating satellite clock information in wide area dif ferential GPS. We have obtained fifteen percent improvement in the user positioning using the correlation information on the satellite clock information in a Kalman filter, when comparing the results obtained using a regular least square estimation.

  13. Study on Service Level Management in Integrated Satellite Information Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Rui-qiang; ZHAO Jian-li; WANG Guang-xing

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Satellite Information Network (ISIN) includes those nodes in space and those on ground. It is the way to realize the fusion of satellite communication and traditional network technology. A satellite network management system based on Multiplex Network Management Protocol (MNMP) has accomplished traditional management, such as configuration, performance and fault management. An architecture of Service Level Management (SLM) in ISIN is proposed, and a service topology management and Service Level Agreement (SLA) are deeply researched. At last, service security and fault management are briefly discussed, and a simulation system is accomplished.

  14. Information content in reflected global navigation satellite system signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Carlstrom, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The direct signals from satellites in global satellite navigation satellites systems (GNSS) as, GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO, constitute the primary source for positioning, navigation and timing from space. But also the reflected GNSS signals contain an important information content of signal travel...... times and the characteristics of the reflecting surfaces and structure. Ocean reflected signals from GNSS satellite systems reveal the mean height, the significant wave height and the roughness of the ocean. The estimated accuracy of the average surface height can be as low as 10 cm. For low elevations......, the signals reveal the incoherent scatter process at the reflection zone. By using open-loop high-precision GNSS receivers, it is possible to provide the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal at high sample rates, which enables investigation of the spectral signatures of the observations...

  15. Defense Satellite Communications: DOD Needs Additional Information to Improve Procurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 31 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...information available, DOD spent over $1 billion leasing commercial SATCOM. In prior work, GAO found that some major DOD users of commercial...Committee on Armed Services United States Senate The Department of Defense (DOD) leases commercial satellite communications (SATCOM) to support a variety

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE-BORN INFORMATION TO CLIMATE SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKA J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Observed climate processes play important role in understanding the ongoing changes in the climate system. Our paper intends to present this cross-section of climate science illustrated by selected satellite images and diagrams in four parts. (i. Technical possibilities of the observations are briefly surveyed first. Many satellite platforms and devices started working in the 1980 and 1990s, definitely for climate purposes. (ii. Climate forcing factors and their radiation effects are comprehended, including direct observation of solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol concentration allowing us to compare natural factors to the anthropogenic ones. (iii. Detection of changes in the Earth climate system follows next, including the atmosphere, the oceans and the cryosphere, as well. (iv. Finally, satellite-born results in validation of climate models are presented in three aspects: reconstruction of present climate, validation of simulated changes and investigation of feedback mechanisms driving climate sensitivity to the external forcing factors. The above possibilities of using satellite information in climate science are mostly illustrated by key figures of the IPCC AR5 Report (2013.

  17. Effective communication : satellite system poised to improve information flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2009-01-15

    This paper described a new satellite technology that can be used to transfer important information from offshore oil and gas facilities to decision-makers in distant onshore offices. Cascade Data Services (CDS), a subsidiary of British Columbia-based MDA Corporation, is developing a high-speed low-latency satellite information transfer service which has its roots in the Cascade Smallsat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE) mission scheduled for launch in 2009. The technology will enable customers to move thousands of gigabytes to and from anywhere on the planet on a daily basis. CASSIOPE received funding from the Canadian Space Agency and Technology Partnerships Canada. The first payload will be a suite of space science instruments known as the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-Pop) developed by researchers at the University of Calgary. The second payload will involve a demonstration of the digital courier service model and delivery of large digital data files. CDS has entered into an alliance with O3b Networks funded by Google Inc., Liberty Global Inc., and HSBC Principal Investments, among others. The technological development should improve the flow of information, making oil and gas operations in remote areas more efficient and help cut costs. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  18. Insights into correlation between satellite infrared information and fault activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tectonic activities are accompanied with material movement and energy transfer, which definitely change the state of thermal radiation on the ground. Thus it is possible to infer present-day tectonic activities based on variations of the thermal radiation state on the ground. The received satellite infrared information is, however, likely influenced by many kinds of factors. Therefore, the first problem that needs to be solved is to extract information on tectonic activities and eliminate effects of external (non-tectonic) factors. In this study, we firstly make a review of the current studies on this subject, and then present the technical approach and our research goal.Using the data of 20 years from the infrared band of the satellite of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the method we have developed, we investigate fault activities in western China. The results show that the areas with high residual values of land surface brightness temperature (LSBT), which is presumably related to faultings in space, accord usually with the locations of followed major earthquakes. The times of their value growing are also roughly consistent with the beginning of active periods of earthquakes.The low frequency component fields of the LSBT, acquired from wavelet analysis, exhibit well the spatial distributions of active faults.The "heat penetrability index" (HPI) related with enhancement of subsurface thermal information has been expressed well for the backgrounds of accelerated tectonic motions, and some correlations exist between HPI and the local faulting and seismicity. This study provides a new approach to study temporal-spatial evolution of recent activities of faults and their interactions.

  19. Toward Obtaining Reliable Particulate Air Quality Information from Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Legg, M.; Esswein, R.; Justice, E.

    2009-12-01

    Air quality agencies use ground sites to monitor air quality, providing accurate information at particular points. Using measurements from satellite imagery has the potential to provide air quality information in a timely manner with better spatial resolution and at a lower cost that can also useful for model validation. While previous studies show acceptable correlations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MODIS and surface Particulate Matter (PM) measurements on the eastern US, the data do not correlate well in the western US (Al-Saadi et al., 2005; Engle-Cox et al., 2004) . This paper seeks to improve the AOD-PM correlations by using advanced statistical analysis techniques. Our study area is the San Joaquin Valley in California because air quality in this region has failed to meet state and federal attainment standards for PM for the past several years. A previous investigation found good correlation of the AOD values between MODIS, MISR and AERONET, but poor correlations (R2 ~ 0.02) between satellite-based AOD and surface PM2.5 measurements. PM2.5 measurements correlated somewhat better (R2 ~ 0.18) with MODIS-derived AOD using the Deep Blue surface reflectance algorithm (Hsu et al., 2006) rather than the standard MODIS algorithm. This level of correlation is not adequate for reliable air quality measurements. Pelletier et al. (2007) used generalized additive models (GAMs) and meteorological data to improve the correlation between PM and AERONET AOD in western Europe. Additive models are more flexible than linear models and the functional relationships can be plotted to give a sense of the relationship between the predictor and the response. In this paper we use GAMs to improve surface PM2.5 to MODIS-AOD correlations. For example, we achieve an R2 ~ 0.44 using a GAM that includes the Deep Blue AOD, and day of year as parameters. Including NOx observations, improves the R2 ~ 0.64. Surprisingly Ångström exponent did not prove to be a significant

  20. Guidance and adaptive-robust attitude & orbit control of a small information satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somov, Ye.; Butyrin, S.; Somov, S.; Somova, T.; Testoyedov, N.; Rayevsky, V.; Titov, G.; Yakimov, Ye.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Mathylenko, M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a small information satellite which may be placed on an orbit with altitude from 600 up to 1000 km. The satellite attitude and orbit control system contains a strap-down inertial navigation system, cluster of four reaction wheels, magnetic driver and a correcting engine unit with eight electro-reaction engines. We study problems on design of algorithms for spatial guidance, in-flight identification and adaptive-robust control of the satellite motion on sun-synchronous orbit.

  1. Enhancing End-to-End Performance of Information Services Over Ka-Band Global Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Glover, Daniel R.; Ivancic, William D.; vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet has been growing at a rapid rate as the key medium to provide information services such as e-mail, WWW and multimedia etc., however its global reach is limited. Ka-band communication satellite networks are being developed to increase the accessibility of information services via the Internet at global scale. There is need to assess satellite networks in their ability to provide these services and interconnect seamlessly with existing and proposed terrestrial telecommunication networks. In this paper the significant issues and requirements in providing end-to-end high performance for the delivery of information services over satellite networks based on various layers in the OSI reference model are identified. Key experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of digital video and Internet over satellite-like testbeds. The results of the early developments in ATM and TCP protocols over satellite networks are summarized.

  2. Use of satellite information for analysis of aerosol substance propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhenin, A. A.; Raputa, V. F.; Yaroslavtseva, T. V.

    2015-11-01

    With satellite data on pollution of snow cover and data of meteorological observations, some fields of dust sedimentation from high chimneys of the Iskitim cement plant are studied. In the absence of snowfalls, a possibility to analyze of the areas of pollution, which are formed in time intervals from several days to several weeks in the vicinities of industrial enterprises, is shown.

  3. Sight/Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard

    This guide explains the purpose, components, and use of the Sight/Sound System, which is an alternative reading instruction approach designed to meet the individual needs of learners of all ages who have poor decoding skills. Described in the first section are the ways in which the system works to accomplish the following goals: develop…

  4. Satellite Applications Information Notes, October 1975 - December 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    the practical applications of satellite data. Geographical coverage of topics range from Hawaii to tHe east coast of continental U. S. and the Atlantic...34 in extreme southeast Nebraska. The geographical location of this old boundary, with respect to the squall line(s) easing in from the west, was...REASON FOR SEGEMENT ENHANCEMENT *1 +58.8 To +28.2 Little or no useful Met Data (Black) *2 +28.8 To + 6.8 Low Level/Sea Surface Difference 3 + 6.8 To

  5. Advanced Extraction of Spatial Information from High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, T.; Burian, J.; Miřijovský, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper authors processed five satellite image of five different Middle-European cities taken by five different sensors. The aim of the paper was to find methods and approaches leading to evaluation and spatial data extraction from areas of interest. For this reason, data were firstly pre-processed using image fusion, mosaicking and segmentation processes. Results going into the next step were two polygon layers; first one representing single objects and the second one representing city blocks. In the second step, polygon layers were classified and exported into Esri shapefile format. Classification was partly hierarchical expert based and partly based on the tool SEaTH used for separability distinction and thresholding. Final results along with visual previews were attached to the original thesis. Results are evaluated visually and statistically in the last part of the paper. In the discussion author described difficulties of working with data of large size, taken by different sensors and different also thematically.

  6. Satellite information of sea ice for model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheed, P. P.; Mitra, Ashis K.; Momin, Imranali M.; Mahapatra, Debasis K.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Emergence of extensively large computational facilities have enabled the scientific world to use earth system models for understating the prevailing dynamics of the earth's atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere and their inter relations. The sea ice in the arctic and the Antarctic has been identified as one of the main proxies to study the climate changes. The rapid sea-ice melting in the Arctic and disappearance of multi-year sea ice has become a matter of concern. The earth system models couple the ocean, atmosphere and sea-ice in order to bring out the possible inter connections between these three very important components and their role in the changing climate. The Indian monsoon is seen to be subjected to nonlinear changes in the recent years. The rapid ice melt in the Arctic sea ice is apparently linked to the changes in the weather and climate of the Indian subcontinent. The recent findings reveal the relation between the high events occurs in the Indian subcontinent and the Arctic sea ice melt episodes. The coupled models are being used in order to study the depth of these relations. However, the models have to be validated extensively by using measured parameters. The satellite measurements of sea-ice starts from way back in 1979. There have been many data sets available since then. Here in this study, an evaluation of the existing data sets is conducted. There are some uncertainties in these data sets. It could be associated with the absence of a single sensor for a long period of time and also the absence of accurate in-situ measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements.

  7. Updating Object for GIS Database Information Using High Resolution Satellite Images: a Case Study Zonguldak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, M.; Arca, D.; Bayik, Ç.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays Geographic Information Systems (GIS) uses Remote Sensing (RS) data for a lot of applications. One of the application areas is the updating of the GIS database using high resolution imagery. In this context high resolution satellite imagery data is very important for many applications areas today's and future. And also, high resolution satellite imagery data will be used in many applications for different purposes. Information systems needs to high resolution imagery data for updating. Updating is very important component for the any of the GIS systems. One of this area will be updated and kept alive GIS database information. High resolution satellite imagery is used with different data base which serve map information via internet and different aims of information systems applications in future topographic and cartographic information systems will very important in our country in this sense use of the satellite images will be unavoidable. In this study explain to how is acquired to satellite images and how is use this images in information systems for object and roads. Firstly, pan-sharpened two of the IKONOS's images have been produced by fusion of high resolution PAN and MS images using PCI Geomatica v9.1 software package. Automatic object extraction has been made using eCognition v4.0.6. On the other hand, these objects have been manually digitized from high resolution images using ArcGIS v9.3. software package. Application section of in this study, satellite images data will be compared each other and GIS objects and road database. It is also determined which data is useful in Geographic Information Systems. Finally, this article explains that integration of remote sensing technology and GIS applications.

  8. ADVANCED EXTRACTION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors processed five satellite image of five different Middle-European cities taken by five different sensors. The aim of the paper was to find methods and approaches leading to evaluation and spatial data extraction from areas of interest. For this reason, data were firstly pre-processed using image fusion, mosaicking and segmentation processes. Results going into the next step were two polygon layers; first one representing single objects and the second one representing city blocks. In the second step, polygon layers were classified and exported into Esri shapefile format. Classification was partly hierarchical expert based and partly based on the tool SEaTH used for separability distinction and thresholding. Final results along with visual previews were attached to the original thesis. Results are evaluated visually and statistically in the last part of the paper. In the discussion author described difficulties of working with data of large size, taken by different sensors and different also thematically.

  9. California Drought Recovery Assessment Using GRACE Satellite Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C. A.; Aghakouchak, A.; Madadgar, S.; Tourian, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    California has been experiencing its most extreme drought in recent history due to a combination of record high temperatures and exceptionally low precipitation. An estimate for when the drought can be expected to end is needed for risk mitigation and water management. A crucial component of drought recovery assessments is the estimation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) deficit. Previous studies on drought recovery have been limited to surface water hydrology (precipitation and/or runoff) for estimating changes in TWS, neglecting the contribution of groundwater deficits to the recovery time of the system. Groundwater requires more time to recover than surface water storage; therefore, the inclusion of groundwater storage in drought recovery assessments is essential for understanding the long-term vulnerability of a region. Here we assess the probability, for varying timescales, of California's current TWS deficit returning to its long-term historical mean. Our method consists of deriving the region's fluctuations in TWS from changes in the gravity field observed by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. We estimate the probability that meteorological inputs, precipitation minus evaporation and runoff, over different timespans will balance the current GRACE-derived TWS deficit (e.g. in 3, 6, 12 months). This method improves upon previous techniques as the GRACE-derived water deficit comprises all hydrologic sources, including surface water, groundwater, and snow cover. With this empirical probability assessment we expect to improve current estimates of California's drought recovery time, thereby improving risk mitigation.

  10. Fault-tolerant onboard digital information switching and routing for communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Quintana, Jorge A.; Soni, Nitin J.; Kim, Heechul

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing an information-switching processor for future meshed very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT) communications satellites. The information-switching processor will switch and route baseband user data onboard the VSAT satellite to connect thousands of Earth terminals. Fault tolerance is a critical issue in developing information-switching processor circuitry that will provide and maintain reliable communications services. In parallel with the conceptual development of the meshed VSAT satellite network architecture, NASA designed and built a simple test bed for developing and demonstrating baseband switch architectures and fault-tolerance techniques. The meshed VSAT architecture and the switching demonstration test bed are described, and the initial switching architecture and the fault-tolerance techniques that were developed and tested are discussed.

  11. Recent sightings of marine mammals in Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitopan Malakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports opportunistic sightings of marine mammals between August 2013 and January 2014 in the Andaman region.  Seven sightings were recorded during this period out of which one was of a Dugong, which is significant considering its small population size in India and limited data on its distribution and abundance.  The rest were 24 dolphins (Tursiops sp..  Four sightings were of the same pod of dolphins on different days at the same location.  Two sightings occurred during regular coral reef monitoring survey and the other five during fishery resource survey by trawling operations.  These sightings are of great significance as there is a lack of studies on marine mammals from the region.  Sighting records are useful for understanding aggregation site, behaviour, habits and habitat and residency patterns and provide important information for conservation of marine mammals. 

  12. Collection of road traffic information from satellite images and digital map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    There have been many reports on the analysis of the Earth's surface by remote sensing. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic information, and we have been studying methods of collecting traffic information by remote sensing. To collect traffic information, sensors installed on the roadside are frequently used. However, methods using sensors only collect information around the positions of the sensors. In this study, we attempt to solve this problem by using satellite images, which have recently become increasingly available. We propose a method of collecting traffic information over a large area using satellite images as well as three-dimensional digital maps. We assess traffic conditions by computing the number of edges of vehicles per road section as follows. First, the edges of vehicles are detected in satellite images. During this processing, three-dimensional digital maps are used to increase the accuracy of vehicle edge detection. The number of vehicles per road section, which is computed from the number of edges of vehicles, is computed and referred to as the vehicle density. Traffic conditions can be assessed from the vehicle density and are considered useful for collecting information on traffic congestion. In this study, we experimentally confirm that congested roads can be extracted from satellite images by our method.

  13. 17th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Cerquitelli, Tania; Chiusano, Silvia; Guerrini, Giovanna; Kämpf, Mirko; Kemper, Alfons; Novikov, Boris; Palpanas, Themis; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Vakali, Athena

    2014-01-01

    This book reports on state-of-art research and applications in the field of databases and information systems. It includes both fourteen selected short contributions, presented at the East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2013, September 1-4, Genova, Italy), and twenty-six papers from ADBIS 2013 satellite events. The short contributions from the main conference are collected in the first part of the book, which covers a wide range of topics, like data management, similarity searches, spatio-temporal and social network data, data mining, data warehousing, and data management on novel architectures, such as graphics processing units, parallel database management systems, cloud and MapReduce environments. In contrast, the contributions from the satellite events are organized in five different parts, according to their respective ADBIS satellite event: BiDaTA 2013 - Special Session on Big Data: New Trends and Applications); GID 2013 – The Second International Workshop ...

  14. Fabrication Technique of Holographic Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ling; LIU Shou; ZHANG Xiang-su

    2005-01-01

    There are several types of sights used for small arms. All of them have advantages and disadvantages. A new type of sight-holographic sight-is introduced in the paper, with the emphasis on the fabrication technique of the hologram which is the most important part in the sight. A Gaussian dot and a reticle pattern are recorded in the hologram. When illuminated by a laser diode, the virtual images of the dot and the reticle pattern for aiming are observed through the hologram. Compared with other sights, the holographic sight provides quicker, more accurate and covert aiming at moving targets, particularly in close quarter combat situations. It significantly improves the capability of small arms used in close quarter fighting in all weathers.

  15. Strategic role of satellites in 21st century information highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1994-03-01

    The planning of advanced broadband digital networks, or the information highways, gives rise to a host of problems in terms of the public versus private roles, computer versus telecommunications applications, research versus educational objectives, and political versus technical goals. Among these dangers is the possibility that a form of `technological determinism' will be used to create an all fiber based network that is one-dimensional in concept, rather inflexible in design, and ill-suited to accommodate rural and remote locations in the form of isolated research centers, hospitals, or universities. There is a serious need to consider the assymetrical nature of research networks, variable restoration needs, mobile access links to research networks, and the diversity of requirements for educational, medical and other user communities.

  16. Transfer and distortion of atmospheric information in the satellite temperature retrieval problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, O. E.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to investigating the transfer of basic ambient temperature information and its distortion by satellite systems and subsequent analysis algorithms is discussed. The retrieval analysis cycle is derived, the variance spectrum of information is examined as it takes different forms in that process, and the quality and quantity of information existing at each stop is compared with the initial ambient temperature information. Temperature retrieval algorithms can smooth, add, or further distort information, depending on how stable the algorithm is, and how heavily influenced by a priori data.

  17. Massive information sharing among global data centers based on satellite laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Longteng; Li, Cong; Liu, Naijin

    2015-10-01

    With the development of big data and information globalization, the requirements of massive information transmitting and sharing among data centers are expanding, especially among those data centers which are extremely far away from each other. In the above field, conventional optical fiber transmission faces many problems such as complex networking, poor security, long node switching delay, high lease and maintain cost and low migration flexibility. Besides, in the near future, data centers may tend to be built in the remote Polar Regions or on the sea for natural cooling. For the above situation, sharing the massive information among global data centers based on satellite laser communication is proposed in this paper. This proposal includes advantage analysis, research of restraining atmosphere interference, etc. At last, by comparison with conventional technology, the research result shows that massive information transmitting and sharing among global data centers based on satellite laser communication has far reaching application potential.

  18. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  19. Geospatial Information from Satellite Imagery for Geovisualisation of Smart Cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  20. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  1. Wildland fire management. Volume 2: Wildland fire control 1985-1995. [satellite information system for California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveker, D. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary design of a satellite plus computer earth resources information system is proposed for potential uses in fire prevention and control in the wildland fire community. Suggested are satellite characteristics, sensor characteristics, discrimination algorithms, data communication techniques, data processing requirements, display characteristics, and costs in achieving the integrated wildland fire information system.

  2. Models for Photogrammetric Processing of Information from Resource-P Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poshekhonov, V.; Eremeev, V.; Kuznetcov, A.; Kochergin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper provides information about imagery and navigation systems of the Russian high resolution satellites "Resource- P". Models of image geolocation used for photogrammetric processing of information from all types of imagery systems are designed. Design of these models is based on two task solutions: correct processing of the measurement information and geometric calibration of the imagery systems. It is shown that for high-precision interior orientation parameters adjustment of the high-resolution "Geoton" instrument the method of self-calibration should be used. The technology of calibration activities is considered. Distinctive features of calibration of the hyperspectral and wide-swath imagery systems are noted. It is represented in the paper that after calibration the root mean square error (RMSE) of measured geodetic coordinates of objects on images do not exceed 10 m. Examples of the obtained models practical application for photogrammetric processing of images from "Resource-P" satellites are shown.

  3. Satellite Anomalies: Benefits of a Centralized Anomaly Database and Methods for Securely Sharing Information Among Satellite Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    a hardware defect, accidental interference, purposeful attack , or a space weather event. However, there are obstacles that inhibit satellite owners...operator error in commanding the satellite, electromagnetic interference (“jamming”— be it unintentional or intentional), and targeted attack by an...Russian Cosmos 2251 satellite accidentally collided with the operational Iridium -33 spacecraft at a LEO altitude of 790 km (e.g., Iannotta and Malik

  4. Application of satellite derived information for disaster risk reduction: vulnerability assessment for southwest coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Lubna; Blaschke, Thomas; Zeil, Peter

    2010-10-01

    The SW-coast of Pakistan is vulnerable to natural disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis. Lack of spatially referenced information is a major hinder for proper disaster risk management programs in Pakistan, but satellite remote sensing being reliable, fast and spatially referenced information can be used as an important component in various natural disaster risk reduction activities. This study aimed to investigate vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclone and tsunamis based on satellite derived information. It is observed that SPOT-5 is relevant source on threatened features with respect to certain vulnerabilities like road, settlements, infrastructure and used in preparation of hazard zonation and vulnerability maps. Landsat ETM found very useful in demarcation of flood inundated areas. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM helps identify low lying areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by cyclone surges and tsunamis. The GIS integrated evaluation of SPOT, LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM data helps identify areas and infrastructure most vulnerable to cyclone surges and tsunami. Additionally, analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures (schools, hospitals) within hazard zones provides indicators for the degree of spatial exposure to disaster. Satellite derived information in conjunction with detailed surveys of hazard prone areas can provide comprehensive vulnerability and risk analysis.

  5. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  6. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  7. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  8. Resurs-P" Satellite Hyperspectral Data: Preliminary Evaluation of Information Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelentsov, Viacheslav; Sokolov, Boris; Grigorieva, Olga; Mochalov, Viktor; Potryasaev, Semen; Shumeiko, Viktor

    2016-08-01

    Satellite-based hyperspectral sensors provide spectroscopic information in relatively narrow contiguous spectral bands over a large area, and this property can be useful for a lot of practical tasks. "Resurs-P" hyperspectral equipment provides a new class of Earth observation data to improve Earth surface observability. The main features of this equipment are considered and the results of new hyperspectral data applications to solve problems vineyards and forest analysis and also depths measurements are given in the article.

  9. 3D-information fusion from very high resolution satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, T.; d'Angelo, P.; Kuschk, G.; Tian, J.; Partovi, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl'eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground objects are derived. Combining these elevation based data with a spectral classification allows detection and extraction of objects from the satellite scenes. Beside the object extraction also the DSM and DTM can directly be used for simulation and monitoring of environmental issues. Examples are the simulation of floodings, building-volume and people estimation, simulation of noise from roads, wave-propagation for cellphones, wind and light for estimating renewable energy sources, 3D change detection, earthquake preparedness and crisis relief, urban development and sprawl of informal settlements and much more. Also outside of urban areas volume information brings literally a new dimension to earth oberservation tasks like the volume estimations of forests and illegal logging, volume of (illegal) open pit mining activities, estimation of flooding or tsunami risks, dike planning, etc. In this paper we present the preprocessing from the original level-1 satellite data to digital surface models (DSMs), corresponding VHR ortho images and derived digital terrain models (DTMs). From these components we present how a monitoring and decision fusion based 3D change detection can be realized by using different acquisitions. The results are analyzed and assessed to derive quality parameters for the presented method. Finally the usability of 3D information fusion from VHR satellite imagery is discussed and evaluated.

  10. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  11. SCIENCE CHINA In-Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ShiGang

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2010 celebrates the 60th anniversary of this journal.From this issue, the journal features a brand new section: 'In-Sight'.Equivalent to the Cutting Edge of the Cell, News and Views of the Nature and Perspective of the Science, 'In-Sight' provides a forum for discussions about science and science policies in China, the history and future development of this journal and the highlights of scientific progresses published in the current issue.

  12. Satellite-based climate information within the WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, A.; Nitsche, H.; Körber, M.; Kreis, A.; Bissolli, P.; Friedrich, K.; Rösner, S.

    2014-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) around the world to create science-based climate information on a regional scale within the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The paper introduces the satellite component of the WMO Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring (RCC-CM) for Europe and the Middle East. The RCC-CM product portfolio is based on essential climate variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), spanning the atmospheric (radiation, clouds, water vapour) and terrestrial domains (snow cover, soil moisture). In the first part, the input data sets are briefly described, which are provided by the EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facilities (SAF), in particular CM SAF, and by the ESA (European Space Agency) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In the second part, the derived RCC-CM products are presented, which are divided into two groups: (i) operational monitoring products (e.g. monthly means and anomalies) based on near-real-time environmental data records (EDRs) and (ii) climate information records (e.g. climatologies, time series, trend maps) based on long-term thematic climate data records (TCDRs) with adequate stability, accuracy and homogeneity. The products are provided as maps, statistical plots and gridded data, which are made available through the RCC-CM website (www.dwd.de/rcc-cm).

  13. Satellite-Based Derivation of High-Resolution Forest Information Layers for Operational Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Stoffels

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A key factor for operational forest management and forest monitoring is the availability of up-to-date spatial information on the state of forest resources. Earth observation can provide valuable contributions to these information needs. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate transferred its inherited forest information system to a new architecture that is better able to serve the needs of centralized inventory and planning services, down to the level of forest districts. During this process, a spatially adaptive classification approach was developed to derive high-resolution forest information layers (e.g., forest type, tree species distribution, development stages based on multi-temporal satellite data. This study covers the application of the developed approach to a regional scale (federal state level and the further adaptation of the design to meet the information needs of the state forest service. The results confirm that the operational requirements for mapping accuracy can, in principle, be fulfilled. However, the state-wide mapping experiment also revealed that the ability to meet the required level of accuracy is largely dependent on the availability of satellite observations within the optimum phenological time-windows.

  14. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  15. Electronic approaches to restoration of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, G. A.; Palanker, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    Retinal prostheses are a promising means for restoring sight to patients blinded by the gradual atrophy of photoreceptors due to retinal degeneration. They are designed to reintroduce information into the visual system by electrically stimulating surviving neurons in the retina. This review outlines the concepts and technologies behind two major approaches to retinal prosthetics: epiretinal and subretinal. We describe how the visual system responds to electrical stimulation. We highlight major differences between direct encoding of the retinal output with epiretinal stimulation, and network-mediated response with subretinal stimulation. We summarize results of pre-clinical evaluation of prosthetic visual functions in- and ex vivo, as well as the outcomes of current clinical trials of various retinal implants. We also briefly review alternative, non-electronic, approaches to restoration of sight to the blind, and conclude by suggesting some perspectives for future advancement in the field.

  16. An inversion method for retrieving soil moisture information from satellite altimetry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebbing, Bernd; Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Braakmann-Folgmann, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture represents an important component of the terrestrial water cycle that controls., evapotranspiration and vegetation growth. Consequently, knowledge on soil moisture variability is essential to understand the interactions between land and atmosphere. Yet, terrestrial measurements are sparse and their information content is limited due to the large spatial variability of soil moisture. Therefore, over the last two decades, several active and passive radar and satellite missions such as ERS/SCAT, AMSR, SMOS or SMAP have been providing backscatter information that can be used to estimate surface conditions including soil moisture which is proportional to the dielectric constant of the upper (few cm) soil layers . Another source of soil moisture information are satellite radar altimeters, originally designed to measure sea surface height over the oceans. Measurements of Jason-1/2 (Ku- and C-Band) or Envisat (Ku- and S-Band) nadir radar backscatter provide high-resolution along-track information (~ 300m along-track resolution) on backscatter every ~10 days (Jason-1/2) or ~35 days (Envisat). Recent studies found good correlation between backscatter and soil moisture in upper layers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, indicating the potential of satellite altimetry both to reconstruct and to monitor soil moisture variability. However, measuring soil moisture using altimetry has some drawbacks that include: (1) the noisy behavior of the altimetry-derived backscatter (due to e.g., existence of surface water in the radar foot-print), (2) the strong assumptions for converting altimetry backscatters to the soil moisture storage changes, and (3) the need for interpolating between the tracks. In this study, we suggest a new inversion framework that allows to retrieve soil moisture information from along-track Jason-2 and Envisat satellite altimetry data, and we test this scheme over the Australian arid and semi-arid regions. Our method consists of: (i

  17. Using Information From Prior Satellite Scans to Improve Cloud Detection Near the Day-Night Terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing Z.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Spangenberg, Doulas A.

    2012-01-01

    With geostationary satellite data it is possible to have a continuous record of diurnal cycles of cloud properties for a large portion of the globe. Daytime cloud property retrieval algorithms are typically superior to nighttime algorithms because daytime methods utilize measurements of reflected solar radiation. However, reflected solar radiation is difficult to accurately model for high solar zenith angles where the amount of incident radiation is small. Clear and cloudy scenes can exhibit very small differences in reflected radiation and threshold-based cloud detection methods have more difficulty setting the proper thresholds for accurate cloud detection. Because top-of-atmosphere radiances are typically more accurately modeled outside the terminator region, information from previous scans can help guide cloud detection near the terminator. This paper presents an algorithm that uses cloud fraction and clear and cloudy infrared brightness temperatures from previous satellite scan times to improve the performance of a threshold-based cloud mask near the terminator. Comparisons of daytime, nighttime, and terminator cloud fraction derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) radiance measurements show that the algorithm greatly reduces the number of false cloud detections and smoothes the transition from the daytime to the nighttime clod detection algorithm. Comparisons with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data show that using this algorithm decreases the number of false detections by approximately 20 percentage points.

  18. Modelling of Informal Settlement Growth with Satellite Data in Latakia City,Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ghassoun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to social, economic and political reasons, informal settlements are considered as a challenging problem in the third world countries. These create problems to the society and to the local government. The present study aims to discuss informal settlements of Latakia city (Syria during 1970 and 2005 using satellite data. Where based on all the information available, until today the present study is the first one carried out in Syria concerning the development of informal settlements. In this study, we put a headline to solve the informal settlement problem in Latakia city by achievement 4 goals: • INCORPORATION: This goal requires that the inhabitants of an informal settlement are recognized as full citizens of the city, town or village with which they are associated.• IMPROVEMENT: This goal requires an integrated approach to development, that seeks to meet the most important needs of the whole community. It also requires that those needs and priorities are determined by all the stakeholders. The choice of strategies also requires an inclusive process that takes all factors into account. • DEVELOPMENT: The vital elements of this goal are the provision of opportunities and encouragement. • PLANNING: This goal includes, Anticipate the future. Identification and addressing the implications for the informal settlements in a comprehensive manner. We suggested 4 guiding principles to achieve the previous goals: • Integration: Considering the informal settlements as a part of the whole city, is a very important point in the integration process. • Participation: Participation of people and groups of people with the local authority effectively in a process. • Communication: communication is the exchange of thoughts, messages, information and meeting between people and the authority. • Minimum relocation: is to provide the people with opportunities to stay and settle, because every move is disruptive and costly. Also in the present study

  19. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  20. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Bola

    Full Text Available Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  1. Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gredzens

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co

  2. Citizen’ s Language Skills at the Sight of Information Dissemination%试析信息传播视域下的公民语用能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春泉

    2014-01-01

    信息传播的基本工具和载体是语言文字(含副语言特征和体态语),信息传播的效果在一定程度上取决于公民语用能力。公民语用能力包括表达与理解能力,适应、生成(创设)语境的能力,还包括对语言及记录语言的文字本体的认知能力,语言文字的应用能力,语法、修辞、逻辑“三艺”综合运用能力等。另一方面,人际传播、组织转播、大众传播的完善有助于提高公民语用能力。%The basic tool and carrier of the information dissemination is the language ( including paralinguistic features and body language ) , the effect of the information dissemination depends on the citizens ’ language skills. Citizens’ language skills include express and comprehension and so on. On the other hand, the develop-ment of the broadcast organizations and the mass media make contributions to improving citizens ’ language skills.

  3. The Ophthalmologist: Life and Sight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-08-16

    Aug 16, 2002 ... inaugural lecture nineteen years ago in 1983, and it was primarily beamed ... Sight protection begins with the baby in the womb. ..... 1986, the number had soared to 126 million in the year. 2000. .... lives of their victims at risk.

  4. Cloud Occurence Frequency along the Line of Sight Derived from Satellite-based Active Measurements%卫星主动观测的视线云出现频率特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志刚; 王帅辉; 韩志刚; 李义华; 赵增亮

    2013-01-01

    Clouds have significant impacts on the use of the facilities for optical,infrared and microwave observations and communications in the fields of meteorology,topography,and land resource survey. In order to analyze the cloud occurrence frequency along the line of sight over China and its neighborhood,the calculation method based on active measurements is developed. Then,the CloudSat/CALIPSO observations from June 2006 to March 2009 are used and analyzed. The results show that the cloud occurrence frequency is strongly dependent on the view angle,altitude and season. Furthermore,it reveals that the cloud occurrence frequency along the line-of-sight is independent of the azimuth. In the scope of the downward observations, there is a minimum cloud occurrence Frequency value at a particular angle. Additionally, the cloud occurrence Frequency distributions at different heights are also analyzed. This paper shows that the cloud occurrence significantly differs over different areas. Especially, it strongly depends on the latitude in the upper troposphere,but there are some maximums over tropical regions.%云对气象、测绘、国土资源调查等领域中空基和天基光学、红外传感器的使用有着显著影响.为了分析中国及周边区域不同高度上各视角方向的云出现频率,首先建立了基于卫星主动观测的视线云出现频率计算模型,并利用2006年7月至2009年3月的CloudSat/CALIPSO联合观测资料,对中国及周边地区不同高度多个方向上的云出现频率分布进行统计分析.结果表明:视线上云的出现频率因观测高度、角度的不同而不同,且具有明显的季节变化特征,但观测结果具有方位独立性.在各高度,视线由水平方向移向垂直向下时,云出现频率在某一观测方向存在极小值.此外,对比分析了指定高度上的云出现频率分布特征,结果表明:各高度上的云出现频率分布存在明显的地区差异,在对流层上层,云出现

  5. Timing sight and sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H; Johnston, Alan; Nishida, Shinya

    2005-05-01

    It has been proposed that there is a perceptual compensation for the difference between the speeds of light and sound. We examined this possibility using a range of auditory-visual tasks, in which performance depends on the relative timing of auditory and visual information, and manipulated viewing distance to test for perceptual compensation. We explored auditory-visual integration, cross modal causal attributions, and auditory-visual temporal order judgments. We observed timing shifts with viewing distance following loudspeaker, but not headphone, presentations. We were unable to find reliable evidence of perceptual compensation. Our findings suggest that auditory and visual signals of an event that reach an observer at the same point in time tend to become perceptually bound, even when the sources of those signals could not have occurred together.

  6. Program on stimulating operational private sector use of Earth observation satellite information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Foshage, J.; Gomez, G.; Kirkpatrick, B.; Konig, B.; Stein, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Ideas for new businesses specializing in using remote sensing and computerized spatial data systems were developd. Each such business serves as an 'information middleman', buying raw satellite or aircraft imagery, processing these data, combining them in a computer system with customer-specific information, and marketing the resulting information products. Examples of the businesses the project designed are: (1) an agricultural facility site evaluation firm; (2) a mass media grocery price and supply analyst and forecaster; (3) a management service for privately held woodlots; (4) a brokerage for insulation and roofing contractors, based on infrared imagery; (5) an expanded real estate information service. In addition, more than twenty-five other commercially attractive ideas in agribusiness, forestry, mining, real estate, urban planning and redevelopment, and consumer information were created. The commercial feasibility of the five business was assessed. This assessment included market surveys, revenue projections, cost analyses, and profitability studies. The results show that there are large and enthusiastic markets willing to pay for the services these businesses offer, and that the businesses could operate profitably.

  7. An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

  8. Information management system: A summary discussion. [for use in the space shuttle sortie, modular space station and TDR satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An information management system is proposed for use in the space shuttle sortie, the modular space station, the tracking data relay satellite and associated ground support systems. Several different information management functions, including data acquisition, transfer, storage, processing, control and display are integrated in the system.

  9. [Sighting dominance in patients with macular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Eriko; Fujita, Kyoko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yuzawa, Mitsuko

    2007-04-01

    To study sighting dominance by comparing macular disease patients undergoing surgical treatment with controls. We studied visual acuity and sighting dominance in 92 macular disease patients, 27 of whom were assessed for both outcomes. We also studied visual acuity and sighting dominance in 412 controls. Sighting dominance was evaluated using the hole-in-card test. Among the controls, 70% showed right sighting dominance, and 30%, left sighting dominance. On the other hand, in patients with macular disease, right sighting dominance was demonstrated in 51%, and left in 49%; that is, 24% showed sighting dominance of the affected eye and 76%, of the fellow eye. During follow-up, sighting dominance of three of the 27 macular disease patients shifted from the affected eye to the fellow eye, which showed improvement in visual acuity. This study raises the possibility of sighting dominance shifting in patients with macular disease. There were differences among cases in the timing of the shift in sighting dominance, indicating that visual acuity may not be the only factor influencing sighting dominance. Further study is needed to confirm the factors contributing to sighting dominance.

  10. Global Flood Response Using Satellite Rainfall Information Coupled with Land Surface and Routing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R. F.; Wu, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS) (http://flood.umd.edu) has been developed and used in recent years to provide real-time flood detection, streamflow estimates and inundation calculations for most of the globe. The GFMS is driven by satellite-based precipitation, with the accuracy of the flood estimates being primarily dependent on the accuracy of the precipitation analyses and the land surface and routing models used. The routing calculations are done at both 12 km and 1 km resolution. Users of GFMS results include international and national flood response organizations. The devastating floods in October 2015 in South Carolina are analyzed indicating that the GFMS estimated streamflow is accurate and useful indicating significant flooding in the upstream basins. Further downstream the GFMS streamflow underestimates due to the presence of dams which are not accounted for in GFMS. Other examples are given for Yemen and Somalia and for Sri Lanka and southern India. A forecast flood event associated with a typhoon hitting Taiwan is also examined. One-kilometer resolution inundation mapping from GFMS holds the promise of highly useful information for flood disaster response. The algorithm is briefly described and examples are shown for recent cases where inundation estimates available from optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite sensors are available. For a case of significant flooding in Texas in May and June along the Brazos River the GFMS calculated streamflow compares favorably with the observed. Available Landsat-based (May 28) and MODIS-based (June 2) inundation analyses from U. of Colorado shows generally good agreement with the GFMS inundation calculation in most of the area where skies were clear and the optical techniques could be applied. The GFMS provides very useful disaster response information on a timely basis. However, there is still significant room for improvement, including improved precipitation information from NASA's Global

  11. Satellite Galaxy Velocity Dispersions in the SDSS and Modified Gravity Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Moffat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS provides data on several hundred thousand galaxies. The precise location of these galaxies in the sky, along with information about their luminosities and line-of-sight (Doppler velocities, allows one to construct a three-dimensional map of their location and estimate their line-of-sight velocity dispersion. This information, in principle, allows one to test dynamical gravity models, specifically models of satellite galaxy velocity dispersions near massive hosts. A key difficulty is the separation of true satellites from interlopers. We sidestep this problem by not attempting to derive satellite galaxy velocity dispersions from the data, but instead incorporate an interloper background into the mathematical models and compare the result to the actual data. We find that due to the presence of interlopers, it is not possible to exclude several gravitational theories on the basis of the SDSS data.

  12. Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-01-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  13. Sea turtles sightings in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles sightings are reported to the NMFS Beaufort Laboratory sea turtle program by the general public as they are fishing, boating, etc. These sightings...

  14. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  15. A service for the application of data quality information to NASA earth science satellite records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Xing, Z.; Fry, C.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Huang, T.; Chen, G.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.

    2016-12-01

    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables that can be applied as thresholds to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables could be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 161 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process for the user until they understand the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a NASA ACCESS project, is addressing these issues and concerns. The project has developed an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, data discovery, and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well-defined URLs and web service specifications has also been implemented. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be demonstrated.

  16. An Exploitation of Satellite-based Observation for Health Information: The UFOS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangin, A.; Morel, M.; Fanton d' Andon, O

    2000-07-01

    Short, medium and long-term trends of UV intensity levels are of crucial importance for either assessing effective biological impacts on human population, or implementing adequate preventive behaviours. Better information on a large spatial scale and increased public awareness of the short-term variations in UV values will help to support health agencies' goals of educating the public on UV risks. The Ultraviolet Forecast Operational Service Project (UFAS), financed in part by the European Commission/DG Information Society (TEN-TELECOM programme), aims to exploit satellite-based observations and to supply a set of UV products directly useful to health care. The short-term objective is to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility and benefits that could be brought by such a system. UFOS is carried out by ACRI, with the support of an Advisory Group chaired by WHO and involving representation from the sectors of Health (WHO, INTERSUN collaborating centres, ZAMBON), Environment (WMO, IASB), and Telecommunications (EURECOM, IMET). (author)

  17. The utility of satellite fire product accuracy information - Perspectives and recommendations from the southern Africa fire network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.P.; Trigg, S.N.; Bhima, R.; Brockett, B.H.; Mutanga, O.; Virgilo, S.

    2006-01-01

    This correspondence gives Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) perspectives on the utility of satellite fire product accuracy information, drawing on two main sources: insights gained during SAFNet's six years of working together, and relevant findings from a SAFNet focus group study that explored

  18. Improved global high resolution precipitation estimation using multi-satellite multi-spectral information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangi, Ali

    In respond to the community demands, combining microwave (MW) and infrared (IR) estimates of precipitation has been an active area of research since past two decades. The anticipated launching of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission and the increasing number of spectral bands in recently launched geostationary platforms will provide greater opportunities for investigating new approaches to combine multi-source information towards improved global high resolution precipitation retrievals. After years of the communities' efforts the limitations of the existing techniques are: (1) Drawbacks of IR-only techniques to capture warm rainfall and screen out no-rain thin cirrus clouds; (2) Grid-box- only dependency of many algorithms with not much effort to capture the cloud textures whether in local or cloud patch scale; (3) Assumption of indirect relationship between rain rate and cloud-top temperature that force high intensity precipitation to any cold cloud; (4) Neglecting the dynamics and evolution of cloud in time; (5) Inconsistent combination of MW and IR-based precipitation estimations due to the combination strategies and as a result of above described shortcomings. This PhD dissertation attempts to improve the combination of data from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites in manners that will allow consistent high resolution integration of the more accurate precipitation estimates, directly observed through LEO's PMW sensors, into the short-term cloud evolution process, which can be inferred from GEO images. A set of novel approaches are introduced to cope with the listed limitations and is consist of the following four consecutive components: (1) starting with the GEO part and by using an artificial-neural network based method it is demonstrated that inclusion of multi-spectral data can ameliorate existing problems associated with IR-only precipitating retrievals; (2) through development of Precipitation Estimation

  19. Role of satellite remote sensing in the geographic information economics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denégre, Jean

    In national and international economics, geographic information plays a role which is generally acknowledged to be important but which is however, difficult to assess quantitatively, its applications being rather miscellaneous and indirect. Computer graphics and telecommunications increae that importance still more and justify many investments and research into new cartographic forms. As part of its responsibility for participating in the promotion of those developments, by taking into account needs expressed by public or private users, the National Council for Geographic Information (C.N.I.G.) has undertaken a general evaluation of the economic and social utility of geographic information in France. The study involves an estimation of the cost of production and research activities, which are probably about 0.1% of the Cross National Product—similar to many other countries. It also devised a method of estimating "cost/advantage" ratios applicable to these "intangible" benefits. Within that framework, remote sensing emphasizes particular aspects related both to the increase of economic performances in cartographic production and to the advent of new products and new ways of utilization. A review of some significant sectors shows effective earnings of about 10-20%, or even 50% or 100% of the costs, and these are doubtless much greater for the efficacy in the exploitation of products. Finally, many applications, entirely new result from extensions in various fields which would have been impossible without remote sensing: here the "cost advantage" ratio cannot even be compared with previous processes. Studies were undertaken in parallel for defining different types of products derived from satellite imagery, as well as those domains where development effort is required in order to make new advances.

  20. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Vaqar

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp is a practical, hands-on guide that contains instruction-based examples from basic to advanced level topics. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp will serve as an excellent source of information for Citrix XenApp professionals and novices alike. It is assumed that readers have experience working with Citrix products and have some sort of familiarity with monitoring.

  1. Automated Building Extraction from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Urban Areas Using Structural, Contextual, and Spectral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt H. Davis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution satellite imagery provides an important new data source for building extraction. We demonstrate an integrated strategy for identifying buildings in 1-meter resolution satellite imagery of urban areas. Buildings are extracted using structural, contextual, and spectral information. First, a series of geodesic opening and closing operations are used to build a differential morphological profile (DMP that provides image structural information. Building hypotheses are generated and verified through shape analysis applied to the DMP. Second, shadows are extracted using the DMP to provide reliable contextual information to hypothesize position and size of adjacent buildings. Seed building rectangles are verified and grown on a finely segmented image. Next, bright buildings are extracted using spectral information. The extraction results from the different information sources are combined after independent extraction. Performance evaluation of the building extraction on an urban test site using IKONOS satellite imagery of the City of Columbia, Missouri, is reported. With the combination of structural, contextual, and spectral information, 72.7% of the building areas are extracted with a quality percentage 58.8%.

  2. Differences in cognitive map-acquisition between visually impaired and sighted persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, Frank J.J.M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Pikaar, R N; Koningsveld, E A P; Settels, P J M

    2006-01-01

    This study compares visually impaired and sighted persons in their use of auditory information. It was expected that sighted persons would benefit from survey-type descriptions of an environment whereas visually impaired persons would benefit from route-type descriptions. 27 visually impaired and 28

  3. High-resolution multispectral satellite imagery for extracting bathymetric information of Antarctic shallow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, Shridhar D.; Luis, Alvarinho J.

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution pansharpened images from WorldView-2 were used for bathymetric mapping around Larsemann Hills and Schirmacher oasis, east Antarctica. We digitized the lake features in which all the lakes from both the study areas were manually extracted. In order to extract the bathymetry values from multispectral imagery we used two different models: (a) Stumpf model and (b) Lyzenga model. Multiband image combinations were used to improve the results of bathymetric information extraction. The derived depths were validated against the in-situ measurements and root mean square error (RMSE) was computed. We also quantified the error between in-situ and satellite-estimated lake depth values. Our results indicated a high correlation (R = 0.60 0.80) between estimated depth and in-situ depth measurements, with RMSE ranging from 0.10 to 1.30 m. This study suggests that the coastal blue band in the WV-2 imagery could retrieve accurate bathymetry information compared to other bands. To test the effect of size and dimension of lake on bathymetry retrieval, we distributed all the lakes on the basis of size and depth (reference data), as some of the lakes were open, some were semi frozen and others were completely frozen. Several tests were performed on open lakes on the basis of size and depth. Based on depth, very shallow lakes provided better correlation (≈ 0.89) compared to shallow (≈ 0.67) and deep lakes (≈ 0.48). Based on size, large lakes yielded better correlation in comparison to medium and small lakes.

  4. Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues

  5. Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan

    2012-06-01

    Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

  6. Bayesian Information Criterion Based Feature Filtering for the Fusion of Multiple Features in High-Spatial-Resolution Satellite Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel classification method for high-spatial-resolution satellite scene classification introducing Bayesian information criterion (BIC-based feature filtering process to further eliminate opaque and redundant information between multiple features. Firstly, two diverse and complementary feature descriptors are extracted to characterize the satellite scene. Then, sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA with penalty function is employed to fuse the extracted feature descriptors and remove the ambiguities and redundancies between them simultaneously. After that, a two-phase Bayesian information criterion (BIC-based feature filtering process is designed to further filter out redundant information. In the first phase, we gradually impose a constraint via an iterative process to set a constraint on the loadings for averting sparse correlation descending below to a lower confidence limit of the approximated canonical correlation. In the second phase, Bayesian information criterion (BIC is utilized to conduct the feature filtering which sets the smallest loading in absolute value to zero in each iteration for all features. Lastly, a support vector machine with pyramid match kernel is applied to obtain the final result. Experimental results on high-spatial-resolution satellite scenes demonstrate that the suggested approach achieves satisfactory performance in classification accuracy.

  7. Application of communications satellites to educational development. [technology utilization/information systems - bibliographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of research is presented. The broad objectives of this interdisciplinary research effort were: (1) to assess the role of satellite communications as a means of improving education in the United States, as well as in less-developed areas of the world; (2) to generate basic knowledge which will aid in making rational decisions about satellite application in the field of education in the years ahead; (3) to devise systems and strategies for improving education; and (4) to educate individuals who will be knowledgeable about aspects of satellite communications policy which transcend any single discipline.

  8. [Retrieval of Copper Pollution Information from Hyperspectral Satellite Data in a Vegetation Cover Mining Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yong-hua; Jiao, Si-hong; Liu, Su-hong; Zhu, Ye-qing

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal mining activities have caused the complex influence on the ecological environment of the mining regions. For example, a large amount of acidic waste water containing heavy metal ions have be produced in the process of copper mining which can bring serious pollution to the ecological environment of the region. In the previous research work, bare soil is mainly taken as the research target when monitoring environmental pollution, and thus the effects of land surface vegetation have been ignored. It is well known that vegetation condition is one of the most important indictors to reflect the ecological change in a certain region and there is a significant linkage between the vegetation spectral characteristics and the heavy metal when the vegetation is effected by the heavy metal pollution. It means the vegetation is sensitive to heavy metal pollution by their physiological behaviors in response to the physiological ecology change of their growing environment. The conventional methods, which often rely on large amounts of field survey data and laboratorial chemical analysis, are time consuming and costing a lot of material resources. The spectrum analysis method using remote sensing technology can acquire the information of the heavy mental content in the vegetation without touching it. However, the retrieval of that information from the hyperspectral data is not an easy job due to the difficulty in figuring out the specific band, which is sensitive to the specific heavy metal, from a huge number of hyperspectral bands. Thus the selection of the sensitive band is the key of the spectrum analysis method. This paper proposed a statistical analysis method to find the feature band sensitive to heavy metal ion from the hyperspectral data and to then retrieve the metal content using the field survey data and the hyperspectral images from China Environment Satellite HJ-1. This method selected copper ion content in the leaves as the indicator of copper pollution

  9. Orbit Determination Using a Decametric Line-of-Sight Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, G.; Meehan, D.; Rutten, M.; Gordon, N.

    2013-09-01

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of a ground-based bistatic decametric line-of-sight radar for orbit determination of low Earth orbit satellites. Radar observations of the Hubble Space Telescope are used to demonstrate our approach. We present methods for initial orbit determination and for the case of improving an a-priori established orbit descriptor. We discuss the suitability of this class of radar for wide-field space situational awareness and consider a SSA architecture that uses this class of radar to cue high-accuracy narrow field-of-view optical sensors as part of a wide-field high-accuracy system for SSA.

  10. Research on long-term autonomous orbit determination for navigation constellation using inter-satellite orientation observation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xu, Bo; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2009-12-01

    Long-term autonomous orbit determination is one of the key techniques of autonomous navigation for navigation constellation. Based only on cross-link range observation, which is not able to overcome the defect of entire constellation rotation and translation relative to inertial reference frame, the accuracy of autonomous orbit determination is reduced with time. In order to solve this problem, the approach of using inter-satellite orientation observation is put forward to estimate the constellation rotation and translation with the benefit of absolute position information provided by stars. In view of the fact that most navigation satellites moving in near circular orbits, and also in order to reduce the calculation burden of onboard computer, nonsingular orbital elements are chosen as state variables and analytical method is used to calculate the transition matrix in this paper. In addition, the extended Kalman filter is designed to fuse information of satellite dynamic model, cross-link range observation and inter-satellite orientation observation to determine the orbit. The simulation results based on the IGS Final Products of GPS constellation indicate that, at the certain error condition of range and orientation measurement, the URE of constellation is better than 2 meters within 120 days.

  11. Electronic eyebox for weapon sights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Wagner, Kevin; Nobes, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    We expand the effective size of the eyebox of a magnified telescopic weapon sight by following the movements of the operator's eye to create a larger, `electronic eyebox'. The original eyebox of the telescope is dynamically relocated in space so that proper overlap between the pupil of the eye and the exit pupil of the device is maintained. Therefore, the operator will perceive the entire field of view of the instrument in a much bigger spatial region than the one defined by the original eyebox. Proof-of-the-concept results are presented with a more than 3.5X enlargement of the eyebox volume along with recommendations for the next phase of development.

  12. The SEIS InSight VBB Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebut, T.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, W. B.; De Raucourt, S.; Beyneix, J.; Dandonneau, P. A.; Gabsi, T.; Robert, O.; Tillier, S.; Hurst, K. J.; Mimoun, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Bierwierth, M.; Roll, R.; Pike, W. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Giardini, D.; Mance, D.; Zweifel, P.; Laudet, P.; Kerjean, L.; Perez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure Investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (InSight) mission selected by NASA in August 2012 to be the next Mars mission. The objective of the InSight SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinui-ties and thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity over a very broad frequency band, from tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to high frequencies (50 Hz), to address a wide range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact rate, marsquake rate and the response of the planet to the Phobos tide. Description of the instrument: The instrument includes notably a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seis-mometer which is developed by the ';Institut du Globe de Paris' (IPGP) under the funding of CNES. The sensor assembly, which also contains a MEMS short-period seismometer, will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and will be protected by a wind and thermal shield. The wind and thermal shield,together with a vacuum sphere and a passive compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a detection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. Conclusion: Performance has been demonstrated with previous prototypes and the SEIS experiment of the InSight mission will therefore provide high-quality seismic signal acquisition and associated seismic information during one martian year. The delivery of the payload is planned for the end of 2014 and the launch is in March 2016 SEIS deployed on the ground next to the lander Single

  13. A study of possible sea state information in the sample and hold gate statistics for the GEOS-3 satellite altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, W. T.; Borman, K. L.; Mitchell, R. D.; Dempsey, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical variations in the sample gate outputs of the GEOS-3 satellite altimeter were studied for possible sea state information. After examination of a large number of statistical characteristics of the altimeter waveforms, it was found that the best sea predictor for H-1/3 in the range of 0 to 3 meters was the 75th percentile of sample and hold gate number 11.

  14. Building Damage Estimation by Integration of Seismic Intensity Information and Satellite L-band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuoto Nojima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For a quick and stable estimation of earthquake damaged buildings worldwide, using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR loaded on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS satellite, a model combining the usage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-scale seismic intensity is proposed. In order to expand the existing C-band SAR based damage estimation model into L-band SAR, this paper rebuilds a likelihood function for severe damage ratio, on the basis of dataset from Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1/SAR (L-band SAR images observed during the 1995 Kobe earthquake and its detailed ground truth data. The model which integrates the fragility functions of building damage in terms of seismic intensity and the proposed likelihood function is then applied to PALSAR images taken over the areas affected by the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru. The accuracy of the proposed damage estimation model is examined by comparing the results of the analyses with field investigations and/or interpretation of high-resolution satellite images.

  15. Status and Future of a Real-time Global Flood Detection and Forecasting System Using Satellite Rainfall Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R. F.; Wu, H.; Hong, Y.; Policelli, F.; Pierce, H.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several years a Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS) has been running in real-time to detect the occurrence of floods (see trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov and click on "Floods and Landslides"). The system uses 3-hr resolution composite rainfall analyses (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis [TMPA]) as input into a hydrological model that calculates water depth at each grid (at 0.25 degree latitude-longitude) over the tropics and mid-latitudes. These calculations can provide information useful to national and international agencies in understanding the location, intensity, timeline and impact on populations of these significant hazard events. The status of these flood calculations will be shown by case study examples and a statistical comparison against a global flood event database. The validation study indicates that results improve with longer duration (> 3 days) floods and that the statistics are impacted by the presence of dams, which are not accounted for in the model calculations. Limitations in the flood calculations that are related to the satellite rainfall estimates include space and time resolution limitations and underestimation of shallow orographic and monsoon system rainfall. The current quality of these flood estimations is at the level of being useful, but there is a potential for significant improvement, mainly through improved and more timely satellite precipitation information and improvement in the hydrological models being used. NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) program should lead to better precipitation analyses utilizing space-time interpolations that maintain accurate intensity distributions along with methods to disaggregate the rain information research should lead to improved rain estimation for shallow, orographic rainfall systems and some types of monsoon rainfall, a current problem area for satellite rainfall. Higher resolution flood models with accurate routing and regional calibration, and the use of satellite

  16. "Cloud Slicing" : A New Technique to Derive Tropospheric Ozone Profile Information from Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique denoted cloud slicing has been developed for estimating tropospheric ozone profile information. All previous methods using satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. By combining total tropospheric column ozone (denoted TCO) measurements from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method with 100-400 hPa upper tropospheric column ozone amounts from cloud slicing, it is possible to estimate 400-1000 hPa lower tropospheric column ozone and evaluate its spatial and temporal variability. Results for both the upper and lower tropical troposphere show a year-round zonal wavenumber 1 pattern in column ozone with largest amounts in the Atlantic region (up to approx. 15 DU in the 100-400 hPa pressure band and approx. 25-30 DU in the 400-1000 hPa pressure band). Upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing shows maximum column amounts in the Atlantic region in the June-August and September-November seasons which is similar to the seasonal variability of CCD derived TCO in the region. For the lower troposphere, largest column amounts occur in the September-November season over Brazil in South America and also southern Africa. Localized increases in the tropics in lower tropospheric ozone are found over the northern region of South America around August and off the west coast of equatorial Africa in the March-May season. Time series analysis for several regions in South America and Africa show an anomalous increase in ozone in the lower

  17. An Upper Bound on High Speed Satellite Collision Probability When Only One Object has Position Uncertainty Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Upper bounds on high speed satellite collision probability, PC †, have been investigated. Previous methods assume an individual position error covariance matrix is available for each object. The two matrices being combined into a single, relative position error covariance matrix. Components of the combined error covariance are then varied to obtain a maximum PC. If error covariance information for only one of the two objects was available, either some default shape has been used or nothing could be done. An alternative is presented that uses the known covariance information along with a critical value of the missing covariance to obtain an approximate but potentially useful Pc upper bound.

  18. Steller sea lion sightings or recaptures of previously marked animals throughout their range, 1987-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the sighting and capture of previously marked Steller sea lions from 1987 to the present. Marks are seen and documented...

  19. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  20. Implementation of a satellite data based permafrost information system - the DUE permafrost project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartsch, A.; Wiesmann, A.; Strozzi, T.; Schmullius, C.; Hese, S.; Duguay, C.; Heim, B.; Boike, J.; Herold, M.

    2010-01-01

    directly measured with remotely sensed data. However, many parameters which influence the ground thermal regime and surface indicators can be captured with satellite data in an operational manner. Those are e.g. land surface temperature, land cover and snow parameters, soil moisture and terrain chan

  1. Microwave line of sight link engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Angueira, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the design, implementation, and operation of line of sight microwave link systems The microwave Line of Sight (LOS) transport network of any cellular operator requires at least as much planning effort as the cellular infrastructure itself. The knowledge behind this design has been kept private by most companies and has not been easy to find. Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering solves this dilemma. It provides the latest revisions to ITU reports and recommendations, which are not only key to successful design but have changed dramatically in

  2. The interstellar medium near the sun - The line of sight to lambda Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    Copernicus satellite spectrometric observations are used to determine column densities and ionization structure in the local interstellar medium in the line of sight to lambda Sco. Three, or possibly four, regions are identified by physical properties or velocity separations in the UV absorption line profiles, including a region with a temperature near 200,000 K containing O VI lines, one or two H II regions, and an H I region which may also contain S III and C III. Element abundances are tabulated, and abundances in the H I region are shown to have a depletion pattern similar to that for the line of sight to zeta Oph.

  3. Non-line-of-sight active imaging of scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Velten, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Laser Gated Viewing is a prominent sensing technology for optical imaging in harsh environments and can be applied to the vision through fog, smoke and other degraded environmental conditions as well as to the vision through sea water in submarine operation. A direct imaging of non-scattered photons (or ballistic photons) is limited in range and performance by the free optical path length i.e. the length in which a photon can propagate without interaction with scattering particles or object surfaces. The imaging and analysis of scattered photons can overcome these classical limitations and it is possible to realize a non-line-of-sight imaging. The spatial and temporal distribution of scattered photons can be analyzed by means of computational optics and their information of the scenario can be restored. In the case of Lambertian scattering sources the scattered photons carry information of the complete environment. Especial the information outside the line of sight or outside the visibility range is of high interest. Here, we discuss approaches for non line of sight active imaging with different indirect and direct illumination concepts (point, surface and volume scattering sources).

  4. An Investigation of Sight-Line Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    feedback control system that will accomplish sight-line stabilization is developed, and a numerical optimization is performed on a simplified version of this detailed model. The optimization routine used is described in reference.

  5. Right Whale Sightings Advisory System (RWSAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Right Whale Sighting Advisory System (RWSAS) is a NOAA Fisheries program which was designed to reduce collisions between ships and the critically endangered...

  6. Teaching Singers to Sight-Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.

    1996-01-01

    Advocates making sight-reading an integral part of choral music instruction and rehearsals. Recommends the Kodaly method for teaching tonic and dominant tonal patterns. Describes several instructional exercises designed to motivate and engage students. (MJP)

  7. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  8. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    OpenAIRE

    Bogunović Blanka; Vujović Ida

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education). Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involv...

  9. Cyberinfrastructure Initiatives of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. R.; Faundeen, J. L.; Petiteville, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) was established in 1984 in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. CEOS participants are Members, who are national or international governmental organizations who operate civil spaceborne Earth observation satellites, and Associates who are governmental organizations with civil space programs in development or international scientific or governmental bodies who have an interest in and support CEOS objectives. The primary objective of CEOS is to optimize benefits of satellite Earth observations through cooperation of its participants in mission planning and in development of compatible data products, formats, services, applications and policies. To pursue its objectives, CEOS establishes working groups and associated subgroups that focus on relevant areas of interest. While the structure of CEOS has evolved over its lifetime, today there are three permanent working groups. One is the Working Group on Calibration and Validation that addresses sensor-specific calibration and validation and geophysical parameter validation. A second is the Working Group on Education, Training, and Capacity Building that facilitates activities that enhance international education and training in Earth observation techniques, data analysis, interpretation and applications, with a particular focus on developing countries. The third permanent working group is the Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The purpose of WGISS is to promote collaboration in the development of the systems and services based on international standards that manage and supply the Earth observation data and information from participating agencies' missions. WGISS places great emphasis on the use of demonstration projects involving user groups to solve the critical interoperability issues associated with the

  10. Analysis and forecast experiments incorporating satellite soundings and cloud and water vapor drift wind information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Brian M.; Diak, George R.; Mills, Graham A.

    1986-01-01

    A system for assimilating conventional meteorological data and satellite-derived data in order to produce four-dimensional gridded data sets of the primary atmospheric variables used for updating limited area forecast models is described. The basic principles of a data assimilation scheme as proposed by Lorenc (1984) are discussed. The design of the system and its incremental assimilation cycles are schematically presented. The assimilation system was tested using radiosonde, buoy, VAS temperature, dew point, gradient wind data, cloud drift, and water vapor motion data. The rms vector errors for the data are analyzed.

  11. 3D-Information Fusion from Very High Resolution Satellite Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, T; P. d'Angelo; G. Kuschk; Tian, J.; T. Partovi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl´eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground ...

  12. Nonline-of-sight laser gated viewing of scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Velten, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Laser gated viewing is a prominent sensing technology for optical imaging in harsh environments and can be applied for vision through fog, smoke, and other degraded environmental conditions as well as for the vision through sea water in submarine operation. A direct imaging of nonscattered photons (or ballistic photons) is limited in range and performance by the free optical path length, i.e., the length in which a photon can propagate without interaction with scattering particles or object surfaces. The imaging and analysis of scattered photons can overcome these classical limitations and it is possible to realize a nonline-of-sight imaging. The spatial and temporal distributions of scattered photons can be analyzed by means of computational optics and their information of the scenario can be restored. In particular, the information outside the line of sight or outside the visibility range is of high interest. We demonstrate nonline-of-sight imaging with a laser gated viewing system and different illumination concepts (point and surface scattering sources).

  13. Combined use of weather forecasting and satellite remote sensing information for fire risk, fire and fire impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knorr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of fire-affected forest areas needs to be combined with their future protection from renewed catastrophic fires, such as those that occurred in Greece during the 2007 summer season. The present work demonstrates that the use of various sources of satellite data in conjunction with weather forecast information is capable of providing valuable information for the characterization of fire danger with the purpose of protecting the Greek national forest areas. This study shows that favourable meteorological conditions have contributed to the fire outbreak during the days of the unusually damaging fires in Peloponnese as well as Euboia (modern Greek: Evia at the end of August 2007. During those days, Greece was located between an extended high pressure system in Central Europe and a low pressure system in the Middle East. Their combination resulted in strong north-northeasterly winds in the Aegean Sea. As a consequence, strong winds were also observed in the regions of Evia and Peloponnese, especially in mountainous areas. The analysis of satellite images showing smoke emitted from the fires corroborates the results from the weather forecasts. A further analysis using the Fraction of Absorbed Photosyntetically Active Radiation (FAPAR as an indicator of active vegetation shows the extent of the destruction caused by the fire. The position of the burned areas coincides with that of the active fires detected in the earlier satellite image. Using the annual maximum FAPAR as an indicator of regional vegetation density, it was found that only regions with relatively high FAPAR were burned.

  14. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  15. Satellite remote sensing - An integral tool in acquiring global crop production information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F. G.

    1982-01-01

    Since NASA's program of research concerning remote sensing was initiated in the 1960s, one of its major objectives has been to advance the state-of-the-art in machine processing of satellite acquired multispectral data. Possibilities have been studied regarding a use of these data to identify type, to monitor condition, and to estimate the ontogenetic stage of cultural vegetation. The present investigation provides a review of the state-of-the-art of the technology used to make remote sensing crop production estimates in foreign regions. Attention is given to Landsat data acquisition, aspects of registration and preprocessing, questions of data transformation, data modeling, proportion estimation, labeling, development stage models, crop condition models, and an outlook regarding future developments.

  16. Forecasting distributions of large federal-lands fires utilizing satellite and gridded weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, H.K.; Burgan, R.E.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Klaver, Jacqueline M.; Klaver, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents a statistical model for assessing the skill of fire danger indices and for forecasting the distribution of the expected numbers of large fires over a given region and for the upcoming week. The procedure permits development of daily maps that forecast, for the forthcoming week and within federal lands, percentiles of the distributions of (i) number of ignitions; (ii) number of fires above a given size; (iii) conditional probabilities of fires greater than a specified size, given ignition. As an illustration, we used the methods to study the skill of the Fire Potential Index an index that incorporates satellite and surface observations to map fire potential at a national scale in forecasting distributions of large fires. ?? 2009 IAWF.

  17. On-orbit real-time magnetometer bias determination for micro-satellites without attitude information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhen; Xiong Jianping; Jin Jin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the disadvantages such as complex calculation, low accuracy of estimation, and being non real time in present methods, a new real-time algorithm is developed for on-orbit mag-netometer bias determination of micro-satellites without attitude knowledge in this paper. This method uses the differential value approach. It avoids the impact of quartic nature and uses the iter-ative method to satisfy real-time applications. Simulation results indicate that the new real-time algorithm is more accurate compared with other methods, which are also tested by an experiment system using real noise data. With the new real-time algorithm, a magnetometer calibration can be taken on-orbit and will reduce the demand for computing power effectively.

  18. On-orbit real-time magnetometer bias determination for micro-satellites without attitude information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the disadvantages such as complex calculation, low accuracy of estimation, and being non real time in present methods, a new real-time algorithm is developed for on-orbit magnetometer bias determination of micro-satellites without attitude knowledge in this paper. This method uses the differential value approach. It avoids the impact of quartic nature and uses the iterative method to satisfy real-time applications. Simulation results indicate that the new real-time algorithm is more accurate compared with other methods, which are also tested by an experiment system using real noise data. With the new real-time algorithm, a magnetometer calibration can be taken on-orbit and will reduce the demand for computing power effectively.

  19. AUTOMATIC URBAN ILLEGAL BUILDING DETECTION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL SATELLITE IMAGES AND GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khalili Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented growth of urban population and urban development, we are faced with the growing trend of illegal building (IB construction. Field visit, as the currently used method of IB detection, is time and man power consuming, in addition to its high cost. Therefore, an automatic IB detection is required. Acquiring multi-temporal satellite images and using image processing techniques for automatic change detection is one of the optimum methods which can be used in IB monitoring. In this research an automatic method of IB detection has been proposed. Two-temporal panchromatic satellite images of IRS-P5 of the study area in a part of Tehran, the city map and an updated spatial database of existing buildings were used to detect the suspected IBs. In the pre-processing step, the images were geometrically and radiometrically corrected. In the next step, the changed pixels were detected using K-means clustering technique because of its quickness and less user’s intervention required. Then, all the changed pixels of each building were identified and the change percentage of each building with the standard threshold of changes was compared to detect the buildings which are under construction. Finally, the IBs were detected by checking the municipality database. The unmatched constructed buildings with municipal database will be field checked to identify the IBs. The results show that out of 343 buildings appeared in the images; only 19 buildings were detected as under construction and three of them as unlicensed buildings. Furthermore, the overall accuracies of 83%, 79% and 75% were obtained for K-means change detection, detection of under construction buildings and IBs detection, respectively.

  20. Sound sight: seeing with ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, Monika; Jensen, Gloria

    2007-03-01

    Recent advances in medical imaging, information and communication technology promise to support medical visual practice as well as everyday healthcare experience. However, this potential is not easy to realize. A better understanding of existing practices can inform socio-technical innovation. We draw on ethnographic observations and our involvement in the design of 'palpable computing' to examine the use of ultrasound imaging technologies in consultations with pregnant women with a view to ideas and implications for socio-technical innovation.

  1. Satellite Based Education and Training in Remote Sensing and Geo-Information AN E-Learning Approach to Meet the Growing Demands in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical / scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted / received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities /Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity

  2. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  3. iSIGHT-FD scalability test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Robert L.; Shneider, Max S.

    2008-07-01

    The engineering analysis community at Sandia National Laboratories uses a number of internal and commercial software codes and tools, including mesh generators, preprocessors, mesh manipulators, simulation codes, post-processors, and visualization packages. We define an analysis workflow as the execution of an ordered, logical sequence of these tools. Various forms of analysis (and in particular, methodologies that use multiple function evaluations or samples) involve executing parameterized variations of these workflows. As part of the DART project, we are evaluating various commercial workflow management systems, including iSIGHT-FD from Engineous. This report documents the results of a scalability test that was driven by DAKOTA and conducted on a parallel computer (Thunderbird). The purpose of this experiment was to examine the suitability and performance of iSIGHT-FD for large-scale, parameterized analysis workflows. As the results indicate, we found iSIGHT-FD to be suitable for this type of application.

  4. Efficient Methods to Assimilate Satellite Retrievals Based on Information Content. Part 2; Suboptimal Retrieval Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Dee, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in data assimilation has been and continues to be how best to utilize satellite data while balancing the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost. A number of weather prediction centers have recently achieved remarkable success in improving their forecast skill by changing the method by which satellite data are assimilated into the forecast model from the traditional approach of assimilating retrievals to the direct assimilation of radiances in a variational framework. The operational implementation of such a substantial change in methodology involves a great number of technical details, e.g., pertaining to quality control procedures, systematic error correction techniques, and tuning of the statistical parameters in the analysis algorithm. Although there are clear theoretical advantages to the direct radiance assimilation approach, it is not obvious at all to what extent the improvements that have been obtained so far can be attributed to the change in methodology, or to various technical aspects of the implementation. The issue is of interest because retrieval assimilation retains many practical and logistical advantages which may become even more significant in the near future when increasingly high-volume data sources become available. The central question we address here is: how much improvement can we expect from assimilating radiances rather than retrievals, all other things being equal? We compare the two approaches in a simplified one-dimensional theoretical framework, in which problems related to quality control and systematic error correction are conveniently absent. By assuming a perfect radiative transfer model and perfect knowledge of radiance and background error covariances, we are able to formulate a nonlinear local error analysis for each assimilation method. Direct radiance assimilation is optimal in this idealized context, while the traditional method of assimilating retrievals is suboptimal because it

  5. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  6. Mapping species of submerged aquatic vegetation with multi-seasonal satellite images and considering life history information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Duan, Hongtao; Ma, Ronghua; Jin, Xiuliang; Li, Fei; Hu, Weiping; Shi, Kun; Huang, Wenjiang

    2017-05-01

    Spatial information of the dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is essential for restoration projects in eutrophic lakes, especially eutrophic Taihu Lake, China. Mapping the distribution of SAV species is very challenging and difficult using only multispectral satellite remote sensing. In this study, we proposed an approach to map the distribution of seven dominant species of SAV in Taihu Lake. Our approach involved information on the life histories of the seven SAV species and eight distribution maps of SAV from February to October. The life history information of the dominant SAV species was summarized from the literature and field surveys. Eight distribution maps of the SAV were extracted from eight 30 m HJ-CCD images from February to October in 2013 based on the classification tree models, and the overall classification accuracies for the SAV were greater than 80%. Finally, the spatial distribution of the SAV species in Taihu in 2013 was mapped using multilayer erasing approach. Based on validation, the overall classification accuracy for the seven species was 68.4%, and kappa was 0.6306, which suggests that larger differences in life histories between species can produce higher identification accuracies. The classification results show that Potamogeton malaianus was the most widely distributed species in Taihu Lake, followed by Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton maackianus, Potamogeton crispus, Elodea nuttallii, Ceratophyllum demersum and Vallisneria spiralis. The information is useful for planning shallow-water habitat restoration projects.

  7. Use of open source information and commercial satellite imagery for nuclear nonproliferation regime compliance verification by a community of academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodov, Alexander

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons is a great threat to world peace and stability. The question of strengthening the nonproliferation regime has been open for a long period of time. In 1997 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (BOG) adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol. The purpose of the protocol is to enhance the IAEA's ability to detect undeclared production of fissile materials in member states. However, the IAEA does not always have sufficient human and financial resources to accomplish this task. Developed here is a concept for making use of human and technical resources available in academia that could be used to enhance the IAEA's mission. The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of an academic community using commercially or publicly available sources of information and products for the purpose of detecting covert facilities and activities intended for the unlawful acquisition of fissile materials or production of nuclear weapons. In this study, the availability and use of commercial satellite imagery systems, commercial computer codes for satellite imagery analysis, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification International Monitoring System (IMS), publicly available information sources such as watchdog groups and press reports, and Customs Services information were explored. A system for integrating these data sources to form conclusions was also developed. The results proved that publicly and commercially available sources of information and data analysis can be a powerful tool in tracking violations in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime and a framework for implementing these tools in academic community was developed. As a result of this study a formation of an International Nonproliferation Monitoring Academic Community (INMAC) is proposed. This would be an independent organization consisting of academics (faculty, staff and students) from both nuclear weapon states (NWS) and

  8. An improved automated procedure for informal and temporary dwellings detection and enumeration, using mathematical morphology operators on VHR satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Małgorzata; Kemper, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Every year thousands of people are displaced by conflicts or natural disasters and often gather in large camps. Knowing how many people have been gathered is crucial for an efficient relief operation. However, it is often difficult to collect exact information on the total number of the population. This paper presents the improved morphological methodology for the estimation of dwellings structures located in several Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Camps, based on Very High Resolution (VHR) multispectral satellite imagery with pixel sizes of 1 meter or less including GeoEye-1, WorldView-2, QuickBird-2, Ikonos-2, Pléiades-A and Pléiades-B. The main topic of this paper is the approach enhancement with selection of feature extraction algorithm, the improvement and automation of pre-processing and results verification. For the informal and temporary dwellings extraction purpose the high quality of data has to be ensured. The pre-processing has been extended by including the input data hierarchy level assignment and data fusion method selection and evaluation. The feature extraction algorithm follows the procedure presented in Jenerowicz, M., Kemper, T., 2011. Optical data are analysed in a cyclic approach comprising image segmentation, geometrical, textural and spectral class modeling aiming at camp area identification. The successive steps of morphological processing have been combined in a one stand-alone application for automatic dwellings detection and enumeration. Actively implemented, these approaches can provide a reliable and consistent results, independent of the imaging satellite type and different study sites location, providing decision support in emergency response for the humanitarian community like United Nations, European Union and Non-Governmental relief organizations.

  9. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  10. An image based information system - Architecture for correlating satellite and topological data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an image based information system and its use to process a Landsat thematic map showing land use or land cover in conjunction with a census tract polygon file to produce a tabulation of land use acreages per census tract. The system permits the efficient cross-tabulation of two or more geo-coded data sets, thereby setting the stage for the practical implementation of models of diffusion processes or cellular transformation. Characteristics of geographic information systems are considered, and functional requirements, such as data management, geocoding, image data management, and data analysis are discussed. The system is described, and the potentialities of its use are examined.

  11. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James; Vaishampayan, Parag; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Willis, Jason; Witte, Joe; Hendrickson, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The InSight Project is a Discovery mission that consists of a single spacecraft with an overarching mission goal of illuminating the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system is comprised of a 2008 Phoenix mission heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and lander. The lander payload contains cameras, a seismometer, a mole to penetrate the regolith (≤5 meters) to measure the geothermal gradient of Mars, and an auxiliary payload sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure. As a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, the InSight mission has been designated PP Category IVa. Therefore, planetary protection bioburden requirements are applicable to this mission and require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reports. Due to primary payload technical issues, InSight's 2016 launch has been delayed by NASA. The mission is currently under a re-planning phase. InSight has completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, PP Implementation Documentation, and ~50% of the PPO verification biological assays. The flight system and additional payloads were assembled and being readied for launch at the launch site at the time of the project stand-down and has since been secured for storage. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  12. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  13. Sight, Sound, Motion; Applied Media Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Herbert

    The purpose of this book is to help both communicator and viewer to attain a degree of emotional literacy and sophistication in media aesthetics that will allow both to judge a television program or film with sureness and confidence. Specifically, the book describes the basic aesthetic elements and principles of sight, motion, and sound in film…

  14. Vision research: losing sight of eye dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D P

    2001-10-16

    Most people prefer to use their right eye for viewing. New evidence reveals that this dominance is much more plastic than that for one hand or foot: it changes from one eye to the other depending on angle of gaze. Remarkably, sighting dominance depends on the hand being directed towards the visual target.

  15. Improving information dissemination in sparse vehicular networks by adding satellite communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloiber, Bernhard; Strang, Thomas; Spijker, Hanno; Heijenk, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Information dissemination in pure Vehicular Ad Hoc NETworks (VANETs) such as ITS-G5 becomes problematic when the network is sparse. In situations where the number of vehicles, that can act as a communication node, is insufficiently low, e.g. in rural areas, during night-time or because of a low mark

  16. Improving information dissemination in sparse vehicular networks by adding satellite communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloiber, Bernhard; Strang, Thomas; Spijker, Hanno; Heijenk, Geert

    Information dissemination in pure Vehicular Ad Hoc NETworks (VANETs) such as ITS-G5 becomes problematic when the network is sparse. In situations where the number of vehicles, that can act as a communication node, is insufficiently low, e.g. in rural areas, during night-time or because of a low

  17. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  18. The Extraction Model of Paddy Rice Information Based on GF-1 Satellite WFV Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-jun; Huang, Yan; Tian, Qing-jiu; Wang, Lei; Geng, Jun; Yang, Ran-ran

    2015-11-01

    In the present, using the characteristics of paddy rice at different phenophase to identify it by remote sensing images is an efficient way in the information extraction. According to the remarkably properties of paddy rice different from other vegetation, which the surface of paddy fields is with a large number of water in the early stage, NDWI (normalized difference water index) which is used to extract water information can reasonably be applied in the extraction of paddy rice at the early stage of the growth. And using NDWI ratio of two phenophase can expand the difference between paddy rice and other surface features, which is an important part for the extraction of paddy rice with high accuracy. Then using the variation of NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index) in different phenophase can further enhance accuracy of paddy rice information extraction. This study finds that making full advantage of the particularity of paddy rice in different phenophase and combining two indices (NDWI and NDVI) associated with paddy rice can establish a reasonable, accurate and effective extraction model of paddy rice. This is also the main way to improve the accuracy of paddy rice extraction. The present paper takes Lai'an in Anhui Province as the research area, and rice as the research object. It constructs the extraction model of paddy rice information using NDVI and NDWI between tillering stage and heading stage. Then the model was applied to GF1-WFV remote sensing image on July 12, 2013 and August 30, 2013. And it effectively extracted out of paddy rice distribution in Lai'an and carried on the mapping. At last, the result of extraction was verified and evaluated combined with field investigation data in the study area. The result shows that using the extraction model can quickly and accurately obtain the distribution of rice information, and it has the very good universality.

  19. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  20. Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-04-06

    There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ(2) = 122.1, df = 6, p < 0.0001), whereas anticipated changes in abundance had no significant influence on reported sightings (p = 0.15). An annual index of fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Making Life Easier for the Visually Impaired Web Searcher: It Is Now Clearer How This Should and Can Be Done, but Implementation Lags. A Review of: Sahib, N. G., Tombros, A., & Stockman, T. (2012. A comparative analysis of the information-seeking behavior of visually impaired and sighted searchers. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(2, 377–391. doi: 10.1002/asi.21696

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laval Hunsucker

    2013-03-01

    query reformulation. They were aiming to achieve a satisfactory search outcome in a single step. Nevertheless, they rarely employed advanced operators, and made far less use (in only 4 instances of their search engine’s query-support features than did the sighted searchers (37 instances. Fewer of them (13% ventured beyond the first page of the results returned for their query by the search engine than was the case among the sighted searchers (43%. They viewed fewer (a mean of 4.27, as opposed to 13.40 retrieved pages, and they visited fewer external links (6 visits by 4 visually impaired searchers, compared with 34 visits by 11 sighted searchers. The visually impaired participants more frequently engaged in note taking than did the sighted participants.The visually impaired searchers were in some cases, the investigators discovered, unaware of search engine facilities or searching tactics which might have improved their search outcomes. Yet even when they were aware of these, they very often chose not to employ them because doing so via their screen readers would have cost them more time and effort than they were willing to expend. In general, they were more diffident and less resourceful than the sighted searchers, and had more trust in the innate capacity and reliability of their search engine to return in an efficient manner the best available results.Conclusion – Despite certain inherent limitations of the present study (the relatively small sample sizes and the non-randomness of the purposive sighted-searcher sample, the possible presence of extraneous variables, the impossibility of entirely ruling out familiarity bias, its findings strongly support the conclusion that working with today’s search engine user interfaces through the intermediation of currently available assistive technologies necessarily imposes severe limits on the degree to which visually impaired persons can efficiently search the web for information relevant to their needs. The findings

  2. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  3. Classification of Forest Land Information Using Environment Satellite (HJ-1 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For researching properties of HJ-1A CCD camera multi-spectral data in performance on extraction of land features information, this paper selected the east area of NiLeke forest farm in the western Tianshan mountain as the study area, and analyzed different accuracies for HJ-1A CCD data in identifying forest land categories using various classification methods. Firstly, maximum-likelihood classifier, Mahalanobis distance classifier, minimum distance classifier and K-means classifier were used to category land use types with two different scales on HJ-1A CCD1 and Landsat5 TM images, and analyzed separately with confusion matrix. Secondly, forest land types were distinguished by texture information and the smallest polygon size using K-NN method based on clustering algorithm. The comparing results show: at first, different classification system have different accuracy. In the first land use classification system, the accuracy of HJ-1A CCD1 images are lower than TM images, but higher in the second land use classification system. Secondly, accuracy result of maximum-likelihood classification is the best method to classify land use types. In the first land use classification system, TM total accuracy is up to 85.1% and Kappa coefficient is 0.8. In the second land use classification system, the result is up to 85.4% and kappa coefficient is 0.74.Thirdly, judgment both from the view of visual interpretation and quantitative accuracy testes, non-supervised method with K-means classifier has low qualities where many land features have characters of scattered distribution and small different spectrum information. Finally, the experiment proved that there were good vector results on HJ-1A remote sensing image in the view of visual judgment, and extracted deferent forest land by the overall accuracy 87% with the supports by those variables’ distribution knowledge, such as conifer, mixed forest, broadleaf, shrubby.

  4. Thicknesses and volumes of glaciers in the Andes of Peru estimated with satellite data and digital terrain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Judith; Colonia, Daniel; Haeberli, Wilfried; Giráldez, Claudia; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The glaciers in the tropical Andes of Peru have been melting at an unprecedented rate in recent years and generally after the Little Ice Age, a cold period that lasted from the 16th to the 19th century. Knowledge of glacier thicknesses and volumes is necessary for evaluating possible future scenarios of glacier shrinkage and of water supply to the Andean populations under conditions of continued warming. Calculation of glacier volumes for 19 mountain ranges in Perú has been based on two ice- thickness modeling methods including an area-related approach with different parameterizations and a slope-dependent approach. Both methods allow for rapid treatment of regional data obtained from satellite imagery and a Digital Elevation Model, integrated into a Geographic Information System. In addition, glacier outlines were obtained from the glacier inventory compiled by the Unit of Glaciology and Water Resources (UGRH) - National Water Authority (ANA) that used satellite imagery (ASTER, SPOT and LISS III from 2003 to 2010) and topographic information acquired from the cartography of the National Geographical Institute (IGN). The volume-area scaling approach resulted in glacier volume of 35.00 km3 and a total volume of 34.39 km3 resulted from the slope-dependent thickness with a thickness approximately 30 m. Estimated results also show a loss of the total ice surface ~42% and glacier volume loss about ~38% in both methods based on the first Glacier Inventory of Peru (from aerial photographs 1962 -1970) performed by HIDRANDINA SA. The results also indicate that volume estimations are subject to large uncertainties. Field measurements of glacier thickness are scarce and locally restricted due to rugged topography, high altitude and heavy crevassing of glaciers. Possibilities of calibrating and validating the applied model approaches are therefore limited. New possibilities nevertheless come into play with slope-dependent approaches, which lead beyond area-related average

  5. Geostatistical improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information using satellite land surface and weather stations data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; Vianello, Rubens Leite; Sediyama, Gilberto C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo Silva; de Sá Junior, Arionaldo

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to use the simple cokriging methodology to characterize the spatial variability of Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration methods based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) global evapotranspiration products and high-resolution surfaces of WordClim temperature and precipitation data. The climatic element data referred to 39 National Institute of Meteorology climatic stations located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and surrounding states. The use of geostatistics and simple cokriging technique enabled the characterization of the spatial variability of the evapotranspiration providing uncertainty information on the spatial prediction pattern. Evapotranspiration and precipitation surfaces were implemented for the climatic classification in Minas Gerais. Multivariate geostatistical determined improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information. The regions in the south of Minas Gerais derived from the moisture index estimated with the MODIS evapotranspiration (2000-2010), presented divergence of humid conditions when compared to the moisture index derived from the simple kriged and cokriged evapotranspiration (1961-1990), indicating climate change in this region. There was stronger pattern of crossed covariance between evapotranspiration and precipitation rather than temperature, indicating that trends in precipitation could be one of the main external drivers of the evapotranspiration in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  6. Land use changes in Pak Phanang Basin using satellite images and geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchalermchai, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study defined major changes in land use in Pak Phanang Basin, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province by using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. The land use map conducted by Department of Land Development in 1988 was compared with the land use map interpreted from satelliteimages of Landsat-5 TM acquired in 1995 and 1999. The results revealed that between 1988 to 1999, forest area in the basin decreased by a total of 98.08 km2, a drastic decline of 60% that was changed to rubber plantation area. The rubber area increased about 181.7 km2 or 41%. Shrimp farm area increased by 184.87 km2, equivalent to a high increase of 886% while paddy field area decreased by 248.7 km2, or 16% that was converted to shrimp farm and rubber land. A decline in forest area caused soil erosion. The severe expansion of shrimp farm area caused the salinity and affected nearby paddy field and water source areas, that resulted in degradation of the environment. Application of remote sensing and geographic information system was utilized as a tool for monitoring the land use change and planning proper resource utilization for sustainable development in Pak Phanang Basin.

  7. Using an implicit min/max KD-Tree for doing efficient terrain line of sight calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of accurate Line of Sight (LOS) visibility information consumes significant resources in large scale synthetic environments such as many-on-many serious games and battlefield simulators. Due to the importance of optimum utilisation...

  8. 新媒体视域下大学生个人信息保护研究--以高校大学生个人信息保护结构分析为例%Stud yon the Protection of College Students’ Peros nal Informtai on in the Sight of New Media:Taking the Protecting Structure of College Students’ Personal Information as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长友

    2014-01-01

    新媒体视域下的高校组织、关系网络和空间环境是大学生个人信息保护的主要结构。文章指出应在个人信息保护法律原则指导下通过规范高校组织的信息收集与利用,增强关系网络的个人信息保护意识,完善高校大学生公私空间的划分,建立和完善“三位一体”的高校大学生个人信息保护机制。%Organization , networks and space environment are the major structures of college students ’ personal information in the sight of new media .In this thesis It was pointed that it is necessary to build the protecting man-agement institution in the college students ’ organization , network and space environment according to the law prin-ciple of personal information protection act , such as standardized college organization ’ s information collecting and using , enhanced protecting awareness of personal information in the networks and improved the division of public and private area .Those activities will improve the protecting system of students ’ personal information in the university .

  9. Are rotating planes of satellite galaxies ubiquitous?

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, John I; Bullock, James S; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We compare the dynamics of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to simple models in order to test the hypothesis that a large fraction of satellites co-rotate in coherent planes. We confirm the previously-reported excess of co-rotating satellite pairs located near diametric opposition with respect to the host, but show that this signal is unlikely to be due to rotating discs (or planes) of satellites. In particular, no overabundance of co-rotating satellites pairs is observed within $\\sim 20^{\\circ}-50^{\\circ}$ of direct opposition, as would be expected for planar distributions inclined relative to the line-of-sight. Instead, the excess co-rotation for satellite pairs within $\\sim 10^{\\circ}$ of opposition is consistent with random noise associated with undersampling of an underlying isotropic velocity distribution. We conclude that at most $10\\%$ of the hosts in our sample harbor co-rotating satellite planes (as traced by the luminous satellite population).

  10. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  11. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  12. Exploring Advanced Piano Students' Approaches to Sight-Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read music fluently is fundamental for undergraduate music study yet the training of sight-reading is often neglected. This study compares approaches to sight-reading and accompanying by students with extensive sight-reading experience to those with limited experience, and evaluates the importance of this skill to advanced pianists…

  13. Sight-Singing: Ten Years of Published Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review published research on sight-singing from the past 10 years, 1998-2008. Several authors published research in various areas in sight-singing. These included festival availability and participation, time use in sight-singing adjudication, method and materials, strategies of successful students, assessing…

  14. Recognition of Rapid Speech by Blind and Sighted Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…

  15. Depth Echolocation Learnt by Novice Sighted People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Tonelli

    Full Text Available Some blind people have developed a unique technique, called echolocation, to orient themselves in unknown environments. More specifically, by self-generating a clicking noise with the tongue, echolocators gain knowledge about the external environment by perceiving more detailed object features. It is not clear to date whether sighted individuals can also develop such an extremely useful technique. To investigate this, here we test the ability of novice sighted participants to perform a depth echolocation task. Moreover, in order to evaluate whether the type of room (anechoic or reverberant and the type of clicking sound (with the tongue or with the hands influences the learning of this technique, we divided the entire sample into four groups. Half of the participants produced the clicking sound with their tongue, the other half with their hands. Half of the participants performed the task in an anechoic chamber, the other half in a reverberant room. Subjects stood in front of five bars, each of a different size, and at five different distances from the subject. The dimension of the bars ensured a constant subtended angle for the five distances considered. The task was to identify the correct distance of the bar. We found that, even by the second session, the participants were able to judge the correct depth of the bar at a rate greater than chance. Improvements in both precision and accuracy were observed in all experimental sessions. More interestingly, we found significantly better performance in the reverberant room than in the anechoic chamber. The type of clicking did not modulate our results. This suggests that the echolocation technique can also be learned by sighted individuals and that room reverberation can influence this learning process. More generally, this study shows that total loss of sight is not a prerequisite for echolocation skills this suggests important potential implications on rehabilitation settings for persons with

  16. An assessment of the status and trends in satellite communications 1986-2000: An information document prepared for the Communications Subcommittee of the Space Applications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, W. A.; Stevens, G. H.; Stevenson, S. M.; Lekan, J.; Arth, C. H.; Hollansworth, J. E.; Miller, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    This is a response to a Space Applications Advisory Committee (SAAC) request for information about the status and trends in satellite communications, to be used to support efforts to conceive and recommend long range goals for NASA communications activities. Included in this document are assessments of: (1) the outlook for satellite communications, including current applications, potential future applications, and impact of the changing environment such as optical fiber networks, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) standard, and the rapidly growing market for Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT); (2) the restrictions imposed by our limited spectrum resource; and (3) technology needs indicated by future trends. Potential future systems discussed include: large powerful satellites for providing personal communications; VSAT compatible satellites with onboard switching and having voice capability; large satellites which offer a pervasive T1 network service (primarily for video-phone); and large geostationary communications facilities which support common use by several carriers. Also, discussion is included of NASA particular needs and possible future systems. Based on the mentioned system concepts, specific technology recommendations are provided for the time frames of now - 1993, 1994 - 2000, and 2000 - 2010.

  17. EARLY DETECTION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH SIGHT DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DIKIC

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight damages can appear in every period of the human life, from birth till very old age. The disorders of the sight function retard and hinder the possibility of learning, proper informing as well as recognizing the objects in reality. The possibility for rehabilitation and adaptation is bigger and the psychical consequences in the person development are smaller, if the person with damaged sight is younger and rehabilitation and correction of the incorrect sight function start at proper time, i.e., immediately after the detection of the damage.The developmental deviation with children with damaged sight can be recognized in the general physical development, in poorer fund of real ideas in the sensomotor development, in the space notion and space relations, in reduced motivation for certain activities and so on. However, these children have the same needs as the children with normal sight, such as: love, sympathies, care, discipline, learning, understanding, patience and so on. It should be taken into consideration that each child is an individual which means a special approach to the rehabilitation. In fact, more often we find children who, besides the sight damages, have other damages such as: cerebral paralysis, hearing damages, mental retardation, emotional disorders and so on.The preventive measures contribute to the decreasing number of children with more difficult psycho-physical anomalies and they mean obligation of the community to organize: Advisory Institutions for pregnant women, quick and prompt intervention of the ophthalmologists and other experts, increasing of the general culture of the population and so on, and the systematic sight check-ups of every child should be performed in the first, third and sixth year of their lives.The expert treatment of sight handicapped children should start from the very detection of the sight damage (blindness and low vision. For small blind and low vision children the Developmental Advisory

  18. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  19. A Comparison of the Sexual Learning Experiences of Visually Impaired and Sighted Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Ann; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of the sexual learning experiences of 39 visually impaired women with a matched group of sighted women revealed that visually impaired women had significantly lower sex knowledge scores and obtained their information at a somewhat later age. (Author/CL)

  20. ICT in Portuguese Reference Schools for the Education of Blind and Partially Sighted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sara Isabel Moca; de Andrade, António Manuel Valente

    2016-01-01

    Technology has become an essential component in our society and considering its impact in the educational system, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) cannot be dissociated from the educational process and, in particular, from pedagogical practices adopted for students who are blind or partially sighted. This study focuses on…

  1. An autonomous orbit determination method for MEO and LEO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jin; Yu, Guobin; Zhong, Jie; Lin, Ling

    2014-09-01

    A reliable and secure navigation system and assured autonomous capability of satellite are in high demand in case of emergencies in space. This paper introduces a novel autonomous orbit determination method for Middle-Earth-Orbit and Low-Earth-Orbit (MEO and LEO) satellite by observing space objects whose orbits are known. Generally, the geodetic satellites, such as LAGEOS and ETALONS, can be selected as the space objects here. The precision CCD camera on tracking gimbal can make a series of photos of the objects and surrounding stars when MEO and LEO satellite encounters the space objects. Then the information processor processes images and attains sightings and angular observations of space objects. Several clusters of such angular observations are incorporated into a batch least squares filter to obtain an orbit determination solution. This paper describes basic principle and builds integrated mathematical model. The accuracy of this method is analyzed by means of computer simulation. Then a simulant experiment system is built, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. The experimental results show that this method can attain the accuracy of 150 meters with angular observations of 1 arcsecond system error.

  2. Estimation of volcanic ash emissions with satellite data: The inclusion of mass loading and plume height information in modified 4D-Var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sha; Lin, Hai Xiang; Heemink, Arnold; Segers, Arjo; Fu, Guangliang

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic ash forecasting is a critical tool in hazard assessment and operational volcano monitoring. Emission parameters such as injection height, total emission mass and vertical distribution of the emission plume rate are essential and important in the implementation of volcanic ash models. Satellite instrument is a powerful tool to monitor volcanic aerosol evolution and satellite total-column data has been integrated in the modeling process to achieve a better initial condition for the forecasting. However, the use of total-column data,which has no vertical resolution, usually leads to an ill-conditioned problem and ineffective estimation of emission parameters. Fortunately, techniques to retrieve the information of total ash mass loading and injection height from satellite data has been developed recently. It provides a new possibility to increase the accuracy of estimation results by integrating them into data assimilation systems. In this work we propose a modified 4D-Var approach which seek the vertical emission distribution by observing ash cloud transport patterns from satellite total-ash-columns data, and two ways of including the information of mass loading and plume height in the assimilation process. The modified 4D-Var based on trajectory statistics forms a reformulated cost function which computes the total difference between observed ash columns and a linear combination of simulated ensemble columns coupled with a priori emission knowledge ('background' term). The ensembles are generated by a volcanic ash transport model with the tracer released form different layers. Experiment shows such straightforward method does not always guarantee the identification of injection height with a short assimilation time window, and additional information of injection height is needed to correct the solution. We propose two tricks to incorporate the information: 1. add extra terms containing the information to the cost function as restriction term; 2. generate a

  3. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  4. Comparison of Auditory Event-Related Potential P300 in Sighted and Early Blind Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Heidari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Following an early visual deprivation, the neural network involved in processing auditory spatial information undergoes a profound reorganization. In order to investigate this process, event-related potentials provide accurate information about time course neural activation as well as perception and cognitive processes. In this study, the latency and amplitude of auditory P300 were compared in sighted and early blind individuals in age range of 18-25 years old.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory P300 potential was measured in conventional oddball paradigm by using two tone burst stimuli (1000 and 2000 Hz on 40 sighted subjects and 19 early blind subjects with mean age 20.94 years old.Results: The mean latency of P300 in early blind subjects was significantly smaller than sighted subjects (p=0.00.( There was no significant difference in amplitude between two groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: Reduced latency of P300 in early blind subjects in comparison to sighted subjects probably indicates the rate of automatic processing and information categorization is faster in early blind subjects because of sensory compensation. It seems that neural plasticity increases the rate of auditory processing and attention in early blind subjects.

  5. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  6. Left-handedness in blind and sighted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erkan; Dane, Senol

    2009-03-01

    Rates of left-handedness were compared in 1387 blind and 831 sighted children. The rate in male blind children was higher than in female blind children. The incidence of left-handedness was significantly higher in blind than in sighted children in both boys and girls. The percentages of left-handedness were 18.23% and 17.02% in male and female blind children, and 11.02% and 7.52% in male and female sighted children, respectively. It can be stated that sighting is important in the development of normal typical cerebral lateralisation or hand preference.

  7. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-03-15

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  8. Editorial. The multiple sights area. Diverged images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Porta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This second issue of the Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers offers articles that address complex issues associated with Education, Teachers/professors and Students. We can distinguish three large thematic blocks: the first linked to Higher Education as well as debates and discussions on the academic profession, the University- Society- Knowledge dynamics besides the redefinition of roles/teaching responsibilities in view of the emergence of "new students" for "new professions". The second block is associated with vocational training or education throughout life, and the third block deals with epistemological and methodological topics of the teaching in different areas and educational levels. These various sights over converging questions allows us to reset an agenda starting from constant reflection and experiencies exchange, to think alternative ways of solving education problems.

  9. Critical Evaluation of 0-30 km Profile Information in Ground-Based Zenith-Sky and Satellite-Measured Backscattered UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Deluishi, John; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We now have several decades of experience in deriving vertical ozone profiles from the measurements of diffuse ultraviolet radiation by both ground and satellite-based instruments using Umkehr and BUV techniques. Continuing technological advances are pushing the state-of-the-art of these measurements to high spectral resolution and broader wavelength coverage. These modern instruments include the ground-based Brewer and satellite-based Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instruments, as well as advanced instruments being developed by ESA(SCIAMACHY), Netherlands(OMI) and Japan(ODUS). However, one of the issues that remains unresolved is the 0-30 km ozone profile information retrievable from these measurements. Though it is commonly believed that both the Umkehr and the satellite-based BUV techniques have very limited profile information below 30 km, there are those who argue that the data from these instruments should continue to be reported in this altitude range for they compare well with ozonesondes and hence there is useful scientific information. Others claim that the limitations of the Umkehr and BUV techniques are largely due to their low spectral resolution, and that the profile information below 30 km can be greatly improved by going to high spectral resolution instruments, such as Brewer and GOME. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the 0-30 km ozone profile information in the various UV remote sensing techniques. We use a database of individual ozone profiles created using ozonesondes and SAGE and 4D ozone fields generated by data assimilation techniques to simulate radiances measured by the various techniques. We then apply a common inversion approach to all the methods to systematically examine how much profile information is available simply from the knowledge of total ozone, how much additional profile information is added by the traditional Dobson Umkehr and satellite buv techniques, and how much better one can do

  10. Assimilation of satellite information in a snowpack model to improve characterization of snow cover for runoff simulation and forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kuchment

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for constructing spatial fields of snow characteristics for runoff simulation and forecasting is presented. The technique incorporates satellite land surface monitoring data and available ground-based hydrometeorological measurements in a physical based snowpack model. The snowpack model provides simulation of temporal changes of the snow depth, density and water equivalent (SWE, accounting for snow melt, sublimation, refreezing melt water and snow metamorphism processes with a special focus on forest cover effects. The model was first calibrated against available ground-based snow measurements and then was applied to calculate the spatial distribution of snow characteristics using satellite data and interpolated ground-based meteorological data. The remote sensing data used in the model consist of products derived from observations of MODIS and AMSR-E instruments onboard Terra and Aqua satellites. They include daily maps of snow cover, snow water equivalent (SWE, land surface temperature, and weekly maps of surface albedo. Maps of land cover classes and tree cover fraction derived from NOAA AVHRR were used to characterize the vegetation cover. The developed technique was tested over a study area of approximately 200 000 km2 located in the European part of Russia (56° N to 60° N, and 48° E to 54° E. The study area comprises the Vyatka River basin with the catchment area of 124 000 km2. The spatial distributions of SWE, obtained with the coupled model, as well as solely from satellite data were used as the inputs in a physically-based model of runoff generation to simulate runoff hydrographs on the Vyatka river for spring seasons of 2003, 2005. The comparison of simulated hydrographs with the observed ones has shown that suggested procedure gives a higher accuracy of snow cover spatial distribution representation and hydrograph simulations than the direct use of satellite SWE data.

  11. Assimilation of satellite information in a snowpack model to improve characterization of snow cover for runoff simulation and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchment, L. S.; Romanov, P.; Gelfan, A. N.; Demidov, V. N.

    2009-08-01

    A new technique for constructing spatial fields of snow characteristics for runoff simulation and forecasting is presented. The technique incorporates satellite land surface monitoring data and available ground-based hydrometeorological measurements in a physical based snowpack model. The snowpack model provides simulation of temporal changes of the snow depth, density and water equivalent (SWE), accounting for snow melt, sublimation, refreezing melt water and snow metamorphism processes with a special focus on forest cover effects. The model was first calibrated against available ground-based snow measurements and then was applied to calculate the spatial distribution of snow characteristics using satellite data and interpolated ground-based meteorological data. The remote sensing data used in the model consist of products derived from observations of MODIS and AMSR-E instruments onboard Terra and Aqua satellites. They include daily maps of snow cover, snow water equivalent (SWE), land surface temperature, and weekly maps of surface albedo. Maps of land cover classes and tree cover fraction derived from NOAA AVHRR were used to characterize the vegetation cover. The developed technique was tested over a study area of approximately 200 000 km2 located in the European part of Russia (56° N to 60° N, and 48° E to 54° E). The study area comprises the Vyatka River basin with the catchment area of 124 000 km2. The spatial distributions of SWE, obtained with the coupled model, as well as solely from satellite data were used as the inputs in a physically-based model of runoff generation to simulate runoff hydrographs on the Vyatka river for spring seasons of 2003, 2005. The comparison of simulated hydrographs with the observed ones has shown that suggested procedure gives a higher accuracy of snow cover spatial distribution representation and hydrograph simulations than the direct use of satellite SWE data.

  12. Beyond Line-of-Sight Information Dissemination for Force Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    is a routing technique for mobile ad- hoc networks ( MANETs ) that include power-constrained nodes. In message ferrying, the mobility of specific...utilize ad hoc , mesh networks to support data-in-motion and remote data storage and access. These types of sensors are common among Force Protection...W. Zhao, M. Ammar, E. Zegura, and C. Lee, “Trading latency for energy in wireless ad hoc networks using message ferrying,” 3rd In- ternational

  13. Do Sighted People Respond to Different Levels of Visual Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    1979-01-01

    In the study, eight random samples of respondents (236 adult Ss) from a small Western city were presented with questionnaires which requested that they evaluate the characteristics of a stimulus person who varied by sightedness (blind, totally sightless, partially sighted, sighted), and age (35 or 65 years). (Author/SBH)

  14. The Effect of Key on Vocal Sight-Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michele L.

    2013-01-01

    At its most basic level, sight-reading can be defined as the production of accurate pitch and rhythm from a previously unseen musical score. For vocalists, sight-reading principally involves the production of pitches by determining their relationship within a tonal framework. The ability to mentally conceive tonal function and convert it into…

  15. Sight Word and Phonics Training in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Larsen, Linda; Jones, Kristy; Anandakumar, Thushara; Banales, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) compare sight word training and phonics training in children with dyslexia, and (b) determine if different orders of sight word and phonics training have different effects on the reading skills of children with dyslexia. One group of children (n = 36) did 8 weeks of phonics training (reading via grapheme-phoneme…

  16. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger

    2014-01-01

    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  17. Private Sharing of IOCs and Sightings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, van de Tim; Peter, Andreas; Everts, Maarten H.; Jonker, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Information sharing helps to better protect computer systems against digital threats and known attacks. However, since security information is usually considered sensitive, parties are hesitant to share all their information through public channels. Instead, they only exchange this information with

  18. Assimilation of satellite information in a snowpack model to improve characterization of snow cover for runoff simulation and forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A new technique for constructing spatial fields of snow characteristics for runoff simulation and forecasting is presented. The technique incorporates satellite land surface monitoring data and available ground-based hydrometeorological measurements in a physical based snowpack model. The snowpack model provides simulation of temporal changes of the snow depth, density and water equivalent (SWE), accounting for snow melt, sublimation, refreezing melt water and snow metamorphism processes with...

  19. Convergent and invariant object representations for sight, sound, and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kingson; Damasio, Antonio; Meyer, Kaspar; Kaplan, Jonas T

    2015-09-01

    We continuously perceive objects in the world through multiple sensory channels. In this study, we investigated the convergence of information from different sensory streams within the cerebral cortex. We presented volunteers with three common objects via three different modalities-sight, sound, and touch-and used multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to map the cortical regions containing information about the identity of the objects. We could reliably predict which of the three stimuli a subject had seen, heard, or touched from the pattern of neural activity in the corresponding early sensory cortices. Intramodal classification was also successful in large portions of the cerebral cortex beyond the primary areas, with multiple regions showing convergence of information from two or all three modalities. Using crossmodal classification, we also searched for brain regions that would represent objects in a similar fashion across different modalities of presentation. We trained a classifier to distinguish objects presented in one modality and then tested it on the same objects presented in a different modality. We detected audiovisual invariance in the right temporo-occipital junction, audiotactile invariance in the left postcentral gyrus and parietal operculum, and visuotactile invariance in the right postcentral and supramarginal gyri. Our maps of multisensory convergence and crossmodal generalization reveal the underlying organization of the association cortices, and may be related to the neural basis for mental concepts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10762.001 PMID:26976813

  1. Heart Monitoring By Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  2. Information Transmission based on FY Series Stationary Satellite%基于风云系列静止卫星的信息传输研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭耿; 卫强; 蔡德荣

    2013-01-01

    Based on description of satellite communication for distant-sea-water operation of PLA navy and in-depth study of FY-2, FY-4 series meteorologic stationary satellites and its structure, flow, capability of information transmission, a tentative idea of information transmission based on multiple channels of these satellites’ UHF special transmitter is proposed. And finally the feasibility is demonstrated from six aspects of information transmission equipment assembly, information transmission capability, communication coverage, information transmission security, electromagnetism compatibility, expansibility, and some relatively typical application scenes are given. All this is expected to raise the capacity of PLA navy information transmission.%  在阐述卫星通信对海军完成远海行动具有重要意义的基础上,通过对风云二号、四号等系列气象静止卫星及其信息传输结构、流程与能力的深入研究,提出了基于风云系列静止卫星 UHF 专用转发器众多信道的信息传输设想,并从信息传输设备的适装性、信息传输能力、通信覆盖范围、信息传输安全性、电磁兼容性、可扩展性等6个方面进行了可行性论证,给出了一些比较典型的军事应用场景,以期增强我海军的军事信息传输能力。

  3. Global surface density of water mass variations by using a two-step inversion by cumulating daily satellite gravity information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, Guillaume; Frappart, Frédéric; Seoane, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new method to produce time series of global maps of surface mass variations by progressive integration of daily geopotential variations measured by orbiting satellites. In the case of the GRACE mission, these geopotential variations can be determined from very accurate inter-satellite K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurements of 5-second daily orbits. In particular, the along-track gravity contribution of hydrological mass changes is extracted by removing de-aliasing models for static field, atmosphere, oceans mass variations (including periodical tides), as well as polar movements. Our determination of surface mass sources is composed of two successive dependent Kalman filter stages. The first one consists of reducing the satellite-based potential anomalies by adjusting the longest spatial wavelengths (i.e., low-degree spherical harmonics lower than 2). In the second stage, the residual potential anomalies from the previous stage are used to recover surface mass density changes - in terms of Equivalent-Water Height (EWH) - over a global network of juxtaposed triangular elements. These surface tiles of ~100,000 km x km (or equivalently 330 km by 330 km) are defined to be of equal areas over the terrestrial sphere. However they can be adapted to the local geometry of the surface mass. Our global approach was tested by inverting geopotential data, and successfully applied to estimate time-varying surface mass densities from real GRACE-based residuals. This strategy of combined Kalman filter-type inversions can also be useful for exploring the possibility of improving time and space resolutions for ocean and land studies that would be hopefully brought by future low altitude geodetic missions.

  4. HindSight: Encouraging Exploration through Direct Encoding of Personal Interaction History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mi; Deng, Cheng; Peck, Evan M; Harrison, Lane

    2017-01-01

    Physical and digital objects often leave markers of our use. Website links turn purple after we visit them, for example, showing us information we have yet to explore. These "footprints" of interaction offer substantial benefits in information saturated environments - they enable us to easily revisit old information, systematically explore new information, and quickly resume tasks after interruption. While applying these design principles have been successful in HCI contexts, direct encodings of personal interaction history have received scarce attention in data visualization. One reason is that there is little guidance for integrating history into visualizations where many visual channels are already occupied by data. More importantly, there is not firm evidence that making users aware of their interaction history results in benefits with regards to exploration or insights. Following these observations, we propose HindSight - an umbrella term for the design space of representing interaction history directly in existing data visualizations. In this paper, we examine the value of HindSight principles by augmenting existing visualizations with visual indicators of user interaction history (e.g. How the Recession Shaped the Economy in 255 Charts, NYTimes). In controlled experiments of over 400 participants, we found that HindSight designs generally encouraged people to visit more data and recall different insights after interaction. The results of our experiments suggest that simple additions to visualizations can make users aware of their interaction history, and that these additions significantly impact users' exploration and insights.

  5. Time variable gravity retrieval and treatment of temporal aliasing using optical two-way links between GALILEO and LEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Markus; Pail, Roland; Murböck, Michael; Schlicht, Anja

    2016-04-01

    For the determination of temporal gravity fields satellite missions such as GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) or CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) were used in the last decade. These missions improved the knowledge of atmospheric, oceanic and tidal mass variations. The most limiting factor of temporal gravity retrieval quality is temporal aliasing due to the undersampling of high frequency signals, especially in the atmosphere and oceans. This kind of error causes the typical stripes in spatial representations of global gravity fields such as from GRACE. As part of the GETRIS (Geodesy and Time Reference in Space) mission, that aims to establish a geodetic reference station and precise time- and frequency reference in space by using optical two-way communication links between geostationary (GEO) and low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, a possible future gravity field mission can be set up. By expanding the GETRIS space segment to the global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) the optical two-way links also connect the GALILEO satellites among themselves and to LEO satellites. From these links between GALILEO and LEO satellites gravitational information can be extracted. In our simulations inter-satellite links between GALILEO and LEO satellites are used to determine temporal changes in the Earth's gravitational field. One of the main goals of this work is to find a suitable constellation together with the best analysis method to reduce temporal aliasing errors. Concerning non-tidal aliasing, it could be shown that the co-estimation of short-period long-wavelength gravity field signals, the so-called Wiese approach, is a powerful method for aliasing reduction (Wiese et al. 2013). By means of a closed loop mission simulator using inter-satellite observations as acceleration differences along the line-of-sight, different mission scenarios for GALILEO-LEO inter-satellite links and different functional models like the Wiese approach are analysed.

  6. A Lightweight Innovative Helmet Airborne Display And Sight (HADAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Daniel; Arnon, Oded; Avnur, Arie

    1987-09-01

    The Helmet Airborne Display and Sight (HADAS) system under development, has succeeded in surmounting many of the problems experienced by current, as well as past helmet mounted display and sight designs for operation in fighter aircraft. The goal has been achieved by combination of holographic optical elements and fiber optics for the display function, as well as real-time image processing of the helmet location for the sight function. The integrated system can provide "all aspect head-up display" performance in the cockpit.

  7. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  8. Comparison of temporal fluctuations in the total electron content estimates from EISCAT and GPS along the same line of sight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Forte

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of space weather events on satellite-based technologies (e.g. satellite navigation and precise positioning is typically quantified on the basis of the total electron content (TEC and temporal fluctuations associated with it. GNSS (global navigation satellite systems TEC measurements are integrated over a long distance and thus may include contributions from different regions of the ionised atmosphere which may prevent the resolution of the mechanisms ultimately responsible for given observations. The purpose of the experiment presented here was to compare TEC estimates from EISCAT and GPS measurements. The EISCAT measurements were obtained along the same line of sight of a given GPS satellite observed from Tromsø. The present analyses focussed on the comparison of temporal fluctuations in the TEC between aligned GPS and EISCAT measurements. A reasonably good agreement was found between temporal fluctuations in TEC observed by EISCAT and those observed by a co-located GPS ionospheric monitor along the same line of sight, indicating a contribution from structures at E and F altitudes mainly to the total TEC in the presence of ionisation enhancements possibly caused by particle precipitation in the nighttime sector. The experiment suggests the great potential in the measurements to be performed by the future EISCAT_3D system, limited only in the localised geographic region to be covered.

  9. NWHI Basking Green Turtle Data (Turtle Sightings from Seal Surveys)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of green turtle sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) since 1982 at Lisianski Island, and since 1983 for most other...

  10. Visual damage following direct sighting of solar eclipse in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visual damage following direct sighting of solar eclipse in Ghana. ... Abstract. A study was carried out at the department of Ophthalmology and ... assessment of Visual Acuity (VA), Slit Lamp examination, Fundoscopy, Amsle Test, Intra-ocular ...

  11. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  12. An implementation of Software Defined Radios for federated aerospace networks: Informing satellite implementations using an inter-balloon communications experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtyamov, Rustam; Cruz, Ignasi Lluch i.; Matevosyan, Hripsime; Knoll, Dominik; Pica, Udrivolf; Lisi, Marco; Golkar, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Novel space mission concepts such as Federated Satellite Systems promise to enhance sustainability, robustness, and reliability of current missions by means of in-orbit sharing of space assets. This new paradigm requires the utilization of several technologies in order to confer flexibility and re-configurability to communications systems among heterogeneous spacecrafts. This paper illustrates the results of the experimental demonstration of the value proposition of federated satellites through two stratospheric balloons interoperating with a tracking ground station through Commercial Off-The-Shelf Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The paper reports telemetry analysis and characterizes the communications network that was realized in-flight. Furthermore, it provides details on an in-flight anomaly experienced by one of the balloons, which was recovered through the use of the federated technology that has been developed. The anomaly experienced led to the early loss of the directional link from the ground station to the affected stratospheric balloon node after 15 min in flight. Nevertheless, thanks to the federated approach among the systems, the ground station was still able to retrieve the balloon's data in real time through the network system, for which the other balloon operated as a federated relay for 45 min in flight, uninterrupted. In other words, the federated approach to the system allowed triplicating the useful lifetime of the defective system, which would have not been possible to realize otherwise. Such anomaly coincidentally demonstrated the value of the federated approach to space systems design. The paper paves the way for future tests on space assets.

  13. Propagation models for non line-of-sight scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasu, A. S.; Anchidin, L.; Tamas, R.; Petrescu, T.

    2016-12-01

    The log-normal propagation model is usually applied for scenarios including a line-of-sight path. However, there are many cases that do not include such a propagation path, e.g. indoor transmission and disaster situations, when radio waves have to penetrate trough ruins. In this paper, we show that the log-normal model can also be applied for non line-of-sight transmission. Both indoor scenario and trough-ruins scenario, are investigated.

  14. UltraScreen - Sight and Sound Barrier Partition Walls

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Panels have been widely used for many years to act as sight and sound barriers in most of the highways and in residential areas where visual privacy is needed. The United States Gypsum Company, early in the 1980's started developing technologies to improve and reduced costs using lightweight cement panels. Recently, USG along with AFM Corporation introduced ULTRASCREEN: Sight and Sound Barrier. This lightweight panels require no special equipment for installation, maintenance, or replacement ...

  15. Lexical mediation between sight and sound in speechreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, B H; Frost, R; Zsiga, E

    1992-07-01

    In two experiments, we investigated whether simultaneous speech reading can influence the detection of speech in envelope-matched noise. Subjects attempted to detect the presence of a disyllabic utterance in noise while watching a speaker articulate a matching or a non-matching utterance. Speech detection was not facilitated by an audio-visual match, which suggests that listeners relied on low-level auditory cues whose perception was immune to cross-modal top-down influences. However, when the stimuli were words (Experiment 1), there was a (predicted) relative shift in bias, suggesting that the masking noise itself was perceived as more speechlike when its envelope corresponded to the visual information. This bias shift was absent, however, with non-word materials (Experiment 2). These results, which resemble earlier findings obtained with orthographic visual input, indicate that the mapping from sight to sound is lexically mediated even when, as in the case of the articulatory-phonetic correspondence, the cross-modal relationship is non-arbitrary.

  16. Comparison of DMSP cross-track ion drifts and SuperDARN line-of-sight velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Drayton

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cross-track ion drifts measured by the DMSP satellites are compared with line-of-sight SuperDARN HF velocities in approximately the same directions. Good overall agreement is found for a data set comprising of 209 satellite passes over the field of view of nine SuperDARN radars in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The slope of the best linear fit line relating the SuperDARN and DMSP velocities is of the order of 0.7 with a tendency for SuperDARN velocities to be smaller. The agreement implies that the satellite and radar data can be merged into a common set provided that spatial and temporal variations of the velocity as measured by both instruments are smooth.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Plasma convection; Auroral ionosphere

  17. Sighting dominance, handedness, and visual acuity preference: three mutually exclusive modalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, J S

    2001-03-01

    It is tempting, even perhaps for the clinician, to assume prima facie that an individual's handedness is indicative of other lateral asymmetries, including ocular (sighting) dominance and preferred monocular acuity. An analysis of new data relating to these three modalities, as collated from counter-balanced groups of normally sighted male and female children and adults examined in optometric practice, confirms the general fallacy of this assumption and considers why it is such a persistent misconception. The degree of association between the three modalities in right-preferent individuals is revealed as statistically no greater than chance. On the basis of this study, estimates of right-sided hand, eye and/or acuity congruency are derived for the information of the clinician in the prescribing environment of the consulting room.

  18. Leading causes of certification for blindness and partial sight in England & Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wormald Richard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of visual impairment is an international priority agreed at the World Health Assembly of 2002- yet many countries lack contemporary data about incidence and causes from which priorities for prevention, treatment and management can be identified. Methods Registration as blind or partially-sighted in England and Wales is voluntary and is initiated by certification by a consultant ophthalmologist. From all certificates completed during the year April 1999 to March 2000, the main cause of visual loss was ascertained where possible and here we present information on the leading causes observed and comment on changes in the three leading causes since the last analysis conducted for 1990–1991 data. Results 13788 people were certified as blind, 19107 were certified as partially sighted. The majority of certifications were in the older age groups. The most commonly recorded main cause of certifications for both blindness (57.2 % and partial sight (56 % was degeneration of the macula and posterior pole which largely comprises age-related macular degeneration. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were the next most commonly recorded main causes. Overall, the age specific incidence of all three leading causes has increased since 1990–1991 – with changes in diabetic retinopathy being the most marked – particularly in the over 65's where figures have more than doubled. Conclusion The numbers of individuals per 100,000 population being certified blind or partially sighted due to the three leading causes – AMD, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma have increased since 1990. This may to some extent be explained by improved ascertainment. The process of registration for severe visual impairment in England and Wales is currently undergoing review. Efforts must be made to ensure that routine collection of data on causes of severe visual impairment is continued, particularly in this age of improved technology, to allow such trends

  19. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  20. Miniaturized day/night sight in Soldato Futuro program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Alberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Sardelli, Mauro; Puntri, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    The market of the sights for the 5.56 mm assault rifles is dominated by mainly three types of systems: TWS (Thermal Weapon Sight), the Pocket Scope with Weapon Mount and the Clip-on. The latter are designed primarily for special forces and snipers use, while the TWS design is triggered mainly by the DRI (Detection, Recognition, Identification) requirements. The Pocket Scope design is focused on respecting the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power dissipation) requirements. Compared to the TWS systems, for the last two years there was a significant technological growth of the Pocket Scope/Weapon Mount solutions, concentrated on the compression of the overall dimensions. The trend for the assault rifles is the use of small size/light weight (SWaP) IR sights, suitable mainly for close combat operations but also for extraordinary use as pocket scopes - handheld or helmet mounted. The latest developments made by Selex ES S.p.A. are responding precisely to the above-mentioned trend, through a miniaturized Day/Night sight embedding state-of-the art sensors and using standard protocols (USB 2.0, Bluetooth 4.0) for interfacing with PDAs, Wearable computers, etc., while maintaining the "shoot around the corner" capability. Indeed, inside the miniaturized Day/Night sight architecture, a wireless link using Bluetooth technology has been implemented to transmit the video streaming of the rifle sight to an helmet mounted display. The video of the rifle sight is transmitted only to the eye-piece of the soldier shouldering the rifle.

  1. Musical Sight-Reading Expertise: Cross-Modality Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Drai-Zerbib

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is often said that experienced musicians are capable of hearing what they read (and vice versa. This suggests that they are able to process and to integrate multimodal information. The study investigates this issue with an eye-tracking technique. Two groups of musicians chosen on the basis of their level of expertise (experts, non-experts had to read excerpts of poorly-known classical piano music and play them on a keyboard. The experiment was run in two consecutive phases during which each excerpt was (1 read without playing and (2 sight-read (read and played. In half the conditions, the participants heard the music before the reading phases. The excerpts contained suggested fingering of variable difficulty (difficult, easy, or no fingering. Analyses of first-pass fixation duration, second-pass fixation duration, probability of refixations, and playing mistakes validated the hypothesized modal independence of information among expert musicians as compared to non-experts. The results are discussed in terms of amodal memory for expert musicians, and they extend clearly our previous findings (Drai-Zerbib & Baccino, 2005. The paper will demonstrate that more experienced performers are better able to transfer learning from one modality to another, which can be in support of theoretical work by Ericsson and Kintsch (1995: more experienced performers better integrate knowledge across modalities. This view relies on the general flexibility shown in the experts' behaviour. The paper will show the correspondence between our results and issues recently obtained in ERPs researches and brain imaging studies (fMRI, MEG, where cerebral structures generally associated with different perceptual modalities were shown to be interconnected or overlap.

  2. Application of the informational reference system OZhUR to the automated processing of data from satellites of the Kosmos series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokras, V. M.; Yevdokimov, V. P.; Maslov, V. D.

    1978-01-01

    The structure and potential of the information reference system OZhUR designed for the automated data processing systems of scientific space vehicles (SV) is considered. The system OZhUR ensures control of the extraction phase of processing with respect to a concrete SV and the exchange of data between phases.The practical application of the system OZhUR is exemplified in the construction of a data processing system for satellites of the Cosmos series. As a result of automating the operations of exchange and control, the volume of manual preparation of data is significantly reduced, and there is no longer any need for individual logs which fix the status of data processing. The system Ozhur is included in the automated data processing system Nauka which is realized in language PL-1 in a binary one-address system one-state (BOS OS) electronic computer.

  3. A global network for the control of snail-borne disease using satellite surveillance and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J B; Bergquist, N R; Huh, O K; Bavia, M E; Bernardi, M; El Bahy, M M; Fuentes, M V; Kristensen, T K; McCarroll, J C; Yilma, J M; Zhou, X N

    2001-04-27

    At a team residency sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation in Bellagio, Italy, 10-14 April 2000 an organizational plan was conceived to create a global network of collaborating health workers and earth scientists dedicated to the development of computer-based models that can be used for improved control programs for schistosomiasis and other snail-borne diseases of medical and veterinary importance. The models will be assembled using GIS methods, global climate model data, sensor data from earth observing satellites, disease prevalence data, the distribution and abundance of snail hosts, and digital maps of key environmental factors that affect development and propagation of snail-borne disease agents. A work plan was developed for research collaboration and data sharing, recruitment of new contributing researchers, and means of access of other medical scientists and national control program managers to GIS models that may be used for more effective control of snail-borne disease. Agreement was reached on the use of compatible GIS formats, software, methods and data resources, including the definition of a 'minimum medical database' to enable seamless incorporation of results from each regional GIS project into a global model. The collaboration plan calls for linking a 'central resource group' at the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, Louisiana State University and the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory with regional GIS networks to be initiated in Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Latin America and Southern Asia. An Internet site, www.gnosisGIS.org, (GIS Network On Snail-borne Infections with special reference to Schistosomiasis), has been initiated to allow interaction of team members as a 'virtual research group'. When completed, the site will point users to a toolbox of common resources resident on computers at member organizations, provide assistance on routine use of GIS health maps in selected national disease control

  4. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  5. International Ice Patrol (IIP) Iceberg Sightings Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Ice Patrol (IIP) has been collecting information on iceberg activity in the North Atlantic since 1911. This database contains the data from these...

  6. Group chase and escape with sight-limited chasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huodong; Han, Wenchen; Yang, Junzhong

    2017-01-01

    We study group chase and escape with sight-limited chasers. Two search strategies, random-walk-strategy and relocation-strategy, are introduced for chasers when escapers are out of their fields of vision. There exist two regimes for the group lifetime of escapers. In the narrow sight regime, the group lifetime is a decreasing function of chasers' sight range. In the wide sight regime, the group lifetime stays at a constant when chasers adopting random-walk-strategy while increases with the sight range when chasers adopting relocation-strategy. The impacts of the two search strategies on group chase and escape are studied by investigating the lifetime distribution of all escapers and the dependence of the minimum lifetime on the number of chasers. We also find that, to reach the most efficient and the lowest energy cost chase for chasers, the ratio between the number of chasers and escapers stays at around 6 under random-walk-strategy. However, the optimal number of chasers vanishes and the energy cost monotonically increases with increasing the number of chasers under relocation-strategy.

  7. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  8. The course correction implementation of the inertial navigation system based on the information from the aircraft satellite navigation system before take-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, V.; Shukalov, A.; Zharinov, I.; Kostishin, M.; Kniga, I.

    2016-04-01

    The use of the correction course option before aircraft take-off after inertial navigation system (INS) inaccurate alignment based on the platform attitude-and-heading reference system in azimuth is considered in the paper. A course correction is performed based on the track angle defined by the information received from the satellite navigation system (SNS). The course correction includes a calculated track error definition during ground taxiing along straight sections before take-off with its input in the onboard digital computational system like amendment for using in the current flight. The track error calculation is performed by the statistical evaluation of the track angle comparison defined by the SNS information with the current course measured by INS for a given number of measurements on the realizable time interval. The course correction testing results and recommendation application are given in the paper. The course correction based on the information from SNS can be used for improving accuracy characteristics for determining an aircraft path after making accelerated INS preparation concerning inaccurate initial azimuth alignment.

  9. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The available sight distance (ASD in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS software can use digital surface models (DSM which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy. Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy.

  10. Getting Under Mars' Skin: The InSight Mission to the Deep Interior of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Asmar, S.; Banfield, D. J.; Christensen, U. R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dehant, V. M. A.; Folkner, W. M.; Garcia, R.; Giardini, D.; Golombek, M. P.; Grott, M.; Hudson, T.; Johnson, C. L.; Kargl, G.; Knapmeyer-Endrun, B.; Kobayashi, N.; Lognonne, P. H.; Maki, J.; Mimoun, D.; Mocquet, A.; Morgan, P.; Panning, M. P.; Pike, W. T.; Spohn, T.; Tromp, J.; Weber, R. C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    The InSight mission to Mars will launch in March of 2016, landing six months later in Elysium Planitia. In contrast to the 43 previous missions to Mars, which have thoroughly explored its surface features and chemistry, atmosphere, and searched for past or present life, InSight will focus on the deep interior of the planet. InSight will investigate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution by performing the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical measurements on Mars. It will provide key information on the composition and structure of an Earth-like planet that has gone through most of the evolutionary stages of the Earth up to plate tectonics. The planet Mars can play a key role in understanding early terrestrial planet formation and evolution. Unlike the Earth, its overall structure appears to be relatively unchanged since the first few hundred million years after formation; unlike the Moon, it is large enough that the P-T conditions within the planet span an appreciable fraction of the terrestrial planet range. Thus the large-scale chemical and structural evidence preserved in Mars' interior should tell us a great deal about the processes of planetary differentiation and heat transport. InSight will undertake this investigation using the "traditional" geophysical techniques of seismology, precision tracking (for rotational dynamics), and heat flow measurement. The predominant challenge, in addition to the technical problems of the remote installation and operation of instruments on a distant and harsh planetary surface, comes from the practical limitation of working with data acquired from a single station. We will discuss how we overcome these limitations through the application of single-station seismic analysis techniques, which take advantage of some of the specific attributes of Mars, and global heat flow modeling, which allows the interpretation of a single measurement of a spatially inhomogeneous surface distribution.

  11. A depth-based head-mounted visual display to aid navigation in partially sighted individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Hicks

    Full Text Available Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals.

  12. Analysis of Regolith Properties Using Seismic Signals Generated by InSight's HP3 Penetrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Sharon; Andrade, Jose; Banerdt, Bruce; Delage, Pierre; Golombek, Matt; Grott, Matthias; Hudson, Troy; Kiely, Aaron; Knapmeyer, Martin; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Krause, Christian; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonne, Philippe; Pike, Tom; Ruan, Youyi; Spohn, Tilman; Teanby, Nick; Tromp, Jeroen; Wookey, James

    2017-07-01

    InSight's Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) provides a unique and unprecedented opportunity to conduct the first geotechnical survey of the Martian soil by taking advantage of the repeated seismic signals that will be generated by the mole of the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3). Knowledge of the elastic properties of the Martian regolith have implications to material strength and can constrain models of water content, and provide context to geological processes and history that have acted on the landing site in western Elysium Planitia. Moreover, it will help to reduce travel-time errors introduced into the analysis of seismic data due to poor knowledge of the shallow subsurface. The challenge faced by the InSight team is to overcome the limited temporal resolution of the sharp hammer signals, which have significantly higher frequency content than the SEIS 100 Hz sampling rate. Fortunately, since the mole propagates at a rate of ˜1 mm per stroke down to 5 m depth, we anticipate thousands of seismic signals, which will vary very gradually as the mole travels. Using a combination of field measurements and modeling we simulate a seismic data set that mimics the InSight HP3-SEIS scenario, and the resolution of the InSight seismometer data. We demonstrate that the direct signal, and more importantly an anticipated reflected signal from the interface between the bottom of the regolith layer and an underlying lava flow, are likely to be observed both by Insight's Very Broad Band (VBB) seismometer and Short Period (SP) seismometer. We have outlined several strategies to increase the signal temporal resolution using the multitude of hammer stroke and internal timing information to stack and interpolate multiple signals, and demonstrated that in spite of the low resolution, the key parameters—seismic velocities and regolith depth—can be retrieved with a high degree of confidence.

  13. Positioning Optimization Technique in Non-Line-of-Sight Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamei Xin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A positioning optimization technique for non-line-of-sight environment is presented based on weighted orthogonal polynomial fitting technique and singular value decomposition. First, non-line-of-sight errors in TOA measurements are mitigated using weighted orthogonal polynomial fitting technique and the true range between the measuring terminal and the mobile station is approximated. Then the standard deviation of error in line-of-sight environment is exploited to give an optimal location estimation of the mobile station. Short-range measurements from movable measuring terminals are also included to overcome the performance limitation imposed by the measuring terminal bottleneck and translate the spatial reused benefits into positioning accuracy enhancement. Simulation and comparison results show that the proposed algorithm can get better performance measure and achieve high level of positioning accuracy in severe NLOS environment.

  14. Multisensory integration: how sound alters sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Jess R; Shapiro, Kimron L

    2015-01-19

    What we hear can rapidly alter what we see. A new study provides evidence for a mechanism in which 10 Hz oscillations in the visual system define the time window for integrating auditory and visual information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  16. Satellite to measure equatorial ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer E (Explorer 55) Satellite is described. The satellite will gather information on the earth's upper atmosphere, particularly regarding the condition of the protective ozone layer. The satellite will also provide information concerning the earth's heat balance, and heat flow characteristics, and energy conversion mechanisms.

  17. Sight restoration comes into focus: versions of visual prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The first visual prosthetic is on the commercial stage now, and a variety of new retinal and cortical implants are in the wings. When it won the European stamp of approval last year, the Argus II became the first commercially available visual prosthesis. Now Second Sight Medical Products Inc. of Sylmar, California, the company behind the Argus II, hopes to receive approval to sell the device in the United States by late 2012. As the excitement over the Argus II continues at a fever pitch, other research groups are developing their own versions of visual prostheses, working to create the potential for restoring sight.

  18. Blind people are more sensitive than sighted people to binaural sound-location cues, particularly inter-aural level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mats E; Schenkman, Bo N

    2016-02-01

    Blind people use auditory information to locate sound sources and sound-reflecting objects (echolocation). Sound source localization benefits from the hearing system's ability to suppress distracting sound reflections, whereas echolocation would benefit from "unsuppressing" these reflections. To clarify how these potentially conflicting aspects of spatial hearing interact in blind versus sighted listeners, we measured discrimination thresholds for two binaural location cues: inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and inter-aural time differences (ITDs). The ILDs or ITDs were present in single clicks, in the leading component of click pairs, or in the lagging component of click pairs, exploiting processes related to both sound source localization and echolocation. We tested 23 blind (mean age = 54 y), 23 sighted-age-matched (mean age = 54 y), and 42 sighted-young (mean age = 26 y) listeners. The results suggested greater ILD sensitivity for blind than for sighted listeners. The blind group's superiority was particularly evident for ILD-lag-click discrimination, suggesting not only enhanced ILD sensitivity in general but also increased ability to unsuppress lagging clicks. This may be related to the blind person's experience of localizing reflected sounds, for which ILDs may be more efficient than ITDs. On the ITD-discrimination tasks, the blind listeners performed better than the sighted age-matched listeners, but not better than the sighted young listeners. ITD sensitivity declines with age, and the equal performance of the blind listeners compared to a group of substantially younger listeners is consistent with the notion that blind people's experience may offset age-related decline in ITD sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Utility of satellite fire product accuracy information — perspectives and recommendations from the Southern Africa fire network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . 1774–1786, Jul. 2006. [8] A. R. Huete, H.-J. Kim, Y. Yin, and T. Miura, “Vegetation index scaling dependencies and uncertainties in heterogeneous environments,” in Proc. IGARSS, 2005, pp. 5029–5032. [9] J. R. G. Townshend, C. O. Justice, C. Gurney... on whether a product is useful for a particular application. This may be because accuracy information is incomprehensible to some users, due to a lack of familiarity with the relevant theory, or because the infor- mation is not presented with sufficient...

  20. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  1. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  2. 基于Meta图的卫星应用信息链服务路径选择%Service path choice of satellite application information chain based on Metagraph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭黎; 谈群; 邱涤珊

    2012-01-01

    The service process of satellite information includes the entire loop. The loop begins when the task request is issued from combat unit and ends until the service response. Metagraph can describe the rule of information status transformation in the whole process from satellite download information requisition to the final satellite application products and service generation. A new modeling method of Satellite Application Information Chain (SAIC) based on Metagraph is proposed. The SAIC service path is calculated using the maximum Metapath iterative algorithm based on incidence matrix. The solution idea of the problem of satellite application analysis, modeling, design and evaluation is expanded. The decision support is provided for the whole service process of satellite application.%卫星信息的服务过程包含从作战单元发出任务请求直至服务响应的整个环路,Meta图能够全过程描述链路从获取卫星下传信息到最终生成卫星应用产品与服务的信息状态转化规律.提出了基于Meta图的卫星应用信息链建模方法,利用基于关联矩阵的最大Meta路迭代算法求解卫星应用信息链服务路径.拓展了解决卫星应用分析、建模、设计、评价问题的思路,为卫星应用的全过程服务提供决策支持.

  3. Coupling stable isotope and satellite to inform a snow accumulation and melt model for data poor, semi-arid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublart, Paul; Sproles, Eric; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Hevía, Andres

    2016-04-01

    At the most basic level watersheds catch, store, and release water. In semi-arid northern central Chile (29°-32°) snow and glacier melt dominate these basic hydrological stages. In this region precipitation is typically limited to three to five events per year that falls as snow in the High Cordillera at elevations above 3000 m a.s.l. The rugged topography and steep gradient makes snowfall rates highly variable in space and time. Despite its critical importance for water supply, high elevation meteorological data and measurements of snowpack are scarce due to limited winter access above 3000 m a.s.l. Due to the critically limited understanding of catch, store, and release processes most conceptual watershed models for this region remain speculative, are prone to over-parameterization, and greatly inhibits hydrological prediction in the region. Focused on two headwater watersheds of the Elqui River basin (1615-6040 m a.s.l., 429-566 km2) this study couples stable isotope and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to develop an improved conceptual model of how semi-arid mountain watersheds catch, store, and release water. MODIS snow-cover and land surface temperature data are used to inform an enhanced temperature-index Snow Accumulation and Melt (SAM) model. The use of remotely-sensed temperature data as input to this model is evaluated by comparison with an interpolated dataset derived from a few available meteorological stations. The outputs from the SAM model are used as inputs to a conceptual catchment model including two water stores (one standing for surface/subsurface processes and the other for deeper groundwater storage). The model is calibrated and evaluated from a Bayesian perspective using discharge data measured at the catchment outlets over a 15-year period (2000-2015). Stable isotope data collected during 2015-2016 is applied to better constrain model outputs. The combination of MODIS-based and isotope-based information proves very

  4. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  5. An Independent Learning Approach to Piano Sight Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Claudette; Diamond, Robert M.

    The ability to sight read music accurately and artistically is important for pianists, expecially those who intend to become teachers and accompanists. Yet instruction in this skill is rarely available. An independent learning approach based on tachistoscopic speed reading techniques (i.e. controlled exposure) was evaluated for reducing sight…

  6. An Intersensory Transfer Approach to Teaching Sight Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Randall A.

    The building of a repertoire of written words recognized on sight is an important prerequisite for complex reading skills. Coordination of certain sense modalities, when present in the learning of a new written word, increases the probability that this word will be retained over a period of time. This coordination involves specific intersensory…

  7. Six Sensational Dots: Braille Literacy for Sighted Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Anna M.; Cozart, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    From the moment sighted children see their first dot, teachers find that they are fascinated by the braille code. If they are fortunate enough to have a classmate who reads braille, they have daily opportunities to observe braille used for a variety of purposes, from reading chapter books to solving problems with tactile graphics. Teachers of…

  8. A Pedagogy of Sight: Microscopic Vision in Robert Hooke's "Micrographia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" (1665) holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program. Hooke not…

  9. Development of nanostructured protective "sight glasses" for IR gas sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, René; Davis, Zachary James; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2011-01-01

    In this work protective "sight glasses" for infrared gas sensors showing a sub-wavelength nanostructure with random patterns have been fabricated by reactive ion etching (RIE) in an easy and comparable cheap single step mask-less process. By an organic coating, the intrinsic water repellent...

  10. Walking by Night: Japanese Art for Blind and Sighted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joshua

    1982-01-01

    Describes a museum exhibit of Japanese art designed to enhance tactual awareness. Blind and sighted visitors cooperated in sharing their hands-on perceptions of objects. Display pieces, chosen for functionality and design interest, included ceramics, textiles, folk art, lacquer work, musical instruments, and household objects. (AM)

  11. Sightings from Sunrise Hill--The Story of a Quilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, Ellen

    1979-01-01

    The author's love of birdwatching, translated into a quilt depicting the sightings of various species, served as an inspiration for many elementary school activities centered around birds. Activities included building a bird blind, making bird scrapbooks, setting up feeding stations, and making a class quilt. (SB)

  12. Underwater Acoustic Source Localisation Among Blind and Sighted Scuba Divers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambi, Jacopo; Livi, Ludovica; Livi, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Many blind individuals demonstrate enhanced auditory spatial discrimination or localisation of sound sources in comparison to sighted subjects. However, this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed with regards to underwater spatial localisation. This study therefore aimed to investigate underwater acoustic source localisation among blind and sighted scuba divers. Methods This study took place between February and June 2015 in Elba, Italy, and involved two experimental groups of divers with either acquired (n = 20) or congenital (n = 10) blindness and a control group of 30 sighted divers. Each subject took part in five attempts at an under-water acoustic source localisation task, in which the divers were requested to swim to the source of a sound originating from one of 24 potential locations. The control group had their sight obscured during the task. Results The congenitally blind divers demonstrated significantly better underwater sound localisation compared to the control group or those with acquired blindness (P = 0.0007). In addition, there was a significant correlation between years of blindness and underwater sound localisation (P sound in an underwater environment. As the correct localisation of sounds underwater may help individuals to avoid imminent danger, divers should perform sound localisation tests during training sessions. PMID:28690888

  13. Assimilation of satellite altimetry data in hydrological models for improved inland surface water information: Case studies from the "Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE" project (SHAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, David; Pimentel, Rafael; Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas; Roca, Mónica; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Fernandes, Joana; Lázaro, Clara; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    This communication is about the Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE (SHAPE) project, with a focus on the components dealing with assimilation of satellite altimetry data into hydrological models. The SHAPE research and development project started in September 2015, within the Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme of the European Space Agency. The objectives of the project are to further develop and assess recent improvement in altimetry data, processing algorithms and methods for assimilation in hydrological models, with the overarching goal to support improved scientific use of altimetry data and improved inland water information. The objective is also to take scientific steps towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level. The improved altimetry data from the project is used to estimate river stage, river discharge and lake level information in a data assimilation framework using the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and includes data assimilation module based on the Ensemble Kalman filter method. The method will be developed and assessed for a number of case studies with available in situ reference data and satellite altimetry data based on mainly the CryoSat-2 mission on which the new processor will be run; Results will be presented from case studies on the Amazon and Danube rivers and Lake Vänern (Sweden). The production of alti-hydro products (water level time series) are improved thanks to the use of water masks. This eases the geo-selection of the CryoSat-2 altimetric measurements since there are acquired from a geodetic orbit and are thus spread along the river course in space and and time. The specific processing of data from this geodetic orbit space

  14. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  15. A real-time algorithm for integrating differential satellite and inertial navigation information during helicopter approach. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, TY

    1994-01-01

    A real-time, high-rate precision navigation Kalman filter algorithm is developed and analyzed. This Navigation algorithm blends various navigation data collected during terminal area approach of an instrumented helicopter. Navigation data collected include helicopter position and velocity from a global position system in differential mode (DGPS) as well as helicopter velocity and attitude from an inertial navigation system (INS). The goal of the Navigation algorithm is to increase the DGPS accuracy while producing navigational data at the 64 Hertz INS update rate. It is important to note that while the data was post flight processed, the Navigation algorithm was designed for real-time analysis. The design of the Navigation algorithm resulted in a nine-state Kalman filter. The Kalman filter's state matrix contains position, velocity, and velocity bias components. The filter updates positional readings with DGPS position, INS velocity, and velocity bias information. In addition, the filter incorporates a sporadic data rejection scheme. This relatively simple model met and exceeded the ten meter absolute positional requirement. The Navigation algorithm results were compared with truth data derived from a laser tracker. The helicopter flight profile included terminal glideslope angles of 3, 6, and 9 degrees. Two flight segments extracted during each terminal approach were used to evaluate the Navigation algorithm. The first segment recorded small dynamic maneuver in the lateral plane while motion in the vertical plane was recorded by the second segment. The longitudinal, lateral, and vertical averaged positional accuracies for all three glideslope approaches are as follows (mean plus or minus two standard deviations in meters): longitudinal (-0.03 plus or minus 1.41), lateral (-1.29 plus or minus 2.36), and vertical (-0.76 plus or minus 2.05).

  16. Quantifying extinction probabilities from sighting records: inference and uncertainties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Caley

    Full Text Available Methods are needed to estimate the probability that a population is extinct, whether to underpin decisions regarding the continuation of a invasive species eradication program, or to decide whether further searches for a rare and endangered species could be warranted. Current models for inferring extinction probability based on sighting data typically assume a constant or declining sighting rate. We develop methods to analyse these models in a Bayesian framework to estimate detection and survival probabilities of a population conditional on sighting data. We note, however, that the assumption of a constant or declining sighting rate may be hard to justify, especially for incursions of invasive species with potentially positive population growth rates. We therefore explored introducing additional process complexity via density-dependent survival and detection probabilities, with population density no longer constrained to be constant or decreasing. These models were applied to sparse carcass discoveries associated with the recent incursion of the European red fox (Vulpes vulpes into Tasmania, Australia. While a simple model provided apparently precise estimates of parameters and extinction probability, estimates arising from the more complex model were much more uncertain, with the sparse data unable to clearly resolve the underlying population processes. The outcome of this analysis was a much higher possibility of population persistence. We conclude that if it is safe to assume detection and survival parameters are constant, then existing models can be readily applied to sighting data to estimate extinction probability. If not, methods reliant on these simple assumptions are likely overstating their accuracy, and their use to underpin decision-making potentially fraught. Instead, researchers will need to more carefully specify priors about possible population processes.

  17. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  18. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  19. 基于无速率码实现全球信息分发的双层卫星网络设计%Design of Double-layered Satellite Network to Worldwide Information Distribution Based on Rateless Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王闯; 张洪; 张威; 张更新

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a double-layered satellite information distribution network consisting of the GEO satel-lites and LEO satellites, which is based on the disruption tolerant characteristics of rateless codes in information distribu-tion. In the architecture of this satellite network, GEO constellation is used as the outer backbone network to provide a wide range of coverage in low latitudes, as well as to ensure the users capacity, while LEO constellation is used as the inner en-hanced network to make up the shortage of GEO backbone network's coverage. In the design of the satellite constellation net-works, considering the coverage characteristics of GEO satellites and LEO satellites, fewer satellites are adopted to achieve a worldwide information disruption tolerant distribution capacity, combined with the disruption tolerant characteristics of rateless codes. This paper simulates and analyzes the coverage capacity and the average elevation angle of the designed net-work, and the result verifies that the network can achieve a worldwide information distribution.%文章基于无速率编码在信息分发中容中断的特性,提出一种采用GEO卫星和LEO卫星组成的双层卫星信息分发网络。在该卫星网络的体系架构中,采用GEO星座作为外层骨干网络,提供中低纬度的大范围覆盖,保证用户的容量,而采用LEO星座作为内层的增强网络,弥补GEO骨干网络的覆盖不足。在卫星网络的星座设计中,考虑GEO卫星、LEO卫星的覆盖特点,结合无速率编码的容中断特性,采用较少的卫星实现信息在全球范围内的容中断分发。文章对所设计的双层卫星网络覆盖性能和平均通信仰角进行了仿真分析,验证了该网络能够实现全球范围的信息分发。

  20. An error analysis of tropical cyclone divergence and vorticity fields derived from satellite cloud winds on the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Rodgers, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    An advanced Man-Interactive image and data processing system (AOIPS) was developed to extract basic meteorological parameters from satellite data and to perform further analyses. The errors in the satellite derived cloud wind fields for tropical cyclones are investigated. The propagation of these errors through the AOIPS system and their effects on the analysis of horizontal divergence and relative vorticity are evaluated.

  1. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  2. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  3. THE PAndAS VIEW OF THE ANDROMEDA SATELLITE SYSTEM. I. A BAYESIAN SEARCH FOR DWARF GALAXIES USING SPATIAL AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Mackey, A. Dougal [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lewis, Geraint F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Fardal, Mark A., E-mail: nicolas.martin@astro.unistra.fr [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We present a generic algorithm to search for dwarf galaxies in photometric catalogs and apply it to the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework and, contrary to most dwarf galaxy search codes, makes use of both the spatial and color-magnitude information of sources in a probabilistic approach. Accounting for the significant contamination from the Milky Way foreground and from the structured stellar halo of the Andromeda galaxy, we recover all known dwarf galaxies in the PAndAS footprint with high significance, even for the least luminous ones. Some Andromeda globular clusters are also recovered and, in one case, discovered. We publish a list of the 143 most significant detections yielded by the algorithm. The combined properties of the 39 most significant isolated detections show hints that at least some of these trace genuine dwarf galaxies, too faint to be individually detected. Follow-up observations by the community are mandatory to establish which are real members of the Andromeda satellite system. The search technique presented here will be used in an upcoming contribution to determine the PAndAS completeness limits for dwarf galaxies. Although here tuned to the search of dwarf galaxies in the PAndAS data, the algorithm can easily be adapted to the search for any localized overdensity whose properties can be modeled reliably in the parameter space of any catalog.

  4. Geostationary satellite-based 6.7 μm band best water vapor information layer analysis over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Di; Ai, Yufei; Li, Jun; Shi, Wenjing; Lu, Naimeng

    2016-05-01

    The best water vapor information layer (BWIL) of the 6.7 μm water vapor absorption infrared (IR) band for the FengYun-2E is investigated over the Tibetan Plateau with standard atmospheric profile and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational model analysis data. The sensitivity tests show that surface characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau have a significant influence on the BWIL. To be specific, topographic elevation, colder skin temperature, and lower emissivity tend to lift the altitude of the BWIL, decrease its magnitude, and narrow the half-width range. The results from statistical analysis indicate that the altitude of the BWIL reaches the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. Meanwhile, the altitude of the BWIL is highly correlated with the water vapor amount above 500 hPa over the Tibetan Plateau and above 300 hPa over the East China Plain, respectively. The diurnal variation in the BWIL is synchronous with the diurnal variation in the surface skin temperature. It can be concluded from the study that surface characteristics over high terrain in dry and cold atmospheres have more significant impacts on the BWIL. With multiple water vapor absorption IR bands, the imagers on board the new generation of geostationary satellites will provide crucial improvement in water vapor remote sensing over the current single water vapor band on board the FY-2 series according to the analysis in this study.

  5. Combining forces--the use of Landsat TM satellite imagery, soil parameter information, and multiplex PCR to detect Coccidioides immitis growth sites in Kern County, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Lauer

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI. Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1 We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m × 750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2 We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3 We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp.

  6. Combining forces--the use of Landsat TM satellite imagery, soil parameter information, and multiplex PCR to detect Coccidioides immitis growth sites in Kern County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Antje; Talamantes, Jorge; Castañón Olivares, Laura Rosío; Medina, Luis Jaime; Baal, Joe Daryl Hugo; Casimiro, Kayla; Shroff, Natasha; Emery, Kirt W

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI). Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1) We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m × 750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2) We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3) We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp.

  7. Improving the precision of time-delay cosmography with observations of galaxies along the line of sight

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Zach S; Treu, Tommaso; Hilbert, Stefan; Auger, Matthew W; Collett, Thomas E; Marshall, Philip J; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Blandford, Roger D; Bradac, Marua; Koopmans, Léon V E

    2013-01-01

    In order to use strong gravitational lens time delays to measure precise and accurate cosmological parameters the effects of mass along the line of sight must be taken into account. We present a method to achieve this by constraining the probability distribution function of the effective line of sight convergence k_ext. The method is based on matching the observed overdensity in the weighted number of galaxies to that found in mock catalogs with k_ext obtained by ray-tracing through structure formation simulations. We explore weighting schemes based on projected distance, mass, luminosity, and redshift. This additional information reduces the uncertainty of k_ext from sigma_k $0.06 to ~0.04 for very overdense lines of sight like that of the system B1608+656. For more common lines of sight, sigma_k is reduced to ~<0.03, corresponding to an uncertainty of ~<3% on distance. This uncertainty has comparable effects on cosmological parameters to that arising from the mass model of the deflector and its immedi...

  8. Modeling gross primary production of agro-forestry ecosystems by assimilation of satellite-derived information in a process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale.

  9. Using precipitation, vertical root distribution, and satellite-retrieved vegetation information to parameterize water stress in a Penman-Monteith approach to evapotranspiration modeling under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhang, Sha; Koju, Upama Ashish; Yao, Fengmei; Igbawua, Tertsea

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that global Penman-Monteith equation based (PM-based) models poorly simulate water stress when estimating evapotranspiration (ET) in areas having a Mediterranean climate (AMC). In this study, we propose a novel approach using precipitation, vertical root distribution (VRD), and satellite-retrieved vegetation information to simulate water stress in a PM-based model (RS-WBPM) to address this issue. A multilayer water balance module is employed to simulate the soil water stress factor (SWSF) of multiple soil layers at different depths. The water stress factor (WSF) for surface evapotranspiration is determined by VRD information and SWSF in each layer. Additionally, four older PM-based models (PMOV) are evaluated at 27 flux sites in AMC. Results show that PMOV fails to estimate the magnitude or capture the variation of ET in summer at most sites, whereas RS-WBPM is successful. The daily ET resulting from RS-WBPM incorporating recommended VI (NDVI for shrub and EVI for other biomes) agrees well with observations, with R2=0.60 (RMSE = 18.72 W m-2) for all 27 sites and R2=0.62 (RMSE = 18.21 W m-2) for 25 nonagricultural sites. However, combined results from the optimum older PM-based models at specific sites show R2 values of only 0.50 (RMSE = 20.74 W m-2) for all 27 sites. RS-WBPM is also found to outperform other ET models that also incorporate a soil water balance module. As all inputs of RS-WBPM are globally available, the results from RS-WBPM are encouraging and imply the potential of its implementation on a regional and global scale.

  10. River flow forecasting with Artificial Neural Networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Akhtar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually incorporated in distributed physically-based hydrological modelling approaches. However, these modelling approaches are recognised to be quite complex and expensive, especially due to the data collection of multiple inputs and parameters, which vary in space and time. On the other hand, ANN models for flow forecasting are frequently developed only with precipitation and discharge as inputs, usually without taking into consideration the spatial variability of precipitation. Full inclusion of spatially distributed inputs into ANN models still leads to a complex computational process that may not give acceptable results. Therefore, here we present an analysis of the flow length and travel time as a basis for pre-processing remotely sensed (satellite rainfall data. This pre-processed rainfall is used together with local stream flow measurements of previous days as input to ANN models. The case study for this modelling approach is the Ganges river basin. A comparative analysis of multiple ANN models with different hydrological pre-processing is presented. The ANN showed its ability to forecast discharges 3-days ahead with an acceptable accuracy. Within this forecast horizon, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is marginal, because of dominant influence of strongly auto-correlated discharge inputs. For forecast horizons of 7 to 10 days, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is noticeable, although the overall model performance deteriorates. The incorporation of remote sensing data of spatially distributed precipitation information as pre-processing step showed to be a promising alternative for the setting-up of ANN models for

  11. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  12. Water Absorption From Line-of-Sight Clouds Toward W49A

    CERN Document Server

    Plume, R; Neufeld, D A; Snell, R L; Hollenbach, D J; Goldsmith, P F; Howe, J; Bergin, E A; Melnick, G J; Bensch, F; Plume, Rene; Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.; Snell, Ronald L.; Hollenbach, David J.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Howe, John; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bensch, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We have observed 6 clouds along the line-of-sight toward W49A using the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) and several ground-based observatories. The ortho-H2O 1-0 and OH (1665 and 1667 MHz) transitions are observed in absorption, whereas the low-J CO, 13CO, and C18O lines, as well as the [CI] 1-0 transition, are seen in emission. By using both the o-H218O and o-H2O absorption lines, we are able to constrain the column-averaged o-H_2O abundances in each line-of-sight cloud to within about an order of magnitude. Assuming the standard N(H2)/N(CO) ratio of 10^4, we find N(o-H2O)/N(H2) = 8.1 x 10^-8 - 4 x 10^-7 for three clouds with optically thin water lines. In three additional clouds, the H$_2$O lines are saturated so we have used observations of the H218O ground-state transition to find upper limits to the water abundance of 8.2x 10^-8 - 1.5x10^-6. We measure the OH abundance from the average of the 1665 and 1667 MHz observations and find N(OH)/N(H2) = 2.3x10^-7 - 1.1x10^-6. The o-H2O and OH abund...

  13. UWB channel modeling for indoor line-of-sight environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SV/IEEE 802.15.3a model has been the standard model for Ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) indoor non-line-of-sight (NLOS) wireless propagation, but for line-of-sight (LOS) case, it is not well defined. In this paper, a new statistical distribution model exclusively used for LOS environment is proposed based on investigation of the experimental data. By reducing the number of the visible random arriving clusters, the model itself and the parameters estimating of the corresponding model are simplified in comparison with SV/IEEE 802.15.3a model. The simulation result indicates that the proposed model is more accurate in modeling smallscale LOS environment than SV/IEEE 802.15.3a model when considering cumulative distribution functions(CDFs) for the three key channel impulse response (CIR) statistics.

  14. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  15. Anticipatory salivary flow to the sight of different foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M; Navazesh, M

    1984-12-01

    Anticipatory salivary flow was measured to the sight of seven foods that varied in texture, composition and palatability. In one experiment, subjects consumed the test foods that were viewed. This group was tested both during conditions of hunger and satiation. In a second experiment, subjects were instructed that they would not consume the foods that were viewed. Salivary responses were not related to the anticipated palability of the test foods but rather appeared to be related to the physical and chemical properties of the foods. Pizza, chocolate cake and gelatin were rated as highly palatable, but significant salivary increases occurred only with pizza. Of all the test foods, the greatest salivary flow increases were observed to the sight of lemon slices and pizza, and both foods contain sour or pungent ingredients. Hunger state and the expectation of consuming the test foods did not systematically affect the pattern or magnitude of salivary responses.

  16. Socio-Emotional Effects of the Transition from Sight to Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Mhairi; Thurston, Allen; McLeod, John

    2010-01-01

    The research examined the socio-emotional impact of sight loss on a sample of 18 blind and partially sighted adults from the east coast of Scotland (average age 64). The impact of sight loss in four core areas (mood, self-concept, social connectedness and loss) was explored. Data were collected using the mental health and social functioning…

  17. Towards a Dynamic Model of Skills Involved in Sight Reading Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiez, Reinhard; Lee, Ji In

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between selected predictors of achievement in playing unrehearsed music (sight reading) and the changing complexity of sight reading tasks. The question under investigation is, how different variables gain or lose significance as sight reading stimuli become more difficult. Fifty-two piano major graduates…

  18. HandSight: Supporting Everyday Activities through Touch-Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    vision algorithms to support inference and recognition, and a smartwatch for processing, power, and speech output. We have two high-level goals: first...integrated into one or more fingers, computer vision and machine learning algorithms to support fingertip-based sensing, and a smartwatch for processing...HandSight includes a smartwatch for processing and power, we wanted to explore how the wristband itself could be used to provide useful haptic feedback to

  19. Crossmodal Processing of Haptic Inputs in Sighted and Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Alary, Flamine; Lazzouni, Latifa; Chapman, C. E.; Goldstein, Rachel; Bourgoin, Pierre; Lepore, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In a previous behavioral study, it was shown that early blind individuals were superior to sighted ones in discriminating two-dimensional (2D) tactile angle stimuli. The present study was designed to assess the neural substrate associated with a haptic 2D angle discrimination task in both sighted and blind individuals. Subjects performed tactile angle size discriminations in order to investigate whether the pattern of crossmodal occipital recruitment was lateralized as a function of the stimulated hand. Task-elicited activations were also compared across different difficulty levels to ascertain the potential modulatory role of task difficulty on crossmodal processing within occipital areas. We show that blind subjects had more widespread activation within the right lateral and superior occipital gyri when performing the haptic discrimination task. In contrast, the sighted activated the left cuneus and lingual gyrus more so than the blind when performing the task. Furthermore, activity within visual areas was shown to be predictive of tactile discrimination thresholds in the blind, but not in the sighted. Activity within parietal and occipital areas was modulated by task difficulty, where the easier angle comparison elicited more focal occipital activity along with bilateral posterior parietal activity, whereas the more difficult comparison produced more widespread occipital activity combined with reduced parietal activation. Finally, we show that crossmodal reorganization within the occipital cortex of blind individuals was primarily right lateralized, regardless of the stimulated hand, supporting previous evidence for a right-sided hemispheric specialization of the occipital cortex of blind individuals for the processing of tactile and haptic inputs. PMID:27531974

  20. Learning to see again: biological constraints on cortical plasticity and the implications for sight restoration technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Michael; Rokem, Ariel; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Fine, Ione

    2017-10-01

    The ‘bionic eye’—so long a dream of the future—is finally becoming a reality with retinal prostheses available to patients in both the US and Europe. However, clinical experience with these implants has made it apparent that the visual information provided by these devices differs substantially from normal sight. Consequently, the ability of patients to learn to make use of this abnormal retinal input plays a critical role in whether or not some functional vision is successfully regained. The goal of the present review is to summarize the vast basic science literature on developmental and adult cortical plasticity with an emphasis on how this literature might relate to the field of prosthetic vision. We begin with describing the distortion and information loss likely to be experienced by visual prosthesis users. We then define cortical plasticity and perceptual learning, and describe what is known, and what is unknown, about visual plasticity across the hierarchy of brain regions involved in visual processing, and across different stages of life. We close by discussing what is known about brain plasticity in sight restoration patients and discuss biological mechanisms that might eventually be harnessed to improve visual learning in these patients.

  1. Aesthetics of movement with sight disabled children - pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Górny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the aesthetics of movement in people with vision defects. This knowledge will provide tools to improve the methodology of study in the area of assessment of movement aesthetics in people with disabilities. In order to establish its level a test was used which measured its selected elements such as precision, rhythm, harmony, fluidity and speed. The aesthetics of movement was assessed using exercise tests which were to represent the components of aesthetics of movement. Individual tests were carried out on blind and partially sighted children aged 6 to 15 years and on a group of healthy children of the same age. Using the test tasks a general indicator of movement aesthetics in blind children was obtained. The participants of the study were 145 children from four School and Education Centres for Blind Children in Poland and the control group consisted of 310 children from a primary school in Poznań. The studies confirmed a lower level of movement aesthetics in children with vision defects, but the differences in groups between the partially sighted children and children with correct vision were definitely smaller. A higher level of aesthetics of movement characterised children from older groups irrespective of their sex. The best developed property in blind and partially sighted children was precision.

  2. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  3. Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, S

    1999-05-20

    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the lines of sight of their optics must be aligned for the duration of the communication. The satellite pointing and tracking systems perform the alignment. The satellite pointing systems vibrate because of tracking noise and mechanical impacts (such as thruster operation, the antenna pointing mechanism, the solar array driver, navigation noise, tracking noise). These vibrations increase the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. An expression is derived for adaptive transmitter power that compensates for vibration effects in heterodyne laser satellite links. This compensation makes it possible to keep the link BER performance constant for changes in vibration amplitudes. The motivation for constant BER is derived from the requirement for future satellite communication networks with high quality of service. A practical situation of a two-low-Earth-orbit satellite communication link is given. From the results of the example it is seen that the required power for a given BER increases almost exponentially for linear increase in vibration amplitude.

  4. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally and sighted subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh Hariprasad Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. Objective: To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Study had been carried out in two groups: The 1 st of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2 nd group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy΁0.001 s in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Observations / Results: Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Conclusion: Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  5. Mutual information registration of multi-spectral and multi-resolution images of DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 imaging satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Grzegorz; Shafer, Jeff; Baugh, William M.; Bader, Brett; Karspeck, Milan; Pacifici, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    WorldView-3 (WV-3) is a DigitalGlobe commercial, high resolution, push-broom imaging satellite with three instruments: visible and near-infrared VNIR consisting of panchromatic (0.3m nadir GSD) plus multi-spectral (1.2m), short-wave infrared SWIR (3.7m), and multi-spectral CAVIS (30m). Nine VNIR bands, which are on one instrument, are nearly perfectly registered to each other, whereas eight SWIR bands, belonging to the second instrument, are misaligned with respect to VNIR and to each other. Geometric calibration and ortho-rectification results in a VNIR/SWIR alignment which is accurate to approximately 0.75 SWIR pixel at 3.7m GSD, whereas inter-SWIR, band to band registration is 0.3 SWIR pixel. Numerous high resolution, spectral applications, such as object classification and material identification, require more accurate registration, which can be achieved by utilizing image processing algorithms, for example Mutual Information (MI). Although MI-based co-registration algorithms are highly accurate, implementation details for automated processing can be challenging. One particular challenge is how to compute bin widths of intensity histograms, which are fundamental building blocks of MI. We solve this problem by making the bin widths proportional to instrument shot noise. Next, we show how to take advantage of multiple VNIR bands, and improve registration sensitivity to image alignment. To meet this goal, we employ Canonical Correlation Analysis, which maximizes VNIR/SWIR correlation through an optimal linear combination of VNIR bands. Finally we explore how to register images corresponding to different spatial resolutions. We show that MI computed at a low-resolution grid is more sensitive to alignment parameters than MI computed at a high-resolution grid. The proposed modifications allow us to improve VNIR/SWIR registration to better than ¼ of a SWIR pixel, as long as terrain elevation is properly accounted for, and clouds and water are masked out.

  6. Development, Validation, and Potential Enhancements to the Second-Generation Operational Aerosol Product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Larry L.; Ignatov, Alexander M.; Singh, Ramdas R.

    1997-01-01

    A revised (phase 2) single-channel algorithm for aerosol optical thickness, tau(sup A)(sub SAT), retrieval over oceans from radiances in channel 1 (0.63 microns) of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) has been implemented at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service for the NOAA 14 satellite launched December 30, 1994. It is based on careful validation of its operational predecessor (phase 1 algorithm), implemented for NOAA 14 in 1989. Both algorithms scale the upward satellite radiances in cloud-free conditions to aerosol optical thickness using an updated radiative transfer model of the ocean and atmosphere. Application of the phase 2 algorithm to three matchup Sun-photometer and satellite data sets, one with NOAA 9 in 1988 and two with NOAA 11 in 1989 and 1991, respectively, show systematic error is less than 10%, with a random error of sigma(sub tau) approx. equal 0.04. First results of tau(sup A)(sub SAT) retrievals from NOAA 14 using the phase 2 algorithm, and from checking its internal consistency, are presented. The potential two-channel (phase 3) algorithm for the retrieval of an aerosol size parameter, such as the Junge size distribution exponent, by adding either channel 2 (0.83 microns) from the current AVHRR instrument, or a 1.6-microns channel to be available on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and the NOAA-KLM satellites by 1997 is under investigation. The possibility of using this additional information in the retrieval of a more accurate estimate of aerosol optical thickness is being explored.

  7. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-24

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  8. Uncertain sightings and the extinction of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Andrew; Smith, Woollcott; Burgman, Mark; Rout, Tracy; Wintle, Brendan; Roberts, David

    2012-02-01

    The extinction of a species can be inferred from a record of its sightings. Existing methods for doing so assume that all sightings in the record are valid. Often, however, there are sightings of uncertain validity. To date, uncertain sightings have been treated in an ad hoc way, either excluding them from the record or including them as if they were certain. We developed a Bayesian method that formally accounts for such uncertain sightings. The method assumes that valid and invalid sightings follow independent Poisson processes and use noninformative prior distributions for the rate of valid sightings and for a measure of the quality of uncertain sightings. We applied the method to a recently published record of sightings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). This record covers the period 1897-2010 and contains 39 sightings classified as certain and 29 classified as uncertain. The Bayes factor in favor of extinction was 4.03, which constitutes substantial support for extinction. The posterior distribution of the time of extinction has 3 main modes in 1944, 1952, and 1988. The method can be applied to sighting records of other purportedly extinct species.

  9. Application of satellite gravity information fusion to refine regional quasi-geoid%卫星重力信息融合及区域似大地水准面精化应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雷; 陈晓华; 胡伍生; 王德宝; 王牧龙

    2013-01-01

    为改善地面重力数据缺乏区域似大地水准面的精度和分辨率,提出利用神经网络融合卫星重力信息应用于似大地水准面精化的方法,通过融合不同时期CHAMP卫星数据计算的重力场模型和GPS/水准数据中区域重力场信息,进行区域似大地水准面精化并进行精度统计,结果表明:融合卫星重力信息将区域似大地水准面模型的精度由0.4702 m提高至0.2038 m,验证了神经网络技术融合卫星重力信息并应用于区域似大地水准面精化是有效的.%In order to improve the precision and resolution of quasi-geoid in the region of lacking ground gravity data, the method of satellite gravity information fusion using neural network to refine regional quasi-geoid is proposed.The regional quasi-geoid is refined by fusing the gravity informa-tion of CHAMP ( challenging mini-satellite payload ) gravity field models at different periods and GPS/leveling, and then the precision of quasi-geoid is estimated.The results show that the satellite gravity information fusion can improve the precision of regional quasi-geoid from 0.470 2 m to 0.203 8 m, which verify that satellite gravity information fusion using neural network to refine re-gional quasi-geoid is effective.

  10. 用自监测信息的卫星钟长稳特性评估软件设计%DESIGNING EVALUATION SOFTWARE FOR LONG-TERM STABILITY PERFORMANCE OF SATELLITE CLOCK USING AUTONOMOUS MONITORING INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔小准; 王璐; 毕少筠; 董海青

    2015-01-01

    利用卫星钟相位差的自监测信息进行在轨导航卫星星钟长稳性能估计的方法实现简单,能满足实际评估需要。由此开发了相应的软件。该软件读取地面接收机解调的卫星自监测信息,通过软件操作完成卫星钟各观察时段主备钟相位差计算,然后通过分析实现卫星钟长稳特性评估。软件具有卫星主备钟监测相位计满程刻度的修正功能和野值剔除功能,能修正由于各卫星钟实际频率与标称频率差异带来的相差计算误差,剔除小概率频率突变值,降低长稳特性评估的误差。软件界面友好,操作简单,在导航卫星在轨测试和在轨管理中得到应用。%The method of estimating long-term stability performance of on-board satellites clock using autonomous monitoring information of satellite’s phase difference for in-orbit navigation satellites is simple in implementation and can meet the requirement of actual assessment.Therefore the corresponding software has been developed.The software reads the self-monitoring information demodulated by ground receivers,completes the calculation of phase difference between master and slave clocks of satellite clock in each observation time period through software operation,and then realises the evaluation of long-term stability performance of satellite clock by analyses.The software has full scale correction function and outliers elimination function for phase meters of master and slave satellite clocks’monitoring, which can correct the calculation errors of phase differences brought about by the differences between actual frequency of each satellite clock and nominal frequency,and weed out mutated value of small probability frequency,as well as reduce the error of long-term stability performanceassessment.The software is friendly in interface,easy to operate,and has been applied in in-orbit testing and management of navigation satellites.

  11. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  12. What is the link between language and spatial images? Behavioral and neural findings in blind and sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struiksma, Marijn E; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Postma, Albert

    2009-10-01

    In order to find objects or places in the world, multiple sources of information, such as visual input, auditory input and asking for directions, can help you. These different sources of information can be converged into a spatial image, which represents configurational characteristics of the world. This paper discusses the findings on the nature of spatial images and the role of spatial language in generating these spatial images in both blind and sighted individuals. Congenitally blind individuals have never experienced visual input, yet they are able to perform several tasks traditionally associated with spatial imagery, such as mental scanning, mental pathway completions and mental clock time comparison, though perhaps not always in a similar manner as sighted. Therefore, they offer invaluable insights into the exact nature of spatial images. We will argue that spatial imagery exceeds the input from different input modalities to form an abstract mental representation while maintaining connections with the input modalities. This suggests that the nature of spatial images is supramodal, which can explain functional equivalent results from verbal and perceptual inputs for spatial situations and subtle to moderate behavioral differences between the blind and sighted.

  13. Marine biota sightings during 3D marine seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de; Uller, George A. [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Ribeiro, Camila Castroviejo da Silva; Pereira, Edisio [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina Maschio de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil); Ferraz, Alexandre Almeida; Costa, Leandro Damiao Soares da [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work intends to make a correlation between the presence of the marine biota and the seismic source activity (air guns) during seismic surveys, in Campos (BM-C-25 and BM-C-16) and Santos (BM-S-3) Basin, since July 2003 until March 2004. Environmental data were acquired onboard of the Seismic Vessel CGG Harmattan by a team of four oceanographers (environmental technicians), working on the highest place of the Vessel to record and identify the animals whenever was possible. The data were recorded in forms where fields about the biotic and environmental aspects were filled. In 212 days of observations, 2580,1 hours of sighting's effort were recorded; the air guns worked during 37,6% of the time of the effort. These efforts were made during the daylight reaching an average value of 11,35 hours/day. Sightings were divided into the suborders Odontocetes and Mysticetes, and others (fishes, turtles and non identified mammals). 175 sightings were recorded, being 54% when the air gun was off (24% Mysticetes, 56% Odontocetes, 20% others). Similarly, when the air gun was working, 46% of the records were made (24% Mysticetes, 61% Odontocetes, 6% others); the major concentration (58%) of individuals was inside the 1000 m radius around the ship, followed by 14% of the individuals occurring between 3001-4000 m radius away from the ship. The analysis of the data suggests a non-evasive behavior related to the working of the seismic source, corroborating the results reached by other publications using the data collected onboard CGG Vessels. (author)

  14. Line-of-sight extrapolation noise in dust polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poh, Jason; Dodelson, Scott

    2017-05-19

    The B-modes of polarization at frequencies ranging from 50-1000 GHz are produced by Galactic dust, lensing of primordial E-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by intervening large scale structure, and possibly by primordial B-modes in the CMB imprinted by gravitational waves produced during inflation. The conventional method used to separate the dust component of the signal is to assume that the signal at high frequencies (e.g., 350 GHz) is due solely to dust and then extrapolate the signal down to lower frequency (e.g., 150 GHz) using the measured scaling of the polarized dust signal amplitude with frequency. For typical Galactic thermal dust temperatures of about 20K, these frequencies are not fully in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit. Therefore, deviations in the dust cloud temperatures from cloud to cloud will lead to different scaling factors for clouds of different temperatures. Hence, when multiple clouds of different temperatures and polarization angles contribute to the integrated line-of-sight polarization signal, the relative contribution of individual clouds to the integrated signal can change between frequencies. This can cause the integrated signal to be decorrelated in both amplitude and direction when extrapolating in frequency. Here we carry out a Monte Carlo analysis on the impact of this line-of-sight extrapolation noise, enabling us to quantify its effect. Using results from the Planck experiment, we find that this effect is small, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the current uncertainties. However, line-of-sight extrapolation noise may be a significant source of uncertainty in future low-noise primordial B-mode experiments. Scaling from Planck results, we find that accounting for this uncertainty becomes potentially important when experiments are sensitive to primordial B-mode signals with amplitude r < 0.0015 .

  15. An Evaluation of Ad Hoc Presence-Only Data in Explaining Patterns of Distribution: Cetacean Sightings from Whale-Watching Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa K. Higby

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of presence-only data is a problem in determining species distributions and accurately determining population sizes. The collection of such data is common from unequal or nonrandomised effort surveys, such as those surveys conducted by citizen scientists. However, causative regression-based methods have been less well examined using presence-only data. In this study, we examine a range of predictive factors which might influence Cetacean sightings (specifically minke whale sightings from whale-watching vessels in Faxaflói Bay in Iceland. In this case, environmental variables were collected regularly regardless of whether sightings were recorded. Including absences as well as presence in the analysis resulted in a multiple-generalised linear regression model with significantly more explanatory power than when data were presence only. However, by including extra information on the sightings of the whales, in this case, their observed behaviour when the sighting occurred resulted in a significantly improved model over the presence-only data model. While there are limitations of conducting nonrandomised surveys for the use of predictive models such as regression, presence-only data should not be considered as worthless, and the scope of collection of these data by citizen scientists using modern technology should not be underestimated.

  16. Development of nanostructured protective "sight glasses" for IR gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, René; Davis, Zachary James; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Clausen, Sønnik; Boisen, Anja; Jensen, Jens Møller; Buchner, Rainer; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2011-06-01

    In this work protective "sight glasses" for infrared gas sensors showing a sub-wavelength nanostructure with random patterns have been fabricated by reactive ion etching (RIE) in an easy and comparable cheap single step mask-less process. By an organic coating, the intrinsic water repellent property of the surface could be enhanced, shown by contact angle and roll-off angle measurements. The "self-cleaning" surface property and chemical robustness towards aggressive environments are demonstrated. FT-IR spectroscopy concerning the optical properties of these nanostructured silicon windows revealed a stable anti-reflective "moth-eye" effect in certain wavelength ranges owing to the nanostructures.

  17. OneSight-China Donation Held in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>"It is the first time that I got a pair of glasses through so many procedures.It sets my mind at rest." Zhou Peng,a 20-year-old recipient of donated eyeglasses,said excitedly.From May 11 to 20,2010,60 oculists and volunteers from 11 countries including the United States,Australia,India,Ghana and Thailand gathered in Qingdao and with their loving care took part in the OneSight-China Donation activity to provide clear vision to the disabled and people in need in the city.

  18. BioSIGHT: Interactive Visualization Modules for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wee Ling

    1998-01-01

    Redefining science education to harness emerging integrated media technologies with innovative pedagogical goals represents a unique challenge. The Integrated Media Systems Center (IMSC) is the only engineering research center in the area of multimedia and creative technologies sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The research program at IMSC is focused on developing advanced technologies that address human-computer interfaces, database management, and high- speed network capabilities. The BioSIGHT project at IMSC is a demonstration technology project in the area of education that seeks to address how such emerging multimedia technologies can make an impact on science education. The scope of this project will help solidify NASA's commitment for the development of innovative educational resources that promotes science literacy for our students and the general population as well. These issues must be addressed as NASA marches towards the goal of enabling human space exploration that requires an understanding of life sciences in space. The IMSC BioSIGHT lab was established with the purpose of developing a novel methodology that will map a high school biology curriculum into a series of interactive visualization modules that can be easily incorporated into a space biology curriculum. Fundamental concepts in general biology must be mastered in order to allow a better understanding and application for space biology. Interactive visualization is a powerful component that can capture the students' imagination, facilitate their assimilation of complex ideas, and help them develop integrated views of biology. These modules will augment the role of the teacher and will establish the value of student-centered interactivity, both in an individual setting as well as in a collaborative learning environment. Students will be able to interact with the content material, explore new challenges, and perform virtual laboratory simulations. The BioSIGHT effort is truly cross

  19. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, when the NGA provided graphics for “relief efforts that depicted the locations of...that show the damage resulting from an earthquake , fire, flood, hurricane, oil spill, or volcanic eruption.8 Bush Administration Policies...Satellite information has continued to have important civil applications in such disparate areas as the movement of glaciers in Yakutat Bay in Alaska

  20. The velocity distribution of SDSS satellites in MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Garry; Tiret, Olivier; Combes, Francoise; Zhao, HongSheng

    2007-01-01

    The recent SDSS measured velocity distribution of satellite galaxies has been modelled in the context of MOND. We show that even when the extra constraint of adhering to the projected satellite number density profile is added, the two line of sight (los) velocity dispersion profiles presented in Klypin & Prada (2007) can be matched simply with a radially varying anisotropy. Interestingly, the anisotropies required to fit the los velocity dispersions are remarkably similar to the anisotropies generated by dissipationless collapse simulations in MOND. The mass-to-light ratios of the two host galaxies used are sensible and positivity of the distribution function is satisfied.

  1. Narrowband and wideband characterisation of satellite mobile/PCN channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, G.; Parks, M. A. N.; Evans, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents models characterizing satellite mobile channel. Statistical narrowband models based on the CSER high elevation angle channel measurement campaign are reported. Such models are understood to be useful for communication system simulations. It has been shown from the modelling results that for the mobile satellite links at high elevation angles line-of-sight (LOS) signal is available most of the time, even under the heavy shadowing conditions. Wideband measurement campaign which CSER is about to undertake, and subsequently the modelling approach to be adopted is also discussed. It is noted that a wideband channel model is expected to provide a useful tool in investigating CDMA applications.

  2. An Abel transform for deriving line-of-sight wind profiles from LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syndergaard, S.; Kirchengast, G.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a formula for the retrieval of the line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed from future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite-to-satellite infrared laser occultation measurements. The formula involves an Abelian integral transform akin to the Abel transform widely used for deriving refractive index from bending angle in Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation measurements. Besides the Abelian integral transform, the formula is derived from a truncated series expansion of the volume absorption coefficient as a function of frequency and includes a simple absorption-line-asymmetry correction term. A first-order formulation (referred to as the standard formula) is complemented by higher-order terms that can be used for high-accuracy computations. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and perfect knowledge of spectroscopy, the residual l.o.s. wind error from using the standard formula rather than the high-accuracy formula is assessed to be small compared to that anticipated from measurement errors in a real experiment. Applying the new formula just in standard form to future infrared laser transmission profiles would therefore enable the retrieval of l.o.s. stratospheric wind profiles with an accuracy limited mainly by measurement errors, residual spectroscopic errors, and deviations from spherical symmetry.

  3. Optomechanical design of a field-deployable thermal weapon sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc-André; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bernier, Sophie; Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Lagacé, François; Laou, Philips

    2007-09-01

    The use of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging technology in Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems produces a unique tool that perfectly fulfills the all-weather, day-and-night vision demands in modern battlefields by significantly increasing the effectiveness and survivability of a dismounted soldier. The main advantage of IR imaging is that no illumination is required; therefore, observation can be accomplished in a passive mode. It is particularly well adapted for target detection even through smoke, dust, fog, haze, and other battlefield obscurants. In collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC Valcartier), INO engineering team developed, produced, and tested a rugged thermal weapon sight. An infrared channel provides for human detection at 800m and recognition at 200m. Technical system requirements included very low overall weight as well as the need to be field-deployable and user-friendly in harsh conditions. This paper describes the optomechanical design and focuses on the catadioptric-based system integration. The system requirements forced the optomechanical engineers to minimize weight while maintaining a sufficient level of rigidity in order to keep the tight optical tolerances. The optical system's main features are: a precision manual focus, a watertight vibration insulated front lens, a bolometer and two gold coated aluminum mirrors. Finite element analyses using ANSYS were performed to validate the subsystems performance. Some of the finite element computations were validated using different laboratory setups.

  4. Attitude motion compensation for imager on Fengyun-4 geostationary meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wang; Dai, Shoulun; Dong, Yaohai; Shen, Yili; Song, Xiaozheng; Wang, Tianshu

    2017-09-01

    A compensation method is used in Chinese Fengyun-4 satellite to counteracting the line-of-sight influence by attitude motion during imaging. The method is acted on-board by adding the compensation amount to the instrument scanning control circuit. The mathematics simulation and the three-axis air-bearing test results show that the method works effectively.

  5. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter with satellite galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoni, Dario; Nusser, Adi; Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2017-05-01

    We develop the framework for testing Lorentz invariance in the dark matter sector using galactic dynamics. We consider a Lorentz violating (LV) vector field acting on the dark matter component of a satellite galaxy orbiting in a host halo. We introduce a numerical model for the dynamics of satellites in a galactic halo and for a galaxy in a rich cluster to explore observational consequences of such an LV field. The orbital motion of a satellite excites a time dependent LV force which greatly affects its internal dynamics. Our analysis points out key observational signatures which serve as probes of LV forces. These include modifications to the line of sight velocity dispersion, mass profiles and shapes of satellites. With future data and a more detailed modeling these signatures can be exploited to constrain a new region of the parameter space describing the LV in the dark matter sector.

  6. Inferring extinction in North American and Hawaiian birds in the presence of sighting uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Roberts

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For most species the timing of extinction events is uncertain, occurring sometime after the last sighting. However, the sightings themselves may also be uncertain. Recently a number of methods have been developed that incorporate sighting uncertainty in the inference of extinction based on a series of sightings. Here we estimate the timing of extinction for 41 of 52 North American and Hawaiian bird taxa and populations, the results of which suggest all became extinct before 2009. By acknowledging sighting uncertainty it results in two opposite effects, one pushing the timing of extinction away from the last sighting and the other drawing the timing of extinction nearer to it. However, for 14 assessed taxa and populations the upper 95% bounds lie beyond the end of the observation period and therefore suggest the possibility of continued persistence. This has important implications for conservation decision-makers and potentially reduces the likelihood of Romeo’s Error.

  7. Impact of SMART Board technology: an investigation of sight word reading and observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C; Gast, David L; Krupa, Kristin

    2007-11-01

    The effects of SMART Board technology, an interactive electronic whiteboard, and a 3s constant time delay (CTD) procedure was evaluated for teaching sight word reading to students with moderate intellectual disabilties within a small group arrangment. A multiple probe design across three word sets and replicated with three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of SMART Board technology on: (a) reading target grocery words; (b) matching grocery item photos to target grocery words; (c) reading other students' target grocery words through observational learning; and (d) matching grocery item photos to observational grocery words. Results support use of this tool to teach multiple students at one time and its effects on observational learning of non-target information.

  8. Sight and blindness in the same person: Gating in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Hans; Waldvogel, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a patient having dissociative identity disorder (DID) who-after 15 years of misdiagnosed cortical blindness--step-by-step regained sight during psychotherapeutic treatment. At first only a few personality states regained vision whereas others remained blind. This could be confirmed by electrophysiological measurement, in which visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were absent in the blind personality states but were normal and stable in the seeing states. A switch between these states could happen within seconds. We assume a top-down modulation of activity in the primary visual pathway as a neural basis of such psychogenic blindness, possibly at the level of the thalamus. VEPs therefore do not allow separating psychogenic blindness from organic disruption of the visual pathway. In summary, psychogenic blindness seems to suppress visual information at an early neural stage.

  9. Bias Correction and Random Error Characterization for the Assimilation of HRDI Line-of-Sight Wind Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Menard, Richard; Ortland, David; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to the analysis of systematic and random observation errors is presented in which the error statistics are obtained using forecast data rather than observations from a different instrument type. The analysis is carried out at an intermediate retrieval level, instead of the more typical state variable space. This method is carried out on measurements made by the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). HRDI, a limb sounder, is the only satellite instrument measuring winds in the stratosphere, and the only instrument of any kind making global wind measurements in the upper atmosphere. HRDI measures doppler shifts in the two different O2 absorption bands (alpha and B) and the retrieved products are tangent point Line-of-Sight wind component (level 2 retrieval) and UV winds (level 3 retrieval). This analysis is carried out on a level 1.9 retrieval, in which the contributions from different points along the line-of-sight have not been removed. Biases are calculated from O-F (observed minus forecast) LOS wind components and are separated into a measurement parameter space consisting of 16 different values. The bias dependence on these parameters (plus an altitude dependence) is used to create a bias correction scheme carried out on the level 1.9 retrieval. The random error component is analyzed by separating the gamma and B band observations and locating observation pairs where both bands are very nearly looking at the same location at the same time. It is shown that the two observation streams are uncorrelated and that this allows the forecast error variance to be estimated. The bias correction is found to cut the effective observation error variance in half.

  10. Results of field testing with the FightSight infrared-based projectile tracking and weapon-fire characterization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarski, Steve; Menozzi, Alberico; Sherrill, Todd; Volpe, Chris; Wille, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes experimental results from recent live-fire data collects that demonstrate the capability of a prototype system for projectile detection and tracking. This system, which is being developed at Applied Research Associates, Inc., under the FightSight program, consists of a high-speed thermal camera and sophisticated image processing algorithms to detect and track projectiles. The FightSight operational vision is automated situational intelligence to detect, track, and graphically map large-scale firefights and individual shooting events onto command and control (C2) systems in real time (shot location and direction, weapon ID, movements and trends). Gaining information on enemy-fire trajectories allows educated inferences on the enemy's intent, disposition, and strength. Our prototype projectile detection and tracking system has been tested at the Joint Readiness Training Center (Ft Polk, LA) during live-fire convoy and mortar registration exercises, in the summer of 2009. It was also tested during staged military-operations- on-urban-terrain (MOUT) firefight events at Aberdeen Test Center (Aberdeen, MD) under the Hostile Fire Defeat Army Technology Objective midterm experiment, also in the summer of 2009, where we introduced fusion with acoustic and EO sensors to provide 3D localization and near-real time display of firing events. Results are presented in this paper that demonstrate effective and accurate detection and localization of weapon fire (5.56mm, 7.62mm, .50cal, 81/120mm mortars, 40mm) in diverse and challenging environments (dust, heat, day and night, rain, arid open terrain, urban clutter). FightSight's operational capabilities demonstrated under these live-fire data collects can support closecombat scenarios. As development continues, FightSight will be able to feed C2 systems with a symbolic map of enemy actions.

  11. The Influence of Tactile Cognitive Maps on Auditory Space Perception in Sighted Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica; Brayda, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that vision is important to improve spatial auditory cognition. In this study, we investigate whether touch is as effective as vision to create a cognitive map of a soundscape. In particular, we tested whether the creation of a mental representation of a room, obtained through tactile exploration of a 3D model, can influence the perception of a complex auditory task in sighted people. We tested two groups of blindfolded sighted people - one experimental and one control group - in an auditory space bisection task. In the first group, the bisection task was performed three times: specifically, the participants explored with their hands the 3D tactile model of the room and were led along the perimeter of the room between the first and the second execution of the space bisection. Then, they were allowed to remove the blindfold for a few minutes and look at the room between the second and third execution of the space bisection. Instead, the control group repeated for two consecutive times the space bisection task without performing any environmental exploration in between. Considering the first execution as a baseline, we found an improvement in the precision after the tactile exploration of the 3D model. Interestingly, no additional gain was obtained when room observation followed the tactile exploration, suggesting that no additional gain was obtained by vision cues after spatial tactile cues were internalized. No improvement was found between the first and the second execution of the space bisection without environmental exploration in the control group, suggesting that the improvement was not due to task learning. Our results show that tactile information modulates the precision of an ongoing space auditory task as well as visual information. This suggests that cognitive maps elicited by touch may participate in cross-modal calibration and supra-modal representations of space that increase implicit knowledge about sound propagation.

  12. The influence of tactile cognitive maps on auditory space perception in sighted persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Tonelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that vision is important to improve spatial auditory cognition. In this study we investigate whether touch is as effective as vision to create a cognitive map of a soundscape. In particular we tested whether the creation of a mental representation of a room, obtained through tactile exploration of a 3D model, can influence the perception of a complex auditory task in sighted people. We tested two groups of blindfolded sighted people – one experimental and one control group – in an auditory space bisection task. In the first group the bisection task was performed three times: specifically, the participants explored with their hands the 3D tactile model of the room and were led along the perimeter of the room between the first and the second execution of the space bisection. Then, they were allowed to remove the blindfold for a few minutes and look at the room between the second and third execution of the space bisection. Instead, the control group repeated for two consecutive times the space bisection task without performing any environmental exploration in between. Considering the first execution as a baseline, we found an improvement in the precision after the tactile exploration of the 3D model. Interestingly, no additional gain was obtained when room observation followed the tactile exploration, suggesting that no additional gain was obtained by vision cues after spatial tactile cues were internalized. No improvement was found between the first and the second execution of the space bisection without environmental exploration in the control group, suggesting that the improvement was not due to task learning. Our results show that tactile information modulates the precision of an ongoing space auditory task as well as visual information. This suggests that cognitive maps elicited by touch may participate in cross-modal calibration and supra-modal representations of space that increase implicit knowledge about sound

  13. The Comparing Auditory Discrimination in Blind and Sighted Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hassan Ashayeri

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying auditory discrimination in children and the role it plays in acquiring language skills is of great importance. Also the relationship between articulation disorder and the ability to discriminate the speech sound is an important topic for speech and language researchers. Previous event- related potentials (ERPs studies have suggested a possible participation of the visual cortex of the blind subjects were asked to discriminate 100 couple Farsi words (auditory discrimination tack while they were listening them from recorded tape. The results showed that the blinds were able to discriminate heard material better than sighted subjects. (Prro.05 According to this study in blind subjects conical are as normally reserved for vision may be activated by other sensory modalities. This is in accordance with previous studies. We suggest that auditory cortex expands in blind humans.

  14. Computational Model of Music Sight Reading: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yahya, Keyvan

    2010-01-01

    Although the Music Sight Reading process usually has been studied from the cognitive or neurological view points, but the computational learning methods like the Reinforcement Learning have not yet been used to modeling of such processes. In this paper with regards to essential properties of our specific problem, we consider the value function concept and will indicate that the optimum policy can be obtained by the method we offer without to be getting involved with computing of the complex value functions which are in most of cases inexact. Also, the algorithm we will offer here is somehow a PDE based algorithm which is associated with a stochastic optimization programming and we consider that in this case, this one is more applicable than the normative algorithms like temporal difference method.

  15. Balancing game universes for playing without sight or hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Thomas; Furöstam, Malin; Yasasindhu, Roy; Norberg, Lena; Wiklund, Mats; Mozelius, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Equal access to cultural activities is important for inclusion and computer gaming is one of the most common activities in digital culture. However, many people with impairments are excluded from participating. While parallel game universes (PGUs) provide a method to achieve equal access, the question is: how can a balanced collaborative real-time game be designed with the help of PGU for playing without sight or hearing? Balance is a central concept in game design and is important to avoid perceived cheating or disadvantages due to individual or environmental differences. The question was examined with a design science approach, where a game prototype was created in two iterations with a structured design method and evaluated using interviews and observations. In this first step of a more long-term study, ten experienced gamers without impairments were selected with purposive sampling to provide relevant data through simulation of temporary impairments or environmental issues, which can affect many or all gamers. By sorting out these issues first, later testing with actual blind and deaf gamers can focus on more specific issues for each group. The ten participants played either without sight or hearing. The results confirm the use of PGUs for creating a balanced experience but also finds that while multiplayer feel is not optimal, it is a reasonable trade-off for universal access for blind and deaf being able to play together. The results also show that a help system and equal understanding of the game play between the blind and deaf players are important aspects to achieve game balance. Further research should be done involving actual blind and deaf gamers, and similar evaluations of game balance should be conducted with users having other types of impairments.

  16. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  17. Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    initial areas; telecommunications, energy, banking and finance, transportation , water systems and emergency services, both government and private. PDD 63...protection/how-retailers-can- boost-security-through-information-sharing.html. 183 Lech Janczewski and Andrew M. Colarik, Cyber Warfare and Cyber...iSight Partners. 2014. What Is Cyber Threat Intelligence and Why Do I Need It? Dallas: iSIGHT Partners, 2014. Janczewski, Lech and Andrew M

  18. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  19. InSight Mission Education and Communication: Powerhouse partners leverage global networks to put authentic planetary science into the hands and minds of students of all ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    InSight Mission Education and Communication: Powerhouse Partners Leverage Global Networks To Put Authentic Planetary Science into the Hands and Minds of Students. NASA's InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. InSight will launch in March 2016 aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Space Launch Complex 3E at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, and land on Mars in September 2016, beginning science return in October 2016.By using sophisticated geophysical instruments, InSight will delve deep beneath the surface of Mars, detecting the fingerprints of the processes of terrestrial planet formation, as well as measuring the planet's "vital signs": Its "pulse" (seismology), "temperature" (heat flow probe), and "reflexes" (precision tracking). InSight's E/PO Partners all of which already work with NSF, Department of Education and NASA will put authentic Mars data and analysis tools in the hands of educators, students and the public. IRIS - Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology provides lessons, seismograph software, animations, videos, and will use InSight data to focus on how students can compare seismic data from Mars and Earth. SCEC - Southern California Earthquake Center's "Vital Signs of the Planet" professional development program for science teachers is creating, and test teaching standards-aligned STEM materials to help additional teachers work with comparative planetary concepts. They are also installinglow cost strong motion research accelerometers in all participating schools. ASP - Astronomical Society of the Pacific will deliver Planet Core Outreach toolkits with an InSight focus to 380 amateur astronomy clubs engaged in Informal Education. Space Math - delivered twenty standards based mathematics lessons using InSight and Mars physical and science data which enable students to acquire

  20. TriAnd and its siblings: satellites of satellites in the Milky Way halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, A. J.; Belokurov, V.; Hamren, K. M.; Koposov, S. E.; Gilbert, K. M.; Beaton, R. L.; Dorman, C. E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Majewski, S. R.; Cunningham, E. C.

    2014-11-01

    We explore the Triangulum-Andromeda (TriAnd) overdensity in the SPLASH (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo) and SEGUE (the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration) spectroscopic surveys. Milky Way main-sequence turn-off stars in the SPLASH survey reveal that the TriAnd overdensity and the recently discovered Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) stream share a common heliocentric distance (D ˜ 20 kpc), position on the sky, and line-of-sight velocity (VGSR ˜ 50 km s-1). Similarly, A-type, giant, and main-sequence turn-off stars selected from the SEGUE survey in the vicinity of the Segue 2 satellite show that TriAnd is prevalent in these fields, with a velocity and distance similar to Segue 2. The coincidence of the PAndAS stream and Segue 2 satellite in positional and velocity space to TriAnd suggests that these substructures are all associated, and may be a fossil record of group-infall on to the Milky Way halo. In this scenario, the Segue 2 satellite and PAndAS stream are `satellites of satellites', and the large, metal-rich TriAnd overdensity is the remains of the group central.

  1. French-Language Satellite TV in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Russell G.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the elements of satellite technology, provides information on French and other foreign-language programming, and offers suggestions for using satellite television in the classroom. (Author/JL)

  2. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  3. Vocal Sight-Reading Assessment: Technological Advances, Student Perceptions, and Instructional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated choral singers' comfort level using computer technology for vocal sight-reading assessment. High school choral singers (N = 138) attending a summer music camp completed a computer-based sight-reading assessment and accompanying pre- and posttest surveys on their musical backgrounds and perceptions about technology. A large…

  4. Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) AN/PAS-13 diffractive optics designed for producibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. Steven; Chen, Chungte W.; Spande, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program is a manportable 3-5 micrometer forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) rifle sight. The manportable nature requires that the optics modules be lightweight, low cost and compact while maximizing performance. These objectives were met with diffractive optics. TWS promises to be the first FLIR sensor to incorporate kinoform surfaces in full scale production.

  5. PAH charge state distribution and DIB carriers : Implications from the line of sight toward HD 147889

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiterkamp, R; Cox, NLJ; Spaans, M; Kaper, L; Foing, BH; Salama, F; Ehrenfreund, P

    2005-01-01

    We have computed physical parameters such as density, degree of ionization and temperature, constrained by a large observational data set on atomic and molecular species, for the line of sight toward the single cloud HD147889. Diffuse interstellar bands ( DIBs) produced along this line of sight are

  6. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  7. Problem Behavior and Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with Visual Impairment and Sighted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed associations of problem behavior with the attainment of developmental tasks in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and 449 sighted peers. Higher levels of initial problem behavior predicted less progress in the attainment of developmental tasks at the one-year follow-up only in sighted adolescents. This…

  8. Evaluating New Approaches to Teaching of Sight-Reading Skills to Advanced Pianists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates three teaching approaches to improving sight-reading skills against a control in a large-scale study of advanced pianists. One hundred pianists in four equal groups participated in newly developed training programmes (accompanying, rhythm, musical style and control), with pre- and post-sight-reading tests analysed using…

  9. Use of Feedback from Sighted Peers in Promoting Social Interaction Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2005-01-01

    A boy who was visually impaired was trained to self-evaluate his social interaction, and a sighted peer was trained to provide relevant feedback to the boy through verbal reinforcement by the researcher. This feedback enhanced the boy's social interaction with his sighted peers, improved certain aspects of his social behavior, and increased the…

  10. Loneliness among Students with Blindness and Sighted Students in Jordan: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated loneliness among students with blindness and those who are sighted in Jordan, and examined whether loneliness levels vary according to gender. Students included 90 students with blindness and 79 sighted students selected from high schools and universities in the capital city of Amman. The instrument used to collect…

  11. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  12. The acuity of echolocation: Spatial resolution in the sighted compared to expert performance

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Compared with the echolocation performance of a blind expert, sighted novices rapidly learned size and position discrimination with surprising precision. We use a novel task to characterize the population distribution of echolocation skill in the sighted and report the highest known human echolocation acuity in our expert subject.

  13. Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.

  14. Relationships among Music Sight-Reading and Technical Proficiency, Spatial Visualization, and Aural Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Carol M.; Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of music sight-reading ability. The authors hypothesized that speed and accuracy of music sight-reading would be predicted by a combination of aural pattern discrimination, spatial-temporal reasoning, and technical proficiency. Participants (N = 70) were wind players in concert bands at a…

  15. Neural correlates of absolute pitch differ between blind and sighted musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, Nadine; Schulze, Katrin; Ozdemir, Elif; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2006-12-18

    Several reports have indicated a higher incidence of absolute pitch in blind than in sighted musicians. Employing a pitch memory task, we examined whether a blind absolute pitch musician would rely on different neural correlates than a group of sighted absolute pitch musicians. The blind musician showed significantly more activation of bihemispheric visual association areas, lingual gyrus, parietal and frontal areas than the sighted musicians. Sighted musicians showed more activation of the right primary auditory cortex and the cerebellum when compared with the blind musician. These differences in the activation pattern suggest the use of a different neural network including visual association areas while performing pitch categorization and identification in this blind musician in comparison with sighted musicians.

  16. Spatial imagery relies on a sensory independent, though sensory sensitive, functional organization within the parietal cortex: a fMRI study of angle discrimination in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bernardi, Giulio; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Although vision offers distinctive information to space representation, individuals who lack vision since birth often show perceptual and representational skills comparable to those found in sighted individuals. However, congenitally blind individuals may result in impaired spatial analysis, when engaging in 'visual' spatial features (e.g., perspective or angle representation) or complex spatial mental abilities. In the present study, we measured behavioral and brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during spatial imagery based on a modified version of the mental clock task (e.g., angle discrimination) and a simple recognition control condition, as conveyed across distinct sensory modalities: visual (sighted individuals only), tactile and auditory. Blind individuals were significantly less accurate during the auditory task, but comparable-to-sighted during the tactile task. As expected, both groups showed common neural activations in intraparietal and superior parietal regions across visual and non-visual spatial perception and imagery conditions, indicating the more abstract, sensory independent functional organization of these cortical areas, a property that we named supramodality. At the same time, however, comparisons in brain responses and functional connectivity patterns across experimental conditions demonstrated also a functional lateralization, in a way that correlated with the distinct behavioral performance in blind and sighted individuals. Specifically, blind individuals relied more on right parietal regions, mainly in the tactile and less in the auditory spatial processing. In sighted, spatial representation across modalities relied more on left parietal regions. In conclusions, intraparietal and superior parietal regions subserve supramodal spatial representations in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Differences in their recruitment across non-visual spatial processing in

  17. Backbone-access integration space information network system design based on MEO satellite%面向空间信息网络的骨干接入一体化MEO卫星系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荷; 乔洋; 陈晶; 赵艳彬

    2016-01-01

    以我国空间信息的应用需求为牵引,设计了一种系统管理简单、成本可控的空间光网络系统。该系统利用MEO卫星组成环形骨干光网络,兼顾微波接入功能,实现骨干接入一体化、激光微波混合化的空间信息网络系统,并对系统覆盖能力进行了仿真,同时结合GEO中继系统和LEO卫星系统的特点,提出分步建设思想,最终实现全球信息传输和应用的空间信息网络系统。%In demand for the application of China’ s space information, a simple-managing and controllable-cost space optical network was designed. The established circle backbone network based on MEO satellites was equipped with microwave access ability to realize the backbone-access integrated and optical-microwave hybrid space network system. Coverage capacity was also simulated. The implementation scheme by step which was proposed based on the combination of the characteristics of the GEO relay system and the LEO satellite as well will contribute to the space network system for global information transmission and application.

  18. The VBB SEIS experiment of InSight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raucourt, Sebastien; Gabsi, Taoufik; Tanguy, Nebut; Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Banerdt, William; Tillier, Sylvain; Hurst, Kenneth

    2012-07-01

    SEIS is the core payload of InSight, one of the three missions selected for competitive phase A in the frame of the 2010 Discovery AO. It aims at providing unique observation of the interior structure of Mars and to monitor seismic activity of Mars. SEIS will provide the first seismic model from another planet than Earth. SEIS is an hybrid seismometer composed of 3 SPs and 3 VBBs axes providing ground motion measurement from Dc to 50Hz. A leveling system will ensure the coupling between the ground and the sensors as well as the horizontality of the VBB sphere. This assembly will be deployed on the ground of Mars and will be shielded by a strong thermal insulation and a wind shield. The 24 bits low noise acquisition electronics will remain in the warm electronic box of the lander with the sensors feedback and leveling system electronics. The VBB sphere enclosed three single axis sensors. Those sensors are based on an inverted leaf spring pendulum, which convert ground acceleration into mobile mass displacement. A capacitive displacement sensor monitors this mass displacement to provide a measurement. A force feedback allows transfer function and sensitivity tuning. The VBB sensor has a very strong heritage from previous project and benefits from recent work to improve its performances. Both the mechanical design and the displacement sensors have optimized to improve performances while reducing technological risk and keeping a high TRL. From those development a self-noise well below 10 ^{-9} m.s ^{-2}/sqrt Hz is expected. Environmental sensitivity of SEIS has been minimized by the design of a very efficient wind and thermal shield. Remaining noise is expected to be very close to the VBB self-noise. Associated sources and budget will be discussed. If InSight is selected to fly in 2016, this experiment will provide very high quality seismic signal measurement with a wider bandwidth, higher sensitivity and lower noise than previous Mars seismometer (Viking and Optimism

  19. Stand-off CWA imaging system: second sight MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernascolle, Philippe F.; Elichabe, Audrey; Fervel, Franck; Haumonté, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, several manufactures of IR imaging devices have launched commercial models applicable to a wide range of chemical species. These cameras are rugged and sufficiently sensitive to detect low concentrations of toxic and combustible gases. Bertin Technologies, specialized in the design and supply of innovating systems for industry, defense and health, has developed a stand-off gas imaging system using a multi-spectral infrared imaging technology. With this system, the gas cloud size, localization and evolution can be displayed in real time. This technology was developed several years ago in partnership with the CEB, a French MoD CBRN organization. The goal was to meet the need for early warning caused by a chemical threat. With a night & day efficiency of up to 5 km, this process is able to detect Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA), critical Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) and also flammable gases. The system has been adapted to detect industrial spillage, using off-the-shelf uncooled infrared cameras, allowing 24/7 surveillance without costly frequent maintenance. The changes brought to the system are in compliance with Military Specifications (MS) and primarily focus on the signal processing improving the classification of the detected products and on the simplification of the Human Machine Interface (HMI). Second Sight MS is the only mass produced, passive stand-off CWA imaging system with a wide angle (up to 60°) already used by several regular armies around the world. This paper examines this IR gas imager performance when exposed to several CWA, TIC and simulant compounds. First, we will describe the Second Sight MS system. The theory of gas detection, visualization and classification functions has already been described elsewhere, so we will just summarize it here. We will then present the main topic of this paper which is the results of the tests done in laboratory on live agents and in open field on simulant. The sensitivity threshold of the

  20. PhagoSight: an open-source MATLAB® package for the analysis of fluorescent neutrophil and macrophage migration in a zebrafish model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Henry

    Full Text Available Neutrophil migration in zebrafish larvae is increasingly used as a model to study the response of these leukocytes to different determinants of the cellular inflammatory response. However, it remains challenging to extract comprehensive information describing the behaviour of neutrophils from the multi-dimensional data sets acquired with widefield or confocal microscopes. Here, we describe PhagoSight, an open-source software package for the segmentation, tracking and visualisation of migrating phagocytes in three dimensions. The algorithms in PhagoSight extract a large number of measurements that summarise the behaviour of neutrophils, but that could potentially be applied to any moving fluorescent cells. To derive a useful panel of variables quantifying aspects of neutrophil migratory behaviour, and to demonstrate the utility of PhagoSight, we evaluated changes in the volume of migrating neutrophils. Cell volume increased as neutrophils migrated towards the wound region of injured zebrafish. PhagoSight is openly available as MATLAB® m-files under the GNU General Public License. Synthetic data sets and a comprehensive user manual are available from http://www.phagosight.org.

  1. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Day, T. H.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Schmidt, D. W.; Simpson, R. A.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N.; Izumi, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstrated on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. The technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.

  2. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  3. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies m...

  4. Considerations for NATO Satellite Communications in the Post 2000 Era (Elements de Reflexion pour les Communications par Satellite dans les Pays Membres de l’OTAN apres l’An 2000),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    to various geographical the present ones. Moreover these satellites can be launched by areas and to adapt the specific requirements due to a number of...electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) to A high-gain receiving antenna attenuates, with its narrow beam, the ground segement within line-of-sight of the burst...margin is exceeded is calculated as a Frequency bands allocated to inter-satellite links teid to function of geographical location The estimated

  5. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...

  6. Local gravity disturbance estimation from multiple-high-single-low satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekeli, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    The idea of satellite-to-satellite tracking in the high-low mode has received renewed attention in light of the uncertain future of NASA's proposed low-low mission, Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The principal disadvantage with a high-low system is the increased time interval required to obtain global coverage since the intersatellite visibility is often obscured by Earth. The U.S. Air Force has begun to investigate high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking between the Global Positioning System (GPS) of satellites (high component) and NASA's Space Transportation System (STS), the shuttle (low component). Because the GPS satellites form, or will form, a constellation enabling continuous three-dimensional tracking of a low-altitude orbiter, there will be no data gaps due to lack of intervisibility. Furthermore, all three components of the gravitation vector are estimable at altitude, a given grid of which gives a stronger estimate of gravity on Earth's surface than a similar grid of line-of-sight gravitation components. The proposed Air Force mission is STAGE (Shuttle-GPS Tracking for Anomalous Gravitation Estimation) and is designed for local gravity field determinations since the shuttle will likely not achieve polar orbits. The motivation for STAGE was the feasibility to obtain reasonable accuracies with absolutely minimal cost. Instead of simulating drag-free orbits, STAGE uses direct measurements of the nongravitational forces obtained by an inertial package onboard the shuttle. The sort of accuracies that would be achievable from STAGE vis-a-vis other satellite tracking missions such as GRM and European Space Agency's POPSAT-GRM are analyzed.

  7. Generic model for line-of-sight analysis and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afik, Zvika; Shammas, A.; Schwartz, Roni; Gal, Eli

    1991-04-01

    1ariy electrooptical (E'O) systems incorporate an inaging sensor and a Line of Sight (LOS) deflection mirror. At a higher system level, such as for fire control or mIssile homing applications, these sensors are required to neasure angular target position very accurately. This work presents ar approach that has been developed for the modeling and calibration of such electrooptical systems. Using a generic system which includes a mirror mounted on a twoaxis LOS steering unit and an imaging sensor, a description of the mathematical model of the system is given here. This model may be used for system performance analyses as well as for developing various algorithms for the calculation of target angular position. The system model uses a number of calibration parameters such as gimbal nonorthogonality and other assembly and production errors. These are obtained from laboratory measurement results via a mathematical calibration model. We explain how the calibration model is developed from the system model. The method shown here can significantly reduce the number of computations and the look-up-table capacity needed in an operational system, as well as reducing the extent of laboratory calibrations usually required.

  8. Sight of conspecific images induces changes in neurochemistry in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammed; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-04-15

    Zebrafish are gaining popularity in behavioural brain research as this species combines practical simplicity with system complexity. The dopaminergic system has been thoroughly investigated using mammals. Dopamine plays important roles in motor function and reward. Zebrafish have dopamine receptors homologous to mammalian counterparts, and dopamine receptor antagonists as well as alcohol have been shown to exert significant effects on this species as measured using HPLC or behavioural methods. The sight of conspecifics was previously shown to be rewarding in zebrafish but whether this stimulus affects the dopaminergic system has not been studied. Here, we present animated images of zebrafish to the experimental zebrafish subject for varying lengths of time and quantify the amount of dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin and 5HIAA extracted from the subject's brain immediately after the stimulus presentation using HPLC with electrochemical detection. We find conspecific images to induce a robust behavioural response (attraction) in experimental zebrafish. Importantly, dopamine and DOPAC levels significantly increased in response to the presentation of conspecific images but not to scrambled images. Last, serotonin and 5HIAA levels did not significantly change in response to the conspecific images. We conclude that our findings, together with pervious studies, now conclusively demonstrate that the behavioural response induced by the appearance of conspecifics is mediated, at least partly, by the dopaminergic system in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection of the InSight Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Fergason, R.; Kirk, R. L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, S.; Putzig, N. E.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M.; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation ( {≤}{-}2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S-5°N and later 3°N-5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ˜600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  10. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  11. China Satcom: Innovating Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China Satellite Communications Group Corporation (China Satcom) is a state-owned large-sized key enterprise formally established on Dec. 19, 2001 according to the general deployment of the State Council on telecommunication system reform. Relying on its complete service system, China Satcom provides various users with specialized and high quality information communication service.

  12. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  13. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  14. Beyond visual, aural and haptic movement perception: hMT+ is activated by electrotactile motion stimulation of the tongue in sighted and in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteau, Isabelle; Kupers, Ron; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2010-01-01

    regardless of visual experience and the sensory modality through which such information is carried to the brain. Here we determined whether the hMT+ complex responds to motion perception per se, that is, motion not perceived through the visual, haptic or aural modalities. Using functional magnetic resonance...... imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain responses in eight congenitally blind and nine sighted volunteers who had been trained to use the tongue display unit (TDU), a sensory substitution device which converts visual information into electrotactile pulses delivered to the tongue, to resolve a tactile motion...... that are not visual in nature and that are administered to body structures that, in humans, are not primarily devoted to movement perception or spatial location, such as the tongue. In line with previous studies, the differential activations between sighted and congenitally blind individuals indicate that lack...

  15. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Danly, C R; Izumi, N; Jedlovec, D; Fittinghoff, D N; Grim, G P; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Volegov, P L; Wilde, C H

    2014-11-01

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  16. Understanding the requirements of geographical data for blind and partially sighted people to make journeys more independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Edward; Worsfold, John

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has highlighted that blind and partially sighted people find various factors inhibit their abilities to make journeys. This paper proposes that the lack of accurate, appropriate and usable geographical data is one of the reasons for this and these can be tracked back to core human factors issues such as situational awareness, mental workload and environmental ergonomics. Following a review of applicable literature a hierarchical task analysis was performed to better understand the problems in terms of the complexity of various journey types and to identify the geographical data requirements in order to make successful journeys. The task analysis produced a number of results including highlighting four underlying principles which have an impact on the data requirements during any given journey. Finally the need for accessible and accurate geographical data requirements is introduced as a result of the literature review and the task analysis. These highlight the information required in order to facilitate more accessible travel for blind and partially sighted people by providing geographical information about their surroundings in a relevant, meaningful and usable way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, F. E., E-mail: fmerrill@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Grim, G. P.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  18. Spatial variability of nutrients (N, P) in a deep, temperate lake with a low trophic level supported by global navigation satellite systems, geographic information system and geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopata, Michał; Popielarczyk, Dariusz; Templin, Tomasz; Dunalska, Julita; Wiśniewski, Grzegorz; Bigaj, Izabela; Szymański, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated changes in the spatial distribution of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the deep, mesotrophic Lake Hańcza. The raw data collection, supported by global navigation satellite system (GNSS) positioning, was conducted on 79 sampling points. A geostatistical method (kriging) was applied in spatial interpolation. Despite the relatively small area of the lake (3.04 km(2)), compact shape (shore development index of 2.04) and low horizontal exchange of water (retention time 11.4 years), chemical gradients in the surface waters were found. The largest variation concerns the main biogenic element - phosphorus. The average value was 0.032 at the extreme values of 0.019 to 0.265 mg L(-1) (coefficient of variation 87%). Smaller differences are related to nitrogen compounds (0.452-1.424 mg L(-1) with an average value of 0.583 mg L(-1), the coefficient of variation 20%). The parts of the lake which are fed with tributaries are the richest in phosphorus. The water quality of the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Hańcza has been deteriorating in recent years. Our results indicate that inferences about trends in the evolution of examined lake trophic status should be based on an analysis of the data, taking into account the local variation in water chemistry.

  19. Propagation model for non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-xue; Tang, Xin-yi

    2013-08-01

    Scattering deflects the ultraviolet ray, and makes it possible to bypass the obstacles between two blocked nodes. To investigate the channel characteristics of this kind of link, models have been developed, and most of them are based on coplanar geometry. Non-coplanar geometry, however, is unavoidable in most actual application. To make sure the influences of this factor, a universal model which describes the channel characteristics of Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) Ultraviolet communication for non-coplanar geometry is developed in this paper. On the basis of classical single-scatter model, this model mainly estimates the impulse response and the pass loss with the transmitter and the receiver cone pointed in arbitrary directions. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, classical single-scatter model and the differences effective scattering volume between coplanar geometry and non-coplanar geometry were described. Trigonometry and optimization techniques were proposed to overcome the restriction that the transmitter and the receiver cone axes lie in the same plane; secondly, a Monte-Carlo (MC) model was constructed to verify the single scatter model; finally numerical simulations and analysis were presented. Numerical simulation shows that the deflection of the transmission or the reception cones(α􀭲, α􀭰) decreases the signal, this decrease is slight under small deflection, and becomes more serious as deflection increases, finally remarkable when the deflection reaches a threshold. The result shows that a positive correlation exists between the threshold and the source divergence, which means that large source divergence gives better tolerability of the off-axis angle, but worse pulse width. In addition, the influence of deflection can be reduced signally by deflecting the two cones in the same side.MC model draws the similar conclusion approximately. Compared with other models, this model releases the restriction that the

  20. Selection of the InSight landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Putzig, N.E.; Campbell, B.A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M A; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.E.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation (≤−2.5 km">≤−2.5 km≤−2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S–5°N and later 3°N–5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ∼600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ∼5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  1. Lexical references to sensory modalities in verbal descriptions of people and objects by congenitally blind, late blind and sighted adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Chauvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes ('verbalism', references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB, late blind (LB and blindfolded sighted (BS adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups ("verbalism" in the CB. While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent

  2. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION § 950.8 Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD). The Satellite Data Services Division of the EDIS National Climatic Center...

  3. Gaussian Entanglement Distribution via Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyse three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the trade-off between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation...

  4. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  5. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  6. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  7. ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald

    2016-04-01

    Measuring centimeter-scale and smaller surface changes by satellite-based systems on the periglacial terrains and permafrost zones of the northern hemisphere is an ongoing challenge. We are investigating this challenge by using data from the NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (ICESat GLAS) and the JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) on the continuous permafrost zone of the North Slope, Alaska. Using the ICESat GLAS exact-repeat profiles in the analysis of ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight (LOS) changes we find evidence of volume scattering over much of the tundra vegetation covered active-layer and surface scattering from river channel/banks (deposition and erosion), from rock outcropping bluffs and ridges. Pingos, ice-cored mounds common to permafrost terrains can be used as benchmarks for assessment of LOS changes. For successful InSAR processing, topographic and tropospheric phase cannot be assumed negligible and must be removed. The presence of significant troposphere phase in short-period repeat interferograms renders stacking ill suited for the task of deriving verifiable centimeter-scale surface deformation phase and reliable LOS changes. Ref.: Muskett, R.R. (2015), ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (10), 1101-1115. doi:10.4236/ijg.2015.610086 http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=60406

  8. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  9. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  10. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  11. Global-scale assessment of groundwater depletion and related groundwater abstractions: Combining hydrological modeling with information from well observations and GRACE satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Schuh, Carina; Portmann, Felix T.; Eicker, Annette

    2014-07-01

    Groundwater depletion (GWD) compromises crop production in major global agricultural areas and has negative ecological consequences. To derive GWD at the grid cell, country, and global levels, we applied a new version of the global hydrological model WaterGAP that simulates not only net groundwater abstractions and groundwater recharge from soils but also groundwater recharge from surface water bodies in dry regions. A large number of independent estimates of GWD as well as total water storage (TWS) trends determined from GRACE satellite data by three analysis centers were compared to model results. GWD and TWS trends are simulated best assuming that farmers in GWD areas irrigate at 70% of optimal water requirement. India, United States, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and China had the highest GWD rates in the first decade of the 21st century. On the Arabian Peninsula, in Libya, Egypt, Mali, Mozambique, and Mongolia, at least 30% of the abstracted groundwater was taken from nonrenewable groundwater during this time period. The rate of global GWD has likely more than doubled since the period 1960-2000. Estimated GWD of 113 km3/yr during 2000-2009, corresponding to a sea level rise of 0.31 mm/yr, is much smaller than most previous estimates. About 15% of the globally abstracted groundwater was taken from nonrenewable groundwater during this period. To monitor recent temporal dynamics of GWD and related water abstractions, GRACE data are best evaluated with a hydrological model that, like WaterGAP, simulates the impact of abstractions on water storage, but the low spatial resolution of GRACE remains a challenge.

  12. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Shark Sightings and Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on direct sightings of large sharks around monk seal pupping sites and shark incidents on preweaned and newly weaned pups at French Frigate Shoals are entered...

  13. Compensations to auditory feedback perturbations in congenitally blind and sighted speakers: Acoustic and articulatory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela; Tiede, Mark; Ménard, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual deprivation on the relationship between speech perception and production by examining compensatory responses to real-time perturbations in auditory feedback. Specifically, acoustic and articulatory data were recorded while sighted and congenitally blind French speakers produced several repetitions of the vowel /ø/. At the acoustic level, blind speakers produced larger compensatory responses to altered vowels than their sighted peers. At the articulatory level, blind speakers also produced larger displacements of the upper lip, the tongue tip, and the tongue dorsum in compensatory responses. These findings suggest that blind speakers tolerate less discrepancy between actual and expected auditory feedback than sighted speakers. The study also suggests that sighted speakers have acquired more constrained somatosensory goals through the influence of visual cues perceived in face-to-face conversation, leading them to tolerate less discrepancy between expected and altered articulatory positions compared to blind speakers and thus resulting in smaller observed compensatory responses.

  14. Maintaining Distinctiveness at Increased Speaking Rates: A Comparison between Congenitally Blind and Sighted Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Lucie; Côté, Dominique; Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The effects of increased speaking rates on vowels have been well documented in sighted adults. It has been reported that in fast speech, vowels are less widely spaced acoustically than in their citation form. Vowel space compression has also been reported in congenitally blind speakers. The objective of the study was to investigate the interaction of vision and speaking rate in adult speakers. Contrast distances between vowels were examined in conversational and fast speech produced by 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted French-Canadian adults. Acoustic analyses were carried out. Compared with the sighted speakers, in the fast speaking condition, the blind speakers produced more vowels with contrast along the height, place of articulation, and rounding features located within the auditory target regions typical of French vowels. Blind speakers relied more heavily than sighted speakers on auditory properties of vowels to maintain perceptual distinctiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Haptic Object Recognition is View-Independent in Early Blind but not Sighted People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Lacey, Simon; Stephens, Careese; John, Thomas; Sathian, K

    2016-03-01

    Object recognition, whether visual or haptic, is impaired in sighted people when objects are rotated between learning and test, relative to an unrotated condition, that is, recognition is view-dependent. Loss of vision early in life results in greater reliance on haptic perception for object identification compared with the sighted. Therefore, we hypothesized that early blind people may be more adept at recognizing objects despite spatial transformations. To test this hypothesis, we compared early blind and sighted control participants on a haptic object recognition task. Participants studied pairs of unfamiliar three-dimensional objects and performed a two-alternative forced-choice identification task, with the learned objects presented both unrotated and rotated 180° about they-axis. Rotation impaired the recognition accuracy of sighted, but not blind, participants. We propose that, consistent with our hypothesis, haptic view-independence in the early blind reflects their greater experience with haptic object perception.

  16. Meter-Scale Slopes of Candidate InSight Landing Sites from Point Photoclinometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Ross A.

    2016-09-01

    Photoclinometry was used to analyze the small-scale roughness of areas within the proposed Mars InSight landing ellipse. The landing ellipse presented in this study is in Elysium Planitia. This study was able to constrain surface slopes on length scales comparable to the HiRISE image resolution (0.25 meters/pixel and coarser). The InSight mission has various engineering constraints that each candidate landing ellipse must satisfy. These constraints indicate that the statistical value of the slopes at one, two, and five meter baselines are an important criterion. This technique estimates surface slopes across large swaths of each image, and builds up slope statistics for the images in the landing ellipse. The slopes I derived for the InSight landing site ellipse in this study are within the small-scale roughness constraints put forth by the InSight project. These results have provided input into the landing hazard assessment process.

  17. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: New Eye Treatment Saves Former Math Teacher's Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related Macular Degeneration New Eye Treatment Saves Former Math Teacher's Sight Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... Courtesy of: Rebecca Hatcher Rebecca Hatcher, a retired math teacher from Virginia, is an example of the ...

  18. The Proactivity of the Blind and Partially Sighted in Comprehending Abstract and Figurative Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Herzog

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present the theoretical starting points about comprehending the language of art in the blind and partially sighted. The central part of the article is dedicated to the presentation of the outcomes of a case study, in which different methods of working with the blind and partially sighted in comprehending abstract and figurative art through their own activity were tested. As blind and partially sighted persons have increasingly been involved in usual life and blind and partially sighted children also get included in the education systems both in schools and in museums, we have found it important to be aware of the importance of selecting appropriate methods of bringing the world of art closer to this group.

  19. Effect of Positive Reinforcement on Visual Academic Performance with a Partially Sighted Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    1977-01-01

    The effects of positive reinforcement on an 8-year-old partially sighted girl's visual academic performance were assessed, using a multiple baseline design that involved tasks of matching and of counting number sets. (Author/DLS)

  20. Use of solid film highlighter in automation of D sight image interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David S.; Komorowski, Jerzy P.; Gould, Ronald W.

    1998-03-01

    Many studies have shown inspector variability to be a crucial parameter in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) reliability. Therefore it is desirable to automate the decision making process in NDE as much as possible. The automation of inspection data handling and interpretation will also enable use of data fusion algorithms currently being researched at IAR for increasing inspection reliability by combination of different NDE modes. Enhanced visual inspection techniques such as D Sight have the capability to rapidly inspect lap splice joints using D Sight and other optical methods. IARs NDI analysis software has been sued to perform analysis and feature extraction on D Sight inspections. Different metrics suitable for automated interpretation have been developed and tested on inspections of actual service-retired aircraft specimens using D Sight with solid film highlighter.

  1. A FISHERIES INFORMATION ENCODING AND DECODING METHOD BASED ON BEIDOU SATELLITE COMMUNICATION%一种基于北斗卫星通信的渔业信息编解码方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海生; 郭晓云; 王峰; 卢伙胜

    2016-01-01

    On S3C2440-based embedded fisheries information acquisition terminal a GB2312 encoding method is applied,it disguises the fisheries information as the Chinese characters,such as the total production of fishes,each precious fish production,the time of capture, working hours and the position of capture,etc.The acquisition terminal shares the same Beidou satellite channel with ship-borne terminal designed by BDStar Information Service Co.,Ltd,and uses this channel to send fisheries information disguised as Chinese characters to data centre on land in the form of message.The data centre decodes the received Chinese characters to the original fisheries information.Practices show that this method is suitable for fisheries information communication using Beidou message.%在基于 S3C2440的嵌入式渔业信息采集终端上应用一种 GB2312的编码方法,把鱼总产量、各经济鱼类产量、捕获时间、工作时长、捕获地点等信息伪装为汉字。该采集终端跟渔船上已安装的北斗星通的北斗海洋渔业船载终端共享一个北斗通道,利用该通道把伪装为汉字的渔业信息以报文形式发送到陆地上的数据中心。数据中心对接收到的汉字进行解码为原渔业信息。实践表明,该方法适用于采用北斗报文进行渔业信息通信。

  2. 流域不透水面及其变化信息提取%Extracting Impervious Surface and Its Change Information Using Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪梅; 李希峰

    2008-01-01

    Impervious surface is one of the important parameters of valley water circular simulation, scientific estimation for which has significant and practical value for the urban water quantity and process simulation, diffuse pollution estimating and the forecast of climate changes. The objective of this research is to get the information of impervious surface and its dynamic change. Through the computer-assisted field method, the technologies of decision tree and data mining were applied to withdraw the impervious surface information in research region by the Landsat TM data in 1988, 1994 and 2002. The results suggested that the accuracy of impervious surface information extraction in the study area arrived above 94.4% in 2002 image. On this basis, the mixed method was used to extract the location and the types of the impervious surface change. The overall accuracy of monitoring reached 89%, which meets the demand of the hydrological models.

  3. Development Test II (Service Phase) of Night Vision Sight, Individual Served Weapons, AN/PVS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-20

    Reference H reports as a shortcoming that the shipping case liners are not pliable and prevent repacking of the sight in the case at all...the frozen condition, the eyeguard loses weapon-recoil protection. In 8. The insulation of the low-temperature adapter cable cracks and loses its...25 Is the sight an aid to night vision under all conditions, e.g., brush, open terrain, thickly wooded , moonlight, and starlight con- ditions? 3_

  4. NanoChemistry Group at DTU uses NanoSight's NTA System for Nanoparticle Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    (Nanowerk News) NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs.......(Nanowerk News) NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs....

  5. Recent Sighting of Smooth-Coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli in Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1956, there were very few sightings of Iraq Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli especially after the Iraqi marshlands inundation. In April 2015, an adult male Iraq Smooth-coated Otter was trapped near Al-Edheam, in the northern part of Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq. The recent sighting along with present photographic record represents very rare evidence documenting the occurrence of L. p. maxwelli otter in Iraq since the1950s.

  6. Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

    2013-10-01

    Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. Shown from left to right in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, the Europa images in September 1996, and the Callisto images in November 1997.Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission

  8. Information Flow Building of Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Manoeuver Based on STK%基于STK的动能反卫作战信息流程构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明; 毕义明; 邓鹏华

    2012-01-01

    介绍了动能反卫星武器的信息系统构成及功能,对动能反卫作战过程进行了描述,提出了动能反卫作战 中的信息需求,构建了动能反卫作战行动的信息流程.详细介绍了动能反卫星作战流程,并对作战信息需求进行分析.最后,利用卫星工具包(STK)实现一次对地基动能反卫星作战过程的仿真.%This text introduced the composing and function of the information system of KE-ASAT and describedthe process of operation, it also brought forward the information requirement of KE-ASAT maneuver and createdthe information flow. A simulation of the Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite maneuver process was implemented by usingof STK.

  9. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  10. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  11. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  12. Weak lensing mass estimates of galaxy groups and the line-of-sight contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Spinelli, P F; Lerchster, M; Brimioulle, F; Finoguenov, A

    2011-01-01

    Weak lensing is an important technique to determine the masses of galaxy groups. However, the distortion imprint on the shape of the background galaxies is affected by all the mass content along the line-of-sight. Using COSMOS shear mock data we study the shear profile of 165 groups and investigate the level at which the neighbouring groups can enhance or suppress the shear signal from the main halo. Our mock data are based on CFHT and Subaru observations and the information on the galaxy groups is taken from the COSMOS X-ray catalogue of extended sources. The expected gravitational shear field of these groups is calculated assuming that the haloes follow NFW density profiles. We conclude that, on average, the signal-to-noise for a detection of the main halo is affected by ~15%x\\sqrt{ngal/30} with respect to the signal-to-noise the same halo would have if it was isolated in the sky. Groups with neighbours that are close in projected distance (<1') are the most affected, but haloes located at larger angular...

  13. Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orten Pål

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.

  14. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  15. Fading Evaluation in the 60 GHz Band in Line-of-Sight Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Reig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An exhaustive analysis of the small-scale fading amplitude in the 60 GHz band is addressed for line-of-sight conditions (LOS. From a measurement campaign carried out in a laboratory, we have estimated the distribution of the small-scale fading amplitude over a bandwidth of 9 GHz. From the measured data, we have estimated the parameters of the Rayleigh, Rice, Nakagami-m, Weibull, and α-μ distributions for the small-scale amplitudes. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S for each frequency bin is used to evaluate the performance of such statistical distributions. Moreover, the distributions of the main estimated parameters for such distributions are calculated and approximated for lognormal statistics in some cases. The matching of the above distributions to the experimental distribution has also been analyzed for the lower tail of the cumulative distribution function (CDF. These parameters offer information about the narrowband channel behavior that is useful for a better knowledge of the propagation characteristics at 60 GHz.

  16. Sight and sound converge to form modality-invariant representations in temporoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kingson; Kaplan, Jonas T; Damasio, Antonio; Meyer, Kaspar

    2012-11-21

    People can identify objects in the environment with remarkable accuracy, regardless of the sensory modality they use to perceive them. This suggests that information from different sensory channels converges somewhere in the brain to form modality-invariant representations, i.e., representations that reflect an object independently of the modality through which it has been apprehended. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study of human subjects, we first identified brain areas that responded to both visual and auditory stimuli and then used crossmodal multivariate pattern analysis to evaluate the neural representations in these regions for content specificity (i.e., do different objects evoke different representations?) and modality invariance (i.e., do the sight and the sound of the same object evoke a similar representation?). While several areas became activated in response to both auditory and visual stimulation, only the neural patterns recorded in a region around the posterior part of the superior temporal sulcus displayed both content specificity and modality invariance. This region thus appears to play an important role in our ability to recognize objects in our surroundings through multiple sensory channels and to process them at a supramodal (i.e., conceptual) level.

  17. An Intraocular Camera for Retinal Prostheses: Restoring Sight to the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Noelle R. B.; McIntosh, Benjamin P.; Nasiatka, Patrick J.; Hauer, Michelle C.; Weiland, James D.; Humayun, Mark S.; Tanguay, Armand R., Jr.

    Implantation of an intraocular retinal prosthesis represents one possible approach to the restoration of sight in those with minimal light perception due to photoreceptor degenerating diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. In such an intraocular retinal prosthesis, a microstimulator array attached to the retina is used to electrically stimulate still-viable retinal ganglion cells that transmit retinotopic image information to the visual cortex by means of the optic nerve, thereby creating an image percept. We describe herein an intraocular camera that is designed to be implanted in the crystalline lens sac and connected to the microstimulator array. Replacement of an extraocular (head-mounted) camera with the intraocular camera restores the natural coupling of head and eye motion associated with foveation, thereby enhancing visual acquisition, navigation, and mobility tasks. This research is in no small part inspired by the unique scientific style and research methodologies that many of us have learned from Prof. Richard K. Chang of Yale University, and is included herein as an example of the extent and breadth of his impact and legacy.

  18. Line-of-sight effects in strong lensing: Putting theory into practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple method to accurately infer line of sight (LOS) integrated lensing effects for galaxy scale strong lens systems through image reconstruction. Our approach enables us to separate weak lensing LOS effects from the main strong lens deflector. We test our method using mock data and show that strong lens systems can be accurate probes of cosmic shear with a precision on the shear terms of $\\pm 0.003$. We apply our formalism to reconstruct the lens COSMOS 0038+4133 and its LOS. In addition, we estimate the LOS properties with a halo-rendering estimate based on the COSMOS field galaxies and a galaxy-halo connection. The two approaches are independent and complementary in their information content. We find that when estimating the convergence at the strong lens system, performing a joint analysis improves the measure by a factor of two compared to a halo model only analysis. Furthermore, the constraints of the strong lens reconstruction lead to tighter constraints on the halo masses of the LOS gala...

  19. Sight and sound converge to form modality-invariant representations in temporo-parietal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kingson; Kaplan, Jonas T.; Damasio, Antonio; Meyer, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    People can identify objects in the environment with remarkable accuracy, irrespective of the sensory modality they use to perceive them. This suggests that information from different sensory channels converges somewhere in the brain to form modality-invariant representations, i.e., representations that reflect an object independently of the modality through which it has been apprehended. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study of human subjects, we first identified brain areas that responded to both visual and auditory stimuli and then used crossmodal multivariate pattern analysis to evaluate the neural representations in these regions for content-specificity (i.e., do different objects evoke different representations?) and modality-invariance (i.e., do the sight and the sound of the same object evoke a similar representation?). While several areas became activated in response to both auditory and visual stimulation, only the neural patterns recorded in a region around the posterior part of the superior temporal sulcus displayed both content-specificity and modality-invariance. This region thus appears to play an important role in our ability to recognize objects in our surroundings through multiple sensory channels and to process them at a supra-modal (i.e., conceptual) level. PMID:23175818

  20. Abundances of Neutral and Ionized PAH Along The Lines-of-Sight of Diffuse and Translucent Interstellar Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, Gazinur; Krewloski, Jacek; Biennier, Ludovic; Beletsky, Yuri; Song, In-Ok

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with a set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of neutral PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of the laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic jet expansion with discharge plasma and cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual PAH molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of the laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear conclusions regarding the expected abundances for PAHs in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized PAHs in the optical range open the way for quantitative searches of PAHs and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.

  1. Can an aircraft be piloted via sonification with an acceptable attentional cost? A comparison of blind and sighted pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valéry, Benoît; Scannella, Sébastien; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Barone, Pascal; Causse, Mickaël

    2017-07-01

    In the aeronautics field, some authors have suggested that an aircraft's attitude sonification could be used by pilots to cope with spatial disorientation situations. Such a system is currently used by blind pilots to control the attitude of their aircraft. However, given the suspected higher auditory attentional capacities of blind people, the possibility for sighted individuals to use this system remains an open question. For example, its introduction may overload the auditory channel, which may in turn alter the responsiveness of pilots to infrequent but critical auditory warnings. In this study, two groups of pilots (blind versus sighted) performed a simulated flight experiment consisting of successive aircraft maneuvers, on the sole basis of an aircraft sonification. Maneuver difficulty was varied while we assessed flight performance along with subjective and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of workload. The results showed that both groups of participants reached target-attitudes with a good accuracy. However, more complex maneuvers increased subjective workload and impaired brain responsiveness toward unexpected auditory stimuli as demonstrated by lower N1 and P3 amplitudes. Despite that the EEG signal showed a clear reorganization of the brain in the blind participants (higher alpha power), the brain responsiveness to unexpected auditory stimuli was not significantly different between the two groups. The results suggest that an auditory display might provide useful additional information to spatially disoriented pilots with normal vision. However, its use should be restricted to critical situations and simple recovery or guidance maneuvers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  3. Geodetic Secor Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  4. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  5. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array Type L-Band SAR (ALOS PALSAR to Inform the Conservation of Mangroves: Sundarbans as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pettorelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are an important bulkhead against climate change: they afford protection for coastal areas from tidal waves and cyclones, and are among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. As such, protection of mangroves is an urgent priority. This work provides some new information on patterns of degradation in the Sundarbans, the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world, which are home to more than 35 reptile species, 120 commercial fish species, 300 bird species and 32 mammal species. Using radar imagery, we contrast and quantify the recent impacts of cyclone Sidr and anthropogenic degradation on this ecosystem. Our results, inferred from changes in radar backscatter, confirm already reported trends in coastline retreat for this region, with areas losing as much as 200 m of coast per year. They also suggest rapid changes in mangrove dynamics for Bangladesh and India, highlighting an overall decrease in mangrove health in the east side of the Sundarbans, and an overall increase in this parameter for the west side of the Sundarbans. As global environmental change takes its toll in this part of the world, more detailed, regular information on mangroves’ distribution and health is required: our study illustrates how different threats experienced by mangroves can be detected and mapped using radar-based information, to guide management action.

  6. Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity Modeling and Inversion for Shallow Structure at the Proposed InSight Landing Site in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Golombek, Matthew P.; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    The SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) instrument onboard the InSight mission will be the first seismometer directly deployed on the surface of Mars. From studies on the Earth and the Moon, it is well known that site amplification in low-velocity sediments on top of more competent rocks has a strong influence on seismic signals, but can also be used to constrain the subsurface structure. Here we simulate ambient vibration wavefields in a model of the shallow sub-surface at the InSight landing site in Elysium Planitia and demonstrate how the high-frequency Rayleigh wave ellipticity can be extracted from these data and inverted for shallow structure. We find that, depending on model parameters, higher mode ellipticity information can be extracted from single-station data, which significantly reduces uncertainties in inversion. Though the data are most sensitive to properties of the upper-most layer and show a strong trade-off between layer depth and velocity, it is possible to estimate the velocity and thickness of the sub-regolith layer by using reasonable constraints on regolith properties. Model parameters are best constrained if either higher mode data can be used or additional constraints on regolith properties from seismic analysis of the hammer strokes of InSight's heat flow probe HP3 are available. In addition, the Rayleigh wave ellipticity can distinguish between models with a constant regolith velocity and models with a velocity increase in the regolith, information which is difficult to obtain otherwise.

  7. H0LiCOW III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts

    CERN Document Server

    Rusu, Cristian E; Sluse, Dominique; Hilbert, Stefan; Wong, Kenneth C; Huang, Kuang-Han; Suyu, Sherry H; Collett, Thomas E; Marshall, Philip J; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V E

    2016-01-01

    Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS as a control field. Aiming to constrain $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighing schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift, and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a $\\kappa_\\mathrm{ext}$ distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through ...

  8. A Review on Inter-satellite Link in Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Heena; Goyal, Rakesh

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) system is proposed, one of the imperative utilizations of free space optics/wireless space optics (FSO)/WSO innovation. IsOWC frameworks give a high bandwidth, small size, small weight, low power and minimal effort different option for present microwave satellite frameworks. Optical communications systems have evolved from lengthy fibers to powerful wireless system. This has hence resulted in the use of optical wireless communication system in space communications. As the quantity of satellites circling the Earth expands year by year, a system between the satellites gives a strategy to them to correspond with one another. This is vital for satellites to send data to each other furthermore to hand off the data starting with one satellite then onto the next satellite and after that to the ground stations. By utilizing laser satellite correspondence, the satellites can be joined with information rates up to a few Gbps. The system performance including bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance on an inter-satellite link was analyzed. Various issues such as bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance were presented in IsOWC.

  9. Detecting Simulation of Trajectory of Tactical Ballistic Missile Using Space-Based Early Warning Satellite%天基预警卫星弹道预报能力仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾番; 李晓军; 李国宏; 冯卉

    2013-01-01

    Space-based early warning satellites can forecast the errors of ballistic position and velocity which is the important component of guidance information and directly influence search performance of long-range early warning radar and tracking and guiding radar.According to give information about the Line-of-Sight (LOS) angular errors of the satellites and their ballistic target empirical data,ballistic prediction error estimation modeland compute prediction error bands is designed.The simulations show that horizontal and vertical plane prediction error bands of viewing satellites can be obtained by analyzing observation errors covariance for ideal trajectory target.%天基预警卫星对导弹位置和速度的预测误差是引导信息中的重要组成部分,直接影响到远程预警雷达和跟踪制导雷达的搜索性能.根据天基预警卫星视线角误差和导弹目标经验数据,设计导弹预报误差估计模型,计算预报误差带半径.仿真结果表明:通过对理想弹道目标进行观测误差协方差分析,可以获得预警卫星观测的水平及垂直平面预测误差带.

  10. Future Satellite Gravimetry and Earth Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    Currently, a first generation of dedicated satellite missions for the precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity field is in orbit (CHAMP, GRACE, and soon GOCE). The gravity data from these satellite missions provide us with very new information on the dynamics of planet Earth. In particular, on the mass distribution in the Earth’s interior, the entire water cycle (ocean circulation, ice mass balance, continental water masses, and atmosphere), and on changes in the mass distribution. The results are fascinating, but still rough with respect to spatial and temporal resolution. Technical progress in satellite-to-satellite tracking and in gravity gradiometry will allow more detailed results in the future. In this special issue, Earth scientists develop visions of future applications based on follow-on high-precision satellite gravimetry missions.

  11. Earth Analog Seismic Deployment for InSight's Mars seismic installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Bradford, S. C.; Clayton, R. W.; Davis, P. M.; Ervin, J.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonne, P. H.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mimoun, D.; Murdoch, N.; Roberson, T.; Stubailo, I.; Van Buren, D.

    2014-12-01

    InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. InSight's main experiment is the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), which will robotically place a broadband seismometer provided by the French Space Agency (CNES) on the Martian surface. SEIS will operate on the surface for a full Mars year. Installing and operating a seismometer on Mars imposes constraints rarely considered in terrestrial seismic installations. The InSight project has therefore conducted a terrestrial analog field deployment exercise to better understand and prepare for the distinctive challenges that placing a broadband seismometer in a Mars-like configuration and environment would pose. The exercise was conducted in two phases at NASA's Goldstone facility in the Southern California Mojave desert. In the first phase we have installed a surface geophysical station including a broadband seismometer, a microbarometer, anemometer, and thermal sensors in a configuration resembling the InSight's geophysical station. The site was located in an exposed location with rough surface and subsurface terrain. It was in close proximity to Goldstone permanent seismic station (GSC) that provided a ground-truth measurement. In the second phase, the installation was moved to a dry lakebed where the geophysical conditions mimic the expected geophysical environment of InSight's target landing site on Mars. We will present a summary of lessons learned so far from our analog deployment exercise. The data analysis emphasizes several aspects of key importance to the InSight mission: (1) Exploring strategies to mitigate environmental noise sources; (2) Recognizing noise sources that might be introduced by the InSight lander (solar panel flutter); (3) Identifying weak geophysical signals with low SNR above the environmental noise; (4) Using non tectonic

  12. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  13. TriAnd and its Siblings: Satellites of Satellites in the Milky Way Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, A J; Hamren, K M; Koposov, S E; Gilbert, K M; Beaton, R L; Dorman, C E; Guhathakurta, P; Majewski, S R; Cunningham, E C

    2014-01-01

    We explore the Triangulum-Andromeda (TriAnd) overdensity in the SPLASH (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo) and SEGUE (the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration) spectroscopic surveys. Milky Way main sequence turn-off stars in the SPLASH survey reveal that the TriAnd overdensity and the recently discovered PAndAS stream (Martin et al. 2014) share a common distance (D ~ 20 kpc), position on the sky, and line-of-sight velocity (V_GSR ~ 50 km/s). Similarly, A-type, giant, and main sequence turn-off stars selected from the SEGUE survey in the vicinity of the Segue 2 dwarf show that TriAnd is prevalent in these fields, with a velocity and distance similar to the Segue 2 satellite. The coincidence of the PAndAS stream and Segue 2 satellite in positional and velocity space to TriAnd suggests that these substructures are all associated, and may be a fossil record of group-infall onto the Milky Way halo. In this scenario, the Segue 2 satellite and PAndAS stream are...

  14. Satellite Meteorology Education & Training Resources from COMET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.; Lee, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    products can be used for observing clouds and monitoring such features as tropical cyclones, fog/stratus, and dust storms. Other recent modules on atmospheric dust, atmospheric rivers, and atmospheric composition contain information on how polar orbiters help with their detection and monitoring. In addition, COMET has several new distance learning courses that contain information on polar orbiters. Over 50 satellite-focused self-paced online materials are freely available via the Satellite Topic area of the MetEd Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/topics/modules/satellite) and COMET's Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc). The ESRC is a searchable, database-driven Web site that provides access to 600 education, training, and informational resources on Earth-observing satellites. The ESRC is now available outside COMET's registration system to enable easy access.

  15. Level study on fractal characteristics of tidal creeks and information of seashell habitats in the Gaizhou Beach based on high-resolution satellite images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiufa; YANG Xiaomei; LI Yunju; LIU Baoyin; WANG Jinggui; ZHANG Zichuan

    2004-01-01

    The fractal characteristics of tidal creeks in the Gaizhou Beach are analyzed based on high-resolution images fusion of Landsat TM and ERS-2, and then the graphic models and characteristics of converse information tree of tidal creeks in the Gaizhou Beach are established. A calculation model is established based on the above results, and at the same time, quantitative calculation of the evolution characteristics and the diversity between the northern and the southern parts of the Gaizhou Beach is carried out. By the supervised classification of these images, distribution and areas of high tidal flats, middle tidal flats and low tidal flats in the Gaizhou Beach are studied quantitatively, and image charactistics of seashell habitats in the Gaizhou Beach and the correlation between mudflat distribution and seashell habitats are studied. At last, the engineering problems in the Gaizhou Beach are discussed.

  16. 78 FR 77705 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activity: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... important role in federal efforts to combat invasive species in natural and semi-natural areas through early.... Because it is not possible for USGS scientists to monitor all open waters for harmful nonindigenous... 17, 2013. Anne Kinsinger, Associate Director for Biology, U.S. Geological Survey. BILLING CODE 4311...

  17. Comparison of Phenomenology for Satellite Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, D.; Spoto, G.

    2016-09-01

    Techniques for improved characterization of Satellites have been an area of research for several years. Many of these approaches show great promise and have been validated using models and simulations. In this paper, multiple phenomenologies that support satellite characterization will be discussed to include: optical, radar, signals, and Infra-Red. The paper will identify satellite characteristics that could be gleaned from the various data types. Algorithms that support extracting the information will be referenced. Unique collection conditions that enable a phenomenology to yield desired data will be discussed. This paper will discuss the impact of changes to satellite characterization data types over the life of an on-orbit asset. The benefits of such information will be discussed, to include re-acquiring objects after a maneuver.

  18. Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    Since global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing the national and global information infrastructures due to communication satellites' unique networking characteristics, a workshop was organized to assess the progress made to date and chart the future. This workshop provided the forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. Presentations on overview, state-of-the-art in research, development, deployment and applications and future trends on satellite networks are assembled.

  19. Cognitive Neuroscience: Integration of Sight and Sound outside of Awareness?

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark; Blake, Randolph

    2015-01-01

    A recent study found that auditory and visual information can be integrated even when you are completely unaware of hearing or seeing the paired stimuli — but only if you have received prior, conscious exposure to the paired stimuli.

  20. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  1. Sight over sound in the judgment of music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Chia-Jung

    2013-09-03

    Social judgments are made on the basis of both visual and auditory information, with consequential implications for our decisions. To examine the impact of visual information on expert judgment and its predictive validity for performance outcomes, this set of seven experiments in the domain of music offers a conservative test of the relative influence of vision versus audition. People consistently report that sound is the most important source of information in evaluating performance in music. However, the findings demonstrate that people actually depend primarily on visual information when making judgments about music performance. People reliably select the actual winners of live music competitions based on silent video recordings, but neither musical novices nor professional musicians were able to identify the winners based on sound recordings or recordings with both video and sound. The results highlight our natural, automatic, and nonconscious dependence on visual cues. The dominance of visual information emerges to the degree that it is overweighted relative to auditory information, even when sound is consciously valued as the core domain content.

  2. Mind the blind brain to understand the sighted one! Is there a supramodal cortical functional architecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bonino, Daniela; Pellegrini, Silvia; Pietrini, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    While most of the research in blind individuals classically has focused on the compensatory plastic rearrangements that follow loss of sight, novel behavioral, anatomical and functional brain studies in individuals born deprived of sight represent a powerful tool to understand to what extent the brain functional architecture is programmed to develop independently from any visual experience. Here we review work from our lab and others, conducted in sighted and congenitally blind individuals, whose results indicate that vision is not a mandatory prerequisite for the brain cortical organization to develop and function. Similar cortical networks subtend visual and/or non-visual perception of form, space and movement, as well as action recognition, both in sighted and in congenitally blind individuals. These findings support the hypothesis of a modality independent, supramodal cortical organization. Visual experience, however, does play a role in shaping specific cortical sub-regions, as loss of sight is accompanied also by cross-modal plastic phenomena. Altogether, studying the blind brain is opening our eyes on how the brain develops and works.

  3. A New Model of Stopping Sight Distance of Curve Braking Based on Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-xia Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with straight-line braking, cornering brake has longer braking distance and poorer stability. Therefore, drivers are more prone to making mistakes. The braking process and the dynamics of vehicles in emergency situations on curves were analyzed. A biaxial four-wheel vehicle was simplified to a single model. Considering the braking process, dynamics, force distribution, and stability, a stopping sight distance of the curve braking calculation model was built. Then a driver-vehicle-road simulation platform was built using multibody dynamic software. The vehicle test of brake-in-turn was realized in this platform. The comparison of experimental and calculated values verified the reliability of the computational model. Eventually, the experimental values and calculated values were compared with the stopping sight distance recommended by the Highway Route Design Specification (JTGD20-2006; the current specification of stopping sight distance does not apply to cornering brake sight distance requirements. In this paper, the general values and limits of the curve stopping sight distance are presented.

  4. Evaluating the Wind-Induced Mechanical Noise on the InSight Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Naomi; Mimoun, David; Garcia, Raphael F.; Rapin, William; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Banfield, Don; Banerdt, W. Bruce

    2016-11-01

    The SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structures) instrument onboard the InSight mission to Mars is the critical instrument for determining the interior structure of Mars, the current level of tectonic activity and the meteorite flux. Meeting the performance requirements of the SEIS instrument is vital to successfully achieve these mission objectives. Here we analyse in-situ wind measurements from previous Mars space missions to understand the wind environment that we are likely to encounter on Mars, and then we use an elastic ground deformation model to evaluate the mechanical noise contributions on the SEIS instrument due to the interaction between the Martian winds and the InSight lander. Lander mechanical noise maps that will be used to select the best deployment site for SEIS once the InSight lander arrives on Mars are also presented. We find the lander mechanical noise may be a detectable signal on the InSight seismometers. However, for the baseline SEIS deployment position, the noise is expected to be below the total noise requirement >97 % of the time and is, therefore, not expected to endanger the InSight mission objectives.

  5. From perception to metacognition: Auditory and olfactory functions in early blind, late blind, and sighted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Cornell Kärnekull

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15, late blind (n = 15, and sighted (n = 30 participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  6. Replicability of sight word training and phonics training in poor readers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G McArthur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of effective treatments for children with reading impairment, paired with growing concern about the lack of scientific replication in psychological science, the aim of this study was to replicate a quasi-randomised trial of sight word and phonics training using a randomised controlled trial (RCT design. One group of poor readers (N = 41 did 8 weeks of phonics training (i.e., phonological decoding and then 8 weeks of sight word training (i.e., whole-word recognition. A second group did the reverse order of training. Sight word and phonics training each had a large and significant valid treatment effect on trained irregular words and word reading fluency. In addition, combined sight word and phonics training had a moderate and significant valid treatment effect on nonword reading accuracy and fluency. These findings demonstrate the reliability of both phonics and sight word training in treating poor readers in an era where the importance of scientific reliability is under close scrutiny.

  7. Social attitudes and beliefs of sighted people towards blindness and blind persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadaki Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness has been interpreted in different, often controversial ways, since ancient times. It has been stereotyped and labeled by sighted people and has thus affected the acceptance of Visually Impaired persons, the tolerance towards them and their integration into societal life. The main purpose of this study is to find out the contemporary beliefs and social attitudes of Greek sighted people towards blindness and blind persons. 115 sighted Greek people, most of them from urban and rural areas of Athens and Crete, were asked to fill in a questionnaire consisting of 25 questions. Our results showed that firstly, visually impaired people are still treated with some prejudice concerning the size of their disability, their education and their integration into society. However, they have ceased to apply antiquated perceptions based on fear or ignorance. Sighted people no longer believe that blind individuals are beggars, evil or blinded because of a punishment. Secondly, sighted people still believe that blind persons possess some extra powers and abilities such as better sense of things, especially of hearing, sixth sense or better judgment abilities. Finally, the common belief about associating blind people with their musical talents and skills is no longer in actual existence.

  8. Comparison of Gap in Noise Test Results Between Congenital Blind and Sighted Subjects With Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Main feature of auditory processing abilities is temporal processing including temporal resolution, temporal ordering, temporal integration and temporal masking. Many studies have shown the superiority of blinds in temporal discrimination over sighted subjects. In this study, temporal processing was compared in congenital blind subjects with sighted controls via gap in noise test (GIN.Methods: This analytic-prescriptive non-invasive cohort study was conducted on 22 congenital blinds (11 males and 11 females with a mean age of 26.22 years and 22 sighted control subjects (11 males and 11 females with a mean age of 24.04 years with normal hearing in faculty of Rehabilitation Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Gap in noise test results, approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers, were obtained and then, were analyzed by Mann-Whitney non-parametric statistical test.Results: There was a significant difference in the approximate threshold and the percent of corrected answers between congenital blinds and sighted control subjects (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference between males and females in this regard (p>0.05.Conclusion: Auditory temporal resolution ability, the lower approximate threshold and the more corrected answers in gap in noise, in blind subjects is better than the sighted control group and it might be related to the compensative neuroplasticity after visual deprivation.

  9. Molecular Hydrogen in the FUSE Translucent Lines of Sight: The Full Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Rachford, Brian L; Destree, Joshua D; Ross, Teresa L; Ferlet, Roger; Friedman, Scott D; Gry, Cecile; Jenkins, Edward B; Morton, Donald C; Savage, Blair D; Shull, J Michael; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Tumlinson, Jason; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Welty, Daniel E; York, Donald G

    2008-01-01

    We report total abundances and related parameters for the full sample of the FUSE survey of molecular hydrogen in 38 translucent lines of sight. New results are presented for the "second half" of the survey involving 15 lines of sight to supplement data for the first 23 lines of sight already published. We assess the correlations between molecular hydrogen and various extinction parameters in the full sample, which covers a broader range of conditions than the initial sample. In particular, we are now able to confirm that many, but not all, lines of sight with shallow far-UV extinction curves and large values of the total-to-selective extinction ratio, $R_V$ = $A_V$ / $E(B-V)$ -- characteristic of larger than average dust grains -- are associated with particularly low hydrogen molecular fractions ($f_{\\rm H2}$). In the lines of sight with large $R_V$, there is in fact a wide range in molecular fractions, despite the expectation that the larger grains should lead to less H$_2$ formation. However, we see specif...

  10. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  11. 基于北斗卫星的预警信息发布技术研究及实现%Technology and Implementation of Warning Information Distribution Based on Beidou Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春芳; 陈永涛; 李春来; 蒋克俭

    2014-01-01

    利用北斗卫星短报文通信功能,以广播方式发布预警信息,可提高预警信息的覆盖范围和时效性,填补我国海洋及陆地边远地区预警信息发布空白。但北斗卫星预警信息发布存在传输速率低、冗余信息量大、长预警信息发布成功率低的问题。该文对北斗卫星预警信息发布系统的系统结构、协议体系和关键问题开展研究,通过指挥机并联、预警信息编码、影响区域识别、联合补包等方法,解决了北斗卫星预警信息发布系统建设的关键问题。在此基础上,该文设计了预警信息网络发布协议、预警信息北斗发布协议和预警信息北斗传输协议,并开发了原型系统。%Warning information distribution (WID)is a key aspect in effective disaster risk reduction.All coun-tries in the world are engaged in establishment and improvement of WID system over all kinds of transmis-sion media.China has established an effective meteorological WID system based on radio,television,tele-phone,Internet,short message service,LED screen,village horn,etc.The system will be upgraded into a national level public emergencies WID system for all hazard events.But due to signal coverage,some areas of China are still uncovered and the time effect of WID still needs improving. Beidou satellite (BDS)is a navigation satellite system of China with short message communication ca-pability.Its communication signal can cover all Chinese territory and surrounding areas.BDS has two communication methods,peer to peer and broadcast.The broadcast manner is of great value in improving the coverage and time effect of WID in China,especially in marine and distant land areas. However,WID based on BDS has some key problems such as low transmission rate,huge amount of redundant information (having no relevance to local area)and low reliability of long message distribution. To solve these problems,improved schemes are proposed on the system

  12. The PAndAS view of the Andromeda satellite system - I. A Bayesian search for dwarf galaxies using spatial and color-magnitude information

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; McConnachie, Alan W; Mackey, A Dougal; Ferguson, Annette M N; Irwin, Michael J; Lewis, Geraint F; Fardal, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm to search for dwarf galaxies in photometric catalogs and apply it to the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework and, contrary to most dwarf-galaxy-search codes, makes use of both the spatial and color-magnitude information of sources in a probabilistic approach. Accounting for the significant contamination from the Milky Way foreground and from the structured stellar halo of the Andromeda galaxy, we recover all known dwarf galaxies in the PAndAS footprint with high significance, even for the least luminous ones. Some Andromeda globular clusters are also recovered and, in one case, discovered. We publish a list of the 143 most significant detections yielded by the algorithm. The combined properties of the 39 most significant isolated detections show hints that at least some of these trace genuine dwarf galaxies, too faint to be individually detected. Follow-up observations by the community are mandatory to establish which ...

  13. Review: Satellite-based remote sensing and geographic information systems and their application in the assessment of groundwater potential, with particular reference to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Ismail; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2011-06-01

    Various hydrological, geological and geomorphological factors play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in different terrains. With advances in space technology and the advent of powerful personal computers, techniques for the assessment of groundwater potential have evolved, of which remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are of great significance. The application of these methods is comprehensively reviewed with respect to the exploration and assessment of groundwater potential in consolidated and unconsolidated formations in semi-arid regions, and specifically in India. The process of such assessment includes the collection of remotely sensed data from suitable sensors and the selection of thematic maps on rainfall, geology, lithology, geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, drainage patterns, slope and lineaments. The data are handled according to their significance with the assignment of appropriate weights and integrated into a sophisticated GIS environment. The requisite remote sensing and GIS data, in conjunction with necessary field investigations, help to identify the groundwater potential zones effectively.

  14. Chinese Satellites Serve Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES PROVIDING WEATHER SERVICES As the opening and closing ceremonies and many competition events such as athletics, football, cycling and sailing etc., were held in open air stadiums, field or on water, it was of great importance to provide exact weather forecasts and on-time climate information to prepare for disastrous weather so as to ensure the Olympic Games proceeded smoothly. For this purpose, China launched the meteorological satellite service project in 2002 to safeguard the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

  15. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists

    OpenAIRE

    Eriko eAiba; Toshie eMatsui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory...

  16. Recommended satellite imagery capabilities for disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. B.; Robinove, C. J.; Wiesnet, D. R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explores the role that satellite imaging systems might play in obtaining information needed in the management of natural and manmade disasters. Information requirements which might conceivably be met by satellite were identified for over twenty disasters. These requirements covered pre-disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, disaster response activities, and post-disaster recovery activities. The essential imaging satellite characteristics needed to meet most of the information requirements are 30 meter (or finer) spatial resolution, frequency of observations of one week or less, data delivery times of one day or less, and stereo, synoptic all-weather coverage of large areas in the visible, near infrared, thermal infrared and microwave bands. Of the current and planned satellite systems investigated for possible application to disaster management, Landsat-D and SPOT appear to have the greatest potential during disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, but all satellites studied have serious deficiencies during response and recovery activities. Several strawman concepts are presented for a satellite system optimized to support all disaster management activities.

  17. Robust time-of-arrival source localization employing error covariance of sample mean and sample median in line-of-sight/non-line-of-sight mixture environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chee-Hyun; Chang, Joon-Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    We propose a line-of-sight (LOS)/non-line-of-sight (NLOS) mixture source localization algorithm that utilizes the weighted least squares (WLS) method in LOS/NLOS mixture environments, where the weight matrix is determined in the algebraic form. Unless the contamination ratio exceeds 50 %, the asymptotic variance of the sample median can be approximately related to that of the sample mean. Based on this observation, we use the error covariance matrix for the sample mean and median to minimize the weighted squared error (WSE) loss function. The WSE loss function based on the sample median is utilized when statistical testing supports the LOS/NLOS state, while the WSE function using the sample mean is employed when statistical testing indicates that the sensor is in the LOS state. To testify the superiority of the proposed methods, the mean square error (MSE) performances are compared via simulation.

  18. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter with satellite galaxies arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni, Dario; Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    We develop the framework for testing Lorentz invariance in the dark matter sector using galactic dynamics. We consider a Lorentz violating (LV) vector field acting on the dark matter component of a satellite galaxy orbiting in a host halo. We introduce a numerical model for the dynamics of satellites in a galactic halo and for a galaxy in a rich cluster to explore observational consequences of such an LV field. The orbital motion of a satellite excites a time dependent LV force which greatly affects its internal dynamics. Our analysis points out key observational signatures which serve as probes of LV forces. These include modifications to the line of sight velocity dispersion, mass profiles and shapes of satellites. With future data and a more detailed modeling these signatures can be exploited to constrain a new region of the parameter space describing the LV in the dark matter sector.

  19. The development of SiGHT: an ultra low background photosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Guan, M. Y.; Korga, G.; Pantic, E.; Razeto, A.; Renshaw, A.; Rossi, B.; Suvorov, Y.; Wang, H.; Yang, C. G.

    2016-09-01

    The Silicon Geiger Hybrid Tube (SiGHT) is a novel photosensor designed for future generations of rare event search experiments using noble liquids. The main idea is to replace conventional multi-dynode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a hybrid technology, consisting of a low temperature sensitive bialkali photocathode for conversion of photons into photoelectrons and a low dark count silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for photoelectron signal amplification. SiGHT can achieve ultra low internal radioactivity, high quantum efficiency and stable performance at low temperatures, which are required features for rare event searches such as direct dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. The first SiGHT prototype fabrication is in progress at UCLA. The current status of the development is presented.

  20. Clustering of galaxies around gamma-ray burst sight-lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudilovsky, V.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.

    2013-01-01

    -lines, as strong MgII tends to trace these sources. In this work, we test this expectation by calculating the two point angular correlation function of galaxies within 120'' (~470 h Kpc470h71-1Kpc at z ~ 0.4) of GRB afterglows. We compare the gamma-ray burst optical and near-infrared detector (GROND) GRB afterglow......There is evidence of an overdensity of strong intervening MgII absorption line systems distributed along the lines of sight toward gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows relative to quasar sight-lines. If this excess is real, one should also expect an overdensity of field galaxies around GRB sight...

  1. Body image and restrained eating in blind and sighted women: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Sociocultural theory attributes the high levels of body image concerns and disordered eating in Western women to the promotion of an unrealistically thin body ideal. This study investigated body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and attitudes toward appearance in visually impaired and sighted women. There were 21 congenitally blind, 11 blinded later in life, and 60 sighted. Blind women were more satisfied with their body and dieted less than sighted women. Appearance attitudes, particularly thin-ideal internalization, accounted for differences in body dissatisfaction and dieting among the three groups of women. Possible explanations for our findings are considered, including the importance of visual exposure to the media's thin ideal, as well as the usefulness of future research on blind women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The dialectics of vision: Oskar Kokoschka and the historiography of expressionistic sight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Timpano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal essay ‘On the Nature of Visions’, Oskar Kokoschka proposes a theory of expressionistic sight that advocates the centrality of both optical and psychological processes in the development of this sensorial construct. The present study argues that Kokoschka’s novel handling of the role of vision in the image forming process implicitly elucidates expressionistic sight as a process fashioned through the dialectical tension that arises from these two prevalent, though oppositional views of artistic vision in the early twentieth century. As such, the historiography of expressionistic sight offered by Kokoschka stands in stark contrast to other prevailing histories written by his interlocutors in fin-de-siècle Germany and Austria.

  3. Importance of Concept Development in Sighted and Visually Impaired Children in an Inclusive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Eburikure Olayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the meaning of concept development in relation to orientation and mobility of visually impaired, blind and even the sighted children. Techniques to help children develop good concepts such as shapes of objects, street configurations, grid patterns, building layouts and descriptive terms in relation to shapes and objects were considered. The importance of concept development in both sighted and blind children, namely; basic concepts as a factor for motivating environmental exploration, body concepts, parts of the body and their functions. Concepts related to travel; schooling and daily living activities are discussed. It further considered body image in relation to concept development, spatial and environmental concepts. The role of a specialist teacher in Orientation and Mobility as well as the assessment of concept development in sighted and blind children was examined.

  4. The InSight Mission's Martian Atmospheric Science Goals, Capabilities and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Banfield, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The InSight Mission to Mars will launch in March 2016 and land in September 2016, beginning at least 1 Mars year of observations from the surface of Mars. The primary scientific goal of the InSight mission is to characterize the interior of Mars (both deep and near-surface), but it is also equipped with very capable meteorological instrumentation, and consequently has atmospheric science goals as well. The instrumentation InSight carries includes a very sensitive and fast response pressure sensor, as well as a pair of wind and temperature sensors that are similar to those flown on MSL and will be on Mars2020. These sensors will operate essentially continuously at Mars, a first; enabling the production of a complete sampling of the Martian environment, including short-lived transients. InSight also carries cameras that can be used to survey not only the ground in the near environment, but also sky conditions. The pressure sensor responds to signals below 10Hz (~10X its predecessors) and has a noise level of about 10 mPa (better than 1/10 its predecessors). The pair of wind and temperature sensors have been carefully placed opposite one another on the deck to minimize lander interference as much as possible, leaving one sensor on the windward side of the lander at any time. These capabilities, combined with their continuous sampling enable us to pursue new atmospheric science questions at Mars, including quantifying thresholds for aeolian change, detailed dust devil characterization, bolide infrasonic detection and characterization, and quantifying secular trends in pressure. This is in addition to characterizing the normal meteorology at the InSight landing site, which while not completely new, will provide incremental and important constraints for Martian Atmospheric models. We also expect there to be unexpected discoveries, as well as more synergistic approaches to coordination among all the instruments on InSight that may result even more novel capabilities.

  5. Voice-based assessments of trustworthiness, competence, and warmth in blind and sighted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Kinga; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i.e., voice pitch). Groups of 27 congenitally or early-blind adults and 23 sighted controls assessed the trustworthiness, competence, and warmth of men and women speaking a series of vowels, whose voice pitches had been experimentally raised or lowered. Blind and sighted listeners judged both men's and women's voices with lowered pitch as being more competent and trustworthy than voices with raised pitch. In contrast, raised-pitch voices were judged as being warmer than were lowered-pitch voices, but only for women's voices. Crucially, blind and sighted persons did not differ in their voice-based assessments of competence or warmth, or in their certainty of these assessments, whereas the association between low pitch and trustworthiness in women's voices was weaker among blind than sighted participants. This latter result suggests that blind persons may rely less heavily on nonverbal cues to trustworthiness compared to sighted persons. Ultimately, our findings suggest that robust perceptual associations that systematically link voice pitch to the social and personal dimensions of a speaker can develop without visual input.

  6. Development of the FitSight Fitness Tracker to Increase Time Outdoors to Prevent Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkicharla, Pavan K; Ramamurthy, Dharani; Nguyen, Quang Duc; Zhang, Xinquan; Pu, Suan-Hui; Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2017-06-01

    To develop a fitness tracker (FitSight) to encourage children to increase time spent outdoors. To evaluate the wear pattern for this tracker and outdoor time pattern by estimating light illumination levels among children. The development of the FitSight fitness tracker involved the designing of two components: (1) the smartwatch with custom-made FitSight watch application (app) to log the instant light illuminance levels the wearer is exposed to, and (2) a companion smartphone app that synchronizes the time outdoors recorded by the smartwatch to smartphone via Bluetooth communication. Smartwatch wear patterns and tracker-recorded daily light illuminance levels data were gathered over 7 days from 23 Singapore children (mean ± standard deviation age: 9.2 ± 1.4 years). Feedback about the tracker was obtained from 14 parents using a three-level rating scale: very poor/poor/good. Of the 14 parents, 93% rated the complete "FitSight fitness tracker" as good and 64% rated its wearability as good. While 61% of 23 children wore the watch on all study days (i.e., 0 nonwear days), 26% had 1 nonwear day, and 4.5% children each had 3, 4, and 5 nonwear days, respectively. On average, children spent approximately 1 hour in light levels greater than 1000 lux on weekdays and 1.3 hours on weekends (60 ± 46 vs. 79 ± 53 minutes, P = 0.19). Mean number of outdoor "spurts" (light illuminance levels >1000 lux) per day was 8 ± 3 spurts with spurt duration of 34 ± 32 minutes. The FitSight tracker with its novel features may motivate children to increase time outdoors and play an important role in supplementing community outdoor programs to prevent myopia. If the developed noninvasive, wearable, smartwatch-based fitness tracker, FitSight, promotes daytime outdoor activity among children, it will be beneficial in addressing the epidemic of myopia.

  7. Dust devil track survey at Elysium Planitia, Mars: Implications for the InSight landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2016-03-01

    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) robotic lander is scheduled to land in Elysium Planitia on Mars in September 2016. InSight will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation including seismic measurements. Knowledge about encounter rates of dust devils with the InSight lander are important for two main reasons: (1) dust devils will affect the scientific measurements, i.e., wind-induced seismic noise, and (2) the power-supply of the InSight lander and instruments is provided by solar arrays and previous landers and rovers on Mars were affected by a steady decline in electrical power output due to atmospheric dust deposition on the solar panels. Long term science operations were only made possible by dust clearing events of the solar arrays caused by wind gusts and dust devils. In this study we analyzed dust devil tracks (DDTs) at the final InSight landing site region in Elysium Planitia. Formation of DDTs is caused by the removal of a layer of dust by passing dust devils, hence in principle the same process as clearing of dust from solar panels. We mapped the number, size (width and length), and orientation of DDTs in repeat observations using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images covering the exact same surface area acquired within a relatively short time span (solar panel clearing recurrence interval estimate of ∼11 Mars years using the mean annual DDT formation rate, and the mean DDT width and length from all measured DDTs. Due to several uncertainties this solar panel clearing recurrence interval for the InSight landing should be seen as an upper limit estimate.

  8. In Sight of Doggerland: From speculative survey to landscape exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fitch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite image of submerged landscapes The North Sea has long been known by archaeologists as an area of Mesolithic occupation, and has even been argued as the heartland of the Mesolithic in North Western Europe. Yet this area remains effectively terra incognita to archaeologists, and the nature of its occupation, tantalisingly elusive. The submergence of this landscape has therefore effectively hindered archaeological research into this vitally important region. Yet this region contains one of the most detailed and comprehensive records of the Late Quaternary and Holocene, and its preserved sedimentary successions represent a mine of information that remains untapped by archaeologists. However the lack of direct data pertaining to this region results in all previous maps of the prehistoric landscape being at best hypothetical. This paper will present results which illustrate that through the utilisation of spatially extensive oil industry data, the recovery information pertaining to the actual Mesolithic landscape of the North Sea is now possible. This information reveals the diversity of this landscape and shows that much greater consideration of submerged Mesolithic landscapes is now required of archaeologists. Whilst the study of such landscapes is in its infancy, the availability of such information offers the possibility of transforming how we interpret traditional terrestrial data and its relationship to the larger European Mesolithic.

  9. Cognitive neuroscience: integration of sight and sound outside of awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark; Blake, Randolph

    2015-02-16

    A recent study found that auditory and visual information can be integrated even when you are completely unaware of hearing or seeing the paired stimuli--but only if you have received prior, conscious exposure to the paired stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Small-Body Extensions for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2008-01-01

    An extension to the SOAP software allows users to work with tri-axial ellipsoid-based representations of planetary bodies, primarily for working with small, natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. SOAP is a widely used tool for the visualization and analysis of space missions. The small body extension provides the same visualization and analysis constructs for use with small bodies. These constructs allow the user to characterize satellite path and instrument cover information for small bodies in both 3D display and numerical output formats. Tri-axial ellipsoids are geometric shapes the diameters of which are different in each of three principal x, y, and z dimensions. This construct provides a better approximation than using spheres or oblate spheroids (ellipsoids comprising two common equatorial diameters as a distinct polar diameter). However, the tri-axial ellipsoid is considerably more difficult to work with from a modeling perspective. In addition, the SOAP small-body extensions allow the user to actually employ a plate model for highly irregular surfaces. Both tri-axial ellipsoids and plate models can be assigned to coordinate frames, thus allowing for the modeling of arbitrary changes to body orientation. A variety of features have been extended to support tri-axial ellipsoids, including the computation and display of the spacecraft sub-orbital point, ground trace, instrument footprints, and swathes. Displays of 3D instrument volumes can be shown interacting with the ellipsoids. Longitude/latitude grids, contour plots, and texture maps can be displayed on the ellipsoids using a variety of projections. The distance along an arbitrary line of sight can be computed between the spacecraft and the ellipsoid, and the coordinates of that intersection can be plotted as a function of time. The small-body extension supports the same visual and analytical constructs that are supported for spheres and oblate spheroids in SOAP making the implementation of the more

  11. Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Rushmore

    Full Text Available Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli, frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp, and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta. We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically. We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant. Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

  12. Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D.; Drea, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

  13. Line-of-sight Velocity and Metallicity Measurements of the Palomar 5 Tidal Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, M. N.; Hwang, N.; Chiba, M.; Aoki, W.

    2016-06-01

    We present Subaru/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph and Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrometer medium-resolution spectroscopy of a tidally disrupting Milky Way (MW) globular cluster Palomar 5 (Pal 5) and its tidal stream. The observed fields are located to cover an angular extent of ˜17° along the stream, providing an opportunity to investigate a trend in line-of-sight velocities (V los) along the stream, which is essential to constrain its orbit and underlying gravitational potential of the MW’s dark matter halo. A spectral fitting technique is applied to the observed spectra to obtain stellar parameters and metallicities ([Fe/H]) of the target stars. The 19 stars most likely belonging to the central Pal 5 cluster have a mean V los of -58.1 ± 0.7 km s-1 and metallicity [Fe/H] = -1.35 ± 0.06 dex, both of which are in good agreement with those derived in previous high-resolution spectroscopic studies. Assuming that the stream stars have the same [Fe/H] as the progenitor cluster, the derived [Fe/H] and {V}{{los}} values are used to estimate the possible V los range of the member stars at each location along the stream. Because of the heavy contamination of the field MW stars, the estimated V los range depends on prior assumptions about the stream’s {V}{{los}}, which highlights the importance of more definitely identifying the member stars using proper motion and chemical abundances to obtain unbiased information of V los in the outer part of the Pal 5 stream. The models for the gravitational potential of the MW’s dark matter halo that are compatible with the estimated V los range are discussed.

  14. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  15. Satellite communication antenna technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  16. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  17. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Keplers supernova (SN1604)

    CERN Document Server

    van Gent, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Sule et al. (Astronomical Notes, vol. 332 (2011), 655) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  18. A Reinforcement Learning Model Using Neural Networks for Music Sight Reading Learning Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Yahya, Keyvan

    2010-01-01

    Music Sight Reading is a complex process that when it is occurred in the brain, some learning attributes would be emerged. Besides giving a model based on actor-critic method in the Reinforcement Learning, the agent is considered to have a neural network structure. We studied on where the sight reading process is happened and also a serious problem which is how the synaptic weights would be adjusted through the learning process. The model we offer here is a computational model on which an updated weights equation to fixing the weights is accompanied too.

  19. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  20. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  1. Service Test of Night Vision Sight, Crew Served Weapons (Second Generation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the test were to determine to what degree the test item meets the performance requirements of the QMR and to evaluate the adequacy of the maintenance test package. Throughout testing, the First Generation Night Vision Sight, Crew Served Weapons, AN/TVS-2A, was used as a control sight. The two test items accumulated a total of 1,047.5 hours, were transported a total of...ammunition. The test items were considered satisfactory in the areas of preoperational inspection and physical characteristics; stowage; safety; target

  2. InSight/SEIS@Mars Educational program : Sharing the InSight NASA mission and the Seismic Discovery of Mars with a International Network of classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Berenguer, J. L.; Sauron, A.; Denton, P.; Carrer, D.; Taber, J.; Bravo, T. K.; Gaboriaud, A.; Houston Jones, J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Martinuzzi, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The InSIght mission will deploy in September 2016 a Geophysical Station on Mars, equipped with a suite of geophysical instruments, including 3 axis Very Broad Band Seismometer, 3 axis Short Period Seismometer, 3 axis Flux gate Magnetometer, Heat flow probe, geodetic beacon, infrasound/microbarometer, wind sensors and cameras. As for all NASA missions, Children and teenagers will be associated to the mission in the framework of the K12 InSight program, part of it being associated to the SEIS instrument.The two faces of the InSight/SEIS Education program are directed toward the promotion of Space Technologies and of Space Science.For Space technologies, this has already started with the InSight Elysium Educational project. The goal of the project, supported by CNES and performed by Technical High School near Toulouse, was the fabrication of a full scale mockup of the lander (see more at https://jeunes.cnes.fr/fr/elysium-le-jumeau-terrestre-dinsight ). The mockup was exhibited during the June, 2015 Paris air show. More than 300 students participated to the Elysium project.For Space Science, this will be made with the SEIS@Mars Educational project. Its plan is to transmit the SEIS data to a network of several hundred of middle and high schools worldwide, associated to existing "seismo(graph) at school" programs in the United States (https://www.iris.edu/hq/sis), France (www.edusismo.org) Switzerland (www.seismoatschool.ethz.ch) and United Kingdom (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/schoolseismology/). If the transmission of these data to the SEIS@school network will be automatic after their release by the NASA Planetary Data System, an earlier transmission will be made, especially after mid 2017, but also before through the integration of selected Schools to the project activities: the selected classrooms will perform the same activities as the project scientists. They will have to process rapidly the proprietary data in order to identify MarsQuake(s) and will be allowed to perform

  3. Comparison of satellite reflectance algorithms for estimating ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed 10 established and 4 new satellite reflectance algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in a temperate reservoir in southwest Ohio using coincident hyperspectral aircraft imagery and dense water truth collected within one hour of image acquisition to develop simple proxies for algal blooms and to facilitate portability between multispectral satellite imagers for regional algal bloom monitoring. Narrow band hyperspectral aircraft images were upscaled spectrally and spatially to simulate 5 current and near future satellite imaging systems. Established and new Chl-a algorithms were then applied to the synthetic satellite images and then compared to calibrated Chl-a water truth measurements collected from 44 sites within one hour of aircraft acquisition of the imagery. Masks based on the spatial resolution of the synthetic satellite imagery were then applied to eliminate mixed pixels including vegetated shorelines. Medium-resolution Landsat and finer resolution data were evaluated against 29 coincident water truth sites. Coarse-resolution MODIS and MERIS-like data were evaluated against 9 coincident water truth sites. Each synthetic satellite data set was then evaluated for the performance of a variety of spectrally appropriate algorithms with regard to the estimation of Chl-a concentrations against the water truth data set. The goal is to inform water resource decisions on the appropriate satellite data acquisition and processing for the es

  4. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. Di Beneditto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D’Orgigny, 1844 e Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 possuem hábitos tipicamente costeiros e são simpátricas no Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar avistagens e descrever aspectos relacionados ao comportamento de ambas as espécies na região, entre 1993 e 1998. As avistagens foram realizadas através de cruzeiros e ponto fixo. Informações fornecidas por pescadores também foram consideradas. Em geral, P. blainvillei foi observada em todas as estações do ano, a até cinco milhas náuticas de distância da linha da costa e 15 m de profundidade e, os grupos eram formados por até cinco espécimens. A maior parte dos grupos de S. fluviatilis foi observada no período de outono e inverno e, era formada por até 10 espécimens. Em metade das avistagens, a presença de filhotes e/ou juvenis foi verificada. A pesca cooperativa (em grupo foi o comportamento alimentar observado com maior freqüência para S. fluviatilis.

  5. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  6. Satellites of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  7. Communication satellite technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  8. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  9. Musical Sight-Reading Expertise: Cross Modality Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drai-Zerbib Veronique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often said that expert musicians are capable of hearing what they read and vice versa. This suggests that they are able to process and to integrate multimodal information. The study investigates this issue with an eye-tracking technique. Two groups of musicians chosen on the basis of their level of expertise (expert and non-experts had to read excerpts of classical piano music and play them on a keyboard. In half the conditions, the participants heard the music before the reading phases. The excerpts contained suggested fingering of variable difficulty (difficult, easy, or no fingering. Analyses of first-pass fixation duration, second-pass fixation duration, probability of refixations, and playing mistakes validated the hypothesized modal independence of information among expert musicians as compared to non-experts. The results are discussed in terms of amodal memory for expert musicians, and they extend clearly our previous findings (Drai-Zerbib & Baccino, 2005. The talk will demonstrate that more experienced performers are better able to transfer learning from one modality to another, which can be in support of theoretical work by Ericsson and Kintsch (1995: more experienced performers better integrate knowledge across modalities. This view relies on the general flexibility shown in the experts' behaviour.

  10. IMPROVING THE PRECISION OF TIME-DELAY COSMOGRAPHY WITH OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXIES ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Zach S.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Hilbert, Stefan; Blandford, Roger D. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94035 (United States); Auger, Matthew W.; Collett, Thomas E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Bradac, Marusa [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Koopmans, Leon V. E., E-mail: zg@phys.columbia.edu [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    In order to use strong gravitational lens time delays to measure precise and accurate cosmological parameters the effects of mass along the line of sight must be taken into account. We present a method to achieve this by constraining the probability distribution function of the effective line-of-sight convergence {kappa}{sub ext}. The method is based on matching the observed overdensity in the weighted number of galaxies to that found in mock catalogs with {kappa}{sub ext} obtained by ray-tracing through structure formation simulations. We explore weighting schemes based on projected distance, mass, luminosity, and redshift. This additional information reduces the uncertainty of {kappa}{sub ext} from {sigma}{sub {kappa}} {approx} 0.06 to {approx}0.04 for very overdense LOSs like that of the system B1608+656. For more common LOSs, {sigma}{sub {kappa}} is reduced to {approx}<0.03, corresponding to an uncertainty of {approx}< 3% on distance. This uncertainty has comparable effects on cosmological parameters to that arising from the mass model of the deflector and its immediate environment. Photometric redshifts based on g, r, i and K photometries are sufficient to constrain {kappa}{sub ext} almost as well as with spectroscopic redshifts. As an illustration, we apply our method to the system B1608+656. Our most reliable {kappa}{sub ext} estimator gives {sigma}{sub {kappa}} = 0.047 down from 0.065 using only galaxy counts. Although deeper multiband observations of the field of B1608+656 are necessary to obtain a more precise estimate, we conclude that griK photometry, in addition to spectroscopy to characterize the immediate environment, is an effective way to increase the precision of time-delay cosmography.

  11. No Evidence for an Early Seventeenth-Century Indian Sighting of Kepler's Supernova (SN1604)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification

  12. Comparison of Reading Performance between Visually Impaired and Normally Sighted Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Zainora; Omar, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare reading performance between visually impaired and normally sighted school children. Participants (n = 299) were divided into three groups: normal vision (NV, n = 193), visually impaired print reader (PR, n = 52), and Braille reader (BR, n = 54). Reading performance was determined by measuring reading rate and…

  13. Physical Education Lessons and Activity Status of Visually Impaired and Sighted Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirturk, Funda; Kaya, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigated participation in physical education and sports lessons of visually impaired adolescents and their sighted peers and compared their physical activity levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 22 visually impaired children of mean age 13.59±1.14 years and 31 sighted children aged 13.61±0.50 years participated in the study. A questionnaire prepared for this study was used to investigate participation of visually impaired adolescents and their sighted peers in physical education and sports lessons at school and the problems they encounter while doing sports. The Turkish version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short-form (IPAQ-SF) was used to evaluate the physical activity level of the subjects. RESULTS The results of our study suggest that physical activity levels of visually impaired children and their sighted children were similar (p>0.05). Totally blind children had lower IPAQ scores than those with low vision (pvisually impaired children, need to be more motivated and more encouraged to take part in various sports or physical activities.

  14. Local and Global Processing in Blind and Sighted Children in a Naming and Drawing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitawati, Ira; Jebrane, Ahmed; Vinter, Annie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial analysis of tactile hierarchical patterns in 110 early-blind children aged 6-8 to 16-18 years, as compared to 90 blindfolded sighted children, in a naming and haptic drawing task. The results revealed that regardless of visual status, young children predominantly produced local responses in both tasks, whereas…

  15. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  16. A Computer-Based Program to Teach Braille Reading to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions…

  17. The Effect of Contingent Reinforcement on the Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary. Technical Report No. 49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mary E.; And Others

    The present study is a replication of a Lahey and Drabman study (1974) which investigated the effects of contingent versus noncontingent reinforcement on the learning of sight words. The subjects in this study were 14 Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) students who composed the lowest reading group in a combined first-second grade…

  18. A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Crawling by Blind and Sighted Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Sharon O'Mara; McCune, Lorraine

    1996-01-01

    This study of six infants (three with blindness, three sighted) identified an underlying sequence in the development of crawling, with the ability to reach for an object and to move to or from the sitting position being the two most critical precursors to the actual execution of crawling. Infants with blindness had a lower frequency of activity…

  19. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  20. Driver Behavior in Yielding to Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at Roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Hassan, Shirin E.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated drivers' behavior in yielding the right-of-way to sighted and blind pedestrians who stood at different stopping distances from the crosswalk lines at entry and exit lanes at two different roundabouts. The findings demonstrate that drivers' willingness to yield to pedestrians is affected by whether they are attempting to cross…

  1. The Effect of Pitch and Rhythm Difficulty on Vocal Sight-Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    Singing music at sight is a complex skill, requiring the singer to perform pitch and rhythm simultaneously. Previous research has identified difficulty levels for pitch and rhythm skills individually but not in combination. In this study, the author sought to determine the relationship between pitch and rhythm tasks occurring concurrently. High…

  2. Bolide Airbursts as a Seismic Source for the 2018 Mars InSight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, J.; Teanby, N. A.; Wookey, J.; Selby, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Garcia, R.

    2017-01-01

    In 2018, NASA will launch InSight, a single-station suite of geophysical instruments, designed to characterise the martian interior. We investigate the seismo-acoustic signal generated by a bolide entering the martian atmosphere and exploding in a terminal airburst, and assess this phenomenon as a potential observable for the SEIS seismic payload. Terrestrial analogue data from four recent events are used to identify diagnostic airburst characteristics in both the time and frequency domain. In order to estimate a potential number of detectable events for InSight, we first model the impactor source population from observations made on the Earth, scaled for planetary radius, entry velocity and source density. We go on to calculate a range of potential airbursts from the larger incident impactor population. We estimate there to be {˜} 1000 events of this nature per year on Mars. To then derive a detectable number of airbursts for InSight, we scale this number according to atmospheric attenuation, air-to-ground coupling inefficiencies and by instrument capability for SEIS. We predict between 10-200 detectable events per year for InSight.

  3. Using Incremental Rehearsal for Building Fluency of Sight Words for Children with a Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawish, Abeer

    2017-01-01

    Incremental Rehearsal (IR) is an effective, evidence-based intervention for teaching words that uses high repetition and a high ratio of unknown and known items. The purpose of the present research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using Incremental Rehearsal to improve the fluency in reading sight words for three elementary students…

  4. Educational Research and the Sight of Inquiry: Visual Methodologies before Visual Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2016-01-01

    As visual methods are increasingly validated in the social sciences, including educational research, we must interrogate the sight of inquiry as we employ visual methods to examine our research sites. In this essay, three layers of engagement with the visual are examined in relation to educational research: looking, seeing, and envisioning. This…

  5. An Analysis of Middle School SATB and SAB Choral Sight Reading Contest Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poché-Rodriguez, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2012, 9% of all middle school choral entries in the Texas University Interscholastic League (UIL) Concert and Sight Reading Contest consisted of mixed choirs (N = 842) (Texas UIL, 2012a). Middle school mixed choirs pose unique pedagogical problems for directors. One such challenge lies in the determination of whether to perform…

  6. Self-Esteem and Empathy in Sighted and Visually Impaired Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Nes, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study of self-esteem and empathy among 71 students with visual impairments and 88 sighted students. No significant difference was found between the two groups of students in their levels of self esteem, empathy toward others, and bonding with pets.

  7. A Cross-Age Study of an Understanding of Light and Sight Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Salih; Alev, Nedim; Karal, Isik Saliha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the students' and pre-service teachers' understanding of light, sight and related concepts at different educational levels, from primary to higher education. A cross-sectional approach was used since the participants were of different age and educational level. The sample of this study consisted of 30 eighth…

  8. Sight Word Recognition among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the…

  9. Rethinking Sight-reading——Evaluative Renew of the Annual Performance Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礁

    2011-01-01

    @@ Looking back into the six projects I have taken part in this academic year, I learned a lot about many aspects such as rehearsal techniques, musical leadership, communication,teamwork, organisation,working with the other musivians.But what benefits me the most is the improvement and a new in-depth understanding of sight-reading skill.

  10. The Effect of Pitch and Rhythm Difficulty on Vocal Sight-Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    Singing music at sight is a complex skill, requiring the singer to perform pitch and rhythm simultaneously. Previous research has identified difficulty levels for pitch and rhythm skills individually but not in combination. In this study, the author sought to determine the relationship between pitch and rhythm tasks occurring concurrently. High…

  11. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather) condition

  12. Underwater Acoustic Source Localisation Among Blind and Sighted Scuba Divers: Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Cambi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many blind individuals demonstrate enhanced auditory spatial discrimination or localisation of sound sources in comparison to sighted subjects. However, this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed with regards to underwater spatial localisation. This study therefore aimed to investigate underwater acoustic source localisation among blind and sighted scuba divers. Methods: This study took place between February and June 2015 in Elba, Italy, and involved two experimental groups of divers with either acquired (n = 20 or congenital (n = 10 blindness and a control group of 30 sighted divers. Each subject took part in five attempts at an under-water acoustic source localisation task, in which the divers were requested to swim to the source of a sound originating from one of 24 potential locations. The control group had their sight obscured during the task. Results: The congenitally blind divers demonstrated significantly better underwater sound localisation compared to the control group or those with acquired blindness (P = 0.0007. In addition, there was a significant correlation between years of blindness and underwater sound localisation (P <0.0001. Conclusion: Congenital blindness was found to positively affect the ability of a diver to recognise the source of a sound in an underwater environment. As the correct localisation of sounds underwater may help individuals to avoid imminent danger, divers should perform sound localisation tests during training sessions.

  13. Classification of High and Low Achievers in a Music Sight-Reading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiez, Reinhard; Weihs, Claus; Ligges, Uwe; Lee, Ji In

    2006-01-01

    The unrehearsed performance of music, called "sight-reading" (SR), is a basic skill for all musicians. It is of particular interest for musical occupations such as the piano accompanist, the conductor, or the correpetiteur. However, up until now, there is no theory of SR which considers all relevant factors such as practice-related…

  14. A Comparison of Two Flash-Card Methods for Improving Sight-Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupzyk, Sara; Daly, Edward J., III; Andersen, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    Flash cards have been shown to be useful for teaching sight-word reading. To date, the most effective flash-card instruction method is incremental rehearsal (IR). This method involves the instructor interspersing unknown stimulus items into the presentation of known stimulus items. In this study, we compared IR to a modified IR…

  15. Blue whale sightings in Antarctica west of the Greenwich meridian, Januart 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Feij, B.; Franeker, van J.A.; Herr, H.; Janinhoff, N.; McKay, S.J.; Muller, S.; Thomisch, K.; Verdaat, J.P.; Viquerat, S.

    2015-01-01

    During the RV Polarstern PS 89 (ANT-XXX/2) expedition from Cape Town to Atka Bay and back, 20 sightings of 26 individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were recorded in Antarctic waters west of the Greenwich Meridian between 16-20 January 2015. These observations suggest a more westerly

  16. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  17. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather)

  18. The Effect of Pattern Recognition and Tonal Predictability on Sight-Singing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Philip; Berry, Anna; Rosner, Burton

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of concurrent musical parts in pitching ability in sight-singing, concentrating on the effects of melodic and harmonic coherence. Twenty-two experienced singers sang their part twice in each of four novel chorales. The chorales contained either original or altered melody and original (tonal) or altered (atonal)…

  19. Exact Sight Distance Determination on Compound Vertical and Horizontal Curves in the Presence of Road Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The sight distance (SD on a three-dimensional (3-d compound curve has been studied recently in the absence of obstacles at road sides. Often, physical barriers are installed at road sides or in a roadway median for reducing potential collision severities; these rigid, semi-rigid, or even temporary cushion-type barriers can limit or reduce the driver's sight distance, depending on their horizontal offset distances away from the nearest edge of traveled way (ETW. The closer a barrier to the ETW is, the shorter the driver's sight distance would be. Since most barriers are constructed to prevent running-off road or crossing-median collisions, it is crucial to check whether the installation would reduce the driver's sight distance and potentially cause other traffic collisions such as rear-end or side swipe collisions. In this paper, an exact analytic framework is formulated with derived equations the first time to calculate the sight distance on a 3-d compound curve in the presence of a median barrier, a roadside barrier, or a temporary cushion or barrier used for construction or other maintenance purposes. This framework provides an engineer a handy tool to examine the possible change of SD in the presence of a barrier and choose the required horizontal offset/clearance of a barrier from the nearest traveled way edge to meet certain design criteria or standards. This critical offset distance determined using this framework not only reinforces the importance of having roadside clearance recovery zones on highways but also provides a method to determine its horizontal clearance from a different standpoint. This analytic framework can easily be programmed into an Excel spreadsheet to evaluate the design of a physical barrier and its potential influence on sight distance along a 3-d compound horizontal and vertical curve. Transportation engineers or practitioners may find this design tool handy and useful once the programmed spreadsheet is saved in a

  20. Long range thermal weapon sights for the German future infantryman program IdZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Rainer; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Münzberg, Mario; Rode, Werner

    2007-04-01

    In December 2004 AIM started the series production of the HuntIR long range thermal weapon sight. The sight is fielded in the Germany Future Infantryman (IdZ) basic system and since that time in continuous service in various out of area missions with German participation. For very long identification ranges >1500m cooled technology still outperforms uncooled sights, even with respect to smaller size and lower weight because the typical F/1 design of uncooled systems overcompensates cooler weight for focal length >175mm. The HuntIR sight is therefore based on a cooled MWIR detection module for long range battlefield surveillance and target engagement. The device specifically is a perfect match to state of the art small arms like 0.50 cal sniper rifles or crew served weapons like the 40mm high velocity grenade machine gun (GMG) which provide engagement ranges >1500m and need an adequate sight performance beyond that. A recent modification of HuntIR was done to provide a wider field of view for improved situation awareness in urban operations and specifically to allow the engagement of the 40mm GMG in ranges between 250-1200m. The qualification tests of the sight by the German infantry were successfully completed mid 2006. To match the demand of the follow-up program IdZ-ES additional components have to be integrated. Most important are a laser range finder (LRF), 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a wireless data link. LRF and DMC together with a highly sophisticated fire control computer provide improved first round hit probability, the DMC additionally improves the fire control in any case of steep trajectories or for pronounced ballistic trajectories to avoid any need to precisely level the GMG. This new sight is done under the brand name RangIR. An important additional feature is the interface for air burst ammunition (ABM). The optical distance is measured by the LRF, the fire control computer accurately evaluates the trajectory under the given angle

  1. Sightings and successful reproduction of allochthonous reptiles in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sperone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports information about the presence of three allochthonous reptiles species in Calabria: Testudo marginata, Trachemys scripta elegans and Chamaeleo chamaeleon. The first one was found in three sites located in the Catena Costiera Massif and in the Crati Valley (Northern Calabria. The slider turtle was found in seven different sites throughout all the region. It massively colonised the Angitola artificial lake: here, this turtle lives in natural conditions and its reproduction was confirmed by the presence of nests, eggs and hatchlings. C. chamaeleon is present in sandy coastal habitats near Palmi and Gioia Tauro (Southern Calabria. From a conservationistic point of view, serious damages to autochtonous species could be caused by the spreading of T. scripta elegans: this species has already determined the local extinction of Angitola’s Emys orbicularis populations.

  2. Sight and sound of actions share a common neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, M A; Bozzacchi, C; Pizzamiglio, L; Di Russo, F

    2010-11-01

    The mirror-neuron system (MNS) connects sensory information that describes an action with a motor plan for performing that action. Recently, studies using the repetition-suppression paradigm have shown that strong activation occurs in the left premotor and superior temporal areas in response to action-related, but not non-action-related, stimuli. However, few studies have investigated the mirror system by using event-related potentials (ERPs) and employing more than one sensory modality in the same sample. In the present study, we compared ERPs that occurred in response to visual and auditory action/non-action-related stimuli to search for evidence of overlapping activations for the two modalities. The results confirmed previous studies that investigated auditory MNS and extended these studies by showing that similar activity existed for the visual modality. Furthermore, we confirmed that the responses to action- and non-action-related stimuli were distinct by demonstrating that, in the case of action-related stimuli, activity was restricted mainly to the left hemisphere, whereas for non-action-related stimuli, activity tended to be more bilateral. The time course of ERP brain sources showed a clear sequence of events that subtended the processing of action-related stimuli. This activity seemed to occur in the left temporal lobe and, in agreement with findings from previous studies of the mirror-neuron network, the information involved appeared to be conveyed subsequently to the premotor area. The left temporo-parietal activity observed following a delay might reflect processing associated with stimulus-related motor preparation. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Local Recovery of Sub-crustal Stress Due to Mantle Convection from Satellite-to-satellite Tracking Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šprlák Michal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two integral transformations between the stress function, differentiation of which gives the meridian and prime vertical components of the sub-crustal stress due to mantle convection, and the satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST data are presented in this article. In the first one, the SST data are the disturbing potential differences between twin-satellites and in the second one the line-of-sight (LOS gravity disturbances. It is shown that the corresponding integral kernels are well-behaving and therefore suitable for inversion and recovery of the stress function from the SST data. Recovery of the stress function and the stress components is also tested in numerical experiments using simulated SST data. Numerical studies over the Himalayas show that inverting the disturbing potential differences leads to a smoother stress function than from inverting LOS gravity disturbances. Application of the presented integral formulae allows for recovery of the stress from the satellite mission GRACE and its planned successor.

  4. Satellite medical centers project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arvind

    2002-08-01

    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  5. Next generation cooled long range thermal sights with minimum size, weight, and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Ziegler, J.

    2013-06-01

    Situational awareness and precise targeting at day, night and severe weather conditions are key elements for mission success in asymmetric warfare. To support these capabilities for the dismounted soldier, AIM has developed a family of stand-alone thermal weapon sights based on high performance cooled IR-modules which are used e.g. in the infantryman of the future program of the German army (IdZ). The design driver for these sights is a long ID range system of the German army with additional capabilities like a wireless data link to the soldier backbone computer. Minimum size, weight and power (SWaP) are most critical requirements for the dismounted soldiers' equipment and sometimes push a decision towards uncooled equipment with marginal performance referring to the outstanding challenges in current asymmetric warfare, e.g. the capability to distinguish between combatants and non-combatants in adequate ranges. To provide the uncompromised e/o performance with SWaP parameters close to uncooled, AIM has developed a new thermal weapon sight based on high operating temperature (HOT) MCT MWIR FPAs together with a new low power single piston stirling cooler. In basic operation the sight is used as a clip-on in front of the rifle scope. An additional eyepiece for stand-alone targeting with e.g. AGLs or a biocular version for relaxed surveillance will be available. The paper will present details of the technologies applied for such long range cooled sights with size, weight and power close to uncooled.

  6. Videoconferencing via satellite. Opening Congress to the people: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, F. B.; Coates, V. T.; Chartrand, R. L.; Ericson, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellite videoconferencing as a mechanism for informed dialogue between Congressmen and constituents to strengthen the legislative process was evaluated. Satellite videoconferencing was defined as a two-way interactive television with the TV signals transmitted by satellite. With videoconferencing, one or more Congressmen in Washington, D. C. can see, hear and talk with groups of citizens at distant locations around the country. Simultaneously, the citizens can see, hear and talk with the Congressmen.

  7. An Overview Of Operational Satellites Built By China:Communications Satellites (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong He

    2009-01-01

    @@ INNOVATIVE GENERATION: THE DFH-4 PLATFORM AND SATELLITES The DFH-4 platform is the third generation of China-built large geostationary satellite platform with large output power,payload capacity and long service lifetime.Its overall performance ranks with other international advanced satellite platforms.This platform can be used for many services such as high capacity broadcast communication,direct TV broadcasting,digital audio broadcasting and broadband multimedia,which are badly needed for national economic construction and markets both at home and abroad.The platform also has effective technologies that can ensure the security of information transmission.

  8. Land mobile satellite propagation measurements in Japan using ETS-V satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Noriaki; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Wakana, Hiromitsu

    1993-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of land mobile satellite communications channels have been investigated actively in recent years. Information of propagation characteristics associated with multipath fading and shadowing is required to design commercial land mobile satellite communications systems, including protocol and error correction method. CRL (Communications Research Laboratory) has carried out propagation measurements using the Engineering Test Satellite-V (ETS-V) at L band (1.5 GHz) through main roads in Japan by a medium gain antenna with an autotracking capability. This paper presents the propagation statistics obtained in this campaign.

  9. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  10. Recognizing sights, smells, and sounds with gnostic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kanan

    Full Text Available Mammals rely on vision, audition, and olfaction to remotely sense stimuli in their environment. Determining how the mammalian brain uses this sensory information to recognize objects has been one of the major goals of psychology and neuroscience. Likewise, researchers in computer vision, machine audition, and machine olfaction have endeavored to discover good algorithms for stimulus classification. Almost 50 years ago, the neuroscientist Jerzy Konorski proposed a theoretical model in his final monograph in which competing sets of "gnostic" neurons sitting atop sensory processing hierarchies enabled stimuli to be robustly categorized, despite variations in their presentation. Much of what Konorski hypothesized has been remarkably accurate, and neurons with gnostic-like properties have been discovered in visual, aural, and olfactory brain regions. Surprisingly, there have not been any attempts to directly transform his theoretical model into a computational one. Here, I describe the first computational implementation of Konorski's theory. The model is not domain specific, and it surpasses the best machine learning algorithms on challenging image, music, and olfactory classification tasks, while also being simpler. My results suggest that criticisms of exemplar-based models of object recognition as being computationally intractable due to limited neural resources are unfounded.

  11. SRM improved X-rays examination: automatic detection in sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, P.

    2004-04-01

    Reliability needs in Ariane V program require a high level of nondestructive testing (NDT) specially for solid rocket motors (SRM). In this way, 100% X-rays control is done on SRM segment with a real time radioscopic technique. The development of Ariane V showed the interest to use this technique for large sample examination. But it showed also that numerical radiograph has a poor contrast and a low signal to noise ratio images. In these conditions, inspectors work is not easy and twice result reading is needed. So in order to increase reliability, production rate and cost reduction, a development has been done supported by CNES and SNPE. To achieve these goals we have worked on X-ray detector and image processing tools improvement with LETI laboratory (CEA Grenoble). In this paper we present work and results achieved in the two domains. X-ray detector has been changed by a high energy specific design and numerical CCD camera has been tested. Image processing method, based on tomosynthesis algorithms, has been developed. It allows pictures summation while the sample is moving and gives three-dimensional information. To speed up the processing time of these tasks, optimized algorithms on dedicated machine have been set up. The implementation of those improvements has been done on UPG production site and some results are shown. Thanks to these improvements on X-rays quality pictures the implementation of detection attended by computer is considered.

  12. Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, M.; Funakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) is being developed as the third Japanese three-axis stabilized engineering test satellite to establish the 2-ton geostationary operational satellite bus system and to demonstrate the high performance satellite communication technology for future operational satellites. The satellite is expected to be stationed at 154 deg east latitude. It will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the prelaunch compatibility test, data interface verification testing, and launch rehersals. The DSN primary support period is from launch through the final AEF plus 1 hour. Contingency support is from final AEF plus 1 hour until launch plus 1 month. The coverage will consist of all the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antennas at Madrid and Canberra as backup. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a 7-day period, plus the contingency support, if required. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  13. Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Jr , Richard

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what it is they are observing. This is the basis for the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Every amateur astronomer sees "stars" that aren't natural objects steadily slide across the background of the sky. Artificial satellites can be seen on any night, and some are as bright as the planets. But can you identify which satellite or spent launch vehicle casing you are seeing? Do you know how to image it? Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them describes all of the different satellites that can be observed, including communication, scientific, spy satellites, and of course, the International Space Station. Richard Schmude describes how to recognize them and even how to predict their orbits. The book tells how to observe artificial satellites with the unaided eye, binoculars and with telesc...

  14. Satellite outreach in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Communication by satellite is rapidly changing information exchange in Asia, especially for rural areas. The integrated education planned for satellite networks includes family planning as part of general development. A series of conferences has already been held successfully via satellite for family planning associations who are members of the East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. These included a conference on nursing training. In India the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) made history during its 1-year trial. By 1981 the entire nation is to be linked by satellite. The question is whether the television education will truly change rural life or whether it will become merely a diversion. In Indonesia, satellites were chosen as the fastest way to obtain interisland communication. The Domsat system links the entire 13,000-island archipelago and is already being used for emergency communications. The system, which was developed in 1 1/2 years by the Hughes Aircraft Corporation will be used for teaching basic health, hygiene, and family planning. It will be several years before Domsat is fully operational, but it bears watching.

  15. Trends In Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  16. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  17. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  18. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  19. COSPAR report to United Nations 2004: satellite dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The COSPAR Panel on Satellite Dynamics (PSD) is concerned with the determination of the position, velocity and orientation in space of artificial and natural satellites around the Earth or in the outer space. The following report highlighs representative activities of this panel and provides general information on related international aspects.

  20. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.