WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite servicing volume

  1. Navigation Performance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    GPS has been used for spacecraft navigation for many years center dot In support of this, the US has committed that future GPS satellites will continue to provide signals in the Space Service Volume center dot NASA is working with international agencies to obtain similar commitments from other providers center dot In support of this effort, I simulated multi-constellation navigation in the Space Service Volume In this presentation, I extend the work to examine the navigational benefits and drawbacks of the new constellations center dot A major benefit is the reduced geometric dilution of precision (GDOP). I show that there is a substantial reduction in GDOP by using all of the GNSS constellations center dot The increased number of GNSS satellites broadcasting does produce mutual interference, raising the noise floor. A near/far signal problem can also occur where a nearby satellite drowns out satellites that are far away. - In these simulations, no major effect was observed Typically, the use of multi-constellation GNSS navigation improves GDOP by a factor of two or more over GPS alone center dot In addition, at the higher altitudes, four satellite solutions can be obtained much more often center dot This show the value of having commitments to provide signals in the Space Service Volume Besides a commitment to provide a minimum signal in the Space Service Volume, detailed signal gain information is useful for mission planning center dot Knowledge of group and phase delay over the pattern would also reduce the navigational uncertainty

  2. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rosa

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  3. Mobile satellite service for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sward, David

    1988-05-01

    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  4. Broadcast satellite service: The international dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Noah

    1991-09-01

    The dawn of the 1990's has witnessed the birth of a new satellite service - satellite sound broadcasting. This new service is characterized by digital transmission at data rates up to 256 kb/s from satellites in geostationary orbit to small, low-cost, mobile and portable receivers. The satellite sound broadcasting service is a logical step beyond navigation satellite service, such as that provided by the GPS Navstar system. The mass market appeal of satellite sound broadcasting in the area of lightsat technology and low-cost digital radios has greatly facilitated the financing of this type of space service.

  5. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.

  6. Satellite delivery of B-ISDN services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, R. K.; Price, K. M.; Chitre, D. M.; White, L. W.; Henderson, T. R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will address the role of technology in the satellite delivery of B-ISDN services. Satellites excel in serving remote users and in providing multicast and broadcast services. Benefits to potential users employing these satellite broadband services will be examined together with their respective network architecture. Two application requirements are then proposed. The critical technologies needed in the realization of these architectures will be identified.

  7. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 4: TDRS system operation and control and telecommunications service system, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Major study areas treated in this volume are: 1) operations and control and 2) the telecommunication service system. The TDRS orbit selection, orbital deployment, ground station visibility, sequence of events from launch to final orbit position, and TDRS control center functions required for stationkeeping, repositioning, attitude control, and antenna pointing are briefly treated as part of the operations and control section. The last topic of this section concerns the operations required for efficiently providing the TDRSS user telecommunication services. The discussion treats functions of the GSFC control and data processing facility, ground station, and TDRS control center. The second major portion of this volume deals with the Telecommunication Service System (TSS) which consists of the ground station, TDRS communication equipment and the user transceiver. A summary of the requirements and objectives for the telecommunication services and a brief summary of the TSS capabilities is followed by communication system analysis, signal design, and equipment design. Finally, descriptions of the three TSS elements are presented.

  8. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-05-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  9. National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The groundbreaking ceremony for National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service was held on January 22,2008 in Beijing.The establishment of the center will further improve the disaster monitoring system using remote sensing technology and provides a platform for the application of remote sensing technology and satellite constellation in China's disaster reduction and relief services.

  10. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  11. Technical developments in international satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. P.

    At the conception of International Satellite Business Services (ISBS), it was a primary objective to provide flexibility for accommodating a variety of service requirements which might be established by mutual agreement between users. The design guidelines are to ensure that the space segment is efficiently utilized, while other satellite services are protected from interference. Other considerations are related to an acceptable earth segment cost, maximum connectivity in worldwide services, the capability of growth and a reasonably smooth transition into future systems, and the maintenance of high performance objectives. Attention is given to a system overview, the characteristics of satellites for ISBS, and technological developments with some application possibilities for ISBS.

  12. Communication Satellites: Experimental & Operational, Commercial & Public Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted entirely to communication satellites. This series of articles on the potential and applications of communication satellites in development projects is concerned with their development for commercial and public service, development in the Pacific region, SPACECOM…

  13. Delivery of satellite based broadband services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Venugopal, D.

    2007-06-01

    Availability of speedy communication links to individuals and organizations is essential to keep pace with the business and social requirements of this modern age. While the PCs have been continuously growing in processing speed and memory capabilities, the availability of broadband communication links still has not been satisfactory in many parts of the world. Recognizing the need to give fillip to the growth of broadband services and improve the broadband penetration, the telecom policies of different counties have placed special emphasis on the same. While emphasis is on the use of fiber optic and copper in local loop, satellite communications systems will play an important role in quickly establishing these services in areas where fiber and other communication systems are not available and are not likely to be available for a long time to come. To make satellite communication systems attractive for the wide spread of these services in a cost effective way special emphasis has to be given on factors affecting the cost of the bandwidth and the equipment. As broadband services are bandwidth demanding, use of bandwidth efficient modulation technique and suitable system architecture are some of the important aspects that need to be examined. Further there is a need to re-look on how information services are provided keeping in view the user requirements and broadcast capability of satellite systems over wide areas. This paper addresses some of the aspects of delivering broadband services via satellite taking Indian requirement as an example.

  14. 47 CFR 25.279 - Inter-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inter-satellite service. 25.279 Section 25.279 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.279 Inter-satellite service. (a) Any satellite communicating with other...

  15. Mobile satellites - The possibility of universal service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, John D.

    The characteristics of a mobile satellite service (MSS), which is a communications system capable of voice and data transmission and position location services using analogue and digital techniques, are described. Consideration is given to the use of the MSS for radio telephone and private mobile radio services, the costs of these services, and market demand for the MSS. The designs for the space segment and gateway network for the MSS are proposed. The requirements for the mobile radios and antennas of the MSS are discussed.

  16. Privatization of data communication services by domestic satellite in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reowilaisuk, Rianchai

    A summary of privatization of satellite communication services in Thailand is presented. A background of satellite communication in Thailand is given. Satellite communication providers, both government and private, are listed. Steps toward privatization and laws governing telecommunications are addressed.

  17. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION § 950.8 Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD). The Satellite Data Services Division of the EDIS National Climatic Center...

  18. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  19. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  20. Land mobile satellite services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.; Berretta, G.

    1988-10-01

    The potential role of satellite communication as a complement to the pan-European cellular telephone network being developed to replace the current national or regional networks in the mid 1990s is discussed. The design concept and capabilities of the all-digital cellular network are reviewed; the requirements not covered by the network are listed; market-survey results indicating business interest in these additional services are summarized; and particular attention is given to the ESA demonstration system PRODAT. PRODAT uses the Marecs satellite to provide low-rate two-way data transmission for mobile terminals; the CDMA technique is used for the return links from mobile unit to hub station.

  1. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) simulator development for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The simulation development associated with the network models of both the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures is documented. The ISIS Network Model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communications satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete event simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters, and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  2. 14/12-GHz-band satellite communication services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kunihiro; Nagaki, Kiyoaki; Mori, Yasuo

    1990-01-01

    Three new systems for integrated TV-relay services have been developed: Satellite Video Comunication Service (SVCS) and Satellite Digital Communication Service (SDCS), with Japan's 14/12-GHz-band commercial communication satellites. These systems have been in commercial use since May 1989. Usually SVCS and SDCS have been provided using Ka-band (30/20 GHz-band) of CS-2 and Cs-3. This paper provides an overview of the design, the performance, and the systems of the new 14/12-GHz-band satellite communication services.

  3. Inmarsat and personal mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Patrick; Barendse, Victor

    Personal communications - mobile satellite services (PC-MSS) hold much promise as a profitable business opportunity for a number of interested operators and manufacturers. What will be their impact on the overall mobile communications landscape, and what role will they play in the drive towards the universal personal communicator? It is the thesis of this paper that PC-MSS can provide one of the critical enabling technologies to allow a more rapid, global assimilation of personal mobile communications. Terrestrial mobile communications are local by definition, both in terms of service reach and regulatory oversight. It is estimated that cellular, and other forms of terrestrial mobile communications, will cover over 50% of the world's population, but only 15% of the land mass area by the year 2000. PC-MSS will allow 'cellular extension' to interested users in the uncovered parts of the world. The market opportunity is established and technical solutions are available. However 'user cooperation' will be required and cross mapping of market needs to the technology solutions is the key to financially viable solutions. The potential political and regulatory hurdles are daunting. Inmarsat, as the existing global MSS partnership, is already introducing PC-MSS products and services in the 1990s. The widespread use of briefcase satphones (Inm-M), laptop-sized data terminals (Inm-C), and pocket satpagers (Inm-paging) will break new ground in reshaping the international regulatory context of mobile communications, and in initiating the optimal public switched network integration necessary for global interconnect. It is suggested that this evolutionary approach, by means of international consensus-building within a global partnership of operators, is an effective and proven method to ensure both a sufficient financial return for investors, and fair and equitable access of these services for all countries and users.

  4. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment development for advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Development for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the development of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the RS-499 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the RS-499 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  5. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  6. Study on Service Level Management in Integrated Satellite Information Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Rui-qiang; ZHAO Jian-li; WANG Guang-xing

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Satellite Information Network (ISIN) includes those nodes in space and those on ground. It is the way to realize the fusion of satellite communication and traditional network technology. A satellite network management system based on Multiplex Network Management Protocol (MNMP) has accomplished traditional management, such as configuration, performance and fault management. An architecture of Service Level Management (SLM) in ISIN is proposed, and a service topology management and Service Level Agreement (SLA) are deeply researched. At last, service security and fault management are briefly discussed, and a simulation system is accomplished.

  7. Satellite communications for the next generation telecommunication services and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite communications can play an important role in provisioning the next-generation telecommunication services and networks, provided the protocols specifying these services and networks are satellite-compatible and the satellite subnetworks, consisting of earth stations interconnected by the processor and the switch on board the satellite, interwork effectively with the terrestrial networks. The specific parameters and procedures of frame relay and broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) protocols which are impacted by a satellite delay. Congestion and resource management functions for frame relay and B-ISDN are discussed in detail, describing the division of these functions between earth stations and on board the satellite. Specific onboard and ground functions are identified as potential candidates for their implementation via neural network technology.

  8. 75 FR 49871 - Fixed and Mobile Services in the Mobile Satellite Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 25 Fixed and Mobile Services in the Mobile Satellite Service AGENCY: Federal... Commission proposes to add co-primary Fixed and Mobile allocations to the existing Mobile-Satellite... mobile satellite capability to serve important needs like disaster recovery and rural access....

  9. 76 FR 14297 - The Establishment of Policies and Service Rules for the Broadcasting-Satellite Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 The Establishment of Policies and Service Rules for the Broadcasting-Satellite... Broadcasting-Satellite Service (BSS). Specifically, we decline to adopt Telesat's proposal that the Federal... INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrea Kelly, Satellite Division, International Bureau, at 202-418-7877 or via e-mail...

  10. Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M; de Vries, W H; Pertica, A J; Olivier, S S

    2011-09-11

    Detecting and predicting maneuvering satellites is an important problem for Space Situational Awareness. The spatial envelope of all possible locations within reach of such a maneuvering satellite is known as the Reachable Volume (RV). As soon as custody of a satellite is lost, calculating the RV and its subsequent time evolution is a critical component in the rapid recovery of the satellite. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo approach to computing the RV for a given object. Essentially, our approach samples all possible trajectories by randomizing thrust-vectors, thrust magnitudes and time of burn. At any given instance, the distribution of the 'point-cloud' of the virtual particles defines the RV. For short orbital time-scales, the temporal evolution of the point-cloud can result in complex, multi-reentrant manifolds. Visualization plays an important role in gaining insight and understanding into this complex and evolving manifold. In the second part of this paper, we focus on how to effectively visualize the large number of virtual trajectories and the computed RV. We present a real-time out-of-core rendering technique for visualizing the large number of virtual trajectories. We also examine different techniques for visualizing the computed volume of probability density distribution, including volume slicing, convex hull and isosurfacing. We compare and contrast these techniques in terms of computational cost and visualization effectiveness, and describe the main implementation issues encountered during our development process. Finally, we will present some of the results from our end-to-end system for computing and visualizing RVs using examples of maneuvering satellites.

  11. 75 FR 63534 - Seventh Meeting-Special Committee 222: Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...: Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Services. The agenda will include: Agenda Opening Plenary... Satellite (Route) Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 222: Inmarsat Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Services meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  12. Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites Ming Jiang, Willem H. de Vries, Alexander J. Pertica , Scot S. Olivier...Handbook. Elsevier, 2004. 6. M. Jiang, M. Andereck, A. J. Pertica , and S. S. Olivier. A Scalable Visualization System for Improving Space Situational...Jiang, J. Leek, J. L. Levatin, S. Nikolaev, A. J. Pertica , D. W. Phillion, H. K. Springer, and W. H. de Vries. High-Performance Computer Modeling of

  13. Management Support Services. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    NUMBER: (NOT REFORTED) AND COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS TO BE LSED TC MINIMIZE CCST AKC SCHEDULE PERFORMER: CAS, INC RISKS AND PAXIPIZE FERFORMANCE...llll= MICROtCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOAROS - 1963 - A Iw I.1 I FT So MANAGEMNET SUPPORT SERVICES BY SPONSOR 1 OCTOBER 193R

  14. 47 CFR 25.225 - Geographic Service Requirements for 17/24 GHz Broadcasting Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic Service Requirements for 17/24 GHz Broadcasting Satellite Service. 25.225 Section 25.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Requirements for 17/24 GHz Broadcasting Satellite Service. (a) Each operator of a 17/24 GHz BSS space...

  15. Evolution of the NOAA National Weather Service Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN) to Europe's DVB-S satellite communications technology standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Phil; Brockman, William E.

    2006-08-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) uses a commercial Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN) to distribute weather data to the NWS AWIPS workstations and National Centers and to NWS Family of Service Users. Advances in science and technology from NOAA's observing systems, such as remote sensing satellites and NEXRAD radars, and advances in Numeric Weather Prediction have greatly increased the volume of data to be transmitted via the SBN. The NOAA-NWS SBN Evolution Program did a trade study resulting in the selection of Europe's DVB-S communication protocol as the basis for enabling a significant increase in the SBN capacity. The Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) group, started to develop digital TV for Europe through satellite broadcasting, has become the current standard for defining technology for satellite broadcasting of digital data for much of the world. NOAA-NWS implemented the DVB-S with inexpensive, Commercial Off The Shelf receiving equipment. The modernized NOAA-NWS SBN meets current performance goals and provides the basis for continued future expansion with no increase in current communication costs. This paper discusses aspects of the NOAA-NWS decision and the migration to the DVB-S standard for its commercial satellite broadcasts of observations and Numerical Weather Prediction data.

  16. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... forwarding and receiving communications signals via a system of satellites or reselling satellite... specialized telecommunications services, such as satellite tracking, communications telemetry, and radar... of Subjects in 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Frequency allocations, Satellites. Federal Communications...

  17. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  18. An Earth Orbiting Satellite Service and Repair Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Andrew; Cardoza, Mike; Chen, John; Daley, Gunter; Frizzell, Andy; Linton, Richard; Rast, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design was produced for the Geosynchronous Satellite Servicing Platform (GSSP), an orbital facility capable of repairing and servicing satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The GSSP is a man-tended platform, which consists of a habitation module, operations module, service bay and truss assembly. This design review includes an analysis of life support systems, thermal and power requirements, robotic and automated systems, control methods and navigation, and communications systems. The GSSP will utilize existing technology available at the time of construction, focusing mainly on modifying and integrating existing systems. The entire facility, along with two satellite retrieval vehicles (SRV), will be placed in geosynchronous orbit by the Advanced Launch System. The SRV will be used to ferry satellites to and from the GSSP. Technicians will be transferred from Earth to the GSSP and back in an Apollo-derived Crew Transfer Capsule (CTC). These missions will use advanced telerobotic equipment to inspect and service satellites. Four of these missions are tentatively scheduled per year. At this rate, the GSSP will service over 650 satelites during the projected 25 year lifespan.

  19. Emerging markets for satellite data communications in the public service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the current and potential markets for satellite data communications as projected by the Public Service Satellite Consortium (PSSC). Organizations in the public service sector are divided into three categories, depending on their expected benefits and organizational changes due to increased satellite telecommunications use: A - modest institutional adjustments are necessary and significant productivity gains are likely; B - institutional requirements picture is promising, but more information is needed to assess benefits and risk; and C - major institutional adjustments are needed, risks are high but possible benefits are high. These criteria are applied to the U.S. health care system, continuing education, equipment maintenance, libraries, environmental monitoring, and other potential markets. The potential revenues are seen to be significant, but what is needed is a cooperative effort by common carriers and major public service institutions to aggregate the market.

  20. Telecommunication service markets through the year 2000 in relation to millimeter wave satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is currently conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite system market studies to develop 30/20 GHz satellite system concepts that have commercial potential. Four contractual efforts were undertaken: two parallel and independent system studies and two parallel and independent market studies. The marketing efforts are focused on forecasting the total domestic demand for long haul telecommunications services for the 1980-2000 period. Work completed to date and reported in this paper include projections of: geographical distribution of traffic; traffic volume as a function of urban area size; and user identification and forecasted demand.

  1. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  2. Volume of Home and Community Based Services and...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human ServicesVolume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...

  3. Developing satellite communications for public service: Prospects in four service areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Public Service Satellite Consortium evaluated prospects for satellite telecommunications in four areas of the public service: the U.S. health care system, elementary and secondary education, American libraries, and that sector of the public service which is concerned with the provision of continuing education to health professionals. Three important conclusions were reached. First, throughout the public service there are three recurring needs: improved access, cost containment, and maintenance of quality. Appropriate application of communication satellite systems could ameliorate each of these concerns. Second, there appears to be an enormous latent demand for data communication services throughout the public service. The potential demand in 1982 to support requirements in hospital administration, library services and other information-retrieval activities, equipment maintenance, and environmental monitoring may be in excess of $300 million a year. Third, administrative applications of data communication networks show particular promise, especially in rural areas.

  4. Autonomous robotic operations for on-orbit satellite servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Andrew; Allport, Justin; Hannah, Michael; Lymer, John

    2008-04-01

    The Orbital Express Demonstration System (OEDS) flight test successfully demonstrated technologies required to autonomously service satellites on-orbit. The mission's integrated robotics solution, the Orbital Express Demonstration Manipulator System (OEDMS) developed by MDA, performed critical flight test operations. The OEDMS comprised a six-jointed robotic manipulator arm and its avionics, non-proprietary servicing and ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit) interfaces, a vision and arm control system for autonomous satellite capture, and a suite of Ground Segment and Flight Segment software allowing script generation and execution under supervised or full autonomy. The arm was mounted on ASTRO, the servicer spacecraft developed by Boeing. The NextSat, developed by Ball Aerospace, served as the client satellite. The OEDMS demonstrated two key goals of the OEDS flight test: autonomous free-flyer capture and berthing of a client satellite, and autonomous transfer of ORUs from servicer to client and back. The paper provides a description of the OEDMS and the key operations it performed.

  5. 75 FR 5513 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription Services and Satellite Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Services and Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress... rates for the preexisting satellite digital audio radio services' use of the ephemeral recordings... preexisting satellite digital audio radio services (``SDARS''). 73 FR 4080. In SoundExchange, Inc....

  6. The Availability of Space Service for Inter-Satellite Links in Navigation Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Tang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS are widely used in low Earth orbit (LEO satellite navigation; however, their availability is poor for users in medium Earth orbits (MEO, and high Earth orbits (HEO. With the increasing demand for navigation from MEO and HEO users, the inadequate coverage of GNSS has emerged. Inter-satellite links (ISLs are used for ranging and communication between navigation satellites and can also serve space users that are outside the navigation constellation. This paper aims to summarize their application method and analyze their service performance. The mathematical model of visibility is proposed and then the availability of time division ISLs is analyzed based on global grid points. The BeiDou navigation constellation is used as an example for numerical simulation. Simulation results show that the availability can be enhanced by scheduling more satellites and larger beams, while the presence of more users lowers the availability. The availability of navigation signals will be strengthened when combined with the signals from the ISLs. ISLs can improve the space service volume (SSV of navigation constellations, and are therefore a promising method for navigation in MEO/HEO spacecraft.

  7. The Availability of Space Service for Inter-Satellite Links in Navigation Constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinyin; Wang, Yueke; Chen, Jianyun

    2016-08-19

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used in low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite navigation; however, their availability is poor for users in medium Earth orbits (MEO), and high Earth orbits (HEO). With the increasing demand for navigation from MEO and HEO users, the inadequate coverage of GNSS has emerged. Inter-satellite links (ISLs) are used for ranging and communication between navigation satellites and can also serve space users that are outside the navigation constellation. This paper aims to summarize their application method and analyze their service performance. The mathematical model of visibility is proposed and then the availability of time division ISLs is analyzed based on global grid points. The BeiDou navigation constellation is used as an example for numerical simulation. Simulation results show that the availability can be enhanced by scheduling more satellites and larger beams, while the presence of more users lowers the availability. The availability of navigation signals will be strengthened when combined with the signals from the ISLs. ISLs can improve the space service volume (SSV) of navigation constellations, and are therefore a promising method for navigation in MEO/HEO spacecraft.

  8. 47 CFR 25.143 - Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.143 Section 25.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.143 Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2...

  9. Satellite switching concepts for European business services in the nineties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, D.; Rouffet, D.

    A first generation of business communication satellites are now operational or to be launched. Increased demands for communication satellite facilities will develop, if special services, such as videoconferencing, can be provided at a reasonable cost. For such developments, it will be necessary to define a second generation of business communication satellites. The present investigation evaluates briefly the size of the expected European market for 1995. A study is conducted of the payload structure for the required satellite system, and aspects related to link budgets and power consumption are explored. It is found that system dimensioning is determined by the up-link and by technology. Critical factors are related to the output and input multiplexors for the link budget, the switching matrix, and implications for the mass budget. The best trade-off between technological, mass, and link budget limitations is achieved in connection with the employment of a hinged antennas satellite, using an intermediate number of spot beams and associated earth stations of reasonable size.

  10. 47 CFR 25.211 - Analog video transmissions in the Fixed-Satellite Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Satellite Services. 25.211 Section 25.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.211 Analog video transmissions in the Fixed-Satellite Services. (a) Downlink analog video transmissions in the band 3700-4200...

  11. 47 CFR 25.215 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. 25.215 Section 25.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.215 Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. In addition to §...

  12. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-03-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  13. Copernicus POD Service: Orbit Determination of the Sentinel Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Ayuga, Francisco; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014 while Sentinel-2A was on June 2015 and both are routinely operated since then. Sentinel-3A is expected to be launched in February 2016 and Sentinel-1B is planned for spring 2016. Thus the CPOD Service will be operating three to four satellites simultaneously in spring 2016. The satellites of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 missions are all equipped with dual frequency high precision GPS receivers delivering the main observables for POD. Sentinel-3 satellites will additionally be equipped with a laser retro reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging and a receiver for DORIS tracking. All three types of observables (GPS, SLR and DORIS) will be used routinely for POD. The POD core of the CPOD Service is NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Orbiting Satellites) the leading ESA/ESOC software for precise orbit determination. The careful selection of models and inputs is important to achieve the different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness for the Sentinel -1, -2 & -3 missions. The three missions require orbital products with various latencies from 30 minutes up to 20-30 days. The accuracy requirements are also different and partly very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Although the characteristics and the requirements are different for the three missions the same core POD setup is used to the largest extent possible. This strategy facilitates maintenance of the complex system of the CPOD Service. Updates in the dynamical modelling of the satellite orbits, e

  14. 77 FR 77001 - Comprehensive Review of Licensing and Operating Rules for Satellite Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Comprehensive Review of Licensing and Operating Rules for Satellite Services AGENCY... this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: William Bell (202) 418-0741, Satellite Division... Satellite Services, adopted and released on December 19, 2012. The full text of this document is...

  15. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  16. Coordination procedure for radio relay and communication satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, J.

    1973-01-01

    A global rain rate statistic model is used to link microwave propagation statistics to measurable rain statistics in order to develop international telecommunication site criteria for radio relay and communication satellite services that minimize interference between receivers and transmitters. This rain coordination procedure utilizes a rain storm cell size, a statistical description of the rainfall rate within the cell valid for most of the earth's surface, approximations between Raleigh scatter and constancy of precipitation with altitude, and an analytic relation between radar reflectivity and rain rate.

  17. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  18. Application of SAW technology in satellites for mobile services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, O.; Viddal, V.; Galteland, J.

    1990-03-01

    Two surface acoustic wave (SAW) technologies for IF processing in a mobile satellite are discussed. The components and operations of the SAW filters method and the SAW filtering, routing, and beamforming concept are described. The capabilities of these two concepts are evaluated and compared. It is observed that the use of SAW filters is the more conventional and mature technology; it performs the channelizing function with a bank of SAW filters and routing of these channels by a switch matrix arrangement. The SAW filtering, routing, and beamforming concept is a more advanced technology that has the ability to give high resolution at low cost in volume and power; however, it has a high power consumption at large total processed bandwidth.

  19. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  20. A History of Satellite Reconnaissance. Volume 3A - GAMBIT (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    characteristics, numbers, and placement of operational BYE 17017-74 ii handle via Byeman/ Talen Keyhole C.7..rtrois Only -TOP-SECRET NRO APPROVED FOR...contract between the Director, Special Projects, National Reconnaissance Office (Director, Program A), and Technology Service Corporation, of Santa Monica...flight histories in 1972, in association with Robert A . Butler, a consultant to Technology Service Corporation. At various times, parts of the

  1. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 7: SPS program plan and economic analysis, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Three appendixes in support of Volume 7 are contained in this document. The three appendixes are: (1) Satellite Power System Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary; (2) SPS cost Estimating Relationships; and (3) Financial and Operational Concept. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are: Executive Summary; SPS Systems Requirements; SPS Concept Evolution; SPS Point Design Definition; Transportation and Operations Analysis; and SPS Technology Requirements and Verification.

  2. Single Tree Vegetation Depth Estimation Tool for Satellite Services Link Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hasirci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation caused by tree shadowing is an important factor for describing the propagation channel of satellite services. Thus, vegetation effects should be determined by experimental studies or empirical formulations. In this study, tree types in the Black Sea Region of Turkey are classified based on their geometrical shapes into four groups such as conic, ellipsoid, spherical and hemispherical. The variations of the vegetation depth according to different tree shapes are calculated with ray tracing method. It is showed that different geometrical shapes have different vegetation depths even if they have same foliage volume for different elevation angles. The proposed method is validated with the related literature in terms of average single tree attenuation. On the other hand, due to decrease system requirements (speed, memory usage etc. of ray tracing method, an artificial neural network is proposed as an alternative. A graphical user interface is created for the above processes in MATLAB environment named vegetation depth estimation tool (VdET.

  3. Enhancing End-to-End Performance of Information Services Over Ka-Band Global Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Glover, Daniel R.; Ivancic, William D.; vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet has been growing at a rapid rate as the key medium to provide information services such as e-mail, WWW and multimedia etc., however its global reach is limited. Ka-band communication satellite networks are being developed to increase the accessibility of information services via the Internet at global scale. There is need to assess satellite networks in their ability to provide these services and interconnect seamlessly with existing and proposed terrestrial telecommunication networks. In this paper the significant issues and requirements in providing end-to-end high performance for the delivery of information services over satellite networks based on various layers in the OSI reference model are identified. Key experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of digital video and Internet over satellite-like testbeds. The results of the early developments in ATM and TCP protocols over satellite networks are summarized.

  4. Online self-service processing system of ZY-3 satellite: a prospective study of image cloud services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Huabin; Shi, Shaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The strong demands for satellite images are increasing not only in professional fields, but also in the non-professionals. But the online map services with up-to-date satellite images can serve few demands. One challenge is how to provide online processing service, which need to handle real-time online data-intensive geospatial computation and visualization. Under the background of the development of cloud computing technology, the problem can be figured out partly. The other challenge is how to implement user-customized online processing without professional background and knowledge. An online self-service processing system of ZY-3 Satellite images is designed to implement an on-demand service mode in this paper. It will work with only some simple parameters being set up for the non-professionals without having to care about the specific processing steps. And the professionals can assemble the basic processing services to a service chain, which can work out a more complex processing and a better result. This intelligent self-service online system for satellite images processing, which is called the prototype of satellite image cloud service in this paper, is accelerated under the development of cloud computing technology and researches on data-intensive computing. To realize the goal, the service mode and framework of the online self-service processing system of ZY-3 Satellite images are figured out in this paper. The details of key technologies are also discussed, including user space virtualization management, algorithm-level parallel image processing, image service chain construction, etc. And the experimental system is built up as a prospective study of image cloud services.

  5. 78 FR 39200 - Federal Earth Stations-Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-11341; FCC 13-65] Federal Earth Stations--Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum... interference protection for Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) and Mobile- Satellite Service (MSS) earth stations... and the important role it will play in our nation's economy and technological innovation now and in...

  6. Servicing of multiple satellites using an OMV-derived transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Carl D.; Meissinger, Hans F.; Rosen, Alan

    Servicing vehicles and supplies to be used for extending the mission life of polar orbiting satellites will be launched into orbit by expendable launch vehicles, since the Space Shuttle currently is not expected to operate in this orbital regime. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or a smaller version being designed for this purpose, and its performance potential as a permanently space-based satellite servicing vehicle, are the subject of this paper. A single servicing vehicle of this class can maneuver, as required, to visit multiple user satellites in their respective orbits. Cost-effective orbit transfer techniques are essential for a viable multi-satellite servicing scenario. Such transfer modes and servicing scenarios, and the usable payload delivery performance achievable are analyzed and compared.

  7. Influence of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on remnant myocyte volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟竑; 朱洪生; 卫洪超; 张臻

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on the volume of remnant myocytes.Methods Thirty-six adult mongrel canines were divided randomly into implantation group and control group. In the implantation group, skeletal muscle satellite cells taken from the gluteus maximus muscles of the dogs were cultured, proliferated and labeled with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindone (DAPI) in vitro. In both groups, a model of acute myocardial infarction was established in every dog. In the implantation group, each dog was injected with M199 solution containing autologous skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs in the control group received M199 solution without skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs of both groups were killed 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation (six dogs in a separate group each time). Both infarcted myocardium and normal myocytes distal from the infracted regions isolated were observed under optical and fluorescent microscope. Their volumes were determined using a confocal microscopy image analysis system and analyzed using SAS. A P<0.05 was considered significant.Results A portion of the implanted cells differentiated into muscle fiber with striations and were connected with intercalated discs. Cross-sectional area and cell volume were increased in normal myocardium. Hypertrophy of remnant myocytes in the infarcted site after skeletal muscle cell implantation was much more evident than in the control group. Cross-sectional area, cell area and cell volume differed significantly from those of the control group (P< 0.05). Hypertrophy of the cells occurred predominantly in terms of width and thickness, whereas cell length remained unchanged. Conclusion Skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarct myocardium, could induce the hypertrophy of remnant myocyte cells in the infarcted site and could also aid in the recovery of the contractile force of the infarcted myocardium.

  8. A Multicast Routing Algorithm for Datagram Service in Delta LEO Satellite Constellation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellites can broadcast datagram over wide areas, therefore, the satellite network has congenital advantages to implement multicast service. LEO satellite has the property of efficient bandwidth usage, lower propagation delay and lower power consumption in the user terminals and satellites. Therefore, the constellation network composed by LEO satellites is an essential part of future satellite communication networks. In this paper, we propose a virtual center based multicast (VCMulticast routing algorithm for LEO satellite constellation network. The algorithm uses the geographic center information of group users to route multicast datagrams, with less memory, computer power and signaling overhead. We evaluate the delay and performance of our algorithm by means of simulations in the OPENET simulator. The results indicate that the delay of the proposed multicast method exceeds the minimum propagation by at most 29.1% on the average, which is a quite acceptable achievement, considering the resource overhead reduction that can be introduced by our proposal

  9. Refining the GPS Space Service Volume (SSV) and Building a Multi-GNSS SSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joel J. K.

    2017-01-01

    The GPS (Global Positioning System) Space Service Volume (SSV) was first defined to protect the GPS main lobe signals from changes from block to block. First developed as a concept by NASA in 2000, it has been adopted for the GPS III block of satellites, and is being used well beyond the current specification to enable increased navigation performance for key missions like GOES-R. NASA has engaged the US IFOR (Interagency Forum Operational Requirements) process to adopt a revised requirement to protect this increased and emerging use. Also, NASA is working through the UN International Committee on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) to develop an interoperable multi-GNSS SSV in partnership with all of the foreign GNSS providers.

  10. Traffic model for advanced satellite designs and experiments for ISDN services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul

    1991-01-01

    The data base structure and fields for categorizing and storing Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) user characteristics is outlined. This traffic model data base will be used to exercise models of the ISDN Advanced Communication Satellite to determine design parameters and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program.

  11. Anticipated prospects and civilian applications of Indian satellite navigation services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, positive impacts of 3 Indian Navigational Satellite programmes (GAGAN, IRNSS and INSAT-MSS reporting system for the civilian applications over Sri Lanka are discussed. Other neighbouring countries covered under the footprint of Indian navigational satellite programmes can also employ these services for the location based applications productively.

  12. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Gaelick, C.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial organizations as well as government agencies invest in spacecraft (S/C) technology programs that are aimed at increasing the performance of communications satellites. The value of these programs must be measured in terms of their impacts on the financial performane of the business ventures that may ultimately utilize the communications satellites. An economic evaluation and planning capability was developed and used to assess the impact of NASA on-orbit propulsion and space power programs on typical fixed satellite service (FSS) and direct broadcast service (DBS) communications satellite business ventures. Typical FSS and DBS spin and three-axis stabilized spacecraft were configured in the absence of NASA technology programs. These spacecraft were reconfigured taking into account the anticipated results of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power programs. In general, the NASA technology programs resulted in spacecraft with increased capability. The developed methodology for assessing the value of spacecraft technology programs in terms of their impact on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures is described. Results of the assessment of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power technology programs are presented for typical FSS and DBS business ventures.

  13. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  14. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  15. Satellite/Terrestrial Networks: End-to-End Communication Interoperability Quality of Service Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite/terrestrial end-to-end communication interoperability are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Quality of service; 2) ATM performance characteristics; 3) MPEG-2 transport stream mapping to AAL-5; 4) Observation and discussion of compressed video tests over ATM; 5) Digital video over satellites status; 6) Satellite link configurations; 7) MPEG-2 over ATM with binomial errors; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM channel characteristics; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM over emulated satellites; 9) MPEG-2 transport stream with errors; and a 10) Dual decoder test.

  16. Global maritime mobile service via satellite - The INMARSAT system now and in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowball, A. E.

    1986-06-01

    The business and technical aspects of the INMARSAT (International Maritime Satellite Organization) system are reviewed along with its present capabilities and services and future developments now being considered. The initial phase of maritime mobile satellite communications began with the introduction by the U.S. of the Marisat system in 1976, satisfying a commitment made by COMSAT (Communications Satellite Corp.) in 1973 to provide a maritime satellite service. The Marisat Consortium, spun off by COMSAT, launched three satellites in 1973 - one to serve shipping in the Atlantic, one for the Pacific, and the third as a spare; the spare was subsequently positioned over the Indian Ocean so that the three provided almost global coverage. Each satellite was served by a coast earth station with a 13-m antenna; satellite-earth station links operated in the 6 and 4-GHz bands and the ship-satellite links were at 1.5 and 1.6 GHz. Superceding the limited Marisat system, the INMARSAT Organization, established in July 1979 and first in service on Feb. 1, 1982, now provides communications through a system of Marecs, Intelsat-V, and Marisat satellites. With 41 Signatories by mid-1985, the organization consists of an Assembly, a Council, and a Directorate. Services provided include: telephone; facsimile; low-speed data; high-speed data; telex; telegram; distress, urgency and safety communications; shore-to-ship group calls; various information and assistance services. Coast earth stations, ship earth stations, network coordination stations, and the London headquarters and operations control center are described. Future developments will include an expanded capacity network, digital services, and a role in the Future Global Maritime Distress and Safety System that will use radio beacons that will automatically transmit distress messages to land-based emergency centers in the event of a disaster at sea.

  17. Achieving QoS for TCP Traffic in Satellite Networks with Differentiated Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durresi, Arjan; Kota, Sastri; Goyal, Mukul; Jain, Raj; Bharani, Venkata

    2001-01-01

    Satellite networks play an indispensable role in providing global Internet access and electronic connectivity. To achieve such a global communications, provisioning of quality of service (QoS) within the advanced satellite systems is the main requirement. One of the key mechanisms of implementing the quality of service is traffic management. Traffic management becomes a crucial factor in the case of satellite network because of the limited availability of their resources. Currently, Internet Protocol (IP) only has minimal traffic management capabilities and provides best effort services. In this paper, we presented a broadband satellite network QoS model and simulated performance results. In particular, we discussed the TCP flow aggregates performance for their good behavior in the presence of competing UDP flow aggregates in the same assured forwarding. We identified several factors that affect the performance in the mixed environments and quantified their effects using a full factorial design of experiment methodology.

  18. Efficient high-volume cataract services: the Aravind model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj Ravilla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aravind Eye Care System began as an 11-bed eye clinic in 1976. Over the last 36 years, over 40 million outpatient examinations have been performed and over 5 million patients have undergone eye surgery or laser procedures. Aravind, with its mission to ‘eliminate needless blindness’, has been able to achieve this by adhering to the principle of providing large volume, high quality and affordable services in a financially sustainable manner both for the patients and for Aravind. Much importance is given to equity – ensuring that all patients are accorded the same high quality care and service, regardless of their economic status.

  19. 47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service shall have a minimum capability to change transponder saturation flux densities by ground command... spatially independent beams. (g)-(h) (i)(1) Space station antennas in the Fixed-Satellite Service, other than antennas in the 17/24 GHz BSS, must be designed to provide a cross-polarization isolation...

  20. Satellites vs. fiber optics based networks and services - Road map to strategic planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, James H. R.

    An overview of a generic telecommunications network and its components is presented, and the current developments in satellite and fiber optics technologies are discussed with an eye on the trends in industry. A baseline model is proposed, and a cost comparison of fiber- vs satellite-based networks is made. A step-by-step 'road map' to the successful strategic planning of telecommunications services and facilities is presented. This road map provides for optimization of the current and future networks and services through effective utilization of both satellites and fiber optics. The road map is then applied to different segments of the telecommunications industry and market place, to show its effectiveness for the strategic planning of executives of three types: (1) those heading telecommunications manufacturing concerns, (2) those leading communication service companies, and (3) managers of telecommunication/MIS departments of major corporations. Future networking issues, such as developments in integrated-services digital network standards and technologies, are addressed.

  1. The application of GIS in land satellite data management and service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Defeng

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of China's satellite remote sensing technology, ZY-1 02C, ZY-3 and TH-1 satellites have been successfully launched, ZY-3 satellite is China's first autonomous civilian high-resolution stereo mapping satellite, achieved a breakthrough in the field of civil high resolution mapping satellite[1]. Its successful applications have become a new milestone in the history of Chinese satellite surveying and mapping, undertake to build database of remote sensing information, promote the development of geographic space information industry. This paper, based on data distribution service subsystem of the construction of ZY-3 ground processing as an example, introduces GIS in the subsystem which plays an important role. This sub-system is the window of the ground system of information collection and product distribution, whose task is to provide ZY-3, ZY-1 02C a variety of sensor data distribution service at all levels of products, to provide users with a unified search, browse, order and download services, and has a certain capacity expansion upgrade, which provides a technical basis and guarantee for subsequent satellite distribution service. With ZY-3 satellite in orbit, the amount of data is increasing, how to efficiently manage multi-source image data becomes the system to be solved. In this paper, ArcGIS mosaic datasets is used to manage large-scale image data to solve the many problems that exist in the traditional image management and shared services to complete data distribution. At present, the distribution system has been stabilized, and serves the masses of users.

  2. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  3. Design of volume hologram filters for suppression of daytime sky brightness in artificial satellite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hanhong; Watson, Jonathan M; Stuart, Joseph Scott; Barbastathis, George

    2013-03-11

    We present a design methodology for volume hologram filters (VHFs) with telephoto objectives to improve contrast of solar-illuminated artificial satellites observed with a ground-based optical telescope and camera system operating in daytime. VHFs provide the ability to selectively suppress incoming light based on the range to the source, and are used to suppress the daylight background noise since signal (satellite) and noise (daylight scatterers) are located at different altitudes. We derive the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement as the system metric, and balance main design parameters over two key performance considerations--daylight attenuation and spectral bandwidth--to optimize the functioning of VHFs. Overall SNR enhancement of 7.5 has been achieved. Usage of multi-pixel cameras can potentially further refine this system.

  4. Preliminary benefits study for a public service communications satellite system: Task order 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The economic and social benefits to accrue from an operational public service communications satellite system are estimated for the following applications: teleradiology, emergency medical services, teleconferencing for both civilian and defense agencies, data transfer, remote cardiac monitoring, teleconsultation, continuing education for professionals, and severe storm warning. The potential impact of improved communication on the cost and quality of services are assessed for various agencies, professions, and industries.

  5. The 18/30 GHz fixed communications system service demand assessment. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriszeski, T.; Reiner, P.; Rogers, J.; Terbo, W.

    1979-01-01

    The total demand for voice, video, and data communications services, and satellite transmission services at the 4/6 GHz, 12/14 GHz, and 18/30 GHz frequencies is discussed. Major study objectives, overall methodology, results, and general observations about a satellite systems market characteristics and trends are summarized.

  6. Optimization of orbital assignment and specification of service areas in satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cou-Way; Levis, Curt A.; Buyukdura, O. Merih

    1987-01-01

    The mathematical nature of the orbital and frequency assignment problem for communications satellites is explored, and it is shown that choosing the correct permutations of the orbit locations and frequency assignments is an important step in arriving at values which satisfy the signal-quality requirements. Two methods are proposed to achieve better spectrum/orbit utilization. The first, called the delta S concept, leads to orbital assignment solutions via either mixed-integer or restricted basis entry linear programming techniques; the method guarantees good single-entry carrier-to-interference ratio results. In the second, a basis for specifying service areas is proposed for the Fixed Satellite Service. It is suggested that service areas should be specified according to the communications-demand density in conjunction with the delta S concept in order to enable the system planner to specify more satellites and provide more communications supply.

  7. The beginning of a new era - OTC's satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Erik

    OTC has developed a new range of digital services which will provide business organizations in Australia with high quality private international telecommunications. This range will be known as Satnet and the paper deals with Satnet 2 which is the service offerings using medium-size earth stations (nominally 5- and 7-meter antenna apertures), installed at customers' premises. These services will rely on the Intelsat 6/4 GHz space segment. Operation will be totally digital and will be integrated with no distinction between individual applications such as voice, data, video, etc. Carrier capacities between 64 kb/s and 8.448 Mb/s can be provided and ISDN performance requirements can be supported. The paper describes key service features, systems design and transmission analysis. Consideration is also given to operation, installation and frequency coordination aspects.

  8. 47 CFR 101.85 - Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS). 101.85 Section 101.85 Telecommunication... Transition of the 18.3-19.3 GHz band from the terrestrial fixed services to the fixed-satellite service (FSS...-satellite service (FSS). The rules in this section provide for a transition period during which...

  9. Estimate Landslide Volume with Genetic Algorithms and Image Similarity Method from Single Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting-To

    2013-04-01

    It is important to acquire the volume of landslide in short period of time. For hazard mitigation and also emergency response purpose, the traditional method takes much longer time than expected. Due to the weather limit, traffic accessibility and many regulations of law, it take months to handle these process before the actual carry out of filed work. Remote sensing imagery can get the data as long as the visibility allowed, which happened only few day after the event. While traditional photometry requires a stereo pairs images to produce the post event DEM for calculating the change of volume. Usually have to wait weeks or even months for gathering such data, LiDAR or ground GPS measurement might take even longer period of time with much higher cost. In this study we use one post event satellite image and pre-event DTM to compare the similarity between these by alter the DTM with genetic algorithms. The outcome of smartest guess from GAs shall remove or add exact values of height at each location, which been converted into shadow relief viewgraph to compare with satellite image. Once the similarity threshold been make then the guessing work stop. It takes only few hours to finish the entire task, the computed accuracy is around 70% by comparing to the high resolution LiDAR survey at a landslide, southern Taiwan. With extra GCPs, the estimate accuracy can improve to 85% and also within few hours after the receiving of satellite image. Data of this demonstration case is a 5 m DTM at 2005, 2M resolution FormoSat optical image at 2009 and 5M LiDAR at 2010. The GAs and image similarity code is developed on Matlab at windows PC.

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  11. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of market demand for domestic civilian telecommunications services for the years 1980 to 2000 are provided. Overall demand, demand or satellite services, demand for satellite delivered Customer Premises Service (CPS), and demand for 30/20 GHz Customer Premises Services are covered. Emphasis is placed on the CPS market and demand is segmented by market, by service, by user class and by geographic region. Prices for competing services are discussed and the distribution of traffic with respect to distance is estimated. A nationwide traffic distribution model for CPS in terms of demand for CPS traffic and earth stations for each of the major SMSAs in the United States are provided.

  12. Design Issues for Traffic Management for the ATM UBR + Service for TCP Over Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj

    1999-01-01

    This project was a comprehensive research program for developing techniques for improving the performance of Internet protocols over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based satellite networks. Among the service categories provided by ATM networks, the most commonly used category for data traffic is the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. UBR allows sources to send data into the network without any feedback control. The project resulted in the numerous ATM Forum contributions and papers.

  13. Laser Communication Demonstration System (LCDS) and future mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Wilhelm, Michael D.; Lesh, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Communications Demonstration System (LCDS) is a proposed in-orbit demonstration of high data rate laser communications technology conceived jointly by NASA and U.S. industry. The program objectives are to stimulate industry development and to demonstrate the readiness of high data rate optical communications in Earth orbit. For future global satellite communication systems using intersatellite links, laser communications technology can offer reduced mass and power requirements and higher channel bandwidths without regulatory constraints. As currently envisioned, LCDS will consist of one or two orbiting laser communications terminals capable of demonstrating high data rate (greater than 750Mbps) transmission in a dynamic space environment. Two study teams led by Motorola and Ball Aerospace are currently in the process of conducting a Phase A/B mission definition study of LCDS under contracts with JPL/NASA. The studies consist of future application survey, concept and requirements definition, and a point design of the laser communications flight demonstration. It is planned that a single demonstration system will be developed based on the study results. The Phase A/B study is expected to be completed by the coming June, and the current results of the study are presented in this paper.

  14. Method and associated apparatus for capturing, servicing, and de-orbiting earth satellites using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepollina, Frank J. (Inventor); Burns, Richard D. (Inventor); Holz, Jill M. (Inventor); Corbo, James E. (Inventor); Jedhrich, Nicholas M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    This invention is a method and supporting apparatus for autonomously capturing, servicing and de-orbiting a free-flying spacecraft, such as a satellite, using robotics. The capture of the spacecraft includes the steps of optically seeking and ranging the satellite using LIDAR; and matching tumble rates, rendezvousing and berthing with the satellite. Servicing of the spacecraft may be done using supervised autonomy, which is allowing a robot to execute a sequence of instructions without intervention from a remote human-occupied location. These instructions may be packaged at the remote station in a script and uplinked to the robot for execution upon remote command giving authority to proceed. Alternately, the instructions may be generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI) logic onboard the robot. In either case, the remote operator maintains the ability to abort an instruction or script at any time, as well as the ability to intervene using manual override to teleoperate the robot.In one embodiment, a vehicle used for carrying out the method of this invention comprises an ejection module, which includes the robot, and a de-orbit module. Once servicing is completed by the robot, the ejection module separates from the de-orbit module, leaving the de-orbit module attached to the satellite for de-orbiting the same at a future time. Upon separation, the ejection module can either de-orbit itself or rendezvous with another satellite for servicing. The ability to de-orbit a spacecraft further allows the opportunity to direct the landing of the spent satellite in a safe location away from population centers, such as the ocean.

  15. Customer premise service study for 30/20 GHz satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, R. T.; Ross, D. P.; Harcar, A. R.; Freedenberg, P.; Schoen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite systems in which the space segment operates in the 30/20 GHz frequency band are defined and compared as to their potential for providing various types of communications services to customer premises and the economic and technical feasibility of doing so. Technical tasks performed include: market postulation, definition of the ground segment, definition of the space segment, definition of the integrated satellite system, service costs for satellite systems, sensitivity analysis, and critical technology. Based on an analysis of market data, a sufficiently large market for services is projected so as to make the system economically viable. A large market, and hence a high capacity satellite system, is found to be necessary to minimize service costs, i.e., economy of scale is found to hold. The wide bandwidth expected to be available in the 30/20 GHz band, along with frequency reuse which further increases the effective system bandwidth, makes possible the high capacity system. Extensive ground networking is required in most systems to both connect users into the system and to interconnect Earth stations to provide spatial diversity. Earth station spatial diversity is found to be a cost effective means of compensating the large fading encountered in the 30/20 GHz operating band.

  16. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  17. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule;...

  18. Mobile satellite services for public safety, disaster mitigation and disaster medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freibaum, Jerry

    Between 1967 and 1987 nearly three million lives were lost and property damage of $25 to $100 billion resulted form natural disasters that adversely affected more than 829 million people. The social and economic impacts have been staggering and are expected to grow more serious as a result of changing demographic factors. The role that the Mobile Satellite Service can play in the International Decade is discussed. MSS was not available for disaster relief operations during the recent Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake. However, the results of a review of the performance of seven other communication services with respect to public sector operations during and shortly after the earthquake are described. The services surveyed were: public and private telephone, mobile radio telephone, noncellular mobile radio, broadcast media, CB radio, ham radio, and government and nongovernment satellite systems. The application of MSS to disaster medicine, particularly with respect to the Armenian earthquake is also discussed.

  19. Telecommunication service markets through the year 2000 in relation to millimeter wave satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is currently conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite system and market studies to develop 30/20 GHz satellite system concepts that have commercial potential for the period 1980-2000. The results of the market studies to-date focusing on the overall demand forecasts and distributions by geographic location, distance, and user category are discussed. Tables are presented indicating baseline market forecast voice and video services, data service category, impacted baseline forecast, and traffic/distance distribution voice services. It is concluded that the total market and system activity will be influential in determining the potential role of millimeter wave systems in the overall transmission needs of the nation, and the amount of the total forecasted traffic suitable for millimeter wave systems.

  20. ATM Quality of Service Tests for Digitized Video Using ATM Over Satellite: Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Brooks, David E.; Frantz, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    A digitized video application was used to help determine minimum quality of service parameters for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite. For these tests, binomially distributed and other errors were digitally inserted in an intermediate frequency link via a satellite modem and a commercial gaussian noise generator. In this paper, the relation- ship between the ATM cell error and cell loss parameter specifications is discussed with regard to this application. In addition, the video-encoding algorithms, test configurations, and results are presented in detail.

  1. ATM Quality of Service Parameters at 45 Mbps Using a Satellite Emulator: Laboratory Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of 45-Mbps DS3 intermediate-frequency loopback measurements of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service parameters (cell error ratio and cell loss ratio) are presented. These tests, which were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research, represent initial efforts to quantify the minimum parameters for stringent ATM applications, such as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video transmission. Portions of these results were originally presented to the International Telecommunications Union's ITU-R Working Party 4B in February 1996 in support of their Draft Preliminary Recommendation on the Transmission of ATM Traffic via Satellite.

  2. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  3. Volume magnetization for system-level testing of magnetic materials within small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, David T.; Palo, Scott E.

    2016-10-01

    Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is a popular among small satellites due to its low resource cost and simplicity of installation. However, predicting the performance of these systems can be a challenge, chiefly due to the difficulty of measurement and simulation of hysteresis materials. We present a low-cost method of magnetic measurement allowing for characterization of both hard and soft magnetic materials. A Helmholtz cage uniformly magnetizes a 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm test volume. The addition of a thin sense coil allows this system to characterize individual hysteresis rod performance when in close proximity to other hard and/or soft magnetic materials. This test setup is applied to hard and soft magnetic materials used aboard the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE), a 3U CubeSat for space weather investigation which used a PMAC system. The measured hard magnet dipole of 0.80±0.017 A m2 is in good agreement with the dynamics-based satellite dipole moment fits. Five hysteresis rods from the same set as the CSSWE flight rods are tested; significant differences in dampening abilities are found. In addition, a limitation of the widely-used Flatley model is described. The interaction of two hysteresis rods in a variety of relative geometries are tested; perpendicular rods are found to have no significant interaction while parallel rods could have their dampening ability reduced by half, depending on the rod separation distance. Finally, the performance of the hysteresis rods are measured in their flight configuration, with hard and soft magnetic material dispersed as it is on CSSWE itself. For the CSSWE PMAC system design, interactions between rods have a greater affect than the magnetic flux density offset due to the onboard bar magnet.

  4. Single Tree Vegetation Depth Estimation Tool for Satellite Services Link Design

    OpenAIRE

    HASIRCI, Z.; Cavdar, I. H.; Ozturk, M

    2016-01-01

    Attenuation caused by tree shadowing is an important factor for describing the propagation channel of satellite services. Thus, vegetation effects should be determined by experimental studies or empirical formulations. In this study, tree types in the Black Sea Region of Turkey are classified based on their geometrical shapes into four groups such as conic, ellipsoid, spherical and hemispherical. The variations of the vegetation depth according to different tree shapes are calculated with ...

  5. A Service Oriented Architecture to Integrate Short Message Service (SMS Notification in Road Traffic Volume Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahi Abu Sarhan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The traffic volume becomes one of the top problems in the world, the volume of traffic spends many time and much money, the traffic volume grows daily, and there is not effective and suitable solutions for grows problem. This paper will present and describe an effective approach to integrate the Service Oriented Architecture with mobile devices and services agents in Traffic Management Systems (TMS. The Traffic Volume Control System (TVCS should enable mobile short message service (SMS notifications. Unfortunately, cellular SMS notification based on services that are not aspect of the TVCS.Developing altered exterior systems and services, to be virtually aspect of TVCS, are one of the most incorporation difficulties. In this paper, a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA approach to includecellular SMS alerts in TVCS is presented. Suggested Structure includes two layers: Service layer and Interface layer. The Service layer includes all the system software. The service layer consists of three sub layers: Orchestration, Application Services, and Agents sub-layers. While the Interface layer interrelates with speed detectors and users via sites, and with exterior organization services via Web services.

  6. Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS): A conceptual system design and identification of the critical technologies: Part 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, F. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual system design for a satellite-aided land mobile service is described. A geostationary satellite which employs a large (55-m) UHF reflector to communicate with small inexpensive user antennas on mobile vehicles is discussed. It is shown that such a satellite system through multiple beam antennas and frequency reuse can provide thousands of radiotelephone and dispatch channels serving hundreds of thousands of users throughout the U.S.

  7. Interactive access to LP DAAC satellite data archives through a combination of open-source and custom middleware web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian N.; Werpy, Jason; Friesz, Aaron M.; Impecoven, Kevin; Quenzer, Robert; Maiersperger, Tom; Meyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of searching for and retrieving data from satellite land remote sensing archives do not allow for interactive information extraction. Instead, Earth science data users are required to download files over low-bandwidth networks to local workstations and process data before science questions can be addressed. New methods of extracting information from data archives need to become more interactive to meet user demands for deriving increasingly complex information from rapidly expanding archives. Moving the tools required for processing data to computer systems of data providers, and away from systems of the data consumer, can improve turnaround times for data processing workflows. The implementation of middleware services was used to provide interactive access to archive data. The goal of this middleware services development is to enable Earth science data users to access remote sensing archives for immediate answers to science questions instead of links to large volumes of data to download and process. Exposing data and metadata to web-based services enables machine-driven queries and data interaction. Also, product quality information can be integrated to enable additional filtering and sub-setting. Only the reduced content required to complete an analysis is then transferred to the user.

  8. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  9. High resolution earth observation satellites and services in the next decade a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Gunter; Dech, Stefan

    2005-07-01

    Projects to use very high resolution optical satellite sensor data started in the late 90s and are believed to be the major driver for the commercialisation of earth observation. The global political security situation and updated legislative frameworks created new opportunities for high resolution, dual use satellite systems. In addition to new optical sensors, very high resolution synthetic aperture radars will become in the next few years an important component in the imaging satellite fleet. The paper will review the development in this domain so far, and give perspectives on future emerging markets and opportunities. With dual-use satellite initiatives and new political frameworks agreed between the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA), the European market becomes very attractive for both service suppliers and customers. The political focus on "Global Monitoring for Environment and Security" (GMES) and the "European Defence and Security Policy" drive and amplify this demand which ranges from low resolution climate monitoring to very high resolution reconnaissance tasks. In order to create an operational and sustainable GMES in Europe by 2007, the European infrastructure need to be adapted and extended. This includes the ESA SENTINEL and OXYGEN programmes, aiming for a fleet of earth observation satellites and an open and operational earth observation ground segment. The harmonisation of national and regional geographic information is driven by the European Commission's INSPIRE programme. The necessary satellite capacity to complement existing systems in the delivery of space based data required for GMES is currently under definition. Embedded in a market with global competition and in the global political framework of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, European companies, agencies and research institutions are now contributing to this joint undertaking. The paper addresses the chances, risks and options for the future.

  10. The 18/30 GHz fixed communications system service demand assessment. Volume 2: Main text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriszeski, T.; Reiner, P.; Rogers, J.; Terbo, W.

    1979-01-01

    The total demand for communications services, and satellite transmission services at the 4/6 GHz, 12/14 GHz, and 18/30 GHz frequencies is assessed. The services are voice, video, and data services. Traffic demand, by service, is distributed by geographical regions, population density, and distance between serving points. Further distribution of traffic is made among four major end user groups: business, government, institutions and private individuals. A traffic demand analysis is performed on a typical metropolitan city to examine service distribution trends. The projected cost of C and Ku band satellite systems are compared on an individual service basis to projected terrestrial rates. Separation of traffic between transmission systems, including 18/30 GHz systems, is based on cost, user, and technical considerations.

  11. Estimation of the demand for public services communications. [market research and economic analysis for a communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Market analyses and economic studies are presented to support NASA planning for a communications satellite system to provide public services in health, education, mobile communications, data transfer, and teleconferencing.

  12. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fixed-satellite services on a continuous basis throughout the fifty states, Puerto Rico and the U.S... certification of milestones, or filing disclosure of non-compliance, will result in automatic cancellation of...

  13. Developing a Robust, Interoperable GNSS Space Service Volume (SSV) for the Global Space User Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel J. K.; Welch, Bryan; Enderle, Werner

    2017-01-01

    For over two decades, researchers, space users, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) service providers, and international policy makers have been working diligently to expand the space-borne use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and, most recently, to employ the full complement of GNSS constellations to increase spacecraft navigation performance. Space-borne Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) applications employing GNSS are now ubiquitous in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). GNSS use in space is quickly expanding into the Space Service Volume (SSV), the signal environment in the volume surrounding the Earth that enables real-time PNT measurements from GNSS systems at altitudes of 3000 km and above. To support the current missions and planned future missions within the SSV, initiatives are being conducted in the United States and internationally to ensure that GNSS signals are available, robust, and yield precise navigation performance. These initiatives include the Interagency Forum for Operational Requirements (IFOR) effort in the United States, to support GPS SSV signal robustness through future design changes, and the United Nations-sponsored International Committee on GNSS (ICG), to coordinate SSV development across all international GNSS constellations and regional augmentations. The results of these efforts have already proven fruitful, enabling new missions through radically improved navigation and timing performance, ensuring quick recovery from trajectory maneuvers, improving space vehicle autonomy and making GNSS signals more resilient from potential disruptions. Missions in the SSV are operational now and have demonstrated outstanding PNT performance characteristics; much better than what was envisioned less than a decade ago. The recent launch of the first in a series of US weather satellites will employ the use of GNSS in the SSV to substantially improve weather prediction and public-safety situational awareness of fast moving events, including

  14. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume II. Analytic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Service operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. This volume contains the analytic report, which presents the major findings of the evaluation. Chapter 1 gives a report…

  15. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume III. Descriptive Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Services operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. A descriptive report is contained in this volume, which presents non-selective and preliminary analysis of the data base…

  16. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume V. Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Services operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. This volume contains the questionnaires used in the study. Section 1 gives a report overview and acknowledgements. Section…

  17. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume IV. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Services operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. This volume contains all technical appendices and is intended as a resource document. The Methodology Appendix is included…

  18. Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS): A conceptual system design and identification of the critical technologies. Part 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, F. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A system design for a satellite aided land mobile service is described. The advanced system is based on a geostationary satellite which employs a large UHF reflector to communicate with small user antennas on mobile vehicles. It is shown that the system through multiple beam antennas and frequency reuse provides for radiotelephone and dispatch channels. It is concluded that the system is technologically feasible to provide service to rural and remote regions.

  19. The determinations of remote sensing satellite data delivery service quality: A positivistic case study in Chinese context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Tan, Qiaoqiao; Li, Yijun

    2014-03-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, remote-sensing satellite has been widely used in many aspects of national construction. Big data with different standards and massive users with different needs, make the satellite data delivery service to be a complex giant system. How to deliver remote-sensing satellite data efficiently and effectively is a big challenge. Based on customer service theory, this paper proposes a hierarchy conceptual model for examining the determinations of remote-sensing satellite data delivery service quality in the Chinese context. Three main dimensions: service expectation, service perception and service environment, and 8 sub-dimensions are included in the model. Large amount of first-hand data on the remote-sensing satellite data delivery service have been obtained through field research, semi-structured questionnaire and focused interview. A positivist case study is conducted to validate and develop the proposed model, as well as to investigate the service status and related influence mechanisms. Findings from the analysis demonstrate the explanatory validity of the model, and provide potentially helpful insights for future practice.

  20. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS: an online service for near real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brenot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases in the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, http://sacs.aeronomie.be, which is a free online service initiated by ESA for the near real-time (NRT satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from two UV-visible (OMI, GOME-2 and two infrared (AIRS, IASI spectrometers. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic plumes, running since April 2012, is based on the detection of SO2 and is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. The system shows successful results with 95% of our notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity.

  1. North Africa - Working paper - Trade Volume and Economic Growth in the MENA Region: Goods or Services?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Kolster

    2015-01-01

    Key messages • The relatively important trade barriers do not only have a negative impact on service trade, but also on the competitiveness of manufacturing, especially that some services such as transport and telecommunication services as well as financial services are complementary to goods production and exports. • The study underline that trade in services and trade in goods both do increase gross domestic product as trade policy openness and higher ratios of trade volumes to gross domest...

  2. Establishing a Robotic, LEO-to-GEO Satellite Servicing Infrastructure as an Economic Foundation for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.; Schmidt, George R.; Gilland, James H.

    2010-01-01

    The strategy for accomplishing civilian exploration goals and objectives is in the process of a fundamental shift towards a potential new approach called Flexible Path. This paper suggests that a government-industry or public-private partnership in the commercial development of low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit (LEO-to-GEO (LTG)) space, following or in parallel with the commercialization of Earth-to-LEO and International Space Station (ISS) operations, could serve as a necessary, logical step that can be incorporated into the flexible path approach. A LTG satellite-servicing infrastructure and architecture concept is discussed within this new strategic context. The concept consists of a space harbor that serves as a transport facility for a fleet of specialized, fully- or semi-autonomous robotic servicing spacecraft. The baseline, conceptual system architecture is composed of a space harbor equipped with specialized servicer spacecraft; a satellite command, communication, and control system; a parts station; a fuel station or depot; and a fuel/parts replenishment transport. The commercial servicer fleet would consist of several types of spacecraft, each designed with specialized robotic manipulation subsystems to provide services such as refueling, upgrade, repair, inspection, relocation, and removal. The space harbor is conceptualized as an ISS-type, octagonal truss structure equipped with radiation tolerant subsystems. This space harbor would be primarily capable of serving as an operational platform for various commercially owned and operated servicer spacecraft positioned and docked symmetrically on four of the eight sides. Several aspects of this concept are discussed, such as: system-level feasibility in terms of ISS-truss-type infrastructure and subsystems emplacement and maintenance between LEO and GEO; infrastructure components assembly in LEO, derived from ISS assembly experience, and transfer to various higher orbital locations; the evolving Earth

  3. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    The computational procedures used in the evaluation of spacecraft technology programs that impact upon commercial communication satellite operations are discussed. Computer programs and data bases are described.

  4. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  5. Weak and Dynamic GNSS Signal Tracking Strategies for Flight Missions in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shuai; Zhan, Xingqun; Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Weak-signal and high-dynamics are of two primary concerns of space navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) in the space service volume (SSV). The paper firstly defines a reference assumption third-order phase-locked loop (PLL) as the baseline of an onboard GNSS receiver, and proves the incompetence of this conventional architecture. Then an adaptive four-state Kalman filter (KF)-based algorithm is introduced to realize the optimization of loop noise bandwidth, which can adaptively regulate its filter gain according to the received signal power and line-of-sight (LOS) dynamics. To overcome the matter of losing lock in weak-signal and high-dynamic environments, an open loop tracking strategy aided by an inertial navigation system (INS) is recommended, and the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is modified in a non-coherent way by reconstructing the likelihood cost function. Furthermore, a typical mission with combined orbital maneuvering and non-maneuvering arcs is taken as a destination object to test the two proposed strategies. Finally, the experiment based on computer simulation identifies the effectiveness of an adaptive four-state KF-based strategy under non-maneuvering conditions and the virtue of INS-assisted methods under maneuvering conditions. PMID:27598164

  6. Weak and Dynamic GNSS Signal Tracking Strategies for Flight Missions in the Space Service Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shuai; Zhan, Xingqun; Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Maolin

    2016-09-02

    Weak-signal and high-dynamics are of two primary concerns of space navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) in the space service volume (SSV). The paper firstly defines a reference assumption third-order phase-locked loop (PLL) as the baseline of an onboard GNSS receiver, and proves the incompetence of this conventional architecture. Then an adaptive four-state Kalman filter (KF)-based algorithm is introduced to realize the optimization of loop noise bandwidth, which can adaptively regulate its filter gain according to the received signal power and line-of-sight (LOS) dynamics. To overcome the matter of losing lock in weak-signal and high-dynamic environments, an open loop tracking strategy aided by an inertial navigation system (INS) is recommended, and the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is modified in a non-coherent way by reconstructing the likelihood cost function. Furthermore, a typical mission with combined orbital maneuvering and non-maneuvering arcs is taken as a destination object to test the two proposed strategies. Finally, the experiment based on computer simulation identifies the effectiveness of an adaptive four-state KF-based strategy under non-maneuvering conditions and the virtue of INS-assisted methods under maneuvering conditions.

  7. Weak and Dynamic GNSS Signal Tracking Strategies for Flight Missions in the Space Service Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Jing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Weak-signal and high-dynamics are of two primary concerns of space navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System in the space service volume (SSV. The paper firstly defines a reference assumption third-order phase-locked loop (PLL as the baseline of an onboard GNSS receiver, and proves the incompetence of this conventional architecture. Then an adaptive four-state Kalman filter (KF-based algorithm is introduced to realize the optimization of loop noise bandwidth, which can adaptively regulate its filter gain according to the received signal power and line-of-sight (LOS dynamics. To overcome the matter of losing lock in weak-signal and high-dynamic environments, an open loop tracking strategy aided by an inertial navigation system (INS is recommended, and the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method is modified in a non-coherent way by reconstructing the likelihood cost function. Furthermore, a typical mission with combined orbital maneuvering and non-maneuvering arcs is taken as a destination object to test the two proposed strategies. Finally, the experiment based on computer simulation identifies the effectiveness of an adaptive four-state KF-based strategy under non-maneuvering conditions and the virtue of INS-assisted methods under maneuvering conditions.

  8. 76 FR 50425 - Service Rules and Policies for the Broadcasting Satellite Service (BSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ...-axis power flux density (pfd) coordination trigger for 17/24 GHz BSS space stations. We also require a...-0432 (tty). Synopsis 1. We adopt an off-axis power flux density (pfd) coordination trigger for 17/24... terrestrial services. 2. Off-Axis Power Flux Density Coordination Trigger. We adopt an off-axis pfd...

  9. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume I. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Services operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. The Nutrition Services address a number of problems faced by the nation's elderly, such as dietary inadequacy, declining…

  10. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  11. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  12. A FD/DAMA network architecture for the first generation land mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C.; Cheng, U.; Dessouky, K.; Rafferty, W.

    1989-01-01

    A frequency division/demand assigned multiple access (FD/DAMA) network architecture for the first-generation land mobile satellite services is presented. Rationales and technical approaches are described. In this architecture, each mobile subscriber must follow a channel access protocol to make a service request to the network management center before transmission for either open-end or closed-end services. Open-end service requests will be processed on a blocked call cleared basis, while closed-end requests will be processed on a first-come-first-served basis. Two channel access protocols are investigated, namely, a recently proposed multiple channel collision resolution scheme which provides a significantly higher useful throughput, and the traditional slotted Aloha scheme. The number of channels allocated for either open-end or closed-end services can be adaptively changed according to aggregated traffic requests. Both theoretical and simulation results are presented. Theoretical results have been verified by simulation on the JPL network testbed.

  13. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  14. Payload Service System for the Small Satellites of Double Star Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H. X.; Chen, X. M.

    Double Star Project (DSP) is a cooperative program between ESA and China, which plan to be launched in 2003. The main objective of the program is to explore the magnetosphere of the earth. Using two small satellites, one is in near polar orbit, another is in near equatorial orbit; compensate CLUSTER II 4 satellites, to form 6 points measurements and to detect the 3-D small-scale structures and spatial-temporal variations of magnetosphere. ESA will provide several experiment payloads, which are identical to that of CLUSTER II, include Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM), Active Spacecraft Potential Control experiment (ASPOC), Spatial- Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation experiment (STAFF), Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE), Hot Ion Analyzer (HIA) etc. China will provide the launcher, the satellite platform and several experiment payloads, include Heave Ion Detector (HID), High Energy Electron Detector (HEED), High Energy Proton Detector (HEPD), Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Detector etc. In order to reduce the cost, all the experiment payloads provided by ESA keep the same with that of CLUSTER II, include all interfaces even for data acquisition sequence. However the satellites and the interfaces of the payloads from China are different form CLUSTER II, so how to handle the data of the experiments became a challenge problem for the DSP. CSSAR designed a Payload Service System (PSS) to bridge the gap. PSS is a distributed system based on the 1553B data bus, it is consist of Bus Controller, Soiled State Recorder, High Rate Multiplexer, Remote Terminal, S-band Transmitter and Power Distributor. In Bus Controller the special interface designed to connect the ESA experiment payloads, which follow the same interface standard with CLUSTER II. All other payloads and instruments access the system via 1553B data bus. PSS acquire the science and housekeeping data of ESA experiments with the same sequence and period as they did in CLUSTER II, but the data will be

  15. Vision-based localization for on-orbit servicing of a partially cooperative satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumer, Nassir W.; Panin, Giorgio; Mülbauer, Quirin; Tseneklidou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes ground-in-the-loop, model-based visual localization system based on transmitted images to ground, to aid rendezvous and docking maneuvers between a servicer and a target satellite. In particular, we assume to deal with a partially cooperative target, i.e. passive and without fiducial markers, but supposed at least to keep a controlled attitude, up to small fluctuations, so that the approach mainly involves translational motion. For the purpose of localization, video cameras provide an effective and relatively inexpensive solution, working at a wide range of distances with an increasing accuracy and robustness during the approach. However, illumination conditions in space are especially challenging, due to the direct sunlight exposure and to the glossy surface of a satellite, that creates strong reflections and saturations and therefore a high level of background clutter and missing detections. We employ a monocular camera for mid-range tracking (20 - 5 m) and stereo camera at close-range (5 - 0.5 m), with the respective detection and tracking methods, both using intensity edges and robustly dealing with the above issues. Our tracking system has been extensively verified at the facility of the European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS) of DLR, which is a very realistic ground simulation able to reproduce sunlight conditions through a high power floodlight source, satellite surface properties using multilayer insulation foils, as well as orbital motion trajectories with ground-truth data, by means of two 6 DOF industrial robots. Results from this large dataset show the effectiveness and robustness of our method against the above difficulties.

  16. The MyOcean Thematic Assembly Centres: Satellite and In-situ Observation Services in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Bruce; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Larnicol, Gilles; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Santoleri, Rosalia; Roquet, Hervé; Stoffelen, Ad

    2015-04-01

    The MyOcean (2009-2012), MyOcean2 (2012-2014) and MyOcean Follow-On (October 2014 - March 2015) projects, respectively funded by the EU's 7th Framework Programme for Research (FP7 2007-2013) and HORIZON 2020 (EU Research and Innovation programme 2014-2020), have been designed to prepare and to lead the demonstration phases of the nascent European Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMS). The observational component of the MyOcean services is embodied in four Thematic Assembly Centres (TACs): Three provide satellite-based products for sea level (SL-TAC), for ocean colour (OC-TAC) and for surface temperature, winds and sea ice (OSI-TAC), while the fourth provides in-situ observations (INS-TAC). All the TAC production is developed from existing capabilities and there is close collaboration with related national and European data providers. Data products include near-real-time data and multi-year reprocessed datasets. Data formatting, dissemination methods and documentation follow uniform MyOcean standards for ease of use. The presentation will track the evolution of the TAC services through the MyOcean projects up to the opening of the CMS.

  17. The HSBQ Algorithm with Triple-play Services for Broadband Hybrid Satellite Constellation Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupon Boriboon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The HSBQ algorithm is the one of active queue management algorithms, which orders to avoid high packet loss rates and control stable stream queue. That is the problem of calculation of the drop probability for both queue length stability and bandwidth fairness. This paper proposes the HSBQ, which drop the packets before the queues overflow at the gateways, so that the end nodes can respond to the congestion before queue overflow. This algorithm uses the change of the average queue length to adjust the amount by which the mark (or drop probability is changed. Moreover it adjusts the queue weight, which is used to estimate the average queue length, based on the rate. The results show that HSBQ algorithm could maintain control stable stream queue better than group of congestion metric without flow information algorithm as the rate of hybrid satellite network changing dramatically, as well as the presented empiric evidences demonstrate that the use of HSBQ algorithm offers a better quality of service than the traditionally queue control mechanisms used in hybrid satellite network.

  18. Fee Increases and Target Income Hypothesis: Data from Quebec on Physicians' Compensation and Service Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Perroux, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed important public investments in physicians' compensation across Canada. The current paper uses data from Quebec to assess the impact of those investments on the volumes of services provided to the population. While total physician compensation costs, average physician compensation and average unit cost per service all rose extremely fast, the total number of services, number of services per capita and average number of services per physician either stagnated or declined. This pattern is compatible with the economic target income hypothesis and raises important policy questions. PMID:24359715

  19. Thicknesses and volumes of glaciers in the Andes of Peru estimated with satellite data and digital terrain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Judith; Colonia, Daniel; Haeberli, Wilfried; Giráldez, Claudia; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The glaciers in the tropical Andes of Peru have been melting at an unprecedented rate in recent years and generally after the Little Ice Age, a cold period that lasted from the 16th to the 19th century. Knowledge of glacier thicknesses and volumes is necessary for evaluating possible future scenarios of glacier shrinkage and of water supply to the Andean populations under conditions of continued warming. Calculation of glacier volumes for 19 mountain ranges in Perú has been based on two ice- thickness modeling methods including an area-related approach with different parameterizations and a slope-dependent approach. Both methods allow for rapid treatment of regional data obtained from satellite imagery and a Digital Elevation Model, integrated into a Geographic Information System. In addition, glacier outlines were obtained from the glacier inventory compiled by the Unit of Glaciology and Water Resources (UGRH) - National Water Authority (ANA) that used satellite imagery (ASTER, SPOT and LISS III from 2003 to 2010) and topographic information acquired from the cartography of the National Geographical Institute (IGN). The volume-area scaling approach resulted in glacier volume of 35.00 km3 and a total volume of 34.39 km3 resulted from the slope-dependent thickness with a thickness approximately 30 m. Estimated results also show a loss of the total ice surface ~42% and glacier volume loss about ~38% in both methods based on the first Glacier Inventory of Peru (from aerial photographs 1962 -1970) performed by HIDRANDINA SA. The results also indicate that volume estimations are subject to large uncertainties. Field measurements of glacier thickness are scarce and locally restricted due to rugged topography, high altitude and heavy crevassing of glaciers. Possibilities of calibrating and validating the applied model approaches are therefore limited. New possibilities nevertheless come into play with slope-dependent approaches, which lead beyond area-related average

  20. TOTAL WOOD VOLUME ESTIMATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES BY IMAGES OF LANDSAT SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fernando Berra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987566Models relating spectral answers with biophysical parameters aim estimate variables, like wood volume, without the necessity of frequent field measurements. The objective was to develop models to estimate wood volume by Landsat 5 TM images, supported by regional forest inventory data. The image was geo-referenced and converted to spectral reflectance. After, the images-index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and SR (Simple Ratio was generated. The reflectance values of the bands (TM1, TM2, TM3 e TM4 and of the indices (NDVI and SR was related with the wood volume. The biggest correlation with volume was with the NDVI and SR indices. The variables selection was made by Stepwise method, which returned three regression models as significant to explain the variation in volume. Finally, the best fitted model was selected (volume = -830,95 + 46,05 (SR + 107,47 (TM2, which was applied on the Landsat image where the pixels had started to represent the estimated volume in m³/ha on the Eucalyptus sp. production units. This model, significant at 95% confidence level, explains 68% of the wood volume variation.

  1. 47 CFR 25.213 - Inter-Service coordination requirements for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MHz band shall be attenuated so that the power flux density it produces in the 1610.6-1613.8 MHz band... Mobile-Satellite Service space station operator in the 2496-2500 MHz band intends to operate at powers... system in the affected geographical region....

  2. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) status and opportunities for satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. M.; Burke, W. R.

    1987-05-01

    The driving force behind the proposed Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) is identified as PTT's and industry. It is doubtful whether ISDN can satisfy business user requirements. For residential users, the prospects are even more uncertain, since the costs associated with the implementation of subscriber loops seem to be out of all proportion to the added value offered to end users in terms of new services. The evolution of IDN in Europe is such that it will leave substantial areas without digital connectivity for many years; morever, the transition from IDN to ISDN still requires the solution of many important problems at different levels of the network. Although ISDN can be expected to be offered gradually at national level in several countries in the coming years, access on a European scale will not be possible to any significant degree before the year 2000 and it will continue to remain unclear whether this offer will correspond to a real demand. It is shown that satellites could be of considerable help in solving Europe's communications problems. By providing instant coverage of the entire West European region, they can offer the benefits of ISDN wherever they are required.

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-09-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  5. Study in the Area of Satellite Meteorology. Volume 1. Mesoscale Weather Analysis and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    and E. J. Wiegman , "Study of Time-Lapse Processing for Dynamic Hydrologie Conditions," Final Report, NASA Contract NAS5-21841...J. Wiegman , R. G. Hadfield, and W. E. Evans, "Electronic System for Utilization of Satellite Cloud Pictures, " Bull. Amer...Photographs," S~mp Research Paper 71, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 25 pp. (1968). 21. S. M. Serebreny, E. J. Wiegman , R. G. Hadfield, and W. E

  6. GAUSS Market Analysis for Integrated Satellite Communication and Navigation Location Based services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fazio, Antonella; Dricot, Fabienne; Tata, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The demand for mobile information services coupled with positioning technologies for delivering value- added services that depend on a user's location has rapidly increased during last years. In particular, services and applications related with improved mobility safety and transport efficiency look very attractive.Solutions for location services vary in respect of positioning accuracy and the technical infrastructure required, and the associated investment in terminals and networks. From the analysis of the state-of-the art, it comes that various technologies are currently available on the European market, while mobile industry is gearing up to launch a wide variety of location services like tracking, alarming and locating.Nevertheless, when addressing safety of life as well as security applications, severe hurdles have to be posed in the light of existing technologies. Existing navigation (e.g. GPS) and communication systems are not able to completely satisfy the needs and requirements of safety-of-life-critical applications. As a matter of fact, the GPS system's main weaknesses today is its lack of integrity, which means its inability to warn users of a malfunction in a reasonable time, while the other positioning techniques do not provide satisfactory accuracy as well, and terrestrial communication networks are not capable to cope with stringent requirement in terms of service reliability and coverage.In this context, GAUSS proposes an innovative satellite-based solution using novel technology and effective tools for addressing mobility challenges in a cost efficient manner, improving safety and effectiveness.GAUSS (Galileo And UMTS Synergetic System) is a Research and Technological Development project co- funded by European Commission, within the frame of the 5th IST Programme. The project lasted two years, and it was successfully completed in November 2002. GAUSS key concept is the integration of Satellite Navigation GNSS and UMTS communication technology, to

  7. A service for the application of data quality information to NASA earth science satellite records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Xing, Z.; Fry, C.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Huang, T.; Chen, G.; Chin, T. M.; Alarcon, C.

    2016-12-01

    A recurring demand in working with satellite-based earth science data records is the need to apply data quality information. Such quality information is often contained within the data files as an array of "flags", but can also be represented by more complex quality descriptions such as combinations of bit flags, or even other ancillary variables that can be applied as thresholds to the geophysical variable of interest. For example, with Level 2 granules from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) project up to 6 independent variables could be used to screen the sea surface temperature measurements on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Quality screening of Level 3 data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrument can be become even more complex, involving 161 unique bit states or conditions a user can screen for. The application of quality information is often a laborious process for the user until they understand the implications of all the flags and bit conditions, and requires iterative approaches using custom software. The Virtual Quality Screening Service, a NASA ACCESS project, is addressing these issues and concerns. The project has developed an infrastructure to expose, apply, and extract quality screening information building off known and proven NASA components for data extraction and subset-by-value, data discovery, and exposure to the user of granule-based quality information. Further sharing of results through well-defined URLs and web service specifications has also been implemented. The presentation will focus on overall description of the technologies and informatics principals employed by the project. Examples of implementations of the end-to-end web service for quality screening with GHRSST and SMAP granules will be demonstrated.

  8. Addressing and Presenting Quality of Satellite Data via Web-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, C.; Ahmad, S.; Fox, P.; Zednik, S.; West, P.

    2011-01-01

    With the recent attention to climate change and proliferation of remote-sensing data utilization, climate model and various environmental monitoring and protection applications have begun to increasingly rely on satellite measurements. Research application users seek good quality satellite data, with uncertainties and biases provided for each data point. However, different communities address remote sensing quality issues rather inconsistently and differently. We describe our attempt to systematically characterize, capture, and provision quality and uncertainty information as it applies to the NASA MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth data product. In particular, we note the semantic differences in quality/bias/uncertainty at the pixel, granule, product, and record levels. We outline various factors contributing to uncertainty or error budget; errors. Web-based science analysis and processing tools allow users to access, analyze, and generate visualizations of data while alleviating users from having directly managing complex data processing operations. These tools provide value by streamlining the data analysis process, but usually shield users from details of the data processing steps, algorithm assumptions, caveats, etc. Correct interpretation of the final analysis requires user understanding of how data has been generated and processed and what potential biases, anomalies, or errors may have been introduced. By providing services that leverage data lineage provenance and domain-expertise, expert systems can be built to aid the user in understanding data sources, processing, and the suitability for use of products generated by the tools. We describe our experiences developing a semantic, provenance-aware, expert-knowledge advisory system applied to NASA Giovanni web-based Earth science data analysis tool as part of the ESTO AIST-funded Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor project.

  9. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  10. The volume and mix of inpatient services provided by academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, E; Valente, E; Levin, R J; Bhak, K J; Griner, P F

    1996-10-01

    This is the first in a series of AAMC Papers that analyze the clinical spectrum of patients treated in the nation's teaching hospitals. As stated in the separate Introduction, "The Transformation of Data into Knowledge," subsequent papers will examine trends in the provision of care to the indigent and make comparisons of quality of care among teaching and non-teaching hospitals. These analyses, carried out by the AAMC's Center for the Assessment and Management of Change in Academic Medicine (CAMCAM), are made possible by a reorganization of the AAMC's information infrastructure, in which many formerly separate databases have been linked. The Introduction concludes with a description of specific AAMC-CAMCAM initiatives that are being planned. This initial analysis examines the volume and mix of clinical services provided by AMCs, examines trends in these services over time, and compares services provided at different AMCs, in different markets, and between AMCs and non-teaching hospitals. Data from a variety of sources were used in these secondary analyses. The American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals database was used to analyze volumes of inpatient services provided in AMCs and other hospitals. The AAMC's Clinical-Administrative Data Service database was used to analyze the volume and mix of clinical services provided in individual AMCs. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research's Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to compare the mix of clinical services provided in AMCs and other hospitals. Volumes of inpatient services in AMCs changed little between 1991 and 1994 and totaled six million hospitalizations, 41 million inpatient days, and two million inpatient surgeries in 1994. The mix of inpatient services in AMCs also showed little variation over time among individual AMCs, in markets with both high and low managed care penetrations, between public and private AMCs, or between AMCs and non-teaching hospitals, with the ten most frequent

  11. Cross-layer design of LT codes and LDPC codes for satellite multimedia broadcast/multicast services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhenbang; Wang Zhenyong; Gu Xuemai; Guo Qing

    2013-01-01

    According to large coverage of satellites, there are various channel states in a satellite broadcasting network. In order to introduce an efficient rateless transmission method to satellite multimedia broadcasting/multicast services with finite-length packets, a cross-layer packet transmis-sion method is proposed with Luby transform (LT) codes for efficiency in the network layer and low density parity check (LDPC) codes for reliability in the physical layer jointly. The codewords gen-erated from an LT encoder are divided into finite-length packets, which are encoded by an LDPC encoder subsequently. Based on noise and fading effects of satellite channels, the LT packets received from an LDPC decoder either have no error or are marked as erased, which can be mod-eled as a binary erasure channels (BECs). By theoretical analysis on LT parameters and LDPC parameters, the relationships between LDPC code rates in the physical layer and LT codes word lengths in the network layer are investigated. With tradeoffs between the LT codes word lengths and the LDPC code rates, optimized cross-layer solutions are achieved with a binary search algo-rithm. Verified by simulations, the proposed solution for cross-layer parameters design can provide the best transmission mode according to satellite states, so as to improve throughput performance for satellite multimedia transmission.

  12. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has a highly competitive alcoholic beverage market. All role players in this market place a huge emphasis on service delivery and customer service.Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations.Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations.Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale.Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction.Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers.Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension. 

  13. The Preliminary Design of a Standardized Spacecraft Bus for Small Tactical Satellites (Volume 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    were to be added, the cost-reliability advantage of commercial-class with redundancy would be reduced. 15.2.6 Conclusion Given today’s push towards...October 1996. 60. Jeffrey, W. "Small Satellites (MSTI-3) for Remote Sensing: Pushing the Limits of Sensor and Bus Technology", SPIE Proceedings...California: The Aerospace Corporation, 1991. 148.U.S. Air Force Home Page, 1996: http://www.af.mil. 409 149.U.S. Congress, Office of Tecnology Assesment

  14. Hybrid Terrestrial-Satellite DVB/IP Infrastructure in Overlay Constellations for Triple-Play Services Access in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pallis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the convergence of digital broadcasting and Internet technologies, by elaborating on the design, implementation, and performance evaluation of a hybrid terrestrial/satellite networking infrastructure, enabling triple-play services access in rural areas. At local/district level, the paper proposes the exploitation of DVB-T platforms in regenerative configurations for creating terrestrial DVB/IP backhaul between the core backbone (in urban areas and a number of intermediate communication nodes distributed within the DVB-T broadcasting footprint (in rural areas. In this way, triple play services that are available at the core backbone, are transferred via the regenerative DVB-T/IP backhaul to the entire district and can be accessed by rural users via the corresponding intermediate node. On the other hand, at regional/national level, the paper proposes the exploitation of a satellite interactive digital video broadcasting platform (DVB S2/RCS as an overlay network that interconnects the regenerative DVB-T/IP platforms, as well as individual users, and services providers, to each other. Performance of the proposed hybrid terrestrial/satellite networking environment is validated through experimental tests that were conducted under real transmission/reception conditions (for the terrestrial segment and via simulation experiments (for the satellite segment at a prototype network infrastructure.

  15. Optical terminal definition for the Future Service Growth (FSG) module of the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (ATDRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ronald C.; Kalil, Ford

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from preliminary analyses and definition studies for an optical terminal's incorporation into the FSG module of the ATDRS system, which must support crosslinks between selected relay satellites of a modified ATDRS constellation and thereby allow the placement of a relay satellite at an orbital location which eliminates the zone of exclusion. These studies have attempted to identify alternative constellations by means of one or more crosslinks, and to formulate the service-routing requirement for the FSG terminal. Attention is given to an FSG optical terminal that furnishes the functionality and performance required for a crosslink terminal.

  16. Optical terminal definition for the Future Service Growth (FSG) module of the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (ATDRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ronald C.; Kalil, Ford

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from preliminary analyses and definition studies for an optical terminal's incorporation into the FSG module of the ATDRS system, which must support crosslinks between selected relay satellites of a modified ATDRS constellation and thereby allow the placement of a relay satellite at an orbital location which eliminates the zone of exclusion. These studies have attempted to identify alternative constellations by means of one or more crosslinks, and to formulate the service-routing requirement for the FSG terminal. Attention is given to an FSG optical terminal that furnishes the functionality and performance required for a crosslink terminal.

  17. Assimilation of Satellite Based Soil Moisture Data in the National Weather Service's Flash Flood Guidance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, D.; Lakhankar, T.; Cosgrove, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and variability increases the probability of frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of flood events. After rainfall, soil moisture is the most important factor dictating flash flooding, since rainfall infiltration and runoff are based on the saturation of the soil. It is difficult to conduct ground-based measurements of soil moisture consistently and regionally. As such, soil moisture is often derived from models and agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) use proxy estimates of soil moisture at the surface in order support operational flood forecasting. In particular, a daily national map of Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) is produced that is based on surface soil moisture deficit and threshold runoff estimates. Flash flood warnings are issued by Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and are underpinned by information from the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) system operated by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs). This study analyzes the accuracy and limitations of the FFG system using reported flash flood cases in 2010 and 2011. The flash flood reports were obtained from the NWS Storm Event database for the Arkansas-Red Basin RFC (ABRFC). The current FFG system at the ABRFC provides gridded flash flood guidance (GFFG) System using the NWS Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) to translate the upper zone soil moisture to estimates of Soil Conservation Service Curve Numbers. Comparison of the GFFG and real-time Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE) for the same duration and location were used to analyze the success of the system. Improved flash flood forecasting requires accurate and high resolution soil surface information. The remote sensing observations of soil moisture can improve the flood forecasting accuracy. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites are two

  18. Developing an Ice Volume Estimate of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska, using Ground-Penetrating Radar and High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N. L.; Campbell, S. W.; Douglas, T. A.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Jarvis Glacier is an important water source for Fort Greely and Delta Junction, Alaska. Yet with warming summer temperatures caused by climate change, the glacier is melting rapidly. Growing concern of a dwindling water supply has caused significant research efforts towards determining future water resources from spring melt and glacier runoff which feeds the community on a yearly basis. The main objective of this project was to determine the total volume of the Jarvis Glacier. In April 2012, a centerline profile of the Jarvis Glacier and 15 km of 100 MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles were collected in cross sections to provide ice depth measurements. These depth measurements were combined with an interpreted glacier boundary (depth = 0 m) from recently collected high resolution WorldView satellite imagery to estimate total ice volume. Ice volume was calculated at 0.62 km3 over a surface area of 8.82 km2. However, it is likely that more glacier-ice exists within Jarvis Glacier watershed considering the value calculated with GPR profiles accounts for only the glacier ice within the valley and not for the valley side wall ice. The GLIMS glacier area database suggests that the valley accounts for approximately 50% of the total ice covered watershed. Hence, we are currently working to improve total ice volume estimates which incorporate the surrounding valley walls. Results from this project will be used in conjunction with climate change estimates and hydrological properties downstream of the glacier to estimate future water resources available to Fort Greely and Delta Junction.

  19. Development of a downstream emergency response service for flood and related risks in Romania based on satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancalie Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the National Meteorological Administration initiated and started to implement user-driven services, based on satellite remote sensing and geo-information capacities. The paper presents this downstream emergency response service whose aim is to provide updated and accurate cartographic information in river flood prevention and post-crisis phase. The service is targeted to develop an interoperable framework for the management of the available geo-information using cutting-edge techniques and satellite data in order to provide high quality and accurate spatial products. An appropriate methodology was developed and tested, in order to process the optical or radar satellite imagery, with medium and high range spatial resolution, to rapid mapping the flood extent, to integrate the information in a GIS environment and finally to obtain standardized, cartographic products. The service is able to provide customized flood geospatial products (updated reference maps for the area affected, near real-time flood delineation maps, maximum flood extent maps, flooded area classification, flood evolution maps, damage assessment maps and reports tailored to specific users and featuring near-real time delivery. A dedicated geo-portal, was developed to display, query, analyse and retrieve the spatial products. The end-users are able to access the system using a simple web browser to view and query the flood related product archive or download the selected products.

  20. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction.

  1. An approach to effective UHF (S/L band) data communications for satellite Personal Communication Service (PCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Joshua Y.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable signaling information transfer is fundamental in supporting the needs of data communication PCS via LMS (Land Mobile Service) SSs (satellite systems). The needs of the system designer can be satisfied only through the collection of media information that can be brought to bear on the pertinent design issues. We at ISI hope to continue our dialogue with fading media experts to address the unique data communications needs of PCS via LMS SSs.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  3. Towards Improved Satellite-In Situ Oceanographic Data Interoperability and Associated Value Added Services at the Podaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies on ocean circulation, the water cycle, and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center, to extend our data management and distribution support capabilities for field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. We also discuss value-added services, based on the integration of satellite and in-situ datasets, which are under development with a particular focus on DOMS. The distributed oceanographic matchup service (DOMS) implements a portable technical infrastructure and associated web services that will be broadly accessible via the PO.DAAC for the dynamic collocation of satellite and in-situ data, hosted by distributed data providers, in support of mission cal/val, science and operational applications.

  4. Crop classification based on multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data for agro-advisory services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karale, Yogita; Mohite, Jayant; Jagyasi, Bhushan

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we envision the use of satellite images coupled with GIS to obtain location specific crop type information in order to disseminate crop specific advises to the farmers. In our ongoing mKRISHI R project, the accurate information about the field level crop type and acreage will help in the agro-advisory services and supply chain planning and management. The key contribution of this paper is the field level crop classification using multi temporal images of Landsat-8 acquired during November 2013 to April 2014. The study area chosen is Vani, Maharashtra, India, from where the field level ground truth information for various crops such as grape, wheat, onion, soybean, tomato, along with fodder and fallow fields has been collected using the mobile application. The ground truth information includes crop type, crop stage and GPS location for 104 farms in the study area with approximate area of 42 hectares. The seven multi-temporal images of the Landsat-8 were used to compute the vegetation indices namely: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) for the study area. The vegetation indices values of the pixels within a field were then averaged to obtain the field level vegetation indices. For each crop, binary classification has been carried out using the feed forward neural network operating on the field level vegetation indices. The classification accuracy for the individual crop was in the range of 74.5% to 97.5% and the overall classification accuracy was found to be 88.49%.

  5. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  6. Greenland ice sheet melt area, volume, and runoff from satellite and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, D.; Box, J. E.; Fausto, R. S.; Petersen, D.; Citterio, M.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.; Steffen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing provides surface melt area and regional mass change. In situ automatic weather station (AWS) data provide a relatively precise, but very local surface mass budget. Combining the two methods allows melt quantification for the entire Greenland ice sheet. We use interpolated near-surface air temperature from the GC-Net and PROMICE AWS networks, and remotely-sensed MODIS surface albedo to calculate melt with a temperature/albedo-index melt model. The calculations make use of albedo, combined with top-of-the-atmosphere solar radiation and cloud cover, to take into account absorbed shortwave radiation, the dominant melt parameter. In so doing the darkening due to the melt-albedo feedback is accounted. Calculated ablation is calibrated using AWS data. Assuming that surface albedo is a first-order indicator of the firn's available pore space and cold content, refreezing is parameterized as a function of it. Meltwater runoff for selected catchments is validated with river discharge data. The product: observation-based daily maps of near-surface air temperature, melt (extent and volume), and runoff for the Greenland ice sheet.

  7. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume III: supplementary reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The appendices presented in this volume support and supplement Volume I of the Energy Extension Service Pilot Program Evaluation Report: The First Year. The appendices contain back-up data and detailed information on energy savings estimation and other analytic procedures. This volume also describes the data sources used for the evaluation. Appendix I presents the Btu estimation procedures used to calculate state-by-state energy savings. Appendix II contains details of the data sources used for the evaluation. Appendix III presents program activity data, budget, and cost per client analyses. Appendix IV, the Multivariate Analysis of EES Survey Data, provides the basis for the Integrating Statistical Analyses. Appendix V describes the rationale and exclusion rules for outlying data points. The final appendix presents program-by-program fuel costs and self-reported savings and investment.

  8. Cyberinfrastructure Initiatives of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. R.; Faundeen, J. L.; Petiteville, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) was established in 1984 in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. CEOS participants are Members, who are national or international governmental organizations who operate civil spaceborne Earth observation satellites, and Associates who are governmental organizations with civil space programs in development or international scientific or governmental bodies who have an interest in and support CEOS objectives. The primary objective of CEOS is to optimize benefits of satellite Earth observations through cooperation of its participants in mission planning and in development of compatible data products, formats, services, applications and policies. To pursue its objectives, CEOS establishes working groups and associated subgroups that focus on relevant areas of interest. While the structure of CEOS has evolved over its lifetime, today there are three permanent working groups. One is the Working Group on Calibration and Validation that addresses sensor-specific calibration and validation and geophysical parameter validation. A second is the Working Group on Education, Training, and Capacity Building that facilitates activities that enhance international education and training in Earth observation techniques, data analysis, interpretation and applications, with a particular focus on developing countries. The third permanent working group is the Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The purpose of WGISS is to promote collaboration in the development of the systems and services based on international standards that manage and supply the Earth observation data and information from participating agencies' missions. WGISS places great emphasis on the use of demonstration projects involving user groups to solve the critical interoperability issues associated with the

  9. Semantic Web Services Challenge, Results from the First Year. Series: Semantic Web And Beyond, Volume 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, C.; Margaria, T.; Lausen, H.; Zaremba, M.

    Explores trade-offs among existing approaches. Reveals strengths and weaknesses of proposed approaches, as well as which aspects of the problem are not yet covered. Introduces software engineering approach to evaluating semantic web services. Service-Oriented Computing is one of the most promising software engineering trends because of the potential to reduce the programming effort for future distributed industrial systems. However, only a small part of this potential rests on the standardization of tools offered by the web services stack. The larger part of this potential rests upon the development of sufficient semantics to automate service orchestration. Currently there are many different approaches to semantic web service descriptions and many frameworks built around them. A common understanding, evaluation scheme, and test bed to compare and classify these frameworks in terms of their capabilities and shortcomings, is necessary to make progress in developing the full potential of Service-Oriented Computing. The Semantic Web Services Challenge is an open source initiative that provides a public evaluation and certification of multiple frameworks on common industrially-relevant problem sets. This edited volume reports on the first results in developing common understanding of the various technologies intended to facilitate the automation of mediation, choreography and discovery for Web Services using semantic annotations. Semantic Web Services Challenge: Results from the First Year is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners and researchers in industry. Professionals can use this book to evaluate SWS technology for their potential practical use. The book is also suitable for advanced-level students in computer science.

  10. An Original Processing Method of Satellite Altimetry for Estimating Water Levels and Volume Fluctuations in a Series of Small Lakes of the Pantanal Wetland Complex in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Costa, Paulo; Oliveira Pereira, Eric; Maillard, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Satellite altimetry is becoming a major tool for measuring water levels in rivers and lakes offering accuracies compatible with many hydrological applications, especially in uninhabited regions of difficult access. The Pantanal is considered the largest tropical wetland in the world and the sparsity of in situ gauging station make remote methods of water level measurements an attractive alternative. This article describes how satellites altimetry data from Envisat and Saral was used to determine water level in two small lakes in the Pantanal. By combining the water level with the water surface area extracted from satellite imagery, water volume fluctuations were also estimated for a few periods. The available algorithms (retrackers) that compute a range solution from the raw waveforms do not always produce reliable measurements in small lakes. This is because the return signal gets often "contaminated" by the surrounding land. To try to solve this, we created a "lake" retracker that rejects waveforms that cannot be attributed to "calm water" and convert them to altitude. Elevation data are stored in a database along with the water surface area to compute the volume fluctuations. Satellite water level time series were also produced and compared with the only nearby in situ gauging station. Although the "lake" retracker worked well with calm water, the presence of waves and other factors was such that the standard "ice1" retracker performed better on the overall. We estimate our water level accuracy to be around 75 cm. Although the return time of both satellites is only 35 days, the next few years promise to bring new altimetry satellite missions that will significantly increase this frequency.

  11. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  12. Do Red Edge and Texture Attributes from High-Resolution Satellite Data Improve Wood Volume Estimation in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Paul; Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha; Brenning, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing-based woody biomass quantification in sparsely-vegetated areas is often limited when using only common broadband vegetation indices as input data for correlation with ground-based measured biomass information. Red edge indices and texture attributes are often suggested as a means...... to overcome this issue. However, clear recommendations on the suitability of specific proxies to provide accurate biomass information in semi-arid to arid environments are still lacking. This study contributes to the understanding of using multispectral high-resolution satellite data (RapidEye), specifically...... red edge and texture attributes, to estimate wood volume in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by scarce vegetation. LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and random forest were used as predictive models relating in situ-measured aboveground standing wood volume to satellite data...

  13. 47 CFR 25.148 - Licensing provisions for the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized orbital location. This requirement does not apply to DBS satellites authorized to operate at the 61.5° W.L. orbital location. DBS applicants seeking to operate from locations other than 61.5° W.L... criteria and technical characteristics contained in Appendices 30 and 30A of the ITU's Radio...

  14. UMR: A utility-maximizing routing algorithm for delay-sensitive service in LEO satellite networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a routing algorithm for delay-sensitive packet transmission in a low earth orbit multi-hop satellite network consists of micro-satellites. The micro-satellite low earth orbit (MS-LEO network endures unstable link connection and frequent link congestion due to the uneven user distribution and the link capacity variations. The proposed routing algorithm, referred to as the utility maximizing routing (UMR algorithm, improve the network utility of the MS-LEO network for carrying flows with strict end-to-end delay bound requirement. In UMR, first, a link state parameter is defined to capture the link reliability on continuing to keep the end-to-end delay into constraint; then, on the basis of this parameter, a routing metric is formulated and a routing scheme is designed for balancing the reliability in delay bound guarantee among paths and building a path maximizing the network utility expectation. While the UMR algorithm has many advantages, it may result in a higher blocking rate of new calls. This phenomenon is discussed and a weight factor is introduced into UMR to provide a flexible performance option for network operator. A set of simulations are conducted to verify the good performance of UMR, in terms of balancing the traffic distribution on inter-satellite links, reducing the flow interruption rate, and improving the network utility.

  15. Model of the Availability of Satellite Navigational Systems Asg-Eupos and Rtk Services in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczak, Bartlomiej; Maciejczyk, Olga

    Geodetic precision gravity field satellite missions are to determine Earth gravity field with a high spatial resolution and accuracy. In order to carry out a successful gravity field stallite mission non-gravitational forces acting upon the spacecraft need to be either compensated or measured and thereafter corrected as they distort the actual gravity signal. These non-gravitational forces can be detected and determined by an onboard accelerometer. However, in many cases not only non-gravitational effects are detected, but also noise signals which are self-induced by the satellites onboard instruments. This study shall give a brief overview about the effects acting upon geodetic precision space laboratories, that ought to be regarded in order to realise a smooth functioning of a gravity field mission. Abstract In this study the focus will be upon the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) gravity field satellite mission, concerning the impacts that onboard instruments used for attitude and orbit control as well as thermal control have onto the accelerometer and what impact this can have onto the gravity field determined by the GRACE twin satellites. As the GRACE twin satellites can only operate successfully if they are maintained in the same orbit and in a certrain orientation to each other, the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) is mandatory. This AOCS determines whether the onboard cold-gas thrusters, which are used for both orbit and attitude recovery, are fired and also the duration of the firing event. Moreover, the AOCS controls the three onboard magnetic torquers, which only can be used for attitude restorage. The acceleration disturbances induced by instruments for attitude and orbit restorage can be as high as 20 nm/s2 due to magnetic torquer activity and 0.6 µm/s2 due to thruster firing events.

  16. Study of Traffic Volume and Level of Service of Panjab University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandigarh Bhavneet Singh,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant effort has been made in order to study the Traffic Volume of Panjab University Campus, Chandigarh. Established in 1882, Panjab University is one of the oldest universities in India. As one of the most renowned Universities in India, Panjab University itself attracts a lot of vehicular population. The Panjab University itself becomes a major traffic generator in a way. Campus is large and contains places to work, learn, socialize and live each with its own trip purpose. In recent years, usage of automobiles on campus has increased considerably. In addition to going to class, students also are likely to use vehicles for employment, recreation, shopping and social activities. The objective of the study is to analyze the prevailing traffic conditions on the University roads. Traffic Volume study is carried out in the campus and existing level of service is calculated.Due to mixed nature of traffic it gets difficult to accommodate all the kinds of traffic on these roads. The basic problem arises during the peak hours of the day when the traffic volume is highest on the road. The volume study were done at Gate no.1 and Gate no. 2 which are the major entry points in the University. The data was analyzed for the peak hour of traffic.

  17. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume II: pilot state reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Volume II of the Energy Extension Service Evaluation presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot-state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement a 19-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. Volume II provides a case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each state, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each state for more detailed study and survey research. Some survey data and analysis are presented for the emphasis programs.

  18. The evolution of Earth Observation satellites in Europe and its impact on the performance of emergency response services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gil; de Boissezon, Hélène; Hosford, Steven; Pasco, Xavier; Montfort, Bruno; Ranera, Franck

    2016-10-01

    The paper reviews the evolution of Earth Observation systems in Europe and Worldwide and analyses the potential impact of their performance in support of emergency response services. Earth Observation satellites play already a significant role in supporting the action of first responders in case of major disasters. The main principle is the coordinated use of satellites in order to ensure a rapid response and the timely delivery of images and geospatial information of the area affected by the event. The first part of the paper reviews the main instruments and evaluates their current performance. The International Charter "Space and Major Disasters", signed in October 2000, was the first international initiative aimed at establishing a unified system for the acquisition of space data. The charter is a cooperation agreement between space agencies and operators of space systems. At regional level, a similar instrument exists in Asia: Sentinel-Asia. In the frame of the European programme Copernicus, the emergency management service was launched in 2009. Geo-information products derived from space imagery are delivered during all phases of the emergency management cycle, in either rush or non-rush mode, free of charge for the users. In both cases, the capacities were historically drawn from national missions, funded with public money and directly operated by the space agencies or by national operators.

  19. Wildland fire management. Volume 2: Wildland fire control 1985-1995. [satellite information system for California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveker, D. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary design of a satellite plus computer earth resources information system is proposed for potential uses in fire prevention and control in the wildland fire community. Suggested are satellite characteristics, sensor characteristics, discrimination algorithms, data communication techniques, data processing requirements, display characteristics, and costs in achieving the integrated wildland fire information system.

  20. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-09-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  1. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  2. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.

  3. Generation of Digital Surface Models from satellite photogrammetry: the DSM-OPT service of the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Michéa, David; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The continuously increasing fleet of agile stereo-capable very-high resolution (VHR) optical satellites has facilitated the acquisition of multi-view images of the earth surface. Theoretical revisit times have been reduced to less than one day and the highest spatial resolution which is commercially available amounts now to 30 cm/pixel. Digital Surface Models (DSM) and point clouds computed from such satellite stereo-acquisitions can provide valuable input for studies in geomorphology, tectonics, glaciology, hydrology and urban remote sensing The photogrammetric processing, however, still requires significant expertise, computational resources and costly commercial software. To enable a large Earth Science community (researcher and end-users) to process easily and rapidly VHR multi-view images, the work targets the implementation of a fully automatic satellite-photogrammetry pipeline (i.e DSM-OPT) on the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP). The implemented pipeline is based on the open-source photogrammetry library MicMac [1] and is designed for distributed processing on a cloud-based infrastructure. The service can be employed in pre-defined processing modes (i.e. urban, plain, hilly, and mountainous environments) or in an advanced processing mode (i.e. in which expert-users have the possibility to adapt the processing parameters to their specific applications). Four representative use cases are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the resulting surface models and ortho-images as well as the overall processing time. These use cases consisted of the construction of surface models from series of Pléiades images for four applications: urban analysis (Strasbourg, France), landslide detection in mountainous environments (South French Alps), co-seismic deformation in mountain environments (Central Italy earthquake sequence of 2016) and fault recognition for paleo-tectonic analysis (North-East India). Comparisons of the satellite-derived topography to airborne

  4. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 12; Comparison of Satellite Global Rainfall Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Max J. (Editor); Chang, Alfred T. C.; Chiu, Long S.

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen months of rainfall data (August 1987-December 1988) from nine satellite rainfall algorithms (Adler, Chang, Kummerow, Prabhakara, Huffman, Spencer, Susskind, and Wu) were analyzed to examine the uncertainty of satellite-derived rainfall estimates. The variability among algorithms, measured as the standard deviation computed from the ensemble of algorithms, shows regions of high algorithm variability tend to coincide with regions of high rain rates. Histograms of pattern correlation (PC) between algorithms suggest a bimodal distribution, with separation at a PC-value of about 0.85. Applying this threshold as a criteria for similarity, our analyses show that algorithms using the same sensor or satellite input tend to be similar, suggesting the dominance of sampling errors in these satellite estimates.

  5. Telerobotic Satellite Servicing for Space System Life Extension and Performance Enhancement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By examining the occurrence rates and types of actual on-orbit failures, a failure servicing industry can be projected. Similarly, by examining the lifetimes of...

  6. LOOPUS Mob-D: System concept for a public mobile satellite system providing integrated digital services for the Northern Hemisphere from an elliptical orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlen, H.; Horn, P.

    1990-08-01

    A new concept for a satellite based public mobile communications system LOOPUS Mob-D is introduced where most of the 'classical' problems in mobile satellite systems are approached in a different way. The LOOPUS system will offer a total capacity of 6000 high rate channel in three service areas (Europe, Asia, and North America) covering the entire Northern Hemisphere with a set of group special mobile (GSM) compatible mobile services eventually providing the 'office in the car'. Special characteristics of the LOOPUS orbit and the communications network architecture are highlighted.

  7. The validation service of the hydrological SAF geostationary and polar satellite precipitation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puca, S.; Porcu, F.; Rinollo, A.; Vulpiani, G.; Baguis, P.; Balabanova, S.; Campione, E.; Ertürk, A.; Gabellani, S.; Iwanski, R.; Jurašek, M.; Kaňák, J.; Kerényi, J.; Koshinchanov, G.; Kozinarova, G.; Krahe, P.; Lapeta, B.; Lábó, E.; Milani, L.; Okon, L'.; Öztopal, A.; Pagliara, P.; Pignone, F.; Rachimow, C.; Rebora, N.; Roulin, E.; Sönmez, I.; Toniazzo, A.; Biron, D.; Casella, D.; Cattani, E.; Dietrich, S.; Di Paola, F.; Laviola, S.; Levizzani, V.; Melfi, D.; Mugnai, A.; Panegrossi, G.; Petracca, M.; Sanò, P.; Zauli, F.; Rosci, P.; De Leonibus, L.; Agosta, E.; Gattari, F.

    2014-04-01

    The development phase (DP) of the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility for Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) led to the design and implementation of several precipitation products, after 5 yr (2005-2010) of activity. Presently, five precipitation estimation algorithms based on data from passive microwave and infrared sensors, on board geostationary and sun-synchronous platforms, function in operational mode at the H-SAF hosting institute to provide near real-time precipitation products at different spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to evaluate the precipitation product accuracy, a validation activity has been established since the beginning of the project. A Precipitation Product Validation Group (PPVG) works in parallel with the development of the estimation algorithms with two aims: to provide the algorithm developers with indications to refine algorithms and products, and to evaluate the error structure to be associated with the operational products. In this paper, the framework of the PPVG is presented: (a) the characteristics of the ground reference data available to H-SAF (i.e. radar and rain gauge networks), (b) the agreed upon validation strategy settled among the eight European countries participating in the PPVG, and (c) the steps of the validation procedures. The quality of the reference data is discussed, and the efforts for its improvement are outlined, with special emphasis on the definition of a ground radar quality map and on the implementation of a suitable rain gauge interpolation algorithm. The work done during the H-SAF development phase has led the PPVG to converge into a common validation procedure among the members, taking advantage of the experience acquired by each one of them in the validation of H-SAF products. The methodology is presented here, indicating the main steps of the validation procedure (ground data quality control, spatial interpolation, up-scaling of radar data vs. satellite grid

  8. An allotment planning concept and related computer software for planning the fixed satellite service at the 1988 space WARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward F.; Heyward, Ann O.; Ponchak, Denise S.; Spence, Rodney L.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Zuzek, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a two-phase approach to allotment planning suitable for use in establishing the fixed satellite service at the 1988 Space World Administrative Radio Conference (ORB-88). The two phases are (1) the identification of predetermined geostationary arc segments common togroups of administrations, and (2) the use of a synthesis program to identify example scenarios of space station placements. The planning approach is described in detail and is related to the objectives of the confernece. Computer software has been developed to implement the concepts, and a complete discussion on the logic and rationale for identifying predetermined arc segments is given. Example scenarios are evaluated to give guidance in the selection of the technical characteristics of space communications systems to be planned. The allotment planning concept described guarantees in practice equitable access to the geostationary orbit, provides flexibility in implementation, and reduces the need for coordination among administrations.

  9. Analysis of broadcasting satellite service feeder link power control and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical analyses of carrier to interference power ratios (C/Is) were performed in assessing 17.5 GHz feeder links using (1) fixed power and power control, and (2) orthogonal linear and orthogonal circular polarizations. The analysis methods and attenuation/depolarization data base were based on CCIR findings to the greatest possible extent. Feeder links using adaptive power control were found to neither cause or suffer significant C/I degradation relative to that for fixed power feeder links having similar or less stringent availability objectives. The C/Is for sharing between orthogonal linearly polarized feeder links were found to be significantly higher than those for circular polarization only in links to nominally colocated satellites from nominally colocated Earth stations in high attenuation environments.

  10. South African Weather Service operational satellite based precipitation estimation technique: applications and improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Coning

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather related to heavy or more frequent precipitation events seem to be a likely possibility for the future of our planet. While precipitation measurements can be done by means of rain gauges, the obvious disadvantages of point measurements are driving meteorologists towards remotely sensed precipitation methods. In South Africa more sophisticated and expensive nowcasting technology such as radar and lightning networks are available, supported by a fairly dense rain gauge network of about 1500 gauges. In the rest of southern Africa rainfall measurements are more difficult to obtain. The availability of the local version of the Unified Model and the Meteosat Second Generation satellite data make these products ideal components of precipitation measurement in data sparse regions such as Africa. In this article the local version of the Hydroestimator (originally from NOAA/NESDIS is discussed as well as its applications for precipitation measurement in this region. Hourly accumulations of the Hydroestimator are currently used as a satellite based precipitation estimator for the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. However, the Hydroestimator is by no means a perfect representation of the real rainfall. In this study the Hydroestimator and the stratiform rainfall field from the Unified Model are both bias corrected and then combined into a new precipitation field which can feed into the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. This new product should provide a more accurate and comprehensive input to the Flash Flood Guidance systems in South Africa as well as southern Africa. In this way the southern African region where data is sparse and very few radars are available can have access to more accurate flash flood guidance.

  11. Service Oriented Architecture for Remote Sensing Satellite Telemetry Data Implemented on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah El-Sharkawi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper articulates how Service Oriented Architecture (SOA and cloud computing together can facilitate technology setup in Telemetry (TM processing with a case study from the Egyptian space program (ESP and a comparative study with space situational awareness (SSA program in European space agency (ESA, Moreover, this paper illustrates how cloud computing services and deployment models enable software and hardware decoupling and making flexible TM data analysis possible. The large amount of available computational resources facilitates a shift in approaches to software development, deployment and operations.

  12. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 42; Satellite Primary Productivity Data and Algorithm Development: A Science Plan for Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Paul G.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Balch, William; Campbell, Janet W.; Iverson, Richard L.; Kiefer, Dale A.; Morel, Andre; Yoder, James A.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Two issues regarding primary productivity, as it pertains to the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) are presented in this volume. Chapter 1 describes the development of a science plan for deriving primary production for the world ocean using satellite measurements, by the Ocean Primary Productivity Working Group (OPPWG). Chapter 2 presents discussions by the same group, of algorithm classification, algorithm parameterization and data availability, algorithm testing and validation, and the benefits of a consensus primary productivity algorithm.

  13. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring Consistent Utility Across GPS Design Builds for Space Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen

    2015-01-01

    GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.

  14. The use of Enterprise Service Bus to transfer large volumes of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Górski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of Enterprise Service Bus (ESB to handle transfer of large volumes of data between IT systems. The use of ESB may affect the reduction of operating costs of the public entity minimizing the number of connections between systems, shortening the time of integration with external systems and increasing the reusability of software written. The design of integration was done according to the ‘1+5’ architectural views model adjusted to the integration solutions description. The previously proposed UML profile UML Profile for Integration Platform has been used. We present the solution, on a specific case study of Agricultural and Food Quality Inspection (AFQI (www.ijhars.gov.pl, showing how fast data can be transferred electronically using an ESB. Finally, benefits of the solution were analysed in the context of the reduced time of data transfer.

  15. Adherence to enhanced recovery after surgery protocols across a high-volume gastrointestinal surgical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, John S; Humphries, Sarah; Simson, Nick; Scrimshaw, Helen; Catton, James; Gornall, Christopher; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been shown to improve outcomes for patients following gastrointestinal surgery. Data on protocol adherence and how this impacts on outcome are limited. This study examines how protocol adherence changes over time and determines how this impacts on outcome across a large-volume gastrointestinal surgical service. A prospective review of patients eligible for colorectal, liver and oesophagogastric ERAS over two 3-month periods in 2010 and 2011 was performed. End points included: length of stay (LOS), overall protocol adherence, individual modality adherence, reason for pathway deviation and patient outcomes. 172 patients (110 colorectal, 31 liver and 31 oesophagogastric) were evaluated. For each sub-speciality, the introduction of ERAS led to significant reductions in LOS that were sustained for the duration of the study. Adherence was achieved across 60% (colorectal), 75% (liver) and 88% (oesophagogastric) of individual pathway modalities. The major causes of pathway deviation were: post-operative nausea and vomiting (colorectal), pain (liver) and pulmonary complications (oesophagogastric). Large-scale implementation of ERAS at a high-volume centre is feasible and offers many of the benefits demonstrated in controlled trials, but adherence may diminish over time. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Usage of Geoprocessing Services in Precision Forestry for Wood Volume Calculation and Wind Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mikita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the idea of a precision forestry tool for optimizing clearcut size and shape within the process of forest recovery and its publishing in the form of a web processing service for forest owners on the Internet. The designed tool titled COWRAS (Clearcut Optimization and Wind Risk Assessment is developed for optimization of clearcuts (their location, shape, size, and orientation with subsequent wind risk assessment. The tool primarily works with airborne LiDAR data previously processed to the form of a digital surface model (DSM and a digital elevation model (DEM. In the first step, the growing stock on the planned clearcut determined by its location and area in feature class is calculated (by the method of individual tree detection. Subsequently tree heights from canopy height model (CHM are extracted and then diameters at breast height (DBH and wood volume using the regressions are calculated. Information about wood volume of each tree in the clearcut is exported and summarized in a table. In the next step, all trees in the clearcut are removed and a new DSM without trees in the clearcut is generated. This canopy model subsequently serves as an input for evaluation of wind risk damage by the MAXTOPEX tool (Mikita et al., 2012. In the final raster, predisposition of uncovered forest stand edges (around the clearcut to wind risk is calculated based on this analysis. The entire tool works in the background of ArcGIS server as a spatial decision support system for foresters.

  17. Cloud-based Web Services for Near-Real-Time Web access to NPP Satellite Imagery and other Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    We are building a scalable, cloud computing-based infrastructure for Web access to near-real-time data products synthesized from the U.S. National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) and other geospatial and meteorological data. Given recent and ongoing changes in the the NPP and NPOESS programs (now Joint Polar Satellite System), the need for timely delivery of NPP data is urgent. We propose an alternative to a traditional, centralized ground segment, using distributed Direct Broadcast facilities linked to industry-standard Web services by a streamlined processing chain running in a scalable cloud computing environment. Our processing chain, currently implemented on Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), retrieves raw data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and synthesizes data products such as Sea-Surface Temperature, Vegetation Indices, etc. The cloud computing approach lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations (twice daily) in both end-user demand and data availability from polar-orbiting sensors. Early prototypes have delivered various data products to end-users with latencies between 6 and 32 minutes. We have begun to replicate machine instances in the cloud, so as to reduce latency and maintain near-real time data access regardless of increased data input rates or user demand -- all at quite moderate monthly costs. Our service-based approach (in which users invoke software processes on a Web-accessible server) facilitates access into datasets of arbitrary size and resolution, and allows users to request and receive tailored and composite (e.g., false-color multiband) products on demand. To facilitate broad impact and adoption of our technology, we have emphasized open, industry-standard software interfaces and open source software. Through our work, we envision the widespread establishment of similar, derived, or interoperable systems for

  18. Web Based Rapid Mapping of Disaster Areas using Satellite Images, Web Processing Service, Web Mapping Service, Frequency Based Change Detection Algorithm and J-iView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandibas, J. C.; Takarada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Timely identification of areas affected by natural disasters is very important for a successful rescue and effective emergency relief efforts. This research focuses on the development of a cost effective and efficient system of identifying areas affected by natural disasters, and the efficient distribution of the information. The developed system is composed of 3 modules which are the Web Processing Service (WPS), Web Map Service (WMS) and the user interface provided by J-iView (fig. 1). WPS is an online system that provides computation, storage and data access services. In this study, the WPS module provides online access of the software implementing the developed frequency based change detection algorithm for the identification of areas affected by natural disasters. It also sends requests to WMS servers to get the remotely sensed data to be used in the computation. WMS is a standard protocol that provides a simple HTTP interface for requesting geo-registered map images from one or more geospatial databases. In this research, the WMS component provides remote access of the satellite images which are used as inputs for land cover change detection. The user interface in this system is provided by J-iView, which is an online mapping system developed at the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ). The 3 modules are seamlessly integrated into a single package using J-iView, which could rapidly generate a map of disaster areas that is instantaneously viewable online. The developed system was tested using ASTER images covering the areas damaged by the March 11, 2011 tsunami in northeastern Japan. The developed system efficiently generated a map showing areas devastated by the tsunami. Based on the initial results of the study, the developed system proved to be a useful tool for emergency workers to quickly identify areas affected by natural disasters.

  19. A series on optimizing satellite systems. I - Restoring interruptions of communications sattelite service: Logistical and cost comparisons of mature and newly operational systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Marcellus S.

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented of costs and operational factors involved in provision for service interruptions of both a mature and typically large incumbent satellite system and of a smaller, more recently operational system. The equation expresses the required launch frequency for the new system as a function of the launch spacing of the mature system; the time disparity between the inauguration of the two systems; and the rate of capacity depreciation. In addition, a technique is presented to compare the relative extent to which the discounted costs of the new system exceed those of the mature system in furnishing the same effective capacity in orbit, and thus the same service liability, at a given point in time. It is determined that a mature incumbent communications satellite system, having more capacity in orbit, will on balance have a lower probability of service interruption than a newer, smaller system.

  20. The use of Standard OGC Web Services in Integrating Distributed Model, Satellite and In-situ Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, A. L.; Blower, J.; Haines, K.; Price, M.; Millard, K.; Harpham, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Earth scientists use highly diverse sources of data, including in-situ measurements, remotely-sensed information and the results of numerical simulations. Thus there is often a large amount of data available to tackle a given problem. The challenge is how best to integrate these diverse data sources in a manner which will not only provide an effective solution to the problem at hand, but which will maximise both interoperability with other projects and reuseability for problems that still lie in the future. We present a web portal that visualizes and compares physical and biological marine data from numerical models, satellites, and in-situ observations. The model data are obtained via an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compatible Web Map Service (WMS), and the observed data are obtained via an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS). The physical model WMS, the biological model WMS and the WFS are located at three different institutes, and the actual data themselves are hosted at over 20 institutes around Europe and accessed via OPeNDAP and THREDDS. The use of CF-compliant NetCDF files, and Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) increases the ease of data integration in this project. This ability to display in-situ point observations alongside model and satellite data facilitates much valuable work on model validation. As models become increasingly complex, and sources of observed data become more numerous, it is important to be able to access and compare this growing amount of data efficiently, to ensure cross-checking and consistency between models and observations. The web portal is being applied in a large European operational oceanography project (ECOOP), where it is used to provide support to modellers and in-situ data providers alike. A number of problems with model and in-situ datasets have been detected and corrected thanks to the ability to intercompare data sources and look for inconsistencies which might otherwise go undetected. The portal also serves as a

  1. 47 CFR 1.4000 - Restrictions impairing reception of television broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite services or multichannel multipoint distribution services. 1... Broadcast Satellite Services, or Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services or the Ability To Receive or... broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite services or multichannel multipoint distribution services....

  2. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume II. State reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This report, Vol. II, presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1979. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement an 18-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. In September 1978, each State received an additional $370,000 for service-delivery programs for the extension of the pilot program, April 1979 through September 1979. A case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each State is provided here, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each State for more-detailed study and survey research. Although the thrust of this volume is descriptive, some survey data and analyses are presented for the emphasis programs. Two telephone surveys of clients and a non-client sample were conducted, one at the end of the first year of the pilot program (October 1977 - September 1978) and one at the end of the second year (October 1978 - September 1979).

  3. Land cover mapping of the National Park Service northwest Alaska management area using Landsat multispectral and thematic mapper satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, C.J.; Wesser, Sara

    1998-01-01

    A land cover map of the National Park Service northwest Alaska management area was produced using digitally processed Landsat data. These and other environmental data were incorporated into a geographic information system to provide baseline information about the nature and extent of resources present in this northwest Alaskan environment.This report details the methodology, depicts vegetation profiles of the surrounding landscape, and describes the different vegetation types mapped. Portions of nine Landsat satellite (multispectral scanner and thematic mapper) scenes were used to produce a land cover map of the Cape Krusenstern National Monument and Noatak National Preserve and to update an existing land cover map of Kobuk Valley National Park Valley National Park. A Bayesian multivariate classifier was applied to the multispectral data sets, followed by the application of ancillary data (elevation, slope, aspect, soils, watersheds, and geology) to enhance the spectral separation of classes into more meaningful vegetation types. The resulting land cover map contains six major land cover categories (forest, shrub, herbaceous, sparse/barren, water, other) and 19 subclasses encompassing 7 million hectares. General narratives of the distribution of the subclasses throughout the project area are given along with vegetation profiles showing common relationships between topographic gradients and vegetation communities.

  4. Study of the value of information and the effect on value of intermediary organizations, timeliness of services and products, and comprehensiveness of the EDB. Volume 1, Volume 2, and Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Sweet, E.A.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.; Roderer, N.K.

    1984-09-01

    A previous study demonstrated that energy information has substantial value when considered from the standpoints of amount of use, purposes of use, and value measured by what users are willing to pay for the information and the savings in labor, equipment, etc., derived from use of the information. Furthermore, energy information services and products derived from the Energy Data Base clearly contribute greatly to the value of energy information by making it more accessible and, therefore, more usable. The purpose of this study was to determine what contribution intermediary information transfer organizations such as libraries and information analysis centers make to the value of information. Also, other factors such as timeliness of primary publishing and distribution and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base were considered to be important as well. The results are presented in 3 sections (volumes). Volume 1 gives an analysis of the value of the services provided by libraries. The library study estimated the value of library services (in terms of willingness to pay and savings). It also provided the relationships of the use of library services and factors such as performance attributes (i.e., quality and timeliness of services), distance to the library, awareness of services and economics of library use. Volume 2 gives results of a study of two software Information Analysis Centers and the value of software that is attributable to the centers. Volume 3 provides an analysis of the value of the timeliness and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  5. Evaluation of the Tri-Service Laboratory System. Volume 1. Overview and Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-20

    Oakland had the SMAC (high-volume chemistry analyzer ), Coulter S+ (high volume * -instrument used in hematology) and Clintech instruments on-line. Wright...Patterson had only the Hycel (high-volume chemistry analyzer ) on-line. Eisenhower had the SMAC, ABA 200, Clintech, Beckman Astron, and Coulter S

  6. Integrated orbital servicing study follow-on. Volume 2: Technical analysis and system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In-orbit service functional and physical requirements to support both low and high Earth orbit servicing/maintenance operations were defined, an optimum servicing system configuration was developed and mockups and early prototype hardware were fabricated to demonstrate and validate the concepts selected. Significant issues addressed include criteria for concept selection; representative mission equipment and approaches to their design for serviceability; significant serviceable spacecraft design aspects; servicer mechanism operation in one-g; approaches for the demonstration/simulation; and service mechanism structure design approach.

  7. IMPGSS - International Medical Program Global Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    additional comments regarding the significance of working with Tachyon and NASK under this Contract). 5.2.5 Requirements - Country/Region Assessments...services on a tentative exploratory basis by Tachyon ]. 5.2.7 Program Development Deliverable A 007 This is currently summarized in the Program Content...based satellite transmissions and transmission pricing based on segmented, limited use data volumes via Tachyon . " A more involved use of evaluation

  8. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren

    2015-03-01

    In the current wake of mission plans to the Moon and to Earth-Moon Libration points (EML) by several agencies and organizations, TYCHO identifies the key role of telecommunication provision for the future path of lunar exploration. It demonstrates an interesting extension to existing communication methods to the Moon and beyond by combining innovative technology with a next frontier location and the commercial space communication sector. It is evident that all communication systems will rely on direct communication to Earth ground stations. In case of EML-2 missions around HALO orbits or bases on the far side of the Moon, it has to be extended by communication links via relay stations. The innovative approach is that TYCHO provides this relay communication to those out-of-sight lunar missions as a service. TYCHO will establish a new infrastructure for future missions and even create a new market for add-on relay services. The TMA-0 satellite is TYCHO's first phase and a proposed demonstrator mission to the Earth-Moon Libration point EML-4. It demonstrates relay services needed for automated exploratory and manned missions (Moon bases) on the rim (>90°E and >90°W) and far side surface, to lunar orbits and even to EML-2 halo orbits (satellites and space stations). Its main advantage is the permanent availability of communication coverage. This will provide full access to scientific and telemetry data and furthermore to crucial medical monitoring and safety. The communication subsystem is a platform for conventional communication but also a test-bed for optical communication with high data-rate LASER links to serve the future needs of manned bases and periodic burst data-transfer from lunar poles. The operational TMA-1 satellite is a stand-alone mission integrated into existing space communication networks to provide open communication service to external lunar missions. Therefore the long-time stable libration points EML-4 and -5 are selected to guarantee an

  9. Derivation and Validation of Supraglacial Lake Volumes on the Greenland Ice Sheet from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Mahsa S.; Abdalati, Waleed; Pope, Allen; Scambos, Ted; Tedesco, Marco; MacFerrin, Michael; Grigsby, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Supraglacial meltwater lakes on the western Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are critical components of its surface hydrology and surface mass balance, and they also affect its ice dynamics. Estimates of lake volume, however, are limited by the availability of in situ measurements of water depth,which in turn also limits the assessment of remotely sensed lake depths. Given the logistical difficulty of collecting physical bathymetric measurements, methods relying upon in situ data are generally restricted to small areas and thus their application to largescale studies is difficult to validate. Here, we produce and validate spaceborne estimates of supraglacial lake volumes across a relatively large area (1250 km(exp 2) of west Greenland's ablation region using data acquired by the WorldView-2 (WV-2) sensor, making use of both its stereo-imaging capability and its meter-scale resolution. We employ spectrally-derived depth retrieval models, which are either based on absolute reflectance (single-channel model) or a ratio of spectral reflectances in two bands (dual-channel model). These models are calibrated by usingWV-2multispectral imagery acquired early in the melt season and depth measurements from a high resolutionWV-2 DEM over the same lake basins when devoid of water. The calibrated models are then validated with different lakes in the area, for which we determined depths. Lake depth estimates based on measurements recorded in WV-2's blue (450-510 nm), green (510-580 nm), and red (630-690 nm) bands and dual-channel modes (blue/green, blue/red, and green/red band combinations) had near-zero bias, an average root-mean-squared deviation of 0.4 m (relative to post-drainage DEMs), and an average volumetric error of b1%. The approach outlined in this study - image-based calibration of depth-retrieval models - significantly improves spaceborne supraglacial bathymetry retrievals, which are completely independent from in situ measurements.

  10. Derivation and Validation of Supraglacial Lake Volumes on the Greenland Ice Sheet from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Mahsa S.; Abdalati, Waleed; Pope, Allen; Scambos, Ted; Tedesco, Marco; MacFerrin, Michael; Grigsby, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Supraglacial meltwater lakes on the western Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are critical components of its surface hydrology and surface mass balance, and they also affect its ice dynamics. Estimates of lake volume, however, are limited by the availability of in situ measurements of water depth,which in turn also limits the assessment of remotely sensed lake depths. Given the logistical difficulty of collecting physical bathymetric measurements, methods relying upon in situ data are generally restricted to small areas and thus their application to largescale studies is difficult to validate. Here, we produce and validate spaceborne estimates of supraglacial lake volumes across a relatively large area (1250 km(exp 2) of west Greenland's ablation region using data acquired by the WorldView-2 (WV-2) sensor, making use of both its stereo-imaging capability and its meter-scale resolution. We employ spectrally-derived depth retrieval models, which are either based on absolute reflectance (single-channel model) or a ratio of spectral reflectances in two bands (dual-channel model). These models are calibrated by usingWV-2multispectral imagery acquired early in the melt season and depth measurements from a high resolutionWV-2 DEM over the same lake basins when devoid of water. The calibrated models are then validated with different lakes in the area, for which we determined depths. Lake depth estimates based on measurements recorded in WV-2's blue (450-510 nm), green (510-580 nm), and red (630-690 nm) bands and dual-channel modes (blue/green, blue/red, and green/red band combinations) had near-zero bias, an average root-mean-squared deviation of 0.4 m (relative to post-drainage DEMs), and an average volumetric error of b1%. The approach outlined in this study - image-based calibration of depth-retrieval models - significantly improves spaceborne supraglacial bathymetry retrievals, which are completely independent from in situ measurements.

  11. Alternative Models of Service, Centralized Machine Operations. Phase II Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Management Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was conducted to determine if the centralization of playback machine operations for the national free library program would be feasible, economical, and desirable. An alternative model of playback machine services was constructed and compared with existing network operations considering both cost and service. The alternative model was…

  12. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  13. HRIS (Highway Research Information Service) Abstracts. Volume 21, Number 4 - Winter 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    HRIS Abstracts is a quarterly publication that provides information about highway and nonrail mass-transit research. It is compiled from computer records of the Highway Research Information Services (HRIS), an important subfile of the Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) data base. The issue consists of four sections: Abstracts of research reports; Source Index listing names and addresses of corporate authors; Author Index; Retrieval Term Index listing subject terms for the HRIS Subject Terms List.

  14. State In-Service Training for Correctional Personnel. Final Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, George W.

    This is part of the final report on a project that focused on the inservice training needs of correctional personnel in the Illinois penal system. Most of this volume is devoted to an overview of existing staff training for line personnel and parole agents; an assessment of unmet training needs; group discussion and other demonstration projects in…

  15. 47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... more than thirty minutes and the cause(s) of such outages; (2) A detailed description of the... information publicly available at the Commission at the time of filing, that they will not cause unacceptable... operate. (2) Applicants for a non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite must identify the power...

  16. The Open Service Signal in Space Navigation Data Comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS and the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS. In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems’ SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  17. The open service signal in space navigation data comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2014-08-19

    More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS) for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA) mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems' SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  18. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume I: evaluation summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The evaluation report of the Energy Extension Service in the 10 pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Wyoming, Washington, Wisconsin - contains 8 chapters. Chapter II describes the methodology and Chapter III summarizes the findings. Chapters IV, V, and VI trace the progression from program operations through client impact to energy savings. Chapter VII analyzes the factors that might contribute to making some programs work more effectively than others. The service delivery programs are divided into 3 categories according to the target audience served: residential homeowners and renters, small businesses, and public institutions. Chapter VIII discusses the implications for the National EES Program. (MCW)

  19. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  20. Rural Libraries: A Forum for Rural Library Service. Volume X, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheller, Rebekah, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    The two issues of the journal "Rural Libraries" for 1990 contain a total of seven articles. "Cooperation and Rural Libraries," by Jackie Schmitt, reports on a nationwide survey of 119 rural libraries' participation in intrastate library cooperatives. "Rural Public Library Service to Native Americans," by Susan Hollaran, outlines strategies for the…

  1. Orbital service module systems analysis study documentation. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Near term, cost effective concepts were defined to augment the power and duration capability offered to shuttle payload users. Feasible concept options that could evolve to provide free-flying power and other services to users in the 1984 time frame were also examined.

  2. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  3. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  4. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 3: Manned Space Station relevance to commercial telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A document containing a forecast of satellite traffic and revelant technology trends to the year 2000 was prepared which includes those space station capabilities and characteristics that should be provided to make the station useful to commercial satellite owners. The document was circulated to key representative organizations within the commercial telecommunications satellite and related communities of interest, including spacecraft manufacturers, commercial satellite owners, communications carriers, networks and risk insurers. The prospectus document is presented as well as the transmittal letter and the mailing list of the people and companies that were asked to review it. Key commercial telecommunications comments are summarized the actual response letters from the industry are included.

  5. HRIS (Highway Research Information Service) Abstracts. Volume 20, Number 4 - Winter 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This publication provides information about highway and nonrail mass-transit research. It is compiled from computer records of the Highway Research Information Services (HRIS), an important subfile of the Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) data base. Each issue consists of four sections: Abstracts of research reports, technical papers in conference proceedings, and journal articles, grouped by subject area; Source Index listing names and addresses of corporate authors; Author Index listing names of personal authors and coauthors of reports, papers, and articles; and Retrieval-Term Index listing subject terms from the HRIS Subject Terms List (with frequency counts), from the HRIS Thesaurus Term List and other terms useful in retrieving abstracts published in the issue.

  6. HRIS (Highway Research Information Service) Abstracts. Volume 21, Number 2 - Summer 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This publication provides information about highway and nonrail mass-transit research. It is compiled from computer records of the Highway Research Information Services (HRIS), an important subfile of the Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) data base. Each issue consists of four sections: Abstracts of research reports, technical papers in conference proceedings, and journal articles, grouped by subject area; Source Index listing names and addresses of corporate authors; Author Index listing names of personal authors and coauthors of reports, papers, and articles; and Retrieval Term Index listing subject terms from the HRIS Subject Terms List (with frequency counts), from the HRIS Thesaurus Term List and other terms useful in retrieving abstracts published in the issue.

  7. HRIS (Highway Research Information Service) Abstracts. Volume 21, Number 1 - Spring 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This publication provides information about highway and nonrail mass-transit research. It is compiled from computer records of the Highway Research Information Services (HRIS), an important subfile of the Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) data base. Each issue consists of four sections: Abstracts of research reports, technical papers in conference proceedings, and journal articles, grouped by subject area; Source Index listing names and addresses of corporate authors; Author Index listing names of personal authors and coauthors of reports, papers, and articles; and Retrieval-Term Index listing subject terms from the HRIS Subject Terms List (with frequency counts), from the HRIS Thesaurus Term List and other terms useful in retrieving abstracts published in the issue.

  8. Space Assembly, Maintenance and Servicing Study. Volume 4: Concept Development Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    spare module stowage rack . In order to perform the change-out in a remote fashion, command, control, and sensor technologies (including associated...thoroughly in the following section on large system assembly. The servicer concept of Fig. 3-2 contains an ORU storage rack and module exchange...construction o Prototype design/fab o Compability/mobility/radiation protection/ stowage tests & eval’s o Define radiation protection requirement

  9. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  10. The space station assembly phase: Flight telerobotic servicer feasibility, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Gyamfi, Max A.; Volkmer, Kent; Zimmerman, Wayne F.

    1987-01-01

    The question is addressed which was raised by the Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF) analysis of the space station: if a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) of a given technical risk could be built for use during space station assembly, could it save significant extravehicular (EVA) resources. Key issues and trade-offs associated with using an FTS to aid in space station assembly phase tasks such as construction and servicing are identified. A methodology is presented that incorporates assessment of candidate assembly phase tasks, telerobotics performance capabilities, development costs, operational constraints (STS and proximity operations), maintenance, attached payloads, and polar platforms. A discussion of the issues is presented with focus on potential FTS roles: (1) as a research-oriented test bed to learn more about space usage of telerobotics; (2) as a research-based test bed with an experimental demonstration orientation and limited assembly and servicing applications; or (3) as an operational system to augment EVA, to aid the construction of the space station, and to reduce the programmatic (schedule) risk by increasing the flexibility of mission operations. During the course of the study, the baseline configuration was modified into Phase 1 (a station assembled in 12 flights), and Phase 2 (a station assembled over a 30 flight period) configuration.

  11. Satellite Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  12. Planning, Designing, Building, and Moving a Large Volume Maternity Service to a New Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Heather; Legorreta, Kimberly; Maher, Mary Ann; Lavin, Melanie M

    Our health system recognized the need to update facility space and associated technology for the labor and birth unit within our large volume perinatal service to improve the patient experience, and enhance safety, quality of care, and staff satisfaction. When an organization decides to invest $30 million dollars in a construction project such as a new labor and birth unit, many factors and considerations are involved. Financial support, planning, design, and construction phases of building a new unit are complex and therefore require strong interdisciplinary collaboration, leadership, and project management. The new labor and birth unit required nearly 3 years of planning, designing, and construction. Patient and family preferences were elicited through consumer focus groups. Multiple meetings with the administrative and nursing leadership teams, staff nurses, nurse midwives, and physicians were held to generate ideas for improvement in the new space. Involving frontline clinicians and childbearing women in the process was critical to success. The labor and birth unit moved to a new patient tower in a space that was doubled in square footage and geographically now on three separate floors. In the 6 months prior to the move, many efforts were made in our community to share our new space. The marketing strategy was very detailed and creative with ongoing input from the nursing leadership team. The nursing staff was involved in every step along the way. It was critical to have champions as workflow teams emerged. We hosted simulation drills and tested scenarios with new workflows. Move day was rehearsed with representatives of all members of the perinatal team participating. These efforts ultimately resulted in a move time of ~5 hours. Birth volumes increased 7% within the first 6 months. After 3 years in our new space, our birth volumes have risen nearly 15% and are still growing. Key processes and roles responsible for a successful build, efficient and safe move

  13. An Overview Of Operational Satellites Built By China: Communications Satellites (Part1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Bo

    2008-01-01

    @@ Communications satellite technology has seen great advances since Decemher 1958 when the Americans launched the first experimental communications satellite.Currently, satellite communications account for over 80 percent of the intercontinental communications traffic and 100 percent of international live TV broadcast, while taking part in domestic and regional services. Moreover, the satellite communication service is showing a favorable continuous growth tendency.

  14. The U.S. Air Service in World War I. Volume IV. Postwar Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    annotation to a mini- mum. All ef the documents reproduced here nave been taken from a microfilm copy of Edgar S. Gorroll, "History of the Air Service, AEF...World War I He directed that such information be sent to Col. Edgar S. Gorrell. Assistant Chief of Staff. who was compiling the history of the Air...piingurvaiuonapigs Commanding ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ orin wither the bebogt2oraie h dsiiitt and ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Orhs Frar’.cc.ri 14 th tulran ilno al o orepc Theion tops

  15. The space station assembly phase: Flight telerobotic servicer feasibility. Volume 2: Methodology and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Gyamfi, Max A.; Volkmer, Kent; Zimmerman, Wayne F.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is described for examining the feasibility of a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) using two assembly scenarios, defined at the EVA task level, for the 30 shuttle flights (beginning with MB-1) over a four-year period. Performing all EVA tasks by crew only is compared to a scenario in which crew EVA is augmented by FTS. A reference FTS concept is used as a technology baseline and life-cycle cost analysis is performed to highlight cost tradeoffs. The methodology, procedure, and data used to complete the analysis are documented in detail.

  16. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-10-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  17. 76 FR 57923 - Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service in the 2310...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... for harmful interference to adjacent spectrum users in the Wireless Communications Service (WCS... repeater operations comply with the Commission's rules regarding RF safety, antenna marking and lighting... the interference concerns raised by WCS licensees. Specifically, the Commission adopted rules to...

  18. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  19. A Web Service Tool (SOAR) for the Dynamic Generation of L1 Grids of Coincident AIRS, AMSU and MODIS Satellite Sounding Radiance Data for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Tilmes, C.; Chapman, D.; Goldberg, M.; Zhou, L.

    2007-05-01

    Three decades of Earth remote sensing from NASA, NOAA and DOD operational and research satellites carrying successive generations of improved atmospheric sounder instruments have resulted in petabytes of radiance data with varying spatial and spectral resolutions being stored at different data archives in various data formats by the respective agencies. This evolution of sounders and the diversities of these archived data sets have led to data processing obstacles limiting the science community from readily accessing and analyzing such long-term climate data records. We address this problem by the development of a web based Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance (SOAR) system built on the SOA paradigm that makes it practical for the science community to dynamically access, manipulate and generate long term records of L1 pre-gridded sounding radiances of coincident multi-sensor data for regions specified according to user chosen criteria. SOAR employs a modification of the standard Client Server interactions that allows users to represent themselves directly to the Process Server through their own web browsers. The browser uses AJAX to request Javascript libraries and DHTML interfaces that define the possible client interactions and communicates the SOAP messages to the Process server allowing for dynamic web dialogs with the user to take place on the fly. The Process Server is also connected to an underlying high performance compute cluster and storage system which provides much of the data processing capabilities required to service the client requests. The compute cluster employs optical communications to NOAA and NASA for accessing the data and under the governance of the Process Server invokes algorithms for on-demand spatial, temporal, and spectral gridding. Scientists can choose from a variety of statistical averaging techniques for compositing satellite observed sounder radiances from the AIRS, AMSU or MODIS instruments to form spatial-temporal grids for

  20. A High Performance Remote Sensing Product Generation System Based on a Service Oriented Architecture for the Next Generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES series R, S, T, U (GOES-R will collect remote sensing data at several orders of magnitude compared to legacy missions, 24 × 7, over its 20-year operational lifecycle. A suite of 34 Earth and space weather products must be produced at low latency for timely delivery to forecasters. A ground system (GS has been developed to meet these challenging requirements, using High Performance Computing (HPC within a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA. This approach provides a robust, flexible architecture to support the operational GS as it generates remote sensing products by ingesting and combining data from multiple sources. Test results show that the system meets the key latency and availability requirements for all products.

  1. Protocoles d'accès multiple orientés qualité de service en constellation de satellite à orbite basse

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Abbas

    2002-01-01

    Pendant les dernières années, le réseau cellulaire est devenu accessible presque partout. Pour compléter ce réseau cellulaire terrestre, plusieurs systèmes basés sur des satellites à basse orbite (LEO Low Earth Orbit) et moyenne orbite (MEO Medium Earth Orbit) ont été développés pour offrir une couverture globale. Les services multimédias sont largement demandés sur une échelle globale.Notre but est de développer une couche d'accès MAC au canal satellitaire tout en respectant les contraintes ...

  2. 基于Meta图的卫星应用信息链服务路径选择%Service path choice of satellite application information chain based on Metagraph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭黎; 谈群; 邱涤珊

    2012-01-01

    The service process of satellite information includes the entire loop. The loop begins when the task request is issued from combat unit and ends until the service response. Metagraph can describe the rule of information status transformation in the whole process from satellite download information requisition to the final satellite application products and service generation. A new modeling method of Satellite Application Information Chain (SAIC) based on Metagraph is proposed. The SAIC service path is calculated using the maximum Metapath iterative algorithm based on incidence matrix. The solution idea of the problem of satellite application analysis, modeling, design and evaluation is expanded. The decision support is provided for the whole service process of satellite application.%卫星信息的服务过程包含从作战单元发出任务请求直至服务响应的整个环路,Meta图能够全过程描述链路从获取卫星下传信息到最终生成卫星应用产品与服务的信息状态转化规律.提出了基于Meta图的卫星应用信息链建模方法,利用基于关联矩阵的最大Meta路迭代算法求解卫星应用信息链服务路径.拓展了解决卫星应用分析、建模、设计、评价问题的思路,为卫星应用的全过程服务提供决策支持.

  3. The relation between media promotions and service volume for a statewide tobacco quitline and a web-based cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillo Barbara A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This observational study assessed the relation between mass media campaigns and service volume for a statewide tobacco cessation quitline and stand-alone web-based cessation program. Methods Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify how weekly calls to a cessation quitline and weekly registrations to a web-based cessation program are related to levels of broadcast media, media campaigns, and media types, controlling for the impact of external and earned media events. Results There was a positive relation between weekly broadcast targeted rating points and the number of weekly calls to a cessation quitline and the number of weekly registrations to a web-based cessation program. Additionally, print secondhand smoke ads and online cessation ads were positively related to weekly quitline calls. Television and radio cessation ads and radio smoke-free law ads were positively related to web program registration levels. There was a positive relation between the number of web registrations and the number of calls to the cessation quitline, with increases in registrations to the web in 1 week corresponding to increases in calls to the quitline in the subsequent week. Web program registration levels were more highly influenced by earned media and other external events than were quitline call volumes. Conclusion Overall, broadcast advertising had a greater impact on registrations for the web program than calls to the quitline. Furthermore, registrations for the web program influenced calls to the quitline. These two findings suggest the evolving roles of web-based cessation programs and Internet-use practices should be considered when creating cessation programs and media campaigns to promote them. Additionally, because different types of media and campaigns were positively associated with calls to the quitline and web registrations, developing mass media campaigns that offer a variety of messages and communicate through

  4. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station outages for more than thirty minutes and the cause(s) of such outages; and (3) Identification of... cause(s) of these difficulties, and the date any space station was taken out of service or the... will comply with all applicable power limits set forth in § 25.214(d)(1) of this chapter and...

  5. Preparing Precipitation Data Access, Value-added Services and Scientific Exploration Tools for the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google: NASA PDISC), located at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC), is home of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. For over 15 years, the GES DISC has served not only TRMM, but also other space-based, airborne-based, field campaign and ground-based precipitation data products to the precipitation community and other disciplinary communities as well. The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products are the most popular products in the TRMM product family in terms of data download and access through Mirador, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) and other services. The next generation of TMPA, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) to be released in 2014 after the launch of GPM, will be significantly improved in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. To better serve the user community, we are preparing data services and samples are listed below. To enable scientific exploration of Earth science data products without going through complicated and often time consuming processes, such as data downloading, data processing, etc., the GES DISC has developed Giovanni in consultation with members of the user community, requesting quick search, subset, analysis and display capabilities for their specific data of interest. For example, the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/) has proven extremely popular, especially as additional datasets have been added upon request. Giovanni will continue to evolve to accommodate GPM data and the multi-sensor data inter-comparisons that will be sure to follow. Additional PDISC tool and service capabilities being adapted for GPM data include: An on-line PDISC Portal (includes user guide, etc

  6. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  7. The Archimedes satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart C.; Shurvinton, William D.

    1992-03-01

    Archimedes is a satellite system conceived by the European Space Agency (ESA) to effectively serve the European market for Mobile Radio Services (MRS). This paper describes the requirements and technical design of the Archimedes satellite system. The underlying assumptions and trade-offs behind the design are detailed and the design is compared and contrasted against alternative design solutions, both technically and economically. A path forward for the development of the system is indicated.

  8. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

  9. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 3. Appendix on service and fuel demands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This book is the third volume of the ISTUM report. The first volume of the report describes the primary model logic and the model's data inputs. The second volume lists and evaluates the results of one model run. This and the fourth volume give supplementary information in two sets of model data - the energy consumption base and technology descriptions. Chapter III of Vol. I, Book 1 describes the ISTUM demand base and explains how that demand base was developed. This volume serves as a set of appendices to that chapter. The chapter on demands in Vol. I describes the assumptions and methodology used in constructing the ISTUM demand base; this volume simply lists tables of data from that demand base. This book divides the demand tables into two appendices. Appendix III-1 contains detailed tables on ISTUM fuel-consumption estimates, service-demand forecasts, and size and load-factor distributions. Appendix III-2 contains tables detailing ISTUM allocations of each industry's fuel consumption to service sectors. The tables show how the ECDB was used to develop the ISTUM demand base.

  10. Land mobile satellite communication system. Volume 2: Traffic analysis and market demand for the land mobile communications system in the European scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.; Capone, R.

    1986-06-01

    The socioeconomic desirability in terms of market demand, technical economic feasibility, and price-performance for a Land Mobile Communication system ground based and/or satellite aided, able to satisfy the request of the traffic demand, foreseable in the 1995-2005 time frame, for the Western European countries was assessed. The criterion of economic value of the mobile system is considered as the driving element. The presence of gaps in the terrestrial system and reasonable traffic extrapolations suggest a very attractive role for a land mobile satellite communications mission.

  11. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  12. Optical intersatellite links - Application to commercial satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D.; Faris, F.; Garlow, R.; Inukai, T.; Pontano, B.; Razdan, R.; Ganz, Aura; Caudill, L.

    1992-01-01

    Application of optical intersatellite links for commercial satellite communications services is addressed in this paper. The feasibility of commercialization centers around basic issues such as the need and derived benefits, implementation complexity and overall cost. In this paper, commercialization of optical ISLs is assessed in terms of the services provided, systems requirements and feasibility of appropriate technology. Both long- and short-range ISLs for GEO-GEO, GEO-LEO and LEO applications are considered. Impact of systems requirements on the payload design and use of advanced technology in reducing its mass, power, and volume requirements are discussed.

  13. A satellite based telemetry link for a UAV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for a satellite based communication facility to service the needs of the Geographical Information System (GIS) data collection community are addressed in this paper. GIS data is supplied in the form of video imagery at sub-television rates in one or more spectral bands / polarizations laced with a position correlated data stream. The limitations and vicissitudes of using a terrestrial based telecommunications link to collect GIS data are illustrated from actual mission scenarios. The expectations from a satellite based communications link by the geophysical data collection community concerning satellite architecture, operating bands, bandwidth, footprint agility, up link and down link hardware configurations on the UAV, the Mobile Control Vehicle and at the Central Command and Data Collection Facility comprise the principle issues discussed in the first section of this paper. The final section of the paper discusses satellite based communication links would have an increased volume and scope of services the GIS data collection community could make available to the GIS user community, and the price the data collection community could afford to pay for access to the communication satellite described in the paper.

  14. Central Satellite Data Repository Supporting Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Brust, J.

    2015-12-01

    Near real-time satellite data is critical to many research and development activities of atmosphere, land, and ocean processes. Acquiring and managing huge volumes of satellite data without (or with less) latency in an organization is always a challenge in the big data age. An organization level data repository is a practical solution to meeting this challenge. The STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR) is a scalable, stable, and reliable repository to acquire, manipulate, and disseminate various types of satellite data in an effective and efficient manner. SCDR collects more than 200 data products, which are commonly used by multiple groups in STAR, from NOAA, GOES, Metop, Suomi NPP, Sentinel, Himawari, and other satellites. The processes of acquisition, recording, retrieval, organization, and dissemination are performed in parallel. Multiple data access interfaces, like FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, and RESTful, are supported in the SCDR to obtain satellite data from their providers through high speed internet. The original satellite data in various raster formats can be parsed in the respective adapter to retrieve data information. The data information is ingested to the corresponding partitioned tables in the central database. All files are distributed equally on the Network File System (NFS) disks to balance the disk load. SCDR provides consistent interfaces (including Perl utility, portal, and RESTful Web service) to locate files of interest easily and quickly and access them directly by over 200 compute servers via NFS. SCDR greatly improves collection and integration of near real-time satellite data, addresses satellite data requirements of scientists and researchers, and facilitates their primary research and development activities.

  15. 75 FR 80425 - Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 and Satellite Home Viewer Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 and Satellite Home Viewer... requirements and provisions of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 (STELA). This model... satellite television service is eligible for delivery of distant network signals from that service....

  16. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  17. COMMENTS, AND LEGAL BRIEF AND COMMENTS, BEFORE THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION, IN THE MATTER OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DOMESTIC NON-COMMON CARRIER COMMUNICATIONS-SATELLITE FACILITIES BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL ENTITIES, DOCKET 16495.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    VOLUME I OF THE FORD FOUNDATION SUBMISSION TO THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION STATES THE FOUNDATION'S COMMITMENT TO EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING, DESCRIBES THE SCOPE, SERVICES, COMPONENTS, AND COST OF A PROPOSED NATIONAL BROADCASTERS' NON-PROFIT SATELLITE SERVICE (BNS), ASSERTS THE SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND OPERATIONAL BENEFITS OF SUCH A SYSTEM, AND…

  18. Oceanography from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  19. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  20. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  1. Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ranjit Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

  2. Satellite theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  3. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) is a joint service satellite communications system that provides global , survivable, secure, protected, and jam...three satellites fully integrated into the Milstar constellation. October 2014: On October 16, 2014, the program received PEO certification for the...Combined Orbital Operation, Logistics Sustainment ( COOLS ) contract, it will be completed and coordinated in CY 2016. The AEHF system being sustained

  4. ISDN - The case for satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.; McDougal, Patrick J.

    1987-05-01

    The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) holds much promise for both suppliers and users of telecommunications in the near future. This article examines the role of satellites in this new ISDN environment and emphasizes several advantages of satellites in the ongoing evolution to an all-digital world. In specific, the role of Intelsat, the global satellite system, is discussed with emphasis on Intelsat's digital services which today can offer all the characteristics and standards of ISDN in a flexible, cost-efficient manner.

  5. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  6. 47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-geostationary satellite orbit fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provisions for the non-geostationary satellite orbit fixed-satellite service (NGSO FSS) in the bands 10.7 GHz... Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-geostationary satellite orbit fixed-satellite... submitted for the proposed non-geostationary satellite orbit fixed-satellite service (NGSO FSS) system...

  7. Cooperative Educational Service Agencies: The CESA Coordinators' Perspective. Information Series Volume 6, Number 2. Bulletin No. 7229.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefonek, Tom

    This booklet summarizes results of a study on the role and activities of Cooperative Educational Service Agencies (CESAs) in Wisconsin. CESAs are regional voluntary educational service agencies established in 1965 to serve local Wisconsin school districts. Data for the study were gathered through interviews with the 19 CESA coordinators during the…

  8. ESPA Satellite Dispenser for ORBCOMM Generation 2

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ORBCOMM’s machine-to-machine (M2M) solutions offer global asset monitoring and messaging services through a powerful Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite constellation. The original constellation deployment consisted of thirtyfive satellites launched in the late 1990s. ORBCOMM is launching the new ORBCOMM Generation 2 (OG2) satellites to upgrade and expand the constellation network. The OG2 satellites being manufactured by Sierra Nevada Corporation will have more data capacity with the potential f...

  9. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Kawase, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  10. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one ...... customer class will get the best service. That theoretical result is validated through a series of numerical experiments which also reveal that it is quite robust.......We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  11. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  12. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume I: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sydelle Stone; And Others

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew televsion series. This volume contains a summary of the findings of the study and recommendations. After participating in the series,…

  13. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume III: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. The case studies which comprise this volume function as a brief organizational analysis of the Mulligan Stew effort at…

  14. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume II: Report of the Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sydelle Stone; And Others

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. This volume is a detailed elaboration of the study findings as well as a description of the study design,…

  15. China Satcom: Innovating Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China Satellite Communications Group Corporation (China Satcom) is a state-owned large-sized key enterprise formally established on Dec. 19, 2001 according to the general deployment of the State Council on telecommunication system reform. Relying on its complete service system, China Satcom provides various users with specialized and high quality information communication service.

  16. Development, Validation, and Potential Enhancements to the Second-Generation Operational Aerosol Product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Larry L.; Ignatov, Alexander M.; Singh, Ramdas R.

    1997-01-01

    A revised (phase 2) single-channel algorithm for aerosol optical thickness, tau(sup A)(sub SAT), retrieval over oceans from radiances in channel 1 (0.63 microns) of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) has been implemented at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service for the NOAA 14 satellite launched December 30, 1994. It is based on careful validation of its operational predecessor (phase 1 algorithm), implemented for NOAA 14 in 1989. Both algorithms scale the upward satellite radiances in cloud-free conditions to aerosol optical thickness using an updated radiative transfer model of the ocean and atmosphere. Application of the phase 2 algorithm to three matchup Sun-photometer and satellite data sets, one with NOAA 9 in 1988 and two with NOAA 11 in 1989 and 1991, respectively, show systematic error is less than 10%, with a random error of sigma(sub tau) approx. equal 0.04. First results of tau(sup A)(sub SAT) retrievals from NOAA 14 using the phase 2 algorithm, and from checking its internal consistency, are presented. The potential two-channel (phase 3) algorithm for the retrieval of an aerosol size parameter, such as the Junge size distribution exponent, by adding either channel 2 (0.83 microns) from the current AVHRR instrument, or a 1.6-microns channel to be available on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and the NOAA-KLM satellites by 1997 is under investigation. The possibility of using this additional information in the retrieval of a more accurate estimate of aerosol optical thickness is being explored.

  17. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  18. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Dean A.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    The benefits that will be offered by the NASA-sponsored communication spacecraft ACTS which is scheduled for launch in 1992 are described together with examples of demonstrations on proposed data, video, and voice applications supported by the advanced ACTS technologies. Compared to existing satellite service, the ACTS will provide lower cost, better service, greater convenience, and improved service reliability of telecommunications to customers around the world. In addition, the pioneering ACTS technology will provide many capabilities qualitatively different from those of current satellite systems, such as on-demand assignment, frequency reuse, and the flexible targeting of spot beams directly to the very-small-aperture terminals at customer premises.

  19. An Analysis of Marine Corps Beyond Line of Sight Wideband Satellite Communications Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Network (SWAN) ............................................40 9. Tropo /Satellite Support Radio (TSSR) ............................................42...Service Tactical Communications Program TROPO ...tropospheric scatter TSSR..................................................tropospheric scatter ( TROPO )-satellite support radio TSST

  20. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  1. Delivery of Instructional Materials Using a Communications Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, Louis A.; Diebler, Mary

    During the past decade, satellite technology has grown increasingly more sophisticated. Satellites are being used in public interest activities, especially through the Public Service Satellite Consortium. But what about the field of education? How can education, especially vocational education, make use of satellite communications technology? In…

  2. 47 CFR 76.66 - Satellite broadcast signal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite broadcast signal carriage. 76.66... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.66 Satellite broadcast signal carriage. (a) Definitions—(1) Satellite carrier. A satellite carrier is an entity that...

  3. The association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes: a cost-volume-profit analysis of cardiac catheter unit services in Ramallah Hospital, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Samer F K; Younis, Mustafa Mike Z; Forgione, Dana A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes in relation to the multi-service cost-volume-profit structure of a cardiac catheter unit in Ramallah Hospital. This article contributes to the literature by providing primary evidence on patient willingness-to-pay, by identifying the specific break-even parameters of three hospital cardiac catheter unit service types (diagnosis, balloon, and pacemaker), and by demonstrating the cross-subsidization of patient income groups that is inherent in the existing hospital rate structure. Our results provide information useful for (1) evidence-based policy making with respect to hospital rate setting and cross-subsidies of patient income groups; (2) the advancement of hospital management, by demonstrating the estimated variable and fixed cost parameters and the impact of patient revenue mix on the profitability of cardiac catheter unit services; and (3) the advancement of theory, by documenting the relationship of patient demand and the cost of supply in a multi-patient-group, multi-service hospital setting.

  4. Satellites in Canadian broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siocos, C. A.

    The involvement of Canadian broadcasting and related enterprises in satellite telecommunications is surveyed. This includes point-to-point transmissions and direct ones to the general public. The mode of such utilizations is indicated in both these cases. For the forthcoming DBS systems the many types of service offerings and utilization concepts under discussion elasewhere are presented as well as the business prospects and regulatory climate offering them.

  5. Pack-and-Go Delivery Service: A Multi-Component Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Learning Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This educational case, in two parts (A and B), requires students to assume the role of a business consultant and to use Excel to develop a profit-planning or a cost-volume-profit (CVP) model for a package-delivery company opportunity currently being evaluated by a client. The name of the proposed business is Pack-and-Go, which would provide an…

  6. Realtime or Delayed Tele-Echography Using (A) a Robotic Arm, ISDN or Satellite Lines, (B) a Volumic Echographic Capture Mode and Internet (Application to Abdomen and Fetus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Cloppet, F.; Boucher, A.; Capri, A.; Vincent, N.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: to test (a) the tele-echography in realtime based on the use of a robotic arm, (b) the delayed tele echography using a volumic echographic capture and delayed processing. Method: A dedicated robotic arm (ESTELE) holding a real ultrasound probe is remotely controlled from the expert site with a fictive probe, and reproduces on the real probe all the movements of the expert hand. A dedicated motorized probe holder (TILTER) was used for tilting a 2D probe from -45 to +45°. Results: During fetal robotized Tele-echography (n=50) the expert was able to visualize and measure the fetal structures in 95% of the cases, while during abdomen echography (n=87) the expert visualized the main organs and lesions in 87% of the cases. The mean duration of the robotized tele echography session for one patient was 20+/-10 min. The delayed echography using the TILTER was tested on 40 patients. The organs were adequately visualized in 85% of the cases after 3 capture per organ. The average time from the first capture until the diagnostic was delivered was 40+/-10 minutes. Conclusion: Realtime or delayed Tele-echography provide similar information as direct examination in at least 85% of the cases. No false diagnostic was reported.

  7. Aids to Navigation Service Force Mix 2000 Project. Volume 1. Development and Application of an Aids to Navigation Service Force Mix Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Hours: 0.00 LT ANT ?: DBN ANT ?: (Database: Survey.db Report#: 6) Appendix H Page H-21 12/02/91 BUOY TENDER SUMMARY Page 22 Primary Unit: ACACIA District...2-5 2.2.4 ATON Tug Barges ........................ 2-5 2.2.5 Aids to Navigation Teams ( ANTs ) ................. 2-6 2.3 ATON SERVICES...navigation boat ANT aids to navigation team AOPS abstract of operations ATON aids to navigation ATONIS aids to navigation information system BRIDGE

  8. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  9. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  10. The french educational satellite arsene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvel, M.; Escudier, B.

    ARSENE (Ariane, Radio-amateur, Satellite pour l'ENseignement de l'Espace) is a telecommunications satellite for Amateur Space Service. Its main feature is that more than 100 students from French engineering schools and universities have been working since 1979 for definition phase and satellite development. The highest IAF awards has been obtained by "ARSENE students" in Tokyo (1980) and Rome (1981). The French space agency, CNES and French aerospace industries are supporting the program. The European Space Agency offered to place ARSENE in orbit on the first Ariane mark IV launch late 1985.

  11. How to operate an Energy Advisory Service. Volume II. New York Institute of Technology Energy Information Center and Referral Service resource material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spak, G.T.

    1978-06-01

    The NYIT Energy Information Center is a comprehensive information service covering every aspect of energy conservation and related technology, including conservation programs and practices, alternative energy systems, energy legislation, and public policy development in the United States and abroad. Materials in the Center can be located through a Card Catalog System and a Vertical File System. The Card Catalog System has entries which organize books and other printed materials according to authors/titles and according to the subject headings developed by the Library of Congress. The Vertical System contains pamphlets, newsclips, reprints, studies, announcements, product specifications and other ephemeral literature, and is organized according to subject headings based on the emerging vocabulary of the energy literature. The key to vertical file resources is the Thesaurus of Descriptors which is given. The Thesaurus includes all subject headings found in the Vertical File as well as other cross referenced terms likely to come to mind when seeking information on a specific energy area.

  12. Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura

    1993-01-01

    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

  13. Satellite television analogue and digital reception techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Herve

    1999-01-01

    Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec

  14. Savannah River Plant engineering and design history. Volume 4: 300/700 Areas & general services and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The primary function of the 300 Area is the production and preparation of the fuel and target elements required for the 100 Area production reactors. Uranium slugs and lithium-aluminium alloy control and blanket rods are prepared in separate structures. Other facilities include a test pile, a physics assembly laboratory, an office and change house, an electrical substation, and various service facilities such as rail lines, roads, sewers, steam and water distribution lines, etc. The 700 Area contains housing and facilities for plant management, general plant services, and certain technical activities. The technical buildings include the Main Technical Laboratory, the Waste Concentration Building, the Health Physics Headquarters, and the Health Physics Calibration building. Sections of this report describe the following: development of the 300-M Area; selection and description of process; design of main facilities of the 300 Area; development of the 700-A Area; design of the main facilities of the 700 Area; and general services and facilities, including transportation, plant protection, waste disposal and drainage, site work, pilot plants, storage, and furniture and fixtures.

  15. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  16. Effect of Climate Change on Service Life of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Subjected to Carbonation—A Korean Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Bong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA concrete is more vulnerable to carbonation-induced corrosion. Carbonation durability design with climate change is crucial to the rational use of HVFA concrete. This study presents a probabilistic approach that predicts the service life of HVFA concrete structures subjected to carbonation-induced corrosion resulting from increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, a hydration-carbonation integration model is used to evaluate the contents of the carbonatable material, porosity, and carbonation depth of HVFA concrete. The Monte Carlo method is adopted to determine the probability of corrosion initiation. Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, an updated model is proposed to evaluate the rate of corrosion, degree of corrosion for cover cracking of concrete, and probability of corrosion cracking. Third, the whole service life is determined considering both corrosion initiation stage and corrosion propagation stage. The analysis results show that climate change creates a significant impact on the service life of durable concrete.

  17. Lake volume monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétaux, Jean-Francois; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel; Arsen, Adalbert; Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are integrator of environmental changes occurring at regional to global scale and present a high variety of behaviors on a variety of time scales (cyclic and secular) depending on the climate conditions and their morphology. In addition their crucial importance as water stocks and retaining, given the significant environment changes occurring worldwide at many anthropocentric levels, has increased the necessity of monitoring all its morphodynamics characteristics, say water level, surface (water contour) and volume. The satellite altimetry and satellite imagery together are now widely used for the calculation of lakes and reservoirs water storage changes worldwide. However strategies and algorithms to calculate these characteristics are not straightforward and need development of specific approaches. We intend to present a review of some of these methodologies by using the lakes over the Tibetan Plateau to illustrate some critical aspects and issues (technical and scientific) linked with the survey of climate changes impacts on surface waters from remote sensing data. Many authors have measured water variations using the short period of remote sensing measurements available, although time series are probably too short to lead to definitive conclusions to link these results directly with the framework of climate changes. Indeed, many processes beyond the observations are still uncertain, for example the influence of morphology of the lakes. The time response for a lake to reach new state of equilibrium is one of the key aspects often neglected in the current literature. Observations over long period of time, therein maintaining a constellation of comprehensive and complementary satellite missions with a continuity of services over decades, especially when ground gauges network is too limited is therefore a necessity. In addition, the design of future satellite missions with new instrumental concepts (e.g. SAR, SARin, Ka band altimetry, Ka interferometry) is

  18. Integrating Communication and Navigation: Next Generation Broadcast Service (NGBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    NASA Goddard has been investing in technology demonstrations of a beacon service, now called Next Generation Broadcast Services (NGBS). NGBS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). NGBS will provide an S-band beacon messaging source and radio navigation available to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below, increasing the autonomy and resiliency of onboard communication and navigation. NGBS will deliver both one-way radiometric (Doppler and pseudorange) and fast forward data transport services to users. Portions of the overall forward data volume will be allocated for fixed message types while the remaining data volume will be left for user forward command data. The NGBS signal will reside within the 2106.43 MHz spectrum currently allocated for the Space Networks multiple access forward (MAF) service and a live service demonstration is currently being planned via the 2nd and 3rd generation TDRS satellites.

  19. Multiple-pairwise image correlation for the detection and monitoring of slow-moving landslides from optical satellite image time-series: the MPIC service of the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Michéa, David; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Slow-moving landslides are widespread in many landscapes with significant impacts on the topographic relief, sediment transfer and human settlements. While in situ geophysical methods and terrestrial remote sensing are indispensable for a detailed monitoring and understanding of individual landslides, their area-wide mapping and monitoring is still challenging. SAR interferometry has proven useful for the detection and monitoring of very slow movements (< 1.6 m.yr-1) but limitations are encountered for the investigation of slow-moving landslides (1.6 m.yr-1 - 30 m.month-1). Such limitations can be addressed through the analysis of archives of optical remote sensing images. To make better use of the increasingly available optical time-series, this study proposes a multiple pairwise image correlation (MPIC) technique for the analysis of optical satellite image time-series. The processing technique generates stacks of partially redundant horizontal displacement fields and computes multi-temporal indicators for a more accurate detection and quantification of surface displacement. The processing technique is implemented as an on-line processing service on the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP) to allow, for selected users, the analysis of satellite optical time-series. The MPIC service (parallelized algorithm, processing chain, user modes) is presented in detail through examples of processing of time-series of very-high resolution (Pléiades) and high-resolution (Sentinel-2) satellite images at study sites in France, Italy and North America. The accuracy of the derived inventories and displacement time-series and their implications for the understanding of the seasonal landslide dynamics are discussed.

  20. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    An array deployment assembly, power regulation and control assembly, the necessary interface, and display and control equipment comprise the power extension package (PEP) which is designed to provide increased power and duration, as well as reduce fuel cell cryogen consumption during Spacelab missions. Compatible with all currently defined missions and payloads, PEP imposes minimal weight and volume penalties on sortie missions, and can be installed and removed as needed at the launch site within the normal Orbiter turnaround cycle. The technology on which it is based consists of a modified solar electric propulsion array, standard design regulator and control equipment, and a minimally modified Orbiter design. The requirements from which PEP was derived, and the system and its performance capabilities are described. Features of the recommended project are presented.

  1. European initiative for a new generation of satellite navigation services - Galileo; Die europaeische Initiative fuer eine neue Generation von Satellitennavigationsdiensten - GALILEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusk, S. [Bundesministerium fuer Verkehr, Bau- und Wohnungswesen, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The currently existing satellite navigation systems GPS and GLONASS have impressively demonstrated the possibilities of using satellite navigation; there are numerous civilian applications worldwide. However, both systems are controlled nationally and designed for military applications and cannot meet the basic requirements in terms of continuity, integrity and precision required for safety-relevant and sovereign applications. Therefore, the Federal Republic of Germany supports the activities initiated by the EU, which consist of - developing, first of all, technical augmentations to make the existing systems useable without delay also for applications involving exacting requirements (GNSS 1, EGNOS), - carrying out in parallel the definition phase for the development of a global, civilian satellite navigation system (GNSS 2, Galileo). (orig.) [German] Die bisher existierenden Satellitennavigationssysteme GPS und GLONASS haben die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten der Satellitennavigation in eindrucksvoller Weise demonstriert; weltweit haben sich zahlreiche zivile Anwendungen ergeben. Jedoch sind beide Systeme national kontrolliert, auf militaerische Anwendungen zugeschnitten und koennen die fuer sicherheitsrelevante und hoheitliche Anwendungen notwendigen Grundanforderungen nach Kontinuitaet, Integritaet und Praezision nicht garantieren. Daher unterstuetzt die Bundesrepublik Deutschland die von der EU eingeleiteten Aktivitaeten, die daraus bestehen - zunaechst die bestehenden Systeme durch technische Ergaenzungen kurzfristig auch fuer hohe Anforderungen stellende Anwendungen nutzbar zu machen (GNSS 1, EGNOS) - parallel dazu die Definitionsphase zum Aufbau eines globalen zivilen Satellitennavigationssystems (GNSS 2, GALILEO) durchzufuehren. (orig.)

  2. Global Ka Band Broadband Satellite Services Overview (1)%全球Ka波段宽带卫星业务的现状和发展(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 赵庆锁; 李涛

    2014-01-01

    本文简要回顾了全球卫星通信从C/Ku波段到Ka波段,从话音、广播电视到互联网应用的轨迹;对目前Ka波段HTS卫星网络的架构、地面系统情况以及采用的新技术进行了概述;列出了目前全球Ka波段在轨HTS卫星、建造的HTS卫星的容量、运营公司、使用的地面系统等;介绍了美国Ka波段宽带卫星业务的发展情况。%This article is retrospected the trajectory of global satellite telecommunication industry from C/Ku band to Ka band and from Voice/TV to Internet. The article is listed in HTS satellites which are in orbit and in construction, the capacity , the operators and the ground system. The Ka band broadband satellite business in USA is also introduced.

  3. Global Ka Band Broadband Satellite Services Overview (2)%全球Ka波段宽带卫星业务的现状和发展(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 赵庆锁; 李涛

    2014-01-01

    本文简要回顾了全球卫星通信从C/Ku波段到Ka波段,从话音、广播电视到互联网应用的轨迹;对目前Ka波段HTS卫星网络的架构、地面系统情况以及采用的新技术进行了概述;并列出了目前全球Ka波段在轨HTS卫星、建造的HTS卫星的容量、运营公司、使用的地面系统等;并介绍了美国Ka波段宽带卫星业务的发展情况。%This article is retrospected the trajectory of global satellite telecommunication industry from C/Ku band to Ka band and from Voice/TV to Internet. The article is listed in HTS satellites which are in orbit and in construction, the capacity , the operators and the ground system. The Ka band broadband satellite business in USA is also introduced.

  4. High volume acupuncture clinic (HVAC) for chronic knee pain--audit of a possible model for delivery of acupuncture in the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitz, Saul; Cummings, Mike; Perrin, Chris; Ito, Rieko

    2008-03-01

    Recent research has established the efficacy, effectiveness and cost effectiveness of acupuncture for some forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, there are practical problems with delivery which currently prevent its large scale implementation in the National Health Service. We have developed a delivery model at our hospital, a 'high volume' acupuncture clinic (HVAC) in which patients are treated in a group setting for single conditions using standardised or semi-standardised electroacupuncture protocols by practitioners with basic training. We discuss our experiences using this model for chronic knee pain and present an outcome audit for the first 77 patients, demonstrating satisfactory initial (eight week) clinical results. Longer term (one year) data are currently being collected and the model should next be tested in primary care to confirm its feasibility.

  5. Scenarios and performance measures for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here are the contemplated input and expected output for the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) Models. The discrete event simulations of these models are presented with specific scenarios that stress ISDN satellite parameters. Performance measure criteria are presented for evaluating the advanced ISDN communication satellite designs of the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  6. C2 of Next-Generation Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    consortia that own and operate satellites – not to mention the plethora of commercial and academic satellite operators. 2 As a result of their...60 nations mentioned earlier that currently operate satellites rely on their own national aerospace industries to do so. Although the United States...among industry has also increased, as space-enabled services have become commercially available. However, an encouraging step on this issue was taken

  7. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  8. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  9. Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  10. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  11. 极轨道LEO卫星通信系统区分服务路由机制%Differentiated service-oriented routing mechanisms for polar-orbit LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶元; 元昌安; 朱军; 傅雷扬; 邵星; 王汝传

    2013-01-01

    针对极轨道星座低轨(LEO,Low Earth Orbit)卫星通信系统路由存在的切换处理和差异化服务能力不足问题,提出了一种分布式与源路由相结合的区分服务路由机制.利用网络拓扑变化特征、地面热点区域模型与星际链路拥塞状态等局部信息分布式转发尽力交付业务,在此基础上综合星地、星际链路可用时长和业务特点设计源路由算法转发时延、带宽敏感业务.仿真结果表明,该机制的切换处理与区分服务能力有明显提升,信令开销、端到端时延、丢包率和时延抖动优于传统方法.%Exiting routing schemes for Polar-orbit LEO ( Low Earth Orbit) satellite communication systems have some drawbacks in handover handling and differentiated service. Novel differentiated service-oriented routing mechanisms are proposed combining distributed routing with source routing method. Best-effort delivery traffic is distributedly forwarded considering topological change characteristic, hot spot model on the earth's surface and inter-satellite-link congestion. Moreover, delay-and bandwidth-sensitivity traffic are transmitted employing source routing based on traffic characteristic and the duration of user-data-link and inter-satellite-link. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanisms perform better in terms of handling handover and providing differentiated service, and have lower signaling overhead, end-to-end delay, packet loss ratio and delay jitter when compared to other routing schemes.

  12. An audit of the complications of intercostal chest drain insertion in a high volume trauma service in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, GV; Sartorius, B; Keene, C; Clarke, DL

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intercostal chest drain (ICD) insertion is a commonly performed procedure in trauma and may be associated with significant morbidity. Methods This was a retrospective review of ICD complications in a major trauma service in South Africa over a four-year period from January 2010 to December 2013. Results A total of 1,050 ICDs were inserted in 1,006 patients, of which 91% were male. The median patient age was 24 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 20–29 years). There were 962 patients with unilateral ICDs and 44 with bilateral ICDs. Seventy-five per cent (758/1,006) sustained penetrating trauma and the remaining 25% (248/1006) sustained blunt trauma. Indications for ICD insertion were: haemopneumothorax (n=338), haemothorax (n=314), simple pneumothorax (n=265), tension pneumothorax (n=79) and open pneumothorax (n=54). Overall, 203 ICDs (19%) were associated with complications: 18% (36/203) were kinked, 18% (36/203) were inserted subcutaneously, 13% (27/203) were too shallow and in 7% (14/203) there was inadequate fixation resulting in dislodgement. Four patients (2%) sustained visceral injuries and two sustained vascular injuries. Forty-one per cent (83/203) were inserted outside the ‘triangle of safety’ but without visceral or vascular injuries. One patient had the ICD inserted on the wrong side. Junior doctors inserted 798 ICDs (76%) while senior doctors inserted 252 (24%). Junior doctors had a significantly higher complication rate (24%) compared with senior doctors (5%) (p<0.001). There was no mortality as a direct result of ICD insertion. Conclusions ICD insertion is associated with a high rate of complications. These complications are significantly higher when junior doctors perform the procedure. A multifaceted quality improvement programme is needed to improve the situation. PMID:25350185

  13. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  14. Integration of Mobil Satellite and Cellular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, E. H.; Estabrook, P.; Pinck, D.; Ekroot, L.

    1993-01-01

    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established.

  15. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ (Continued) Applications In Global Environment And Natural Disaster Monitoring 1) Application in world crop yield estimation China is now one of the few nations in the world that can provide operational service with both GEO and polar-orbit meteorological satellites.

  16. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  17. Chinese Satellites Serve Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES PROVIDING WEATHER SERVICES As the opening and closing ceremonies and many competition events such as athletics, football, cycling and sailing etc., were held in open air stadiums, field or on water, it was of great importance to provide exact weather forecasts and on-time climate information to prepare for disastrous weather so as to ensure the Olympic Games proceeded smoothly. For this purpose, China launched the meteorological satellite service project in 2002 to safeguard the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

  18. Tethered satellite design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarini, G.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of the satellite to perform a variety of space operations to be accomplished from the shuttle is reviewed considering use of the satellite with man-in-loop and closed loop modes and deployment (toward or away from Earth, up to 100 km), stationkeeping, retrieval and control of the satellite. Scientific payloads are to be used to perform experiments and scientific investigation for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, chemical release, communications, plasmaphysics, dynamic environment, and power and thrust generation. The TSS-S will be reused for at least 3 missions after reconfiguration and refurbishment by changing the peculiar mission items such as thermal control, fixed boom for experiments, aerodynamic tail for yaw attitude control, external skin, experiments, and any other feature. The TSS-S is to be composed of three modules in order to allow independent integration of a single module and to facilitate the refurbishment and reconfiguration between flights. The three modules are service, auxiliary propulsion, and payload modules.

  19. Heart Monitoring By Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  20. 基于短消息平台的气象卫星业务维护管理系统%Business maintenance management system for meteorological satellite based on short message service platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 谢利子; 赵磊; 康宁; 冯小虎

    2014-01-01

    为满足静止气象卫星地面应用系统的运行管理需求,保证业务系统的高可靠性和维护响应的高时效性,设计了一套基于短消息平台的业务维护管理系统。该系统由短消息平台、实时业务监测和自动维护管理三部分组成,能够实时监测多套卫星系统的业务关键点,及时发现业务故障和特殊事件,利用短消息平台实现消息的集中管理和即时发送,同时具备故障策略管理、维护调度管理和自动化维护响应等功能。实施效果表明该系统具备良好的适用性和可扩展性,能有效减轻维护管理人员的工作压力,为高时效和高可靠要求的大型系统维护管理工作提供有效的技术手段。%In order to meet the operation management requirement of geostationary meteorological satellite ground application system, the authors proposed a business maintenance management system based on short message service platform to guarantee high reliability of business system and high efficiency of maintenance response. The functions of this system included short message service platform, real-time monitoring and automatic maintenance management. The system can provide real-time monitoring service for multiple satellite systems, discover business faults and special events in time, and send the messages through short message service platform. It also has fault strategy management, maintenance dispatching management and automatic response functions. The application results show that the system has good extensibility and maintainability, can effectively reduce the pressure of maintenance personnel, and provide effective technical approach for maintenance management work of high reliability and high efficiency system.

  1. High altitude clouds impacts on the design of optical feeder link and optical ground station network for future broadband satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulenard, S.; Ruellan, M.; Roy, B.; Riédi, J.; Parol, F.; Rissons, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optical links at 1.55μm are envisaged to cope with the increasing capacity demand from geostationary telecom satellite operators without the need of Radio Frequency (RF) coordination. Due to clouds blockages, site diversity techniques based on a network of Optical Ground Stations (OGS) are necessary to reach the commonly required link availability (e.g. 99.9% over the year). Evaluation of the N Optical Ground Station Network (N-OGSN) availability is based on Clouds Masks (CMs) and depends on the clouds attenuation taken in the optical communication budget link. In particular, low attenuation of high semitransparent clouds (i.e. cirrus) could be incorporated into the budget link at the price of larger or more powerful optical terminals. In this paper, we present a method for the calibration of the attenuation at 1.55 μm of high semitransparent clouds. We perform OGS localization optimization in Europe and we find that the incorporation of thin cirrus attenuation in the budget link reduces by 20% the number of handover (i.e. switches OGS) and the handover rate. It is also shown that the minimum number of station required in Europe to reach 99.9% link availability is 10 to 11. When the zone of research is enlarged the Africa, this number is reduced to 3 to 4.

  2. Mobile satellite communications for consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-11-01

    The RadioSat system based on MSAT satellites and scheduled for launch in 1994 is described. The RadioSat system will provide integrated communications and navigation services to consumers, including nationwide digital audio broadcasts, data broadcasts, precision navigation, and two-way voice and data communications. Particular attention is given to the MSAT satellite system capabilities and economics. It is concluded that the RadioSat system will be capable of providing a low-cost, highly flexible two-way communications for consumers that can be adapted to various applications.

  3. Multidisciplinary studies of the social, economic and political impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology. Volume 6: Executive summary. [technological forecasting spacecraft control/attitude (inclination) -classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the technological impact of modern satellite weather forecasting for the United States is presented. Topics discussed are: (1) television broadcasting of weather; (2) agriculture (crop production); (3) water resources; (4) urban development; (5) recreation; and (6) transportation.

  4. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  5. Satellite telemetry : a new tool for wildlife research and management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game have cooperated since 1984 to develop and evaluate satellite telemetry as a means of...

  6. Neptune's small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.

    1992-04-01

    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  7. Global Broadcast Service (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 42 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...Frequency Follow-On (UFO) satellites, leased commercial satellite transponders, and the Wideband Global SATCOM constellation. Theater Injection Point...Independently assess system capabilities. - Augment UFO GBS with leased commercial satellite services to cover gaps over CONUS. - Demonstrate smart push and

  8. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  9. A Study of the Value of Information and the Effect on Value of Intermediary Organizations, Timeliness of Services & Products, and Comprehensiveness of the EDB. Volume 1: The Value of Libraries as an Intermediary Information Service; Volume 2: The Value of the Network Energy Software Center and the Radiation Shielding Information Center; Volume 3: The Effects of Timeliness and Comprehensiveness on Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King Research, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This document reports in three volumes the results of a series of surveys designed to: (1) determine what contribution intermediary information transfer organizations such as libraries and information analysis centers make to the value of information; (2) assess the value of two somewhat different software information analysis centers and the…

  10. The Omninet mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, A.; Curry, W.

    Mobile Satellite System (MSS) design offering relatively low cost voice, data, and position location services to nonmetropolitan areas of North America is proposed. The system provides spectrally efficient multiple access and modulation techniques, and flexible user interconnection to public and private switched networks. Separate UHF and L-band satellites employing two 9.1 m unfurlable antennas each, achieve a 6048 channel capacity and utilize spot beams. Mobile terminals have modular design and employ 5 dBi omnidirectional antennas. Gateway stations (with two 5 m Ku-band antennas) and base stations (with a single 1.8 m Ku-band antenna) transmit terrestrial traffic to the satellite, where traffic is then transponded via an L-band or UHF downlink to mobile users. The Network Management Center uses two 5-m antennas and incorporates the Integrated-Adaptive Mobile Access Protocol to assure demand assignment of satellite capacity. Preliminary implementation of this low-risk system involves a mobile alphanumeric data service employing receive-only terminals at Ku-band projected for 1987, and plans for the launching of L-band receive-only packages as early as 1988.

  11. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  12. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a) New fixed-satellites shall comply with...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite...-Satellite Stations § 80.1185 Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations. Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service must meet the eligibility requirements contained in this section. (a)...

  14. An Overview Of Operational Satellites Built By China:Communications Satellites (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong He

    2009-01-01

    @@ INNOVATIVE GENERATION: THE DFH-4 PLATFORM AND SATELLITES The DFH-4 platform is the third generation of China-built large geostationary satellite platform with large output power,payload capacity and long service lifetime.Its overall performance ranks with other international advanced satellite platforms.This platform can be used for many services such as high capacity broadcast communication,direct TV broadcasting,digital audio broadcasting and broadband multimedia,which are badly needed for national economic construction and markets both at home and abroad.The platform also has effective technologies that can ensure the security of information transmission.

  15. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  16. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  17. Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height models using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas Mukul; Vinee Srivastava; Malay Mukul

    2015-08-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) carried out in February 2000 has provided near global topographic data that has been widely used in many fields of earth sciences. The mission goal of an absolute vertical accuracy within 16 m (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m was achieved based on ground validation of SRTM data through various studies using global positioning system (GPS). We present a new and independent assessment of the vertical accuracy of both the X- and C-band SRTM datasets using data from the International GNSS Service (IGS) network of high-precision static GPS stations. These stations exist worldwide, have better spatial distribution than previous studies, have a vertical accuracy of 6 mm and constitute the most accurate ground control points (GCPs) possible on earth; these stations are used as fiducial stations to define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Globally, for outlier-filtered data (135 X-band stations and 290 C-band stations), the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heights exhibits a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 8.2 ± 0.7 and 6.9 ± 0.5 m for X- and C-band data, respectively. Continent-wise, Africa, Australia and North America comply with the SRTM mission absolute vertical accuracy of 16 m (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m. However, Asia, Europe and South America have vertical errors higher than the SRTM mission goal. At stations where both the X- and C-band SRTM data were present, the root mean square error (RMSE) of both the X- and C-bands was identical at 11.5 m, indicating similar quality of both the X- and C-band SRTM data.

  18. Thinking on Standardization of Satellite Meteorology and Space Weather Monitoring Early Waming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Anlai; Zhang Jiashen; Le Guiming

    2011-01-01

    Introduction After 40 years of development,China's satellite meteorological service has made remarkable achievements.Fengyun satellites have realized the transformation from trial operation to full operational service and achieved a coordinated space-based earth cbservation system with polar and geostationary meteorological satellites.

  19. Educational Applications of Communications Satellites in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. Murray

    Canada has explored the use of satellites as a means to provide information and communications services to geographically isolated populations since 1962. Between 1972 and 1984, five series of satellites known as Anik A, B, C, and D and Hermes were launched. Each satellite provided expanded communications services, and each led to research and…

  20. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  1. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  2. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 8: Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R.; Fawkes, G.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of an ERS system in the resource area of atmosphere is determined. Benefits which arise from air pollution and cloud observations correlated to ground stations are discussed along with cost savings associated with air pollution monitoring by satellite. Social benefits due to more precise knowledge of the effects of pollution are presented.

  3. Mobile satellite plans and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roy E.

    1987-03-01

    A method for implementing a mobile satellite system (MSS) in the U.S. and Canada, and the services such a system would provide are described. The MSS is to provide mobile communications that are unlimited in range and unaffected by local terrain features. The system's communications can be either voice or digital, and the small, automatic transponders located in vehicles will respond automatically with the data needed to determine the location of the vehicle. Surveys reveal that there are markets for radio telephones and data and dispatch services. Consideration is given to the regulatory status of the MSS.

  4. Satellite orbital conjunction reports assessing threatening encounters in space (SOCRATES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Alfano, S.

    2006-05-01

    While many satellite operators are aware of the possibility of a collision between their satellite and another object in earth orbit, most seem unaware of the frequency of near misses occurring each day. Until recently, no service existed to advise satellite operators of an impending conjunction of a satellite payload with another satellite, putting the responsibility for determining these occurrences squarely on the satellite operator's shoulders. This problem has been further confounded by the lack of a timely, comprehensive data set of satellite orbital element sets and computationally efficient tools to provide predictions using industry-standard software. As a result, hundreds of conjunctions within 1 km occur each week, with little or no intervention, putting billions of dollars of space hardware at risk, along with their associated missions. As a service to the satellite operator community, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) offers SOCRATES-Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space. Twice each day, CSSI runs a list of all satellite payloads on orbit against a list of all objects on orbit using the catalog of all unclassified NORAD two-line element sets to look for conjunctions over the next seven days. The runs are made using STK/CAT-Satellite Tool Kit's Conjunction Analysis Tools-together with the NORAD SGP4 propagator in STK. This paper will discuss how SOCRATES works and how it can help satellite operators avoid undesired close approaches through advanced mission planning.

  5. Multi-life cycles utilization of retired satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Retired geosynchronous (GEO) communication satellites affect the GEO orbit environment in outer space. According to the new concept of modern design, the authors propose creatively a method of reusing retired GEO communication satellites, through adjusting retired GEO satellites to slightly inclined orbit geosynchronous (SIGSO) satellites. After these retired satellites are applied to the navigation and communication system, integrity of navigation system and positioning accuracy of the system is improved. Meanwhile, some transponders on these retired satellites can be used to establish a new satellite communication service, and initiate the study and utilization of the multi-life cycle for retired satellites. Experimental results show that this project has significant social value and can make remarkable economic benefit.

  6. Multi-life cycles utilization of retired satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI HuLi; AI GuoXiang; HAN YanBen; MA LiHua; CHEN JiBin; GENG JianPing

    2009-01-01

    Retired geosynchronous (GEO) communication satellites affect the GEO orbit environment in outer apace.According to the new concept of modern design,the authors propose creatively a method of reusing retired GEO communication satellites,through adjusting retired GEO satellites to slightly inclined orbit geosynchronous (SIGSO) satellites.After these retired satellites are applied to the navigation and communication system,integrity of navigation system and positioning accuracy of the system is improved.Meanwhile,some transponders on these retired satellites can be used to establish a new satellite communication service,and initiate the study and utilization of the multi-life cycle for retired satellites.Experimental results show that this project has significant social value and can make remarkable economic benefit.

  7. Distributed Anomaly Detection Using Satellite Data From Multiple Modalities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has been a tremendous increase in the volume of Earth Science data over the last decade from modern satellites, in-situ sensors and different climate models....

  8. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, William

    1988-01-01

    A satellite-based mobile communications system provides voice and data communications to mobile users over a vast geographic area. The technical and service characteristics of mobile satellite systems (MSSs) are presented and form an in-depth view of the current MSS status at the system and subsystem levels. Major emphasis is placed on developments, current and future, in the following critical MSS technology areas: vehicle antennas, networking, modulation and coding, speech compression, channel characterization, space segment technology and MSS experiments. Also, the mobile satellite communications needs of government agencies are addressed, as is the MSS potential to fulfill them.

  9. Advanced tracking and data relay satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this communication satellite system are as follows: to provide NASA needs for satellite tracking and communications through the year 2012; to maintain and augment the current TDRS system when available satellite resources are expended in the latter part of the decade; to provide the necessary ground upgrade to support the augmented services; and to introduce new technology to reduce the system life cycle cost. It is concluded that no ATDRS spacecraft requirement for new modulation techniques, that data rate of 650 MBps is required, and that Space Station Freedom requirement is for 650 MBps data some time after the year 2000.

  10. Simobiz-Simulation Tool to Study the Impact of Small Satellites in Mobile Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, M.-M.; Kohlenberg, J.; Prathaban, M.

    2008-08-01

    Interest in small satellites is growing fast world- wide. Businesses, governments, universities and other organizations around the world are starting their own small satellite programs. The surveys conducted by the space agencies and universities shows a promising increase in the use of small satellites for commercial applications. More number of operators offers or plans to offer mobile phone services by satellite. With the help of cost effective small satellite, mobile operators can be able to provide the services cheaper. Hence, it is always interesting to study the effect of low cost small satellite over the mobile market. In this article, we present SmartSim (Small Satellites Mobile Market Simulator) - the new module of Simobiz business simulation game, in which we have implemented two operators, a normal satellite operator and a nanosatellite operator, with specific terminals and services. Our main focus in this work is to understand the future market of small satellite in mobile telecommunication network.

  11. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  12. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  13. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, H B; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02r_{vir,nei} and \\rho <\\bar{\\rho} well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests importance of hydrodynamic interaction among galaxies within their virial radii in galaxy evolution.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  15. Standardization of Mobile Satellite Service Technology in ITU-R:Driving Force of Integrated Mobile Services%ITU-R卫星移动通信标准--整合移动业务的动力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀英

    2015-01-01

    认为国际电信联盟无线电通信部门(ITU-R)关于卫星移动通信的标准化新进展将在全球移动通信设备和系统无缝连接的实现过程中起到重要作用,卫星和地面的集成/混合的天地一体化系统将充分发挥原系统各自的优势,未来多数的卫星移动业务(MSS)都将基于这种天地一体化系统。指出IMT-Advanced系统的卫星部分和ITU-R标准化无线接口是集成MSS系统的关键技术,将成为激活MSS产业的新的驱动力。%Wel-developed standards wil play an important role in facilitating seamless interworking of equipment and systems global y. Most future MSS services wil use integrated and/or hybrid satel ite-terrestrial networks that leverage both satel ite and terrestrial networks. Satel ite components of IMT-Advanced systems and ITU-R standardized radio interfaces provide key technology in integrated satel ite and terrestrial networks, and this wil be a new driving force behind MSS industries.

  16. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  17. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  18. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang

    2008-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  19. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  20. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  2. Low Volume, Funding, Staffing and Technical Problems are Key Reasons for Discontinuation of Chat Reference Services. A review of: Radford, Marie L., and M. Kathleen Kern. “A Multiple‐case Study Investigation of the Discontinuation of Nine Chat Reference Services.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006: 521‐47.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R. Walker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the reasons behind the cessation of 9 virtual (chat reference services.Design – Multiple case‐study investigationSetting – Academic, public, and special libraries in the United States.Subjects – Five academic libraries, 1 public library, and 3 library consortia.Methods – The initial method used to identify discontinued chat reference services was via a posting to DIG_REF, the digitalreference services listserv. From this initial posting, librarians on the list also suggested other cases, for a total of 7. Two cases later came to the authors’ attention and were added. The 9 cases included academic libraries, a public library, and consortia who used tools provided by four major software vendors, giving a good cross‐section of the types of libraries participating in VR and the major software packages available at the time. A contact person for each discontinued service was invited to participate. The participants were geographically scattered, so data were collected via e‐mail questionnaires, telephone interviews, and examination of available documents describing the services, audiences, demographics, operations, and any decision‐making processes either for starting or discontinuing the service. The authors then compared and contrasted results obtained from the 9 services. The authors analysed reasons for discontinuation of services, the decision making processes, volume of questions, service hours, marketing, evaluation, and whether the service might be restarted atsome time in the future.Main Results – Although the VR services discussed were being delivered by diverse organizations, some commonalities emerged. All 9 services used existing staff and added chat reference to their duties. In all but one case, the hours of service offered when VRbegan were within the hours that the libraries were already open to the public. In the exception (Case E, there were hours of service after the libraries were

  3. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  4. Satellite Meteorology Education & Training Resources from COMET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.; Lee, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. These partnerships enable COMET to create educational materials of global interest on geostationary and polar-orbiting remote sensing platforms. These materials focus on the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of satellite data observations and products. This presentation provides an overview of COMET's recent satellite education efforts in the area of polar orbiting satellites. COMET has a new module on Suomi NPP, which describes the satellite system and discusses the improvements that it is bringing to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. COMET has also published an updated version of its module on the VIIRS instrument. "Imaging with VIIRS: A Convergence of Technologies and Experience, 2nd Edition" covers the instrument's enhanced capabilities by examining the systems that contributed to its development. Special attention is paid to the Day/Night Visible channel as VIIRS is the first instrument on a civilian satellite to image atmospheric and terrestrial features with and without moonlight. An upcoming module will exclusively focus on nighttime imaging with the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB). "Applications of the VIIRS Day-Night Band" will introduce the capabilities of DNB imagery to a wide audience ranging from forecasters and emergency managers to wildfire fighters and oceanographers. DNB products will be compared to traditional satellite products made from infrared data, including the "fog" product. Users will learn how DNB

  5. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  6. Geodetic Secor Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  7. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  8. User requirements for satellite snow data service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, S.; Standley, A.; Hiltbrunner, D.; Hallikainen, M.

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the answers given by ten users or potential users of remotely sensed snow data when asked about their data needs and present measurements, their requirements for remote sensing data and potential of using such, and the models or other analysis tools in which the information is used. The answers show both consensus and differences among the respondents` use of snow data and requirements for remote sensing snow products. For water resources planning and management, the most important variable is snow water equivalent, with acceptable errors around 10%. Acceptable spatial error is typically in the range of 200 m to 1 km. For flood forecasting and short-term runoff simulation, snow covered area is more important, with a classification of 5 to 8 steps being generally sufficient. Meteorologists tend to focus on albedo and snow coverage data, with 5% steps desired for albedo. Geometric resolution and accuracy is less important, temporal resolution and delivery time is more important than in water resource management. For avalanche use, most snow variables except water equivalent are important, several in depth profiles. Spatial and temporal requirements are high. In all user groups there is a desire for models which can use measured values quantitatively. Today, measured snow information is largely interpreted manually and subjectively and lead to actions based on experience and judgement. The organizing of measurements, simulations and calibrated sub-models with varying uncertainty levels is partly a conceptual problem, partly a software problem. 1 ref.

  9. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  10. Accessibility and Analysis to NASA's New Large Volume Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, J.; Gangl, M.; McAuley, J.; Toaz, R., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Each new satellite mission continues to measure larger volumes of data than the last. This is especially true with the new NASA satellite missions NISAR and SWOT, launching in 2020 and 2021, which will produce petabytes of data a year. A major concern is how will users be able to analyze such volumes? This presentation will show how cloud storage and analysis can help overcome and accommodate multiple users' needs. While users may only need gigabytes of data for their research, the data center will need to leverage the processing power of the cloud to perform search and subsetting capabilities over the large volume of data. There is also a vast array of user types that require different tools and services to access and analyze the data. Some users need global data to run climate models, while others require small, dynamic regions with lots of analysis and transformations. There will also be a need to generate data that have different inputs or correction algorithms that the project may not be able to provide as those will be very specialized for specific regions or evolve quicker than what the project can reprocess. By having the data and tools side by side, users will be able to access the data they require and analyze it all in one place. By placing data in the cloud, users can analyze the data there, shifting the current "download and analyze" paradigm to "log-in and analyze". The cloud will provide adequate processing power needed to analyze large volumes of data, subset small regions over large volumes of data, and regenerate/reformat data to the specificity each user requires.

  11. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  12. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  13. http://www.thesai.org/Downloads/Volume5No3/Paper_24-Mobile_Web_Services_State_of_the_Art_and.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Elgazzar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years mobile devices were commonly recognized as Web consumers. However, the advancements in mobile device manufacturing, coupled with the latest achievements in wireless communication developments are both key enablers for shifting the role of mobile devices from service consumers to service providers. This paradigm shift is a major step towards the realization of pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Mobile Web service provisioning is the art of hosting and offering Web services from mobile devices, which actively contributes towards the direction of Mobile Internet. In this paper, we provide the state of the art of mobile service provisioning as it currently stands. We focus our discussions on its applicability, reliability, and challenges of mobile environments and resource constraints. We study the different provisioning architectures, enabler technologies, publishing and discovery mechanisms, and maintenance of up-to-date service registries. We point out the major open research issues in each provisioning aspect. Performance issues due to the resource constraints of mobile devices are also discussed.

  14. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant...

  15. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  16. Cost performance satellite design using queueing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    The Poisson arrival model was used to determine the effects of limiting the number of channels for a disaster warning satellite. State probabilities and delay probabilities were estimated for several values of the number of channels (C) for arrival and service rates obtained from disaster warnings issued by the National Weather Service. The results predicted by the queueing model were compared with the results of a digital computer simulation.

  17. A framework of space weather satellite data pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuli; Zou, Ziming

    Various applications indicate a need of permanent space weather information. The diversity of available instruments enables a big variety of products. As an indispensable part of space weather satellite operation system, space weather data processing system is more complicated than before. The information handled by the data processing system has been used in more and more fields such as space weather monitoring and space weather prediction models. In the past few years, many satellites have been launched by China. The data volume downlinked by these satellites has achieved the so-called big data level and it will continue to grow fast in the next few years due to the implementation of many new space weather programs. Because of the huge amount of data, the current infrastructure is no longer incapable of processing data timely, so we proposed a new space weather data processing system (SWDPS) based on the architecture of cloud computing. Similar to Hadoop, SWDPS decomposes the tasks into smaller tasks which will be executed by many different work nodes. Control Center in SWDPS, just like NameNode and JobTracker within Hadoop which is the bond between the data and the cluster, will establish work plan for the cluster once a client submits data. Control Center will allocate node for the tasks and the monitor the status of all tasks. As the same of TaskTrakcer, Compute Nodes in SWDPS are the salves of Control Center which are responsible for calling the plugins(e.g., dividing and sorting plugins) to execute the concrete jobs. They will also manage all the tasks’ status and report them to Control Center. Once a task fails, a Compute Node will notify Control Center. Control Center decides what to do then; it may resubmit the job elsewhere, it may mark that specific record as something to avoid, and it may even blacklist the Compute Node as unreliable. In addition to these modules, SWDPS has a different module named Data Service which is used to provide file

  18. Big Data Analysis of Contractor Performance Information for Services Acquisition in DoD: A Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    and the F-22 Raptor . He was also a contracting squadron commander and the director of contracting for the Space Based Infrared Satellite program and...large archival data sets to model customer behavior , finding ways to represent the behavioral aspects of service design in quantitative and analytical...technology, banking, insurance, sports, and government. Big Data is used by computer scientists that feed computers volumes of data with hopes that

  19. The Spatial Distribution of Galactic Satellites in the LCDM Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Cooper, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distribution of galactic satellites in high resolution simulations of structure formation in the LCDM model: the Aquarius dark matter simulations of individual halos and the Millennium II simulation of a large cosmological volume. To relate the simulations to observations of the Milky Way we use two alternative models to populate dark halos with "visible" galaxies: a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and an abundance matching technique. We find that the radial density profile of massive satellites roughly follows that of the dark matter halo (unlike the distribution of dark matter subhalos). Furthermore, our two galaxy formation models give results consistent with the observed profile of the 11 classical satellites of the Milky Way. Our simulations predict that larger, fainter samples of satellites should still retain this profile at least up to samples of 100 satellites. The angular distribution of the classical satellites of the Milky Way is known to be highly anisotropic. D...

  20. Need for, and financial feasibility of, satellite-aided land mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Marantz, C. S.; Freibaum, J.

    Questions regarding the role of a mobile-satellite system in augmenting the terrestrial communications system are considered, and a market assessment study is discussed. Aspects of an investment analysis are examined, taking into account a three phase financial study of four postulated land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) systems, project profitability evaluation methods, risk analysis methods, financial projections, potential investor acceptance standards, and a risk analysis. It is concluded that a satellite augmented terrestrial mobile service appears to be economically and technically superior to a service depending exclusively on terrestrial systems. The interest in the Mobile Satellite Service is found to be worldwide, and the ground equipment market is potentially large.

  1. Potentials of satellite imagery for monitoring arctic goose productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports upon the exciting possibility that satellite imagery may now provide feasible means for grossly monitoring arctic habitat conditions in a timely...

  2. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, space-segment/receiver tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1993-01-01

    The balance between receiver complexity and the required satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) for Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) service is addressed. In general the required receiver complexity and cost can be reduced at the expense of higher space-segment cost by allowing a higher satellite EIRP. The tradeoff outcome is sensitive to the total number of anticipated receivers in a given service area, the number of audio programs, and the required audio quality. An understanding of optimum choice of satellite EIRP for DBS-R under various service requirements is a critical issue at this time when International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) is soliciting input in preparation for the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) planning conference for the service.

  3. Digital, Satellite-Based Aeronautical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite system relays communication between aircraft and stations on ground. System offers better coverage with direct communication between air and ground, costs less and makes possible new communication services. Carries both voice and data. Because many data exchanged between aircraft and ground contain safety-related information, probability of bit errors essential.

  4. 75 FR 15392 - Satellite License Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... filing instructions for e-mail comments, commenters should send an e-mail to ecfs@fcc.gov , and should... means governments of cities, counties, towns, townships, villages, school districts, or special... read as follows: Sec. 25.211 Analog video transmissions in the Fixed Satellite Services. * * * * * (e...

  5. Above the cloud computing: applying cloud computing principles to create an orbital services model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Mohammad, Atif; Berk, Josh; Nervold, Anders K.

    2013-05-01

    Large satellites and exquisite planetary missions are generally self-contained. They have, onboard, all of the computational, communications and other capabilities required to perform their designated functions. Because of this, the satellite or spacecraft carries hardware that may be utilized only a fraction of the time; however, the full cost of development and launch are still bone by the program. Small satellites do not have this luxury. Due to mass and volume constraints, they cannot afford to carry numerous pieces of barely utilized equipment or large antennas. This paper proposes a cloud-computing model for exposing satellite services in an orbital environment. Under this approach, each satellite with available capabilities broadcasts a service description for each service that it can provide (e.g., general computing capacity, DSP capabilities, specialized sensing capabilities, transmission capabilities, etc.) and its orbital elements. Consumer spacecraft retain a cache of service providers and select one utilizing decision making heuristics (e.g., suitability of performance, opportunity to transmit instructions and receive results - based on the orbits of the two craft). The two craft negotiate service provisioning (e.g., when the service can be available and for how long) based on the operating rules prioritizing use of (and allowing access to) the service on the service provider craft, based on the credentials of the consumer. Service description, negotiation and sample service performance protocols are presented. The required components of each consumer or provider spacecraft are reviewed. These include fully autonomous control capabilities (for provider craft), a lightweight orbit determination routine (to determine when consumer and provider craft can see each other and, possibly, pointing requirements for craft with directional antennas) and an authentication and resource utilization priority-based access decision making subsystem (for provider craft

  6. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

    Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

  7. In-Space Robotic Servicing (ISRS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project advances the state of robotic technology to enable the routine servicing of satellites that were not designed with servicing in mind, including...

  8. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger

    2014-01-01

    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  9. Satellite communication antenna technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  10. Methods of satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  11. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  12. Applications of two-way satellite time and frequency transfer in the BeiDou navigation satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, LingFeng; Chang, ZhiQiao; Tang, ChengPan; Gong, XiuQiang; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) device equipped in the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) can calculate clock error between satellite and ground master clock. TWSTFT is a real-time method with high accuracy because most system errors such as orbital error, station position error, and tropospheric and ionospheric delay error can be eliminated by calculating the two-way pseudorange difference. Another method, the multi-satellite precision orbit determination (MPOD) method, can be applied to estimate satellite clock errors. By comparison with MPOD clock estimations, this paper discusses the applications of the BDS TWSTFT clock observations in satellite clock measurement, satellite clock prediction, navigation system time monitor, and satellite clock performance assessment in orbit. The results show that with TWSTFT clock observations, the accuracy of satellite clock prediction is higher than MPOD. Five continuous weeks of comparisons with three international GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (ACs) show that the reference time difference between BeiDou time (BDT) and golbal positoning system (GPS) time (GPST) realized IGS ACs is in the tens of nanoseconds. Applying the TWSTFT clock error observations may obtain more accurate satellite clock performance evaluation in the 104 s interval because the accuracy of the MPOD clock estimation is not sufficiently high. By comparing the BDS and GPS satellite clock performance, we found that the BDS clock stability at the 103 s interval is approximately 10-12, which is similar to the GPS IIR.

  13. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  14. 47 CFR 25.159 - Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... satellite systems. 25.159 Section 25.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.159 Limits on pending applications and unbuilt satellite systems. (a) Applicants with a total...

  15. SSC RESTful Web Services API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Situation Center (SSC) web services allow a software developer to use portions of the SSC software in their own applications. SSC is a system to cast...

  16. Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, S

    1999-05-20

    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the lines of sight of their optics must be aligned for the duration of the communication. The satellite pointing and tracking systems perform the alignment. The satellite pointing systems vibrate because of tracking noise and mechanical impacts (such as thruster operation, the antenna pointing mechanism, the solar array driver, navigation noise, tracking noise). These vibrations increase the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. An expression is derived for adaptive transmitter power that compensates for vibration effects in heterodyne laser satellite links. This compensation makes it possible to keep the link BER performance constant for changes in vibration amplitudes. The motivation for constant BER is derived from the requirement for future satellite communication networks with high quality of service. A practical situation of a two-low-Earth-orbit satellite communication link is given. From the results of the example it is seen that the required power for a given BER increases almost exponentially for linear increase in vibration amplitude.

  17. A figure of merit for competing communications satellite designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R. R.; Fordyce, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Trends in launch schedules, weights, power, and space segment costs per transponder year for Intelsats and North American domsats (domestic communications satellites) are discussed. The Intelsat system currently services 25,000 point to point telephone links at any one moment, and a $3 billion order has been placed for Intelsat VIs, which feature 36,000 telephone circuits each. The Intelsat VI spacecraft will weigh 1670 kg in orbit, a continuance of the trend to heavier satellites, while the domsats will stay at 650 kg due to launch vehicle limitations. Direct television broadcast satellites are being designed for receive only (R/O) earth stations, with each satellite capable of servicing 50,000 individual ground stations. Competition is growing for C and Ku band satellite transponders for DBS, with costs $350,000 each. No standardized design has yet emerged.

  18. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Volume 2. Estimates for Department of Defense Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    restoring good order and discipline within the member’s unit. We believe it would be wise to assess service members’ sexual orientation in future studies...demographics, psychological state, command climate, attitudes and beliefs about sexual assault in the military and the nation, and other related issues. 2...for sexual assault that have been identified in prior research on civilian and military samples, with the exception of sexual orientation . We also

  19. CTS United States experiments - A progress report. [Communications Technology Satellite for high power broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a high-power broadcast satellite launched by NASA on January 17, 1976. CTS is the first satellite to operate at a frequency of 12 gigahertz and incorporates technology making possible new satellite telecommunications services. CTS is a cooperative program of the United States and Canada. This paper presents the results of the United States experimental activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program, including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  20. Satellites of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  1. Communication satellite technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  2. Satellite B-ISDN traffic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Dong-Jye; Inukai, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The impact of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) traffic on the advanced satellite broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) with onboard processing is reported. Simulation models were built to analyze the cell transfer performance through the statistical multiplexer at the earth station and the fast packet switch at the satellite. The effectiveness of ground ATM cell preprocessing was established, as well as the performance of several schemes for improving the down-link beam utilization when the space segment employs a fast packet switch.

  3. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  4. The Matsu Wheel: A Cloud-Based Framework for Efficient Analysis and Reanalysis of Earth Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maria T.; Anderson, Nicholas; Bennett, Collin; Bruggemann, Jacob; Grossman, Robert L.; Handy, Matthew; Ly, Vuong; Mandl, Daniel J.; Pederson, Shane; Pivarski, James; hide

    2016-01-01

    Project Matsu is a collaboration between the Open Commons Consortium and NASA focused on developing open source technology for cloud-based processing of Earth satellite imagery with practical applications to aid in natural disaster detection and relief. Project Matsu has developed an open source cloud-based infrastructure to process, analyze, and reanalyze large collections of hyperspectral satellite image data using OpenStack, Hadoop, MapReduce and related technologies. We describe a framework for efficient analysis of large amounts of data called the Matsu "Wheel." The Matsu Wheel is currently used to process incoming hyperspectral satellite data produced daily by NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. The framework allows batches of analytics, scanning for new data, to be applied to data as it flows in. In the Matsu Wheel, the data only need to be accessed and preprocessed once, regardless of the number or types of analytics, which can easily be slotted into the existing framework. The Matsu Wheel system provides a significantly more efficient use of computational resources over alternative methods when the data are large, have high-volume throughput, may require heavy preprocessing, and are typically used for many types of analysis. We also describe our preliminary Wheel analytics, including an anomaly detector for rare spectral signatures or thermal anomalies in hyperspectral data and a land cover classifier that can be used for water and flood detection. Each of these analytics can generate visual reports accessible via the web for the public and interested decision makers. The result products of the analytics are also made accessible through an Open Geospatial Compliant (OGC)-compliant Web Map Service (WMS) for further distribution. The Matsu Wheel allows many shared data services to be performed together to efficiently use resources for processing hyperspectral satellite image data and other, e.g., large environmental datasets that may be analyzed for

  5. Designing the next phase domestic satellites - A step to communication satellites as intelligent network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majus, J.

    1982-09-01

    Applications of satellite systems for telecommunication networks are discussed in terms of harmonizing the satellite capabilities with ground-based equipment, and design for the satellites are discussed. Modern network services are becoming increasingly digitized and use optic fiber switching and information transfer. Spaceborne nodes can be used for telephony, television, packet switching, leased lines, and teletex, with reserved sectors for point-to-point communications. Space systems are capable of 100% coverage, while terrestrial systems frequently have utilization rates near 5%, implying that demand-oriented satellite expansion of local systems is the suitable methodology. Technological requirements are explored, including exclusive use of digital processing, flexible flow rates, signal transmission times, and short time availability.

  6. Satellite medical centers project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arvind

    2002-08-01

    World class health care for common man at low affordable cost: anywhere, anytime The project envisages to set up a national network of satellite Medical centers. Each SMC would be manned by doctors, nurses and technicians, six doctors, six nurses, six technicians would be required to provide 24 hour cover, each SMC would operate 24 hours x 7 days. It would be equipped with the Digital telemedicine devices for capturing clinical patient information and investigations in the form of voice, images and data and create an audiovisual text file - a virtual Digital patient. Through the broad band connectivity the virtual patient can be sent to the central hub, manned by specialists, specialists from several specialists sitting together can view the virtual patient and provide a specialized opinion, they can see the virtual patient, see the examination on line through video conference or even PCs, talk to the patient and the doctor at the SMC and controlle capturing of information during examination and investigations of the patient at the SMC - thus creating a virtual Digital consultant at the SMC. Central hub shall be connected to the doctors and consultants in remote locations or tertiary care hospitals any where in the world, thus creating a virtual hub the hierarchical system shall provide upgradation of knowledge to thedoctors in central hub and smc and thus continued medical education and benefit the patient thru the world class treatment in the smc located at his door step. SMC shall be set up by franchisee who shall get safe business opportunity with high returns, patients shall get Low cost user friendly worldclass health care anywhere anytime, Doctors can get better meaningful selfemplyment with better earnings, flexibility of working time and place. SMC shall provide a wide variety of services from primary care to world class Global consultation for difficult patients.

  7. Internetworking satellite and local exchange networks for personal communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Richard S.; Pinck, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    The demand for personal communications services has shown unprecedented growth, and the next decade and beyond promise an era in which the needs for ubiquitous, transparent and personalized access to information will continue to expand in both scale and scope. The exchange of personalized information is growing from two-way voice to include data communications, electronic messaging and information services, image transfer, video, and interactive multimedia. The emergence of new land-based and satellite-based wireless networks illustrates the expanding scale and trend toward globalization and the need to establish new local exchange and exchange access services to meet the communications needs of people on the move. An important issue is to identify the roles that satellite networking can play in meeting these new communications needs. The unique capabilities of satellites, in providing coverage to large geographic areas, reaching widely dispersed users, for position location determination, and in offering broadcast and multicast services, can complement and extend the capabilities of terrestrial networks. As an initial step in exploring the opportunities afforded by the merger of satellite-based and land-based networks, several experiments utilizing the NASA ACTS satellite and the public switched local exchange network were undertaken to demonstrate the use of satellites in the delivery of personal communications services.

  8. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 7: PEP logistics and training plan requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations for logistics activities and logistics planning are presented based on the assumption that a system prime contractor will perform logistics functions to support all program hardware and will implement a logistics system to include the planning and provision of products and services to assure cost effective coverage of the following: maintainability; maintenance; spares and supply support; fuels; pressurants and fluids; operations and maintenance documentation training; preservation, packaging and packing; transportation and handling; storage; and logistics management information reporting. The training courses, manpower, materials, and training aids required will be identified and implemented in a training program.

  9. Technical and economical comparison between a modular geostationary space platform and a cluster of satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molette, P.; Cougnet, C.; Saint-Aubert, Ph.; Young, R. W.; Helas, D.

    In recent years, the identification of a large number of telecommunication missions reflects a growing demand for the provision of a large variety of communications and data transmission services performed by a space segment. At present, communication space segment use a single operational satellite per orbit position. However, the expected increase of communication channels per space segment will lead to a corresponding increase of satellite mass and size which could exceed the capabilities of existing launch vehicles in terms of mass and volume requirements. Those considerations, coupled with the threatening saturation of the geostationary orbit, lead to the conclusion that an optimal space segment concept must be defined on a technical as well as economical point of view. Two main concepts may be envisaged: one is a large platform, which can be assembled either in geostationary orbit (resulting in several launches, rendez-vous and docking), or in low earth orbit by using the STS; the other concept is a cluster of satellites. These candidate concepts are designed to meet the requirements of a reference mission. They are characterized by the required number of modules to be launched, the type of launcher, the new subsystems or equipments to be developed. The concepts are evaluated following technical criteria such as adaptability to other missions, flexibility, growth potential. A cost/benefit evaluation of each solution is presented. A comparison between the different concepts is then made on the basis of the technical/economical attractiveness of each solution.

  10. A Low Power Approach to Small Satellite Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Cardin, Joe; Mosher, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Small Satellites are emerging as the preferred platform for a wide variety of earth orbit and even interplanetary missions. These spacecraft are, by their very nature, extremely limited in volume, mass and power. Existing fluid propulsion options are too large, costly and complex for many small satellite applications. In an attempt to address this problem the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, as part of an advanced development contract with NASA, has contracted with V AC...

  11. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Goldberg, M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Proving Ground (PG) for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (MPS) has been demonstrating and evaluating Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) products along with other polar-orbiting satellite platforms in preparation for the Joint Polar Satellite System - 1 (JPSS-1) launch in March 2017. The first S-NPP imagery was made available to the MPS PG during the evolution of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and has since been popular in operations. Since this event the MPS PG Satellite Liaison has been working with forecasters on ways to integrate single-channel and multispectral imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)into operations to complement numerical weather prediction and geostationary satellite savvy National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers. Additional unique products have been introduced to operations to address specific forecast challenges, including the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Layered Precipitable Water, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Snowfall Rate product, NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings, ozone products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (CrIS/ATMS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). In addition, new satellite domains have been created to provide forecasters at the NWS Ocean Prediction Center and Weather Prediction Center with better quality imagery at high latitudes. This has led to research projects that are addressing forecast challenges such as tropical to extratropical transition and explosive cyclogenesis. This presentation will provide examples of how the MPS PG has been introducing and integrating

  12. Basic performance of BeiDou-2 navigation satellite system used in LEO satellites precise orbit determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Junhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The visibility for low earth orbit (LEO satellites provided by the BeiDou-2 system is analyzed and compared with the global positioning system (GPS. In addition, the spaceborne receivers’ observations are simulated by the BeiDou satellites broadcast ephemeris and LEO satellites orbits. The precise orbit determination (POD results show that the along-track component accuracy is much better over the service area than the non-service area, while the accuracy of the other two directions keeps at the same level over different areas. However, the 3-dimensional (3D accuracy over the two areas shows almost no difference. Only taking into consideration the observation noise and navigation satellite ephemeris errors, the 3D accuracy of the POD is about 30 cm. As for the precise relative orbit determination (PROD, the 3D accuracy is much better over the eastern hemisphere than that of the western hemisphere. The baseline length accuracy is 3.4 mm over the service area, and it is still better than 1 cm over the non-service area. This paper demonstrates that the BeiDou regional constellation could provide global service to LEO satellites for the POD and the PROD. Finally, the benefit of geostationary earth orbit (GEO satellites is illustrated for POD.

  13. Basic performance of BeiDou-2 navigation satellite system used in LEO satellites precise orbit determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junhong; Gu Defeng; Ju Bing; Yao Jing; Duan Xiaojun; Yi Dongyun

    2014-01-01

    The visibility for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites provided by the BeiDou-2 system is analyzed and compared with the global positioning system (GPS). In addition, the spaceborne receivers’ observations are simulated by the BeiDou satellites broadcast ephemeris and LEO satel-lites orbits. The precise orbit determination (POD) results show that the along-track component accuracy is much better over the service area than the non-service area, while the accuracy of the other two directions keeps at the same level over different areas. However, the 3-dimensional (3D) accuracy over the two areas shows almost no difference. Only taking into consideration the observation noise and navigation satellite ephemeris errors, the 3D accuracy of the POD is about 30 cm. As for the precise relative orbit determination (PROD), the 3D accuracy is much better over the eastern hemisphere than that of the western hemisphere. The baseline length accuracy is 3.4 mm over the service area, and it is still better than 1 cm over the non-service area. This paper demon-strates that the BeiDou regional constellation could provide global service to LEO satellites for the POD and the PROD. Finally, the benefit of geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites is illustrated for POD.

  14. Sizes and Shapes of Neptune's Inner Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkoschka, E.

    2002-09-01

    I measured resolved images of the inner Neptunian satellites by Voyager 2. The best-fitting tri-axial radii are 48x30x26 km for Naiad, 54x50x26 km for Thalassa, 90x74x64 km for Despina, 102x92x72 km for Galatea, and 108x102x84 km for Larissa. These sizes are within uncertainty limits by Thomas and Veverka (1991) who provided a shape for Larissa (104x89 km), radii with assumed spherical shapes for Despina (74 km) and Galatea (79 km) and estimated radii based on assumed albedos for Naiad (29 km) and Thalassa (40 km). The uncertainties of the new radii are smaller. Estimates of volumes and masses of Naiad and Galatea need to be increased by some 50 percent, which is interesting since Galatea's gravity is considered to cause the unique arcs of Neptune's Adams ring. The moderately elongated shapes of the medium-sized satellites Despina and Galatea, and the strongly elongated shapes of the small satellites Naiad and Thalassa are typical for bodies of their size, although the shape of Thalassa is almost oblate (like a lens) while the shapes of other, strongly elongated satellites such as Naiad are closer to prolate (like a cigar). While previous uncertainties allowed the same reflectivity for the inner six Neptunian satellites, this is no longer true. There is a trend of albedos increasing with distance from Neptune, similar to the trend observed for the Uranian satellites. By estimating phase curves, I predict brighter albedos for inner six Neptunian satellites (0.07-0.10) than for the inner 10 Uranian satellites (0.05-0.07), opposite to previous estimates, which could be tested using recent images by the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observatories. The measured shapes of the inner Neptunian satellites cause orbital light curves, even if their surfaces lack spatial albedo variations. Indeed, photometry by Thomas and Veverka (1991) reveals amplitudes and phases of the light curves consistent with those inferred from the measured shapes, although most data are

  15. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  16. Satellite data assimilation in global forecast system in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Swati

    2014-11-01

    Satellite data is very important for model initialization and verification. A large number of satellite observations are currently assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). Apart from Global meteorological observations from GTS, near-real time satellite observations are received at NCMRWF from other operational centres like ISRO, NOAA/NESDIS, EUMETCAST, etc. Recently India has become member of Asia-Pacific Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service (APRARS) for faster access to high resolution global satellite data useful for high resolution regional models. Indian HRPT at Chennai covers the APRARS data gap region over South East Asia. A robust data monitoring system has been implemented at NCMRWF to assess the quantity and quality of the data as well as the satellite sensor strength, before getting assimilated in the models. Validation of new satellite observations, especially from Indian satellites are being carried out against insitu observations and similar space borne platforms. After establishing the quality of the data, Observation System Experiments (OSEs) are being conducted to study their impact in the assimilation and forecast systems. OSEs have been carried out with the Oceansat-2 scatterometer winds and radiance data from Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR sensor. Daily rainfall analysis dataset is being generated by merging satellite estimates and in-situ observations. ASCAT soil wetness measurements from METOP satellite is being assimilated into the global model. Land surface parameters (LuLc and albedo) retrieved from Indian satellites are being explored for its possible usage in the global and regional models. OLR from Indian satellites are used for validating model outputs. This paper reviews the efforts made at NCMRWF in (i) assimilating the data from Indian/International satellites and (ii) generating useful products from the satellite data.

  17. Satellite-Friendly Protocols and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner, S.; Riedler, W.

    2002-01-01

    We are currently observing a development unprecedented with other services, the enormous growth of the Internet. Video, voice and data applications can be supported via this network in high quality. Multi-media applications require high bandwidth which may not be available in many areas. When making proper use of the broadcast feature of a communications satellite, the performance of the satellite-based system can compare favourably to terrestrial solutions. Internet applications are in many cases highly asymmetric, making them very well suited to applications using small and inexpensive terminals. Data from one source may be used simultaneously by a large number of users. The Internet protocol suite has become the de-facto standard. But this protocol family in its original form has not been designed to support guaranteed quality of service, a prerequisite for real-time, high quality traffic. The Internet Protocol has to be adapted for the satellite environment, because long roundtrip delays and the error behaviour of the channel could make it inefficient over a GEO satellite. Another requirement is to utilise the satellite bandwidth as efficiently as possible. This can be achieved by adapting the access system to the nature of IP frames, which are variable in length. In the framework of ESA's ARTES project a novel satellite multimedia system was developed which utilises Multi-Frequency TDMA in a meshed network topology. The system supports Quality of Service (QoS) by reserving capacity with different QoS requirements. The system is centrally controlled by a master station with the implementation of a demand assignment (DAMA) system. A lean internal signalling system has been adopted. Network management is based on the SNMP protocol and industry-standard network management platforms, making interfaces to standard accounting and billing systems easy. Modern communication systems will have to be compliant to different standards in a very flexible manner. The

  18. Satellite Docking Simulator with Generic Contact Dynamics Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, O.; Crabtree, D.; Carr, R.; Gonthier, Y.; Martin, E.; Piedboeuf, J.-C.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite docking (and capture) systems are critical for the servicing or salvage of satellites. Satellite servicing has comparatively recently become a realistic and promising space operation/mission. Satellite servicing includes several of the following operations: rendezvous; docking (capturing); inspection; towing (transporting); refueling; refurbishing (replacement of faulty or "used-up" modules/boxes); and un-docking (releasing). Because spacecraft servicing has been, until recently non-feasible or non-economical, spacecraft servicing technology has been neglected. Accordingly, spacecraft designs have featured self- contained systems without consideration for operational servicing. Consistent with this view, most spacecrafts were designed and built without docking interfaces. If, through some mishap, a spacecraft was rendered non-operational, it was simply considered expendable. Several feasibility studies are in progress on salvaging stranded satellites (which, in fact had led to this project). The task of the designer of the docking system for a salvaging task is difficult. He/she has to work with whatever it is on orbit, and this excludes any special docking interfaces, which might have made his/her task easier. As satellite servicing becomes an accepted design requirement, many future satellites will be equipped with appropriate docking interfaces. The designer of docking systems will be faced with slightly different challenges: reliable, cost-effective, docking (and re-supply) systems. Thus, the role of designers of docking systems will increase from one of a kind, ad-hoc interfaces intended for salvaging operations, to docking systems for satellites and "caretaker" spacecraft which are meant for servicing and are produced in larger numbers. As in any space system (for which full and representative ground hardware test-beds are very expensive and often impossible to develop), simulations are mandatory for the development of systems and operations for

  19. System architecture for the Canadian interim mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatmadar, M.; Gordon, K.; Skerry, B.; Eldamhougy, H.; Bossler, D.

    1988-05-01

    The system architecture for the Canadian Interim Mobile Satellite Service (IMSS) which is planned for commencement of commercial service in late 1989 is reviewed. The results of an associated field trial program which was carried out to determine the limits of coverage and the preliminary performance characteristics of the system are discussed.

  20. Trends In Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  1. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  2. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  3. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  4. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  5. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  6. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  7. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  8. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  9. Satellite formation. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite formation model is extended to include evolution of planetary ring material and elliptic orbital motion. In this model the formation of the moon begins at a later time in the growth of the earth, and a significant fraction of the lunar material is processed through a circumterrestrial debris cloud where volatiles might have been lost. Thus, the chemical differences between the earth and moon are more plausibly accounted for. Satellites of the outer planets probably formed in large numbers throughout the growth of those planets. Because of rapid inward evolution of the orbits of small satellites, the present satellite systems represent only satellites formed in the last few percent of the growths of their primaries. The rings of Saturn and Uranus are most plausibly explained as the debris of satellites disrupted within the Roche limit. Because such a ring would collapse onto the planet in the course of any significant further accretion by the planet, the rings must have formed very near or even after the conclusion of accretion.

  10. Evaluation of sampling plans for in-service inspection of steam generator tubes. Volume 2, Comprehensive analytical and Monte Carlo simulation results for several sampling plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Baird, D.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of three previous studies to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of sampling plans for steam generator tube inspections. An analytical evaluation and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were the methods used to evaluate sampling plan performance. To test the performance of candidate sampling plans under a variety of conditions, ranges of inspection system reliability were considered along with different distributions of tube degradation. Results from the eddy current reliability studies performed with the retired-from-service Surry 2A steam generator were utilized to guide the selection of appropriate probability of detection and flaw sizing models for use in the analysis. Different distributions of tube degradation were selected to span the range of conditions that might exist in operating steam generators. The principal means of evaluating sampling performance was to determine the effectiveness of the sampling plan for detecting and plugging defective tubes. A summary of key results from the eddy current reliability studies is presented. The analytical and Monte Carlo simulation analyses are discussed along with a synopsis of key results and conclusions.

  11. CHINA LAUNCHES NEW SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  12. Digital audio and video broadcasting by satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Takehiko

    In parallel with the progress of the practical use of satellite broadcasting and Hi-Vision or high-definition television technologies, research activities are also in progress to replace the conventional analog broadcasting services with a digital version. What we call 'digitalization' is not a mere technical matter but an important subject which will help promote multichannel or multimedia applications and, accordingly, can change the old concept of mass media, such as television or radio. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories has promoted studies of digital bandwidth compression, transmission, and application techniques. The following topics are covered: the trend of digital broadcasting; features of Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB); compression encoding and transmission; transmission bit rate in 12 GHz band; number of digital TV transmission channels; multichannel pulse code modulation (PCM) audio broadcasting system via communication satellite; digital Hi-Vision broadcasting; and development of digital audio broadcasting (DAB) for mobile reception in Japan.

  13. Forecasting Hurricane by Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. Y.

    Earth is an endanger planet. Severe weather, especially hurricanes, results in great disaster all the world. World Meteorology Organization and United Nations Environment Program established intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to offer warnings about the present and future disasters of the Earth. It is the mission for scientists to design warning system to predict the severe weather system and to reduce the damage of the Earth. Hurricanes invade all the world every year and made millions damage to all the people. Scientists in weather service applied satellite images and synoptic data to forecast the information for the next hours for warning purposes. Regularly, hurricane hits on Taiwan island directly will pass through her domain and neighbor within 10 hours. In this study, we are going to demonstrate a tricky hurricane NARI invaded Taiwan on September 16, 2000. She wandered in the neighborhood of the island more than 72 hours and brought heavy rainfall over the island. Her track is so tricky that scientists can not forecast her path using the regular method. Fortunately, all scientists in the Central Weather Bureau paid their best effort to fight against the tricky hurricane. Applying the new developed technique to analysis the satellite images with synoptic data and radar echo, scientists forecasted the track, intensity and rainfall excellently. Thus the damage of the severe weather reduced significantly.

  14. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  15. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service for their feeder link operations shall coordinate their operations with licensees of geostationary...-geostationary satellite systems for feeder link operations shall coordinate their operations with the...

  16. Satellites monitor Los Alamos fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; White, Benjamin

    A man-made fire that was intended to be a “controlled burn” for clearing brush and wilderness at the Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, became an inferno that devastated significant portions of Los Alamos during the first week of May 2000. Now known as the Cerro Grande fire, it was not confined to Los Alamos alone. The fire spread to 15% of the Santa Clara Indian Reservation and a substantial area of the surrounding national parks and U.S. forests.The National Weather Service estimates that more than 100,000 fires occur in the natural environment each year within the United States alone, of which about 90% are manmade. Remote sensing images from satellites could be used to detect and monitor these active fires and biomass burning. Forest fires have a significant environmental and economic impact, and timely information about their location and magnitude is essential to contain them.

  17. Satellite Meteorology Education Resources Freely Available from COMET°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.

    2011-12-01

    The COMET° Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS, EUMETSAT, and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training efforts in satellite meteorology. These partnerships enable COMET to create educational materials of global interest on the application of products from geostationary and polar-orbiting remote sensing platforms. Recently, COMET's satellite education programs have focused on both current and next generation satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, MSC, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater utilization of satellite data and products. COMET also continues to broaden the scope of its training to include materials on the EUMETSAT Polar-orbiting System (EPS) and Meteosat geostationary satellites. EPS represents an important contribution to the Initial Joint Polar System between NOAA and EUMETSAT, while Meteosat Second Generation imaging capabilities provide an authentic proving ground for the next-generation GOES-R imager. This presentation provides an overview of COMET's recent satellite education efforts including courses and publications that focus on topics like multispectral RGB products, detecting atmospheric dust, and climate monitoring from satellites. Over 50 satellite-focused self-paced online materials are freely available via the Satellite Topic area of the MetEd Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/topics/modules/satellite) and COMET's Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC)(www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc). The ESRC, another important resource developed for use by the geosciences and education communities, is a searchable, database driven Web site that provides easy access to a wide range of useful information and training materials on Earth-observing satellites. Simple free online registration is required to access all training materials and the

  18. Cyber security with radio frequency interferences mitigation study for satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Genshe; Tian, Xin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Nguyen, Tien M.; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite systems including the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the satellite communications (SATCOM) system provide great convenience and utility to human life including emergency response, wide area efficient communications, and effective transportation. Elements of satellite systems incorporate technologies such as navigation with the global positioning system (GPS), satellite digital video broadcasting, and information transmission with a very small aperture terminal (VSAT), etc. The satellite systems importance is growing in prominence with end users' requirement for globally high data rate transmissions; the cost reduction of launching satellites; development of smaller sized satellites including cubesat, nanosat, picosat, and femtosat; and integrating internet services with satellite networks. However, with the promising benefits, challenges remain to fully develop secure and robust satellite systems with pervasive computing and communications. In this paper, we investigate both cyber security and radio frequency (RF) interferences mitigation for satellite systems, and demonstrate that they are not isolated. The action space for both cyber security and RF interferences are firstly summarized for satellite systems, based on which the mitigation schemes for both cyber security and RF interferences are given. A multi-layered satellite systems structure is provided with cross-layer design considering multi-path routing and channel coding, to provide great security and diversity gains for secure and robust satellite systems.

  19. Experimental Satellite 2 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Small satellite Experimental Satellite 2 (SY-2) was launched by LM-2C launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on Nov. 18, 2004. Later the satellite entered the preset sun-synchronous orbit, which is 700 kilometers above the earth. The launch was the eighthmission this year by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC), which aims to test the technology of the satellite, conduct survey and monitoring of the land and resources and geographical environment on a trial basis.

  20. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  1. Effective management strategy for establishing an operating room satellite pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J I; Schoeneman, P F; Buchanan, B

    1988-11-01

    The steps involved in justifying and implementing an operating room (OR) pharmacy satellite are described. A hospital administrator's viewpoint on the project is included. Objectives of the satellite were to reduce inventory costs, improve control of distribution, reduce loss of revenue and improve patient charging, improve IV compounding and labeling, and significantly improve narcotic control and accountability. The satellite provides comprehensive services 12 hours a day, five days a week. Effective after-hours procedures have been developed to provide efficient drug distribution when the pharmacy is closed. Achieved benefits of the satellite include decreased drug inventory, improved patient charging, accurate labeling, improved IV compounding, and improved pharmacy/surgery relations. The OR pharmacy satellite is a successful cost-effective operation.

  2. The role of technology in influencing future civil communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.; Mahle, Christoph E.

    1990-01-01

    Technology, both as an enabler and as a driver of new and improved communication satellites, is discussed. A brief look at the beginnings and evolution of satellite communications is given to reveal the continuing influence of technology over the past 25 years. An assessment of the current state of the art which serves as a benchmark representing how far technology has come and as a basis for comparison for future possibilities is presented. A short tutorial on communications satellite basics is presented, followed by an assessment of technologies used for satellite antennas and signal amplification and routing. A discussion of future service requirements follows, and emerging technologies are identified along with possible improved communications capabilities that can result from them. The outlook for the role of technology for future communication satellites is summarized.

  3. Professional Organizations for Pharmacy Students on Satellite Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication.

  4. The surprising inefficiency of dwarf satellite quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, Coral; Cooper, Michael C; Boylan-Kolchin, Mike; Bullock, James S

    2014-01-01

    We study dwarf satellite galaxy quenching using observations from the Geha et al. (2012) NSA/SDSS catalog together with LCDM cosmological simulations to facilitate selection and interpretation. We show that fewer than 30% of dwarfs (M* ~ 10^8.5-10^9.5 Msun) identified as satellites within massive host halos (Mhost ~ 10^12.5-10^14 Msun) are quenched, in spite of the expectation from simulations that half of them should have been accreted more than 6 Gyr ago. We conclude that whatever the action triggering environmental quenching of dwarf satellites, the process must be highly inefficient. We investigate a series of simple, one-parameter quenching models in order understand what is required to explain the low quenched fraction and conclude that either the quenching timescale is very long (> 9.5 Gyr, a "slow starvation" scenario) or that the environmental trigger is not well matched to accretion within the virial volume. We discuss these results in light of the fact that most of the low mass dwarf satellites in ...

  5. New Generation of Broadcasting Satellite Systems: New Markets and Business Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Bruno; Michel, Cyril; Villaret, Stéfanie

    2002-01-01

    Since the deployment of the first Digital Broadcasting Satellite Systems, European satellite operators and service providers have been faced with the continuously increasing demand for Digital Broadcasting Services. Their success is built on the availability of the MPEG and DVB standards. Undoubtedly, conventional digital television broadcasting is today the `Killer' application. Various service providers already offer multimedia applications through DVB-S systems based upon the `Push' technology. Although these services do not currently represent the core business for broadcasting satellite operators, their percentage is increasing. `Push' technology services include Data Carousel, Webcasting, Turbo Internet, File casting and so on. Such technology can support the implementation of different emerging multimedia services scenarios from Newsgroups, Network collaborative learning, and tele-medicine, to others that may be invented in the near future. The penetration rate of multi-channel television reception is still increasing. Broadcasting satellites benefit both from the development of new, more segmented and sophisticated offers and from the development of Internet services. Satellite is likely to enter these new markets at different levels of the value chain: Even if the satellite has demonstrated its capacity to fully serve the television, combinations with other networks may be necessary to address the new markets: at the consumer premises, Internet-related services will require a return path; at the backbone level, satellite becomes a component of a full telecommunications solution. This article focuses on the European market and proposes:

  6. Mobile communications by satellite in Europe - Overview of ESA activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogard, R.; Jongejans, A.; Bartholome, P.

    ESA is conducting studies aimed at the definition of a Land Mobile Satellite System for digital communications within the Western European region, in view of recent market studies indicating the existence of substantial demand for the provision of mobile communications services by satellite. Attention is presently given to the 'Prodat' low-rate system and its ARQ-coding scheme, Prodat's CDMA return link (noting interference protection and spectrum use efficiency criteria) and the aims of Prodat performance trials.

  7. Propagation considerations in the American Mobile Satellite system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiver, Charles; Sigler, Charles E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) mobile satellite services (MSS) system with special emphasis given to the propagation issues that were considered in the design is presented. The aspects of the voice codec design that effect system performance in a shadowed environment are discussed. The strategies for overcoming Ku-Band rain fades in the uplink and downlink paths of the gateway station are presented. A land mobile propagation study that has both measurement and simulation activities is described.

  8. Preface: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/GNSS+: Recent progress and new applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the new China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been developed well. At the end of 2016, over 23 BDS satellites were launched, including five geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites and nine medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The current BDS service covers China and most Asia-Pacific regions with accuracy of better than 10 m in positioning, 0.2 m/s in velocity and 50 ns in timing. The BDS with global coverage will be completely established by 2020 with five GEO satellites and 30 MEO satellites. The main function of BDS is the positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) as well as short message communications. Together with the United States' GPS, Russia's GLONASS and the European Union's Galileo system as well as other regional augmentation systems, more new applications of multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will be exploited and realized in the next decades.

  9. Satellite utilization for educational communications in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    This paper summarizes completed, continuing and planned satellite experiments in the U.S. related to the delivery of educational services and networking. It also describes some results of an on-going study at Washington University directed towards defining applications of fixed/broadcast communication satellites in the U.S. and alternative systems and strategies for large-scale telecommunication-based educational delivery systems utilizing satellites. An analysis is presented of recent actions which may influence future development of such systems.

  10. Andean terraced hills (a use of satellite imagery)

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is in stimulating the use of satellite imagery, in particular the free service of Google Maps, to investigate the distribution of the agricultural technique of terraced hills in Andean countries, near Titicaca Lake. In fact, satellite maps can give a clear view of the overall surface modified by human work, being then a precious help for on-site archaeological researches and for historical analysis. Satellite imagery is also able to give the distribution of burial and worship places. The paper discusses some examples near the Titicaca Lake.

  11. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  12. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  13. ESA's satellite communications programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  14. AVS on satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang

    2005-07-01

    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  15. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  16. Exploring NASA Satellite Data with High Resolution Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Johnson, J. E.; Shen, S.; Zhao, P.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Vollmer, B.; Vicente, G. A.; Pham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted, such as model inputs from satellite, or extreme event (such as volcano eruption, dust storm, ...etc) interpretation from satellite. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite data products provided by NASA and other organizations. Such obstacles may be avoided by providing satellite data as ';Images' with accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, including pixel coverage area delineation and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. We will present a prototype service from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) supporting various visualization and data accessing capabilities from satellite Level 2 data (non-aggregated and un-gridded) at high spatial resolution. Functionality will include selecting data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement, like NO2 and SO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), or same parameter with different methods of aggregation, like NO2 in OMNO2G and OMNO2D products), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents, zooming, panning, overlaying, sliding, and data subsetting and reformatting. The portal interface will connect to the backend services with OGC standard-compliant Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) calls. The interface will also be able to connect to other OGC WMS and WCS servers, which will greatly enhance its expandability to integrate additional outside data/map sources.

  17. Optical transceivers for interconnections in satellite payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Mikko; Heikkinen, Veli; Juntunen, Eveliina; Kautio, Kari; Ollila, Jyrki; Sitomaniemi, Aila; Tanskanen, Antti

    2013-02-01

    The increasing data rates and processing on board satellites call for the use of photonic interconnects providing high-bitrate performance as well as valuable savings in mass and volume. Therefore, optical transmitter and receiver technology is developed for aerospace applications. The metal-ceramic-packaging with hermetic fiber pigtails enables robustness for the harsh spacecraft environment, while the 850-nm VCSEL-based transceiver technology meets the high bit-rate and low power requirements. The developed components include 6 Gbps SpaceFibre duplex transceivers for intra-satellite data links and 40 Gbps parallel optical transceivers for board-to-board interconnects. Also, integration concept of interchip optical interconnects for onboard processor ICs is presented.

  18. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  19. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  20. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  1. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used......Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...

  2. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  3. Handbook of satellite orbits from Kepler to GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Capderou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years after Sputnik, artificial satellites have become indispensable monitors in many areas, such as economics, meteorology, telecommunications, navigation and remote sensing. The specific orbits are important for the proper functioning of the satellites. This book discusses the great variety of satellite orbits, both in shape (circular to highly elliptical) and properties (geostationary, Sun-synchronous, etc.). This volume starts with an introduction into geodesy. This is followed by a presentation of the fundamental equations of mechanics to explain and demonstrate the properties for all types of orbits. Numerous examples are included, obtained through IXION software developed by the author. The book also includes an exposition of the historical background that is necessary to help the reader understand the main stages of scientific thought from Kepler to GPS. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and students working in the field of satellite technology. Engineers, geographers and all those...

  4. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  5. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  6. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol

    2016-07-01

    ionosphere using IRI-Plas-G software. One of the outstanding features of IONOLAB-RAY is the opportunity of Global Ionospheric Map-Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC) assimilation. This feature enables more realistic representation of ionosphere, especially for the times when ionosphere deviates from the generalized models, such as during geomagnetic storms. This feature is critical to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals under ionospheric storm conditions. In this study TURKSAT satellite data is used to compare the results of IONOLAB-RAY and evaluate the effect of ionosphere. TURKSAT is one of the world's leading companies providing all sorts of satellite communications through the satellites of TURKSAT as well as the other satellites. Providing services for voice, data, internet, TV, and radio broadcasting through the satellites across a wide area extending from Europe to Asia. The latest satellite of TURKSAT, namely Turksat 4B was launched on October 2015, before that various versions of TURKSAT satellites are launched since 1994. In the future enlargement of broadcasting area towards equatorial region is aimed, where the ionospheric anomalies and storms are highly expected. In the future this study can be applied to the satellite signals in equatorial regions and effects of ionosphere especially under storm conditions can be discussed. This study is supported by TUBITAK 114E541, 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  7. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝昌明

    2005-01-01

    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  8. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  9. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-07-24

    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  10. Perception via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    of nearly specular reflections from most solar panels. Our primary purpose in presenting these two plots is to demonstrate the usefulness of...than a transformation for stars because the spectral energy distribution of satellites can change with phase angle and is subject to specular

  12. Creating Better Satellite Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  13. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  14. OMV With Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    This 1986 artist's concept shows the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) towing a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  15. Advances in satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  16. Microdischarge plasma thrusters for small satellite propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Laxminarayan

    2009-10-01

    Small satellites weighing less than 100 kg are gaining importance in the defense and commercial satellite community owing to advantages of low costs to build and operate, simplicity of design, rapid integration and testing, formation flying, and multi-vehicle operations. The principal challenge in the design and development of small satellite subsystems is the severe mass, volume, and power constraints posed by the overall size of the satellite. The propulsion system in particular is hard to down scale and as such poses a major stumbling block for small satellite technology. Microdischarge-based miniaturized plasma thrusters are potentially a novel solution to this problem. In its most basic form a microdischarge plasma thruster is a simple extension of a cold gas micronozzle propulsion device, where a direct or alternating current microdischarge is used to preheat the gas stream to improve to specific impulse of the device. We study a prototypical thruster device using a detailed, self-consistent coupled plasma and fluid flow computational model. The model describes the microdischarge power deposition, plasma dynamics, gas-phase chemical kinetics, coupling of the plasma phenomena with high-speed flow, and overall propulsion system performance. Unique computational challenges associated with microdischarge modeling in the presence of high-speed flows are addressed. Compared to a cold gas micronozzle, a significant increase in specific impulse (50 to 100 %) is obtained from the power deposition in the diverging supersonic section of the thruster nozzle. The microdischarge remains mostly confined inside the micronozzle and operates in an abnormal glow discharge regime. Gas heating, primarily due to ion Joule heating, is found to have a strong influence on the overall discharge behavior. The study provides a validation of the concept as simple and effective approach to realizing a relatively high-specific impulse thruster device at small geometric scales.

  17. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  18. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 4: Television experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments sponsored by the US Department of Health Education and Welfare are discussed, including telecommunications, Alaskan health service, Appalachian education satellite project, and the University of the West Indies. The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment in India is reviewed. Independent television experiments are addressed, including AIDSAT and Project Look Up.

  19. The Comparative Analysis on the Development of Fixed Satellite Services Operators in Asia-Pacific--Comparisons between Listed and Non-Listed Companies%亚太地区固定卫星服务运营商发展比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫钊

    2015-01-01

    Asia-Pacific is the most fiercely competitive market of the global fixed satellite services (FSS) industry. More than half of the operators provide services in this area. In recent years, as more and more operators in the world anticipate launching new satellites to meet growing demand in this emerging market. Chinese FSS industry, while maintaining fast and stable development, is facing more and more iferce challenge and competition. Therefore, the comparative analysis on the FSS Operators is quite necessary. By using the methods of comparative analysis, this paper compares the development index of FSS operators in Asia-Pacific, and then offers some suggestions to the Chinese FSS operators on the basis of the comparative analysis results between listed and non-listed companies.%亚太地区是全球固定卫星服务业竞争最为激烈的市场,全球超过一半的运营商在该地区开展业务。近年来,我国固定卫星服务业在保持平稳较快发展的同时,也面临着全球新一轮卫星资源建设高峰和市场竞争进一步加剧等挑战,对竞争对手进行研究十分必要。本文运用比较分析法,对亚太地区固定卫星服务运营商发展指标进行了比较,最后基于非上市公司与上市公司的比较分析结果,为我国运营商提出了一些启示性的建议。

  20. A Minimum Cost Handover Algorithm for Mobile Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tao; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    For mobile satellite networks,an appropriate handover scheme should be devised to shorten handover delay with optimized application of network resources.By introducing the handover cost model of service,this article proposes a rerouting triggering scheme for path optimization after handover and a new minimum cost handover algorithm for mobile satellite networks.This algorithm ensures the quality of service (QoS) parameters,such as delay,during the handover and minimizes the handover costs.Simulation indicates that this algorithm is superior to other current algorithms in guaranteeing the QoS and decreasing handover costs.

  1. Recent Korean R&D in Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Jae Moung; Lee, Byung-Seub; Lee, Han; Ryoo, Jang-Soo

    The R&D in satellite communications in Korea has been driven mainly by KCC (Korea Communications Commission) but in a small scale compared to Korea space development program organized by MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology). Public and civilian satcom sector R&D has been led mainly by ETRI with small/medium companies contrary to rare investment in private sector while military sector R&D has been orchestrated by ADD with defense industry. By the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) experimental Ka-band payload, Korea pursues a space qualification of own technology for national infrastructure evolution as well as industrialization of space R&D results. Once COMS launched and space qualified in 2009, subsequent application experiments and new technology R&D like UHDTV will entail service and industry promotion. The payload technology is expected for the next Korean commercial satellites or for new OBP satellites. The COMS ground control system and GNSS ground station technologies are under development for COMS operation and enhanced GNSS services along with advent of Galileo respectively. Satellite broadband mobile VSAT based on DVB-S2/RCS (+M) and low profile tracking antennas have been developed for trains, ships, and planes. While APSI is developing GMR-1 based Thuraya handset functions, ETRI is designing IMT-Advanced satellite radio interface for satellite and terrestrial dual-mode handheld communication system like Japanese STICS, with universities' satellite OFDM researches. A 21GHz Ka-band higher-availability scalable HD broadcasting technology and SkyLife's hybrid satellite IPTV technology are being developed. In near term Korea will extend R&D programs to upgrade the space communication infrastructure for universal access to digital opportunity and safer daily life from disaster, and to promote space green IT industrialization, national security, and space resources sovereign. Japanese stakeholders are invited to establish

  2. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  3. A History of Satellite Reconnaissance. Volume 2A. SAMOS (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    about the potential of tbe later propolal al time passed. assured Charylc. that estimates of the worth of the 77-inch camera were quite conservative...DECLASSIFIED BY: C/IART DECLASSIFIED ON: 7 MAY 2012 wap •• ea.’I’ (RCA) propoled to the Air Force the clevelopment of a c:loucl cover reconnaissance...the unde rsecretary instructed Ceneral Creer to change the security of the propolal from conventional "secret" to "Mandatory Knowled!i!e" and to

  4. Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques. Volume 1. Technique Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    gives the central fre- quencies and bandwidths of these channels. A plot of the filter response functions (^i{v] for the H2O channels (7-14) is...WASHINGTON, DC 20235 OFFICE OF STAFF METEORO. WESTERN SPACE & MISSILE CENTER (WE) VANDENBLRG AFB, CA 93437 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH E. CENTRAL ...M3H 5T4 ONTARIO, CANADA BIBLIOTECA INSTITUTE ANARTICO CHILENO LUIS THAYER OJEDA 814 SANTIAGO, CHILE METEORO. OFFICE LIBRARY LONDON ROAD

  5. A History of Satellite Reconnaissance. Volume 1. CORONA (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    recalled some 15 years later, have been summarized in CIA Intelligence Journal , July l973.. 31 Tma-sscasir-- BYE 17017-74 Handle via Byernan/ Taient...professional for an "amateur" perhaps explained much of the implied distrust. BYZ 17017- Handle yet Byeman/ Talent - Keyn• Controls OrTOP -SECRE-T 83 1...used here and not otherwise attributed have been taken from "CORONA, " by Kenneth E. Greer, an article published in the CIA Intelligence Journal of July

  6. Basic Course Deskbook. Volume 1: Client Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    reasonable period, the problem truly is cured ; otherwise, proceed to separation. VI. REVOCATION OF PASS PRIVILEGES. A. Reference. AR 600-8-10...of marijuana that is detectable under the Army Drug Testing Program. To ensure military readiness, the ingestion of hemp seed oil or products made...4. Defenses. a. Plaintiff not "qualified handicapped person" ("qualified individual with disability"). Bradley v. Univ. of Texas Cancer Center, 3

  7. Web Services at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Baldwin, R.; Del Greco, S.; Lott, N.; Rutledge, G.

    2007-12-01

    NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) currently archives over 1.5 petabytes of climatological data from various networks and sources including in-situ, numerical models, radar and satellite. Access to these datasets is evolving from interactive web interfaces utilizing database technology to standardized web services in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). NCDC is currently offering several web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), XML over Representational State Transfer (REST/XML), Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) / Web Feature Service (WFS) / Web Coverage Service (WCS) and OPeNDAP web service protocols. These services offer users a direct connection between their client applications and NCDC data servers. In addition, users may embed access to the services in custom applications to efficiently navigate and subset data in an automated fashion. NCDC currently provides gridded numerical model data through a THREDDS Data Server and GrADS Data Server which offers OPeNDAP and WCS access. In-situ network metadata are available through WMS and WFS while the corresponding time-series data are accessible through SOAP and REST web services. These in-situ services are a part of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI) WaterOneFlow services, a consolidated access system for hydrologic data, and comply with the WaterOneFlow specifications. NCDC's Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI), which provides user access to archives of several datasets critical to the detection and evaluation of severe weather, is also accessible through REST/XML services. Providing cataloging, access and search capabilities for many of NCDC's datasets using community driven standards is a top priority for the ever increasing data volumes being archived at NCDC. Providing interoperable access is critical to supporting data stewardship across multiple scientific disciplines and user types. This demonstration will

  8. Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.

  9. Using Enabling Technologies to Facilitate the Comparison of Satellite Observations with the Model Forecasts for Hurricane Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Knosp, B.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Niamsuwan, N.; Johnson, M. P.; Shen, T. P. J.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to their complexity and volume, the satellite data are underutilized in today's hurricane research and operations. To better utilize these data, we developed the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) - an Interactive Data Portal providing fusion between Near-Real-Time satellite observations and model forecasts to facilitate model evaluation and improvement. We have collected satellite observations and model forecasts in the Atlantic Basin and the East Pacific for the hurricane seasons since 2010 and supported the NASA Airborne Campaigns for Hurricane Study such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) in 2010 and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) from 2012 to 2014. To enable the direct inter-comparisons of the satellite observations and the model forecasts, the TCIS was integrated with the NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3) to produce synthetic observations (e.g. simulated passive microwave brightness temperatures) from a number of operational hurricane forecast models (HWRF and GFS). An automated process was developed to trigger NEOS3 simulations via web services given the location and time of satellite observations, monitor the progress of the NEOS3 simulations, display the synthetic observation and ingest them into the TCIS database when they are done. In addition, three analysis tools, the joint PDF analysis of the brightness temperatures, ARCHER for finding the storm-center and the storm organization and the Wave Number Analysis tool for storm asymmetry and morphology analysis were integrated into TCIS to provide statistical and structural analysis on both observed and synthetic data. Interactive tools were built in the TCIS visualization system to allow the spatial and temporal selections of the datasets, the invocation of the tools with user specified parameters, and the display and the delivery of the results. In this presentation, we will describe the key enabling technologies behind the design of

  10. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data, satellite imagery and biophysical gradient layers...

  11. Buffer management optimization strategy for satellite ATM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    ECTD (erroneous cell tail drop), a buffer management optimization strategy is suggested which can improve the utilization of buffer resources in satellite ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks. The strategy, in which erroneous cells caused by satellite channel and the following cells that belong to the same PDU (protocol data Unit) are discarded, concerns non-real-time data services that use higher layer protocol for retransmission. Based on EPD (early packet drop) policy, mathematical models are established with and without ECTD. The numerical results show that ECTD would optimize buffer management and improve effective throughput (goodput), and the increment of goodput is relative to the CER (cell error ratio) and the PDU length. The higher their values are, the greater the increment. For example,when the average PDU length values are 30 and 90, the improvement of goodput are respectively about 4% and 10%.

  12. Low-noise amplifiers for satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelehan, J.

    1984-02-01

    It is pointed out that over the past several years significant advances have been made in the overall capability of both microwave and mm-wave receivers. This is particularly apparent in the telecom market. Integral parts of advanced receiver technology are low-noise receivers. The advances currently being achieved in low-noise technology are partly based on developments in GaAs semiconductor technology. The development of high-cutoff-frequency beam lead mixer diodes has led to the development of mm-wave low-noise mixers with excellent low-noise capability. The advanced techniques are now being employed in field-deployable systems. Low noise is an important factor in satellite communications applications. Attention is given to C-band fixed satellite service, C-band parametric amplifiers, C-band FET, and X band, the Ku band, and the 30/20 GHz band.

  13. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-03-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  14. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  15. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  16. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  17. Economically sustainable public security and emergency network exploiting a broadband communications satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal, Lasisi Salami

    2014-01-01

    The research contributes to work in Rapid Deployment of a National Public Security and Emergency Communications Network using Communication Satellite Broadband. Although studies in Public Security Communication networks have examined the use of communications satellite as an integral part of the Communication Infrastructure, there has not been an in-depth design analysis of an optimized regional broadband-based communication satellite in relation to the envisaged service coverage area, with l...

  18. A discussion on mobile satellite system and the myths of CDMA and diversity revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicholas; Goerke, Thomas; Jahn, Axel

    1995-01-01

    The paper explores the myths and facts surrounding: link margins and constellation designs; the use of satellite diversity in a mobile satellite channel; trade-offs in multiple access technique. Different satellite constellations are presented, which are comparable with those used by the big LEO proponents, with the associated trade-offs in the system design. Propagation data and results from various narrowband and wideband measurement campaigns are used to illustrate the expected differences in service performance.

  19. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  20. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth's land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive. The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.