WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite radar altimeter

  1. The accuracy of satellite radar altimeter data over the Greenland ice sheet determined from airborne laser data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamber, J.L.; Ekholm, Simon; Krabill, W.

    1998-01-01

    with airborne laser altimeter data an absolute accuracy typically in the range 2-10 cm +/- 10 cm. Comparison of differences between the radar and laser derived elevations, showed a correlation with surface slope. The difference between the two data sets ranged from 84 cm +/- 79 cm for slopes below 0.1 degrees......The 336 days of the geodetic phase of ERS-1 provides dense coverage, by satellite radar altimetry, of the whole of the Greenland ice sheet. These data have been used to produce a digital elevation model of the ice sheet. The errors present in the altimeter data were investigated via a comparison......, to 10.3 m +/- 8.4 m for a slope of 0.7 degrees ( the half power beam-width of the ERS-1 radar altimeter). An explanation for the behaviour of the difference as a function of surface slope is given in terms of the pattern of surface roughness on the ice sheet....

  2. 77 FR 3323 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment... to cancel Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's intent to cancel TSO-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter...

  3. 77 FR 21834 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment... Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This is a confirmation notice of the cancellation of TSO-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For...

  4. Ocean current surface measurement using dynamic elevations obtained by the GEOS-3 radar altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Remote Sensing of the ocean surface from the GEOS-3 satellite using radar altimeter data has confirmed that the altimeter can detect the dynamic ocean topographic elevations relative to an equipotential surface, thus resulting in a reliable direct measurement of the ocean surface. Maps of the ocean dynamic topography calculated over a one month period and with 20 cm contour interval are prepared for the last half of 1975. The Gulf Stream is observed by the rapid slope change shown by the crowding of contours. Cold eddies associated with the current are seen as roughly circular depressions.

  5. Long-term and seasonal Caspian Sea level change from satellite gravity and altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Save, H.; Cretaux, Jean-Francois

    2017-03-01

    We examine recent Caspian Sea level change by using both satellite radar altimetry and satellite gravity data. The altimetry record for 2002-2015 shows a declining level at a rate that is approximately 20 times greater than the rate of global sea level rise. Seasonal fluctuations are also much larger than in the world oceans. With a clearly defined geographic region and dominant signal magnitude, variations in the sea level and associated mass changes provide an excellent way to compare various approaches for processing satellite gravity data. An altimeter time series derived from several successive satellite missions is compared with mass measurements inferred from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data in the form of both spherical harmonic (SH) and mass concentration (mascon) solutions. After correcting for spatial leakage in GRACE SH estimates by constrained forward modeling and accounting for steric and terrestrial water processes, GRACE and altimeter observations are in complete agreement at seasonal and longer time scales, including linear trends. This demonstrates that removal of spatial leakage error in GRACE SH estimates is both possible and critical to improving their accuracy and spatial resolution. Excellent agreement between GRACE and altimeter estimates also provides confirmation of steric Caspian Sea level change estimates. GRACE mascon estimates (both the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) coastline resolution improvement version 2 solution and the Center for Space Research (CSR) regularized) are also affected by leakage error. After leakage corrections, both JPL and CSR mascon solutions also agree well with altimeter observations. However, accurate quantification of leakage bias in GRACE mascon solutions is a more challenging problem.

  6. GEOS-C altimeter attitude bias error correction. [gate-tracking radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A pulse-limited split-gate-tracking radar altimeter was flown on Skylab and will be used aboard GEOS-C. If such an altimeter were to employ a hypothetical isotropic antenna, the altimeter output would be independent of spacecraft orientation. To reduce power requirements the gain of the altimeter antenna proposed is increased to the point where its beamwidth is only a few degrees. The gain of the antenna consequently varies somewhat over the pulse-limited illuminated region of the ocean below the altimeter, and the altimeter output varies with antenna orientation. The error introduced into the altimeter data is modeled empirically, but close agreements with the expected errors was not realized. The attitude error effects expected with the GEOS-C altimeter are modelled using a form suggested by an analytical derivation. The treatment is restricted to the case of a relatively smooth sea, where the height of the ocean waves are small relative to the spatial length (pulse duration times speed of light) of the transmitted pulse.

  7. The influence of rain and clouds on a satellite dual frequency radar altimeter system operating at 13 and 35 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E. J.; Monaldo, F. M.; Goldhirsh, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inhomogeneous spatial attenuation resulting from clouds and rain on the altimeter estimate of the range to mean sea level are modelled. It is demonstrated that typical cloud and rain attenuation variability at commonly expected spatial scales can significantly degrade altimeter range precision. Rain cell and cloud scale sizes and attenuations are considered as factors. The model simulation of altimeter signature distortion is described, and the distortion of individual radar pulse waveforms by different spatial scales of attenuation is considered. Examples of range errors found for models of a single cloud, a rain cell, and cloud streets are discussed.

  8. The use of airborne laser data to calibrate satellite radar altimetry data over ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Simon; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry is the most important data source for ice sheet elevation modeling but it is well established that the accuracy of such data from satellite borne radar altimeters degrade seriously with increasing surface slope and level of roughness. A significant fraction of the slope......-precision airborne laser profiling data from the so-called Arctic Ice Mapping project as a tool to determine that bias and to calibrate the satellite altimetry. This is achieved by a simple statistical analysis of the airborne laser profiles, which defines the mean amplitude of the local surface undulations...

  9. Corrections for the effects of significant wave height and attitude on Geosat radar altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III

    1990-01-01

    Range estimates from a radar altimeter have biases which are a function of the significant wave height (SWH) and the satellite attitude angle (AA). Based on results of prelaunch Geosat modeling and simulation, a correction for SWH and AA was already applied to the sea-surface height estimates from Geosat's production data processing. By fitting a detailed model radar return waveform to Geosat waveform sampler data, it is possible to provide independent estimates of the height bias, the SWH, and the AA. The waveform fitting has been carried out for 10-sec averages of Geosat waveform sampler data over a wide range of SWH and AA values. The results confirm that Geosat sea-surface-height correction is good to well within the original dm-level specification, but that an additional height correction can be made at the level of several cm.

  10. The impact of the snow cover on sea-ice thickness products retrieved by Ku-band radar altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Perovich, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Snow on sea ice is a relevant polar climate parameter related to ocean-atmospheric interactions and surface albedo. It also remains an important factor for sea-ice thickness products retrieved from Ku-band satellite radar altimeters like Envisat or CryoSat-2, which is currently on its mission and the subject of many recent studies. Such satellites sense the height of the sea-ice surface above the sea level, which is called sea-ice freeboard. By assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface, the freeboard can be transformed into sea-ice thickness. Therefore, information about the snow load on hemispherical scale is crucial. Due to the lack of sufficient satellite products, only climatological values are used in current studies. Since such values do not represent the high variability of snow distribution in the Arctic, they can be a substantial contributor to the total sea-ice thickness uncertainty budget. Secondly, recent studies suggest that the snow layer cannot be considered as homogenous, but possibly rather featuring a complex stratigraphy due to wind compaction and/or ice lenses. Therefore, the Ku-band radar signal can be scattered at internal layers, causing a shift of the main scattering horizon towards the snow surface. This alters the freeboard and thickness retrieval as the assumption that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface is no longer valid and introduces a bias. Here, we present estimates for the impact of snow depth uncertainties and snow properties on CryoSat-2 sea-ice thickness retrievals. We therefore compare CryoSat-2 freeboard measurements with field data from ice mass-balance buoys and aircraft campaigns from the CryoSat Validation Experiment. This unique validation dataset includes airborne laser scanner and radar altimeter measurements in spring coincident to CryoSat-2 overflights, and allows us to evaluate how the main scattering horizon is altered by the

  11. Time series for water levels in virtual gauge stations in the Amazon basin using satellite radar altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel León Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite altimeter radar technology for monitoring changes in water levels at continental scale is a relatively recent ad- vance. Several studies have demonstrated the interest being shown in applying this technology to monitoring the hydrographic patterns of large-scale basins worldwide. The current study presents the inference of time series representing changes in water le- vel for bodies of water by defining virtual gauge stations deduced for two very different rivers in terms of their biophysical and to- pographic characteristics; the two rivers were the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon Basin and the Caqueta River on the Colombian side. The differences between the two rivers revealed the limits of satellite radar altimeter when applied to continental waters (±20cm and ±40 cm precision for Río Negro and Río Caquetá, respectively. However, applying this technology seems very promising, since new missions have been scheduled to be put into orbit by the end of 2008.

  12. Reliability of Wind Speed Data from Satellite Altimeter to Support Wind Turbine Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uti, M. N.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, A. H.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite altimeter has proven itself to be one of the important tool to provide good quality information in oceanographic study. Nowadays, most countries in the world have begun in implementation the wind energy as one of their renewable energy for electric power generation. Many wind speed studies conducted in Malaysia using conventional method and scientific technique such as anemometer and volunteer observing ships (VOS) in order to obtain the wind speed data to support the development of renewable energy. However, there are some limitations regarding to this conventional method such as less coverage for both spatial and temporal and less continuity in data sharing by VOS members. Thus, the aim of this research is to determine the reliability of wind speed data by using multi-mission satellite altimeter to support wind energy potential in Malaysia seas. Therefore, the wind speed data are derived from nine types of satellite altimeter starting from year 1993 until 2016. Then, to validate the reliability of wind speed data from satellite altimeter, a comparison of wind speed data form ground-truth buoy that located at Sabah and Sarawak is conducted. The validation is carried out in terms of the correlation, the root mean square error (RMSE) calculation and satellite track analysis. As a result, both techniques showing a good correlation with value positive 0.7976 and 0.6148 for point located at Sabah and Sarawak Sea, respectively. It can be concluded that a step towards the reliability of wind speed data by using multi-mission satellite altimeter can be achieved to support renewable energy.

  13. ACCELERATION OF SEA LEVEL RISE OVER MALAYSIAN SEAS FROM SATELLITE ALTIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS. Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  14. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  15. SIMULATION OF THE Ku-BAND RADAR ALTIMETER SEA ICE EFFECTIVE SCATTERING SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Andersen, Søren; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2006-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to simulate the sea ice radar altimeter effective scattering surface variability as a function of snow depth and density. Under dry snow conditions without layering these are the primary snow parameters affecting the scattering surface variability. The model is ...

  16. Effects of surface roughness on sea ice freeboard retrieval with an Airborne Ku-Band SAR radar altimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit

    2010-01-01

    to investigate sea ice volume changes on an Arctic wide scale. Freeboard retrieval requires precise radar range measurements to the ice surface, therefore we investigate the penetration of the Ku-Band radar waves into the overlying snow cover as well as the effects of sub-footprint-scale surface roughness using...... airborne radar and laser altimeters. We find regional variable penetration of the radar signal at late spring conditions, where the difference of the radar and the reference laser range measurement never agrees with the expected snow thickness. In addition, a rough surface can lead to biases...

  17. Probing Small Lakes on Titan Using the Cassini RADAR Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Poggiali, V.; Hayes, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitri, G.; Mitchell, K. L.; Janssen, M. A.; Casarano, D.; Notarnicola, C.; Le Gall, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The T126 Cassini's final flyby of Titan has offered a unique opportunity to observe an area in the Northern Polar terrain, where several small - medium size (10 - 50 km) hydrocarbon lakes are present and have been previously imaged by Cassini. The successful observation allowed the radar to operate at the closest approach over several small lakes, using its altimetry mode for the investigation of depth and liquid composition. Herein we present the result of a dedicate processing previously applied to altimetric data acquired over Ligeia Mare where the radar revealed the bathymetry and composition of the sea [1,2]. We show that, the optimal geometry condition met during the T126 fly-by allowed the radar to probe Titan's lakes revealing that such small liquid bodies can exceed one-hundred meters of depth. [1] M. Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014, Mar.). The bathymetry of a Titan Sea. Geophysical Research Letters. [Online]. 41 (5), pp. 1432-1437. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058618 [2] M.Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2016, Oct). Radar Sounding Using the Cassini Altimeter: Waveform Modeling and Monte Carlo Approach for Data Inversion of Observations of Titan's Seas, IEEE Transactions On Geoscience And Remote Sensing, Vol. 54, No. 10, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2563426.

  18. Validation and Variation of Upper Layer Thickness in South China Sea from Satellite Altimeter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Jung Kuo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2005 has been used to analyze the seasonal variation and the interannual variability of upper layer thickness (ULT in the South China Sea (SCS. Base on in-situ measurements, the ULT is defined as the thickness from the sea surface to the depth of 16°C isotherm which is used to validate the result derived from satellite altimeter data. In comparison with altimeter and in-situ derived ULTs yields a correlation coefficient of 0.92 with a slope of 0.95 and an intercept of 6 m. The basin averaged ULT derived from altimeter is 160 m in winter and 171 m in summer which is similar to the in-situ measurements of 159 m in winter and 175 m in summer. Both results also show similar spatial patterns. It suggests that the sea surface height data derived from satellite sensors are usable for study the variation of ULT in the semi-closed SCS. Furthermore, we also use satellite derived ULT to detect the development of eddy. Interannual variability of two meso-scale cyclonic eddies and one anticyclonic eddy are strongly influenced by El Niño events. In most cases, there are highly positive correlations between ULT and sea surface temperature except the periods of El Niño. During the onset of El Niño event, ULT is deeper when sea surface temperature is lower.

  19. Target Detection Based on EBPSK Satellite Passive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zeyuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Passive radar is a topic anti stealth technology with simple structure, and low cost. Radiation source model, signal transmission model, and target detection are the key points of passive radar technology research. The paper analyzes the characteristics of EBPSK signal modulation and target detection method aspect of spaceborne radiant source. By comparison with other satellite navigation and positioning system, the characteristics of EBPSK satellite passive radar system are analyzed. It is proved that the maximum detection range of EBPSK satellite signal can satisfy the needs of the proposed model. In the passive radar model, sparse representation is used to achieve high resolution DOA detection. The comparison with the real target track by simulation demonstrates that effective detection of airborne target using EBPSK satellite passive radar system based on sparse representation is efficient.

  20. Study of the Penetration Bias of ENVISAT Altimeter Observations over Antarctica in Comparison to ICESat Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Michel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the penetration bias of the ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT radar altimeter over the Antarctic ice sheet through comparison with the more accurate measurements of the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat altimeter at crossover points. We studied the difference between ENVISAT and ICESat fluctuations over six years. We observed the same patterns between the leading edge width and the elevation difference. Both parameters are linked, and the major bias is due to the lengthening of the leading edge width due to the radar penetration. We show that the elevation difference between both altimeters and the leading edge width are linearly well-linked with a 0.8 Pearson correlation coefficient, whereas the slope effect over the coasts is difficult to analyze. When we analyze each crossover point temporal evolution locally, the linear correlation between the leading edge width and the elevation difference is between −0.6 and −1. Fitting a linear model between them, we find a reliability index greater than 0.7 for the Antarctic Plateau and Dronning Maud Land, which confirms that the penetration effect has a linear influence on the retrieved height. Moreover, we present results from SARAL/AltiKa (launched in February 2013 that confirm SARAL/AltiKa accuracy and the promising information it will provide.

  1. Detection and characterization of ship targets using CryoSat-2 altimeter waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    G?mez-Enri, Jesus; Scozzari, Andrea; Soldovieri, Francesco; Coca, Josep; Vignudelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of the new possibilities offered by SAR altimetry compared with conventional altimetry in the detection and characterization of non-ocean targets. We explore the capabilities of the first SAR altimeter installed on the European Space Agency satellite CryoSat-2 for the detection and characterization of ships. We propose a methodology for the detection of anomalous targets in the radar signals, based on the advantages of SAR/Doppler processing over conven...

  2. Measurement of the sea surface wind speed and direction by an airborne microwave radar altimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrassov, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2001-07-01

    A pilot needs operational information about wind over sea as well as wave height to provide safety of a hydroplane landing on water. Near-surface wind speed and direction can be obtained with an airborne microwave scatterometer, radar designed for measuring the scatter characteristics of a surface. Mostly narrow-beam antennas are applied for such wind measurement. Unfortunately, a microwave narrow-beam antenna has considerable size that hampers its placing on flying apparatus. In this connection, a possibility to apply a conventional airborne radar altimeter as a scatterometer with a nadir-looking wide-beam antenna in conjunction with Doppler filtering for recovering the wind vector over sea is discussed, and measuring algorithms of sea surface wind speed and direction are proposed. The obtained results can be used for creation of an airborne radar system for operational measurement of the sea roughness characteristics and for safe landing of a hydroplane on water. (orig.)

  3. A new, high-resolution digital elevation model of Greenland fully validated with airborne laser altimeter data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamber, J.L.; Ekholm, Simon; Krabill, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    were corrected for a slope-dependent bias that had been identified in a previous study. The radar altimetry was supplemented with stereophotogrammetric data sets, synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and digitized cartographic maps over regions of bare rock and where gaps in the satellite altimeter...... the bare rock areas the accuracy ranged from 20 to 200 m, dependent on the data source available. The new digital elevation model was used as an input data set for a positive degree day model of ablation. The new elevation model was found to reduce ablation by only 2% compared with using an older, 2.5-km...

  4. Dramatic and long-term lake level changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Cryosat-2 altimeter: validation and augmentation by results from repeat altimeter missions and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Huang, YongRuei; Cheng, Ys; Shen, WenBin; Pan, Yuanjin

    2017-04-01

    The mean elevation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) exceeds 4000 m. Lake levels in the QTP are less affected by human activities than elsewhere, and may better reflect the state of contemporary climate change. Here ground-based lake level measurements are rare. Repeat altimeter missions, particularly those from the TOPEX and ERS series of altimetry, have provided long-term lake level observations in the QTP, but their large cross-track distances allow only few lakes to be monitored. In contrast, the Cryosat-2 altimeter, equipped with the new sensor SIRAL (interferometric/ synthetic aperture radar altimeter), provides a much better ranging accuracy and a finer spatial coverage than these repeated missions, and can detect water level changes over a large number of lakes in the QTP. In this study, Cryosat-2 data are used to determine lake level changes over 75˚E-100˚E and 28˚N-37.5˚N, where Cryosat-2 covers 60 lakes and SARAL/ AltiKa covers 32 lakes from 2013 to 2016. Over a lake, Cryosat-2 in different cycles can pass through different spots of the lake, making the numbers of observations non-uniform and requiring corrections for lake slopes. Four cases are investigated to cope with these situations: (1) neglecting inconsistency in data volume and lake slopes (2) considering data volume, (3) considering lake slopes only, and (4) considering both data volume and lake slopes. The CRYOSAT-2 result is then compared with the result from the SARAL to determine the best case. Because Cryosat-2 is available from 2010 to 2016, Jason-2 data are used to fill gaps between the time series of Cryosat-2 and ICESat (2003-2009) to obtain >10 years of lake level series. The Cryosat-2 result shows dramatic lake level rises in Lakes Kusai, Zhuoaihu and Salt in 2011 caused by floods. Landsat satellite imagery assists the determination and interpretation of such rises.

  5. Sensitivity of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice freeboard and thickness on radar-waveform interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of quantifying Arctic ice-volume decrease at global scale, the CryoSat-2 satellite was launched in 2010 and is equipped with the K-u band synthetic aperture radar altimeter SIRAL (Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter), which we use to derive sea-ice freeboard defined...... knowledge of ice and snow properties, the composition of radar backscatter and therefore the interpretation of radar echoes is crucial. This has consequences in the selection of retracker algorithms which are used to track the main scattering horizon and assign a range estimate to each CryoSat-2 measurement...... of sea-ice freeboard and higher-level products that arise from the choice of the retracker threshold only, independent of the uncertainties related to snow and ice properties. Our study shows that the choice of retracker thresholds does have a significant impact on magnitudes of estimates of sea...

  6. Integrated Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current Using HF Ocean Radars, Satellite Altimeters, Coastal Tide Gauges, and a Bottom-Mounted ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuchi, N.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.; Wakatsuchi, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soya Warm Current (SWC) is a coastal boundary current, which flows along the coast of Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The SWC flows into the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan through the Soya/La Perouse Strait, which is located between Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, Russia. It supplies warm, saline water in the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk and largely affects the ocean circulation and water mass formation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and local climate, environment and fishery in the region. However, the SWC has never been continuously monitored due to the difficulties involved in field observations related to, for example, severe weather conditions in the winter, political issues at the border strait, and conflicts with fishing activities in the strait. Detailed features of the SWC and its variations have not yet been clarified. In order to monitor variations in the SWC, three HF ocean radar stations were installed around the strait. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. It is shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and subinertial variations of the SWC. The velocity of the SWC reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m/s, in summer, and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 50 km. The surface transport by the Soya Warm Current shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records. The cross-current sea level difference, which is estimated from the sea level anomalies observed by the Jason-1 altimeter and a coastal tide gauge, also exhibits variation in concert with the surface transport and along-current sea level difference.

  7. Satellite-generated radar images of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanda, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board of SEASAT was the first non-military satellite-borne radar producing high-resolution images of the earth. Several examples of European scenes are discussed to demonstrate the properties of presently available optically processes images. (orig.)

  8. An Evaluation of Recent Gravity Models wrt. Altimeter Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Beckley, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Rowlands, D. D.

    2003-01-01

    With the launch of CHAMP and GRACE, we have entered a new phase in the history of satellite geodesy. For the first time, geopotential models are now available based almost exclusively on satellite-satellite tracking either with GPS in the case of the CHAMP-based geopotential models, or co-orbital intersatellite ultra-precise ranging in the case of GRACE. Different groups have analyzed these data, and produced a series of geopotential models (e.g., EIGENlS, EIGEN2, GGM0lS, GGMOlC) that incorporate the new data. We will compare the performance of these "newer" geopotential models with the standard models now used for computations, (e.g., JGM-3, BGM-96, PGS7727, and GRIMS-C1) for TOPEX, JASON, Geosat-Follow-On (GFO), and Envisat using standard metrics such as SLR RMS of fit, altimeter crossovers, and orbit overlaps. Where covariances are available we can evaluate the predicted geographically correlated orbit error. These predicted results can be compared with the Earth-fixed differences between dynamic and reduced-dynamic orbits to test the predictive accuracy of the covariances, as well as to calibrate the error of the solutions.

  9. A new 1 km digital elevation model of the Antarctic derived from combined satellite radar and laser data – Part 1: Data and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs of the whole of Antarctica have been derived, previously, from satellite radar altimetry (SRA and limited terrestrial data. Near the ice sheet margins and in other areas of steep relief the SRA data tend to have relatively poor coverage and accuracy. To remedy this and to extend the coverage beyond the latitudinal limit of the SRA missions (81.5° S we have combined laser altimeter measurements from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System onboard ICESat with SRA data from the geodetic phase of the ERS-1 satellite mission. The former provide decimetre vertical accuracy but with poor spatial coverage. The latter have excellent spatial coverage but a poorer vertical accuracy. By combining the radar and laser data using an optimal approach we have maximised the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the DEM and minimised the number of grid cells with an interpolated elevation estimate. We assessed the optimum resolution for producing a DEM based on a trade-off between resolution and interpolated cells, which was found to be 1 km. This resulted in just under 32% of grid cells having an interpolated value. The accuracy of the final DEM was assessed using a suite of independent airborne altimeter data and used to produce an error map. The RMS error in the new DEM was found to be roughly half that of the best previous 5 km resolution, SRA-derived DEM, with marked improvements in the steeper marginal and mountainous areas and between 81.5 and 86° S. The DEM contains a wealth of information related to ice flow. This is particularly apparent for the two largest ice shelves – the Filchner-Ronne and Ross – where the surface expression of flow of ice streams and outlet glaciers can be traced from the grounding line to the calving front. The surface expression of subglacial lakes and other basal features are also illustrated. We also use the DEM to derive new estimates of balance velocities and ice divide locations.

  10. Characterization of Terrestrial Water Dynamics in the Congo Basin Using GRACE and Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lyongki; Beighley, R. Edward; Alsdorf, Douglas; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Yamazaki, Dai; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (approximately 3.7 million km^2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (approximately 40,200 cms annual average). However, the hydrological dynamics of seasonally flooded wetlands and floodplains remains poorly quantified. Here, we separate the Congo wetland into four 3 degree x 3 degree regions, and use remote sensing measurements (i.e., GRACE, satellite radar altimeter, GPCP, JERS-1, SRTM, and MODIS) to estimate the amounts of water filling and draining from the Congo wetland, and to determine the source of the water. We find that the amount of water annually filling and draining the Congo wetlands is 111 km^3, which is about one-third the size of the water volumes found on the mainstem Amazon floodplain. Based on amplitude comparisons among the water volume changes and timing comparisons among their fluxes, we conclude that the local upland runoff is the main source of the Congo wetland water, not the fluvial process of river-floodplain water exchange as in the Amazon. Our hydraulic analysis using altimeter measurements also supports our conclusion by demonstrating that water surface elevations in the wetlands are consistently higher than the adjacent river water levels. Our research also highlights differences in the hydrology and hydrodynamics between the Congo wetland and the mainstem Amazon floodplain.

  11. Incorporating Satellite Precipitation Estimates into a Radar-Gauge Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a five-year period between 2003–2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS (National Weather Service operations over two regions: (I Inside radar effective coverage and (II immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate (a ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and (b blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.

  12. Improved interpretation of satellite altimeter data using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Kenneth; Lybanon, Matthew

    1992-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GA) are optimization techniques that are based on the mechanics of evolution and natural selection. They take advantage of the power of cumulative selection, in which successive incremental improvements in a solution structure become the basis for continued development. A GA is an iterative procedure that maintains a 'population' of 'organisms' (candidate solutions). Through successive 'generations' (iterations) the population as a whole improves in simulation of Darwin's 'survival of the fittest'. GA's have been shown to be successful where noise significantly reduces the ability of other search techniques to work effectively. Satellite altimetry provides useful information about oceanographic phenomena. It provides rapid global coverage of the oceans and is not as severely hampered by cloud cover as infrared imagery. Despite these and other benefits, several factors lead to significant difficulty in interpretation. The GA approach to the improved interpretation of satellite data involves the representation of the ocean surface model as a string of parameters or coefficients from the model. The GA searches in parallel, a population of such representations (organisms) to obtain the individual that is best suited to 'survive', that is, the fittest as measured with respect to some 'fitness' function. The fittest organism is the one that best represents the ocean surface model with respect to the altimeter data.

  13. Nudging Satellite Altimeter Data Into Quasi-Geostrophic Ocean Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verron, Jacques

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses the efficiency of several variants of the nudging technique (derived from the technique of the same name developed by meteorologists) for assimilating altimeter data into numerical ocean models based on quasi-geostrophic formulation. Assimilation experiments are performed with data simulated in the nominal sampling conditions of the Topex-Poseidon satellite mission. Under experimental conditions it is found that nudging on the altimetric sea level is as efficient as nudging on the vorticity (second derivative in space of the dynamic topography), the technique used thus far in studies of this type. The use of altimetric residuals only, instead of the total altimetric sea level signal, is also explored. The critical importance of having an adequate reference mean sea level is largely confirmed. Finally, the possibility of nudging only the signal of sea level tendency (i.e., the successive time differences of the sea level height) is examined. Apart from the barotropic mode, results are not very successful compared with those obtained by assimilating the residuals.

  14. Ku-Band radar penetration into Snow over Arctic Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit

    is the snow/air interface, whereas radar waves interact with the variable physical properties of the snow cover on the Arctic sea ice. In addition, radar elevation measurements may vary for different retracker algorithms, which determine the track point of the scattered echo power distribution. Since accurate...... knowledge of the reflection horizon is critical for sea ice thickness retrieval, validation data is necessary to investigate the penetration of radar waves into the snow for the upcoming CryoSat-2 mission. Furthermore, the combination of both optical and RF wavelengths might be used to derive snow thickness......, if radar altimeters are capable of measuring the distance to the snow-ice interface reliably. We present the results of aircraft campaigns in the Arctic with a scanning laser altimeter and the Airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) of the European Space Agency. The elevation...

  15. Comparison of space borne radar altimetry and airborne laser altimetry over sea ice in the Fram Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, K.A.; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the first comparison of satellite radar and airborne laser altimetry over sea ice. In order to investigate the differences between measurements from the two different instruments we explore the statistical properties of the data and determine reasonable scales in space and time...... at which to examine them. The resulting differences between the data sets show that the laser and the radar are reflecting from different surfaces and that the magnitude of the difference decreases with increasing surface air temperature. This suggests that the penetration depth of the radar signal......, into the snow, varies with temperature. The results also show the potential for computing Arctic wide snow depth maps by combining measurements from laser and radar altimeters....

  16. Monitoring of rain water storage in forests with satellite radar

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, JJM; Klaassen, W; Kuiper, PJC

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of radar backscatter to the amount of intercepted rain in temperate deciduous forests is analyzed to determine the feasibility of retrieval of this parameter from satellite radar data. A backscatter model is validated with X-band radar measurements of a single tree exposed to rain. A good agreement between simulation and measurements is observed and this demonstrates the ability of radar to measure the amount of intercepted rain. The backscatter model is next applied to simula...

  17. Global ocean tides through assimilation of oceanographic and altimeter satellite data in a hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprovost, Christian; Mazzega, P.; Vincent, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ocean tides must be considered in many scientific disciplines: astronomy, oceanography, geodesy, geophysics, meteorology, and space technologies. Progress in each of these disciplines leads to the need for greater knowledge and more precise predictions of the ocean tide contribution. This is particularly true of satellite altimetry. On one side, the present and future satellite altimetry missions provide and will supply new data that will contribute to the improvement of the present ocean tide solutions. On the other side, tidal corrections included in the Geophysical Data Records must be determined with the maximum possible accuracy. The valuable results obtained with satellite altimeter data thus far have not been penalized by the insufficiencies of the present ocean tide predictions included in the geophysical data records (GDR's) because the oceanic processes investigated have shorter wavelengths than the error field of the tidal predictions, so that the residual errors of the tidal corrections are absorbed in the empirical tilt and bias corrections of the satellite orbit. For future applications to large-scale oceanic phenomena, however, it will no longer be possible to ignore these insufficiencies.

  18. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  19. IoSiS: a radar system for imaging of satellites in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirousek, M.; Anger, S.; Dill, S.; Schreiber, E.; Peichl, M.

    2017-05-01

    Space debris nowadays is one of the main threats for satellite systems especially in low earth orbit (LEO). More than 700,000 debris objects with potential to destroy or damage a satellite are estimated. The effects of an impact often are not identifiable directly from ground. High-resolution radar images are helpful in analyzing a possible damage. Therefor DLR is currently developing a radar system called IoSiS (Imaging of Satellites in Space), being based on an existing steering antenna structure and our multi-purpose high-performance radar system GigaRad for experimental investigations. GigaRad is a multi-channel system operating at X band and using a bandwidth of up to 4.4 GHz in the IoSiS configuration, providing fully separated transmit (TX) and receive (RX) channels, and separated antennas. For the observation of small satellites or space debris a highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) is mounted close to the TX antenna feed. For the experimental phase IoSiS uses a 9 m TX and a 1 m RX antenna mounted on a common steerable positioner. High-resolution radar images are obtained by using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) techniques. The guided tracking of known objects during overpass allows here wide azimuth observation angles. Thus high azimuth resolution comparable to the range resolution can be achieved. This paper outlines technical main characteristics of the IoSiS radar system including the basic setup of the antenna, the radar instrument with the RF error correction, and the measurement strategy. Also a short description about a simulation tool for the whole instrument and expected images is shown.

  20. Trends of wave height and period in the Central Arabian Sea from 1996 to 2012: A study based on satellite altimeter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hithin, N.K.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    The variability of annual maximum and annual mean significant wave height (SWH) and wave period in the Central Arabian Sea is studied using satellite altimeter data from 1996 to 2012 at a deep water (water depth~3500 m) buoy location (15.5°N, 69...

  1. Advancing the capabilities of reservoir remote sensing by leveraging multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, G.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    With a total global capacity of more than 6000 km3, reservoirs play a key role in the hydrological cycle and in water resources management. However, essential reservoir data (e.g., elevation, storage, and evaporation loss) are usually not shared at a large scale. While satellite remote sensing offers a unique opportunity for monitoring large reservoirs from space, the commonly used radar altimeters can only detect storage variations of about 15% of global lakes at a repeat period of 10 days or longer. To advance the capabilities of reservoir sensing, we developed a series of algorithms geared towards generating long term reservoir records at improved spatial coverage, and at improved temporal resolution. To this goal, observations are leveraged from multiple satellite sensors, which include radar/laser altimeters, imagers, and passive microwave radiometers. In South Asia, we demonstrate that reservoir storage can be estimated under all-weather conditions at a 4 day time step, with the total capacity of monitored reservoirs increased to 45%. Within the Continuous United States, a first Landsat based evaporation loss dataset was developed (containing 204 reservoirs) from 1984 to 2011. The evaporation trends of these reservoirs are identified and the causes are analyzed. All of these algorithms and products were validated with gauge observations. Future satellite missions, which will make significant contributions to monitoring global reservoirs, are also discussed.

  2. Inference of Altimeter Accuracy on Along-track Gravity Anomaly Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A correlation model between along-track gravity anomaly accuracy, spatial resolution and altimeter accuracy is proposed. This new model is based on along-track gravity anomaly recovery and resolution estimation. Firstly, an error propagation formula of along-track gravity anomaly is derived from the principle of satellite altimetry. Then the mathematics between the SNR (signal to noise ratio and cross spectral coherence is deduced. The analytical correlation between altimeter accuracy and spatial resolution is finally obtained from the results above. Numerical simulation results show that along-track gravity anomaly accuracy is proportional to altimeter accuracy, while spatial resolution has a power relation with altimeter accuracy. e.g., with altimeter accuracy improving m times, gravity anomaly accuracy improves m times while spatial resolution improves m0.4644 times. This model is verified by real-world data.

  3. Monitoring of the MU radar antenna pattern by Satellite Ohzora (EXOS-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Inooka, Y.; Fukao, S.; Kato, S.

    1986-01-01

    As the first attempt among MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) type radars, the MU (middle and upper atmosphere) radar features an active phased array system. Unlike the conventional large VHF radars, in which output power of a large vacuum tube is distributed to individual antenna elements, each of 475 solid state power amplifier feeds each antenna element. This system configuration enables very fast beam steering as well as various flexible operations by dividing the antenna into independent subarrays, because phase shift and signal division/combination are performed at a low signal level using electronic devices under control of a computer network. The antenna beam can be switched within 10 microsec to any direction within the zenith angle of 30 deg. Since a precise phase alignment of each element is crucial to realize the excellent performance of this system, careful calibration of the output phase of each power amplifier and antenna element was carried out. Among various aircraft which may be used for this purpose artificial satellites have an advantage of being able to make a long term monitoring with the same system. An antenna pattern monitoring system for the MU radar was developed using the scientific satellite OHZORA (EXOS-C). A receiver named MUM (MU radar antenna Monitor) on board the satellite measures a CW signal of 100 to 400 watts transmitted from the MU radar. The principle of the measurement and results are discussed.

  4. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small rivers and lakes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulistioadi, Y.B.; Tseng, K.H.; Shum, C.K.; Hidayat, Hidayat; Sumaryono, M.; Suhardiman, A.; Setiawan, F.; Sunarso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods

  5. Phase calibration of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar interferometer using optical satellite signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sullivan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between natural ion-line enhancements in radar spectra and auroral activity has been the subject of recent studies but conclusions have been limited by the spatial and temporal resolution previously available. The next challenge is to use shorter sub-second integration times in combination with interferometric programmes to resolve spatial structure within the main radar beam, and so relate enhanced filaments to individual auroral rays. This paper presents initial studies of a technique, using optical and spectral satellite signatures, to calibrate the received phase of a signal with the position of the scattering source along the interferometric baseline of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. It is shown that a consistent relationship can be found only if the satellite passage through the phase fringes is adjusted from the passage predicted by optical tracking. This required adjustment is interpreted as being due to the vector between the theoretical focusing points of the two antennae, i.e. the true radar baseline, differing from the baseline obtained by survey between the antenna foot points. A method to obtain a measurement of the true interferometric baseline using multiple satellite passes is outlined.

  6. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  7. Assimilation of radar altimeter data in numerical wave models: an impact study in two different wave climate regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Emmanouil

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An operational assimilation system incorporating significant wave height observations in high resolution numerical wave models is studied and evaluated. In particular, altimeter satellite data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA-ENVISAT are assimilated in the wave model WAM which operates in two different wave climate areas: the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The first is a wind-sea dominated area while in the second, swell is the principal part of the sea state, a fact that seriously affects the performance of the assimilation scheme. A detailed study of the different impact is presented and the resulting forecasts are evaluated against available buoy and satellite observations. The corresponding results show a considerable improvement in wave forecasting for the Indian Ocean while in the Mediterranean Sea the assimilation impact is restricted to isolated areas.

  8. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE RESEARCH IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  9. VERTICAL ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF ZY-3 DIGITAL SURFACE MODEL USING ICESAT/GLAS LASER ALTIMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3 satellite, as the first civilian high resolution surveying and mapping satellite in China, has a very important role in national 1 : 50,000 stereo mapping project. High accuracy digital surface Model (DSMs can be generated from the three line-array images of ZY-3, and ZY-3 DSMs of China can be produced without using any ground control points (GCPs by selecting SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite, Geo-science Laser Altimeter System as the datum reference in the Satellite Surveying and Mapping Application Center, which is the key institute that manages and distributes ZY-3 products. To conduct the vertical accuracy evaluation of ZY-3 DSMs of China, three representative regions were chosen and the results were compared to ICESat/GLAS data. The experimental results demonstrated that the root mean square error (RMSE elevation accuracy of the ZY-3 DSMs was better than 5.0 m, and it even reached to less than 2.5 m in the second region of eastern China. While this work presents preliminary results, it is an important reference for expanding the application of ZY-3 satellite imagery to widespread regions. And the satellite laser altimetry data can be used as referenced data for wide-area DSM evaluation.

  10. The SUMO Ship Detector Algorithm for Satellite Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Greidanus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO is an algorithm for ship detection in satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. It has been developed over the course of more than 15 years, using a large amount of SAR images from almost all available SAR satellites operating in L-, C- and X-band. As validated by benchmark tests, it performs very well on a wide range of SAR image modes (from Spotlight to ScanSAR and resolutions (from 1–100 m and for all types and sizes of ships, within the physical limits imposed by the radar imaging. This paper describes, in detail, the algorithmic approach in all of the steps of the ship detection: land masking, clutter estimation, detection thresholding, target clustering, ship attribute estimation and false alarm suppression. SUMO is a pixel-based CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate detector for multi-look radar images. It assumes a K distribution for the sea clutter, corrected however for deviations of the actual sea clutter from this distribution, implementing a fast and robust method for the clutter background estimation. The clustering of detected pixels into targets (ships uses several thresholds to deal with the typically irregular distribution of the radar backscatter over a ship. In a multi-polarization image, the different channels are fused. Azimuth ambiguities, a common source of false alarms in ship detection, are removed. A reliability indicator is computed for each target. In post-processing, using the results of a series of images, additional false alarms from recurrent (fixed targets including range ambiguities are also removed. SUMO can run in semi-automatic mode, where an operator can verify each detected target. It can also run in fully automatic mode, where batches of over 10,000 images have successfully been processed in less than two hours. The number of satellite SAR systems keeps increasing, as does their application to maritime surveillance. The open data policy of the EU

  11. Integrated analysis of PALSAR/Radarsat-1 InSAR and ENVISAT altimeter data for mapping of absolute water level changes in Louisiana wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-W.; Lu, Z.; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Doyle, T.W.; Baek, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been used to detect relative water level changes in wetlands. We developed an innovative method to integrate InSAR and satellite radar altimetry for measuring absolute or geocentric water level changes and applied the methodology to remote areas of swamp forest in coastal Louisiana. Coherence analysis of InSAR pairs suggested that the HH polarization is preferred for this type of observation, and polarimetric analysis can help to identify double-bounce backscattering areas in the wetland. ENVISAT radar altimeter-measured 18-Hz (along-track sampling of 417 m) water level data processed with regional stackfile method have been used to provide vertical references for water bodies separated by levees. The high-resolution (~ 40 m) relative water changes measured from ALOS PALSAR L-band and Radarsat-1 C-band InSAR are then integrated with ENVISAT radar altimetry to obtain absolute water level. The resulting water level time series were validated with in situ gauge observations within the swamp forest. We anticipate that this new technique will allow retrospective reconstruction and concurrent monitoring of water conditions and flow dynamics in wetlands, especially those lacking gauge networks.

  12. Impact of ITRS 2014 realizations on altimeter satellite precise orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Beckley, Brian D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Pavlis, Despina E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates orbit accuracy and systematic error for altimeter satellite precise orbit determination on TOPEX, Jason-1, Jason-2 and Jason-3 by comparing the use of four SLR/DORIS station complements from the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) 2014 realizations with those based on ITRF2008. The new Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014 (TRF2014) station complements include ITRS realizations from the Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) ITRF2014, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) JTRF2014, the Deutsche Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) DTRF2014, and the DORIS extension to ITRF2014 for Precise Orbit Determination, DPOD2014. The largest source of error stems from ITRF2008 station position extrapolation past the 2009 solution end time. The TRF2014 SLR/DORIS complement impact on the ITRF2008 orbit is only 1-2 mm RMS radial difference between 1992-2009, and increases after 2009, up to 5 mm RMS radial difference in 2016. Residual analysis shows that station position extrapolation error past the solution span becomes evident even after two years, and will contribute to about 3-4 mm radial orbit error after seven years. Crossover data show the DTRF2014 orbits are the most accurate for the TOPEX and Jason-2 test periods, and the JTRF2014 orbits for the Jason-1 period. However for the 2016 Jason-3 test period only the DPOD2014-based orbits show a strong and statistically significant margin of improvement. The positive results with DTRF2014 suggest the new approach to correct station positions or normal equations for non-tidal loading before combination is beneficial. We did not find any compelling POD advantage in using non-linear over linear station velocity models in our SLR & DORIS orbit tests on the Jason satellites. The JTRF2014 proof-of-concept ITRS realization demonstrates the need for improved SLR+DORIS orbit centering when compared to the Ries (2013) CM annual model. Orbit centering error is seen as an annual

  13. Integrating Satellite, Radar and Surface Observation with Time and Space Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y.; Weber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) from Unidata is a Java™-based software framework for analyzing and visualizing geoscience data. It brings together the ability to display and work with satellite imagery, gridded data, surface observations, balloon soundings, NWS WSR-88D Level II and Level III RADAR data, and NOAA National Profiler Network data, all within a unified interface. Applying time and space matching on the satellite, radar and surface observation datasets will automatically synchronize the display from different data sources and spatially subset to match the display area in the view window. These features allow the IDV users to effectively integrate these observations and provide 3 dimensional views of the weather system to better understand the underlying dynamics and physics of weather phenomena.

  14. An Assessment of the Capabilities of the ERS Satellites' Active Microwave Instruments for Monitoring Soil Moisture Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blyth

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the European Remote sensing Satellite (ERS-1 in July 1991 represented an important turning point in the development of Earth observation as it was the first of a series of satellites which would carry high resolution active microwave (radar sensors which could operate through the thickest cloudeover and provide continuity of data for at least a decade. This was of particular relevance to hydrological applications, such as soil moisture monitoring, which generally require frequent satellite observations to monitor changes in state. ERS-1 and its successor ERS-2 carry the active microwave instrument (AMI which operates in 3 modes (synthetic aperture radar, wind scatterometer and wave seatterometer together with the radar altimeter which may all be useful for the observation of soil moisture. This paper assesses the utility of these sensors through a comprehensive review of work in this field. Two approaches to soil moisture retrieval are identified: 1 inversion modelling, where the physical effects of vegetation and soil roughness on radar backscatter are quantified through the use of multi-frequency and/or multi-polarization sensors and 2 change detection where these effects are normalized through frequent satellite observation, the residual effects being attributed to short-term changes in soil moisture. Both approaches will be better supported by the future European Envisat-l satellite which will provide both multi-polarization SAR and low resolution products which should facilitate more frequent temporal observation.

  15. A method for separating Antarctic postglacial rebound and ice mass balance using future ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, and GPS satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of ice elevation from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) aboard the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite can be combined with time-variable geoid measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to learn about ongoing changes in polar ice mass and viscoelastic rebound of the lithosphere under the ice sheet. We estimate the accuracy in recovering the spatially varying ice mass trend and postglacial rebound signals for Antarctica...

  16. Measuring canopy structure with an airborne laser altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Evans, D.L.; Jacobs, D.; Everitt, J.H.; Weltz, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Quantification of vegetation patterns and properties is needed to determine their role on the landscape and to develop management plans to conserve our natural resources. Quantifying vegetation patterns from the ground, or by using aerial photography or satellite imagery is difficult, time consuming, and often expensive. Digital data from an airborne laser altimeter offer an alternative method to quantify selected vegetation properties and patterns of forest and range vegetation. Airborne laser data found canopy heights varied from 2 to 6 m within even-aged pine forests. Maximum canopy heights measured with the laser altimeter were significantly correlated to measurements made with ground-based methods. Canopy shape could be used to distinguish deciduous and evergreen trees. In rangeland areas, vegetation heights, spatial patterns, and canopy cover measured with the laser altimeter were significantly related with field measurements. These studies demonstrate the potential of airborne laser data to measure canopy structure and properties for large areas quickly and quantitatively

  17. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter On-orbit Geometrical Calibration and Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Xinming

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ZY3-02 is the first satellite equipped with a laser altimeter for earth observation in China .This laser altimeter is an experimental payload for land elevation measurement experiment. The ranging and pointing bias of the laser altimeter would change due to the launch vibration, the space environment difference or other factors, and that could bring plane and elevation errors of laser altimeter. In this paper, we propose an on-orbit geometric calibration method using a ground-based electro-optical detection system based on the analysis of ZY3-02 laser altimeter characteristic, and this method constructs the rigorous geometric calibration model, which consider the pointing and ranging bias as unknown systematic errors, and the unknown parameters are calibrated with laser spot's location captured by laser detectors and the minimum ranging error principle. With the ALOS-DSM data as reference, the elevation accuracy of the laser altimeter can be improved from 100~150 meters before calibration to 2~3 meters after calibration when the terrain slope is less than 2 degree. With several ground control points obtained with RTK in laser footprint for validation, the absolute elevation precision of laser altimeter in the flat area can reach about 1 meter after the calibration. The test results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. North and northeast Greenland ice discharge from satellite radar interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rignot, E.J.; Gogineni, S.P.; Krabill, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier...... front, because basal melting is extensive at the underside of the floating glacier sections. The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise....

  19. Monitoring coastal inundation with Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Rangoonwala, Amina; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2011-01-01

    Maps representing the presence and absence of surface inundation in the Louisiana coastal zone were created from available satellite scenes acquired by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Advanced Land Observing Satellite and by the European Space Agency's Envisat from late 2006 through summer 2009. Detection of aboveground surface flooding relied on the well-documented and distinct signature of decreased backscatter in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which is indicative of inundated marsh in the Gulf of Mexico. Even though decreases in backscatter were distinctive, the multiplicity of possible interactions between changing flood depths and canopy height yielded complex SAR-based representations of the marshes.

  20. CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimetry for river analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Raphael

    The global coverage of in situ observations of surface water dynamics is insufficient to effectively manage water resources. Moreover, the availability of these data is decreasing, due to the lack of gauging stations and data sharing. Satellite radar altimetry, initially developed to monitor ocean...... water levels, also offers measurements of water levels of rivers and lakes on a global scale. Because of the continuous upstart of new missions, and sensor and processing innovations, the importance of satellite altimetry data for the hydrologic community is increasing. CryoSat-2, launched......) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (SARIn) mode. SAR and SARIn have reduced footprint size in the along-track direction owing to delay/Doppler processing, potentially increasing observation accuracy. Second, CryoSat-2 is placed on a unique long-repeat orbit with a cycle of 369 days. This is different...

  1. Simultaneous Radar and Satellite Data Storm-Scale Assimilation Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter Approach for 24 May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas A.; Stensrud, David; Wicker, Louis; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra

    2015-01-01

    Assimilating high-resolution radar reflectivity and radial velocity into convection-permitting numerical weather prediction models has proven to be an important tool for improving forecast skill of convection. The use of satellite data for the application is much less well understood, only recently receiving significant attention. Since both radar and satellite data provide independent information, combing these two sources of data in a robust manner potentially represents the future of high-resolution data assimilation. This research combines Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 13 (GOES-13) cloud water path (CWP) retrievals with Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) reflectivity and radial velocity to examine the impacts of assimilating each for a severe weather event occurring in Oklahoma on 24 May 2011. Data are assimilated into a 3-km model using an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter approach with 36 members over a 2-h assimilation window between 1800 and 2000 UTC. Forecasts are then generated for 90 min at 5-min intervals starting at 1930 and 2000 UTC. Results show that both satellite and radar data are able to initiate convection, but that assimilating both spins up a storm much faster. Assimilating CWP also performs well at suppressing spurious precipitation and cloud cover in the model as well as capturing the anvil characteristics of developed storms. Radar data are most effective at resolving the 3D characteristics of the core convection. Assimilating both satellite and radar data generally resulted in the best model analysis and most skillful forecast for this event.

  2. Waveform identification and retracking analyses of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data for improving sea surface height estimation in Southern Java Island Waters and Java Sea, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, Bisman; Hakim, Muhammad R.; Panjaitan, James P.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesian waters containing many small islands and shallow waters leads to a less accurate of sea surface height (SSH) estimation from satellite altimetry. Little efforts are also given for the validation of SSH estimation from the satellite in Indonesian waters. The purpose of this research was to identify and retrack waveforms of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data in southern Java island waters and Java Sea using several retrackers and performed improvement percentage analyses for new SSH estimation. The study used data of the Sensor Geophysical Data Record type D (SGDR-D) of Jason-2 satellite altimeter of the year 2010 in the southern Java island waters and 2012-2014 in Java Sea. Waveform retracking analyses were conducted using several retrackers (Offset Center of Gravity, Ice, Threshold, and Improved Threshold) and examined using a world reference undulation geoid of EGM08 and Oceanic retracker. Result showed that shape and pattern of waveforms were varied in all passes, seasons, and locations specifically along the coastal regions. In general, non-Brownish and complex waveforms were identified along coastal region specifically within the distance of 0-10 km from the shoreline. In contrary, generally Brownish waveforms were found in offshore. However, Brownish waveform can also be found within coastal region and non-Brownish waveforms within offshore region. The results were also showed that the four retrackers produced a better SSH estimation in coastal region. However, there was no dominant retracker to improve the accuracy of the SSH estimate.

  3. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  4. Monsoon Convection during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment Observed from Shipboard Radar and the TRMM Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Tom; Cifelli, Rob; Halverson, Jeff; Kucera, Paul; Atkinson, Lester; Fisher, Brad; Gerlach, John; Harris, Kathy; Kaufman, Cristina; Liu, Ching-Hwang; hide

    1999-01-01

    A main goal of the recent South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study convective processes associated with the onset of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon. The NASA TOGA C-band scanning radar was deployed on the Chinese research vessel Shi Yan #3 for two 20 day cruises, collecting dual-Doppler measurements in conjunction with the BMRC C-Pol dual-polarimetric radar on Dongsha Island. Soundings and surface meteorological data were also collected with an NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS). This experiment was the first major tropical field campaign following the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. These observations of tropical oceanic convection provided an opportunity to make comparisons between surface radar measurements and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite in an oceanic environment. Nearly continuous radar operations were conducted during two Intensive Observing Periods (IOPS) straddling the onset of the monsoon (5-25 May 1998 and 5-25 June 1998). Mesoscale lines of convection with widespread regions of both trailing and forward stratiform precipitation were observed during the active monsoon periods in a southwesterly flow regime. Several examples of mesoscale convection will be shown from ship-based and spacebome radar reflectivity data during times of TRMM satellite overpasses. Further examples of pre-monsoon convection, characterized by isolated cumulonimbus and shallow, precipitating congestus clouds, will be discussed. A strong waterspout was observed very near the ship from an isolated cell in the pre-monsoon period, and was well documented with photography, radar, sounding, and sounding data.

  5. The concurrent multiplicative-additive approach for gauge-radar/satellite multisensor precipitation estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pintado, J.; Barberá, G. G.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Castillo, V. M.

    2010-12-01

    Objective analysis schemes (OAS), also called ``succesive correction methods'' or ``observation nudging'', have been proposed for multisensor precipitation estimation combining remote sensing data (meteorological radar or satellite) with data from ground-based raingauge networks. However, opposite to the more complex geostatistical approaches, the OAS techniques for this use are not optimized. On the other hand, geostatistical techniques ideally require, at the least, modelling the covariance from the rain gauge data at every time step evaluated, which commonly cannot be soundly done. Here, we propose a new procedure (concurrent multiplicative-additive objective analysis scheme [CMA-OAS]) for operational rainfall estimation using rain gauges and meteorological radar, which does not require explicit modelling of spatial covariances. On the basis of a concurrent multiplicative-additive (CMA) decomposition of the spatially nonuniform radar bias, within-storm variability of rainfall and fractional coverage of rainfall are taken into account. Thus both spatially nonuniform radar bias, given that rainfall is detected, and bias in radar detection of rainfall are handled. The interpolation procedure of CMA-OAS is built on the OAS, whose purpose is to estimate a filtered spatial field of the variable of interest through a successive correction of residuals resulting from a Gaussian kernel smoother applied on spatial samples. The CMA-OAS, first, poses an optimization problem at each gauge-radar support point to obtain both a local multiplicative-additive radar bias decomposition and a regionalization parameter. Second, local biases and regionalization parameters are integrated into an OAS to estimate the multisensor rainfall at the ground level. The approach considers radar estimates as background a priori information (first guess), so that nudging to observations (gauges) may be relaxed smoothly to the first guess, and the relaxation shape is obtained from the sequential

  6. Simulation on change of generic satellite radar cross section via artificially created plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Shen Shou Max; Chuang, Yu-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in antisatellite missile technologies have proven the effectiveness of such attacks, and the vulnerability of satellites in such exercises inspires a new paradigm in RF Stealth techniques suitable for satellites. In this paper we examine the possibility of using artificially created plasma sprays on the surface of the satellite’s main body to alter its radar cross section (RCS). First, we briefly review past research related to RF Stealth using plasma. Next, we discuss the physics between electromagnetic waves and plasma, and the RCS number game in RF Stealth design. A comparison of RCS in a generic satellite and a more complicated model is made to illustrate the effect of the RCS number game, and its meaning for a simulation model. We also run a comparison between finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) codes, and find the RCS results are very close. We then compare the RCS of the generic satellite and the plasma-covered satellite. The incident radar wave is a differentiated Gaussian monopulse, with 3 dB bandwidth between 1.2 GHz and 4 GHz, and we simulate three kinds of plasma density, with a characteristic plasma frequency ω P   =  0.1, 1, and 10 GHz. The electron-neutral collision frequency ν en is set at 0.01 GHz. We found the RCS of plasma-covered satellite is not necessarily smaller than the originally satellite. When ω P is 0.1 GHz, the plasma spray behaves like a dielectric, and there is minor reduction in the RCS. When ω P is 1 GHz, the X–Y cut RCS increases. When ω P is 10 GHz, the plasma behaves more like a metal to the radar wave, and stronger RCS dependency to frequency appears. Therefore, to use plasma as an RCS adjustment tool requires careful fine-tuning of plasma density and shape, in order to achieve the so-called plasma stealth effect. (paper)

  7. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  8. Development of Deep Learning Based Data Fusion Approach for Accurate Rainfall Estimation Using Ground Radar and Satellite Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.; Tan, H.; Cifelli, R.; Xie, P.

    2016-12-01

    Rainfall estimation based on onboard satellite measurements has been an important topic in satellite meteorology for decades. A number of precipitation products at multiple time and space scales have been developed based upon satellite observations. For example, NOAA Climate Prediction Center has developed a morphing technique (i.e., CMORPH) to produce global precipitation products by combining existing space based rainfall estimates. The CMORPH products are essentially derived based on geostationary satellite IR brightness temperature information and retrievals from passive microwave measurements (Joyce et al. 2004). Although the space-based precipitation products provide an excellent tool for regional and global hydrologic and climate studies as well as improved situational awareness for operational forecasts, its accuracy is limited due to the sampling limitations, particularly for extreme events such as very light and/or heavy rain. On the other hand, ground-based radar is more mature science for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), especially after the implementation of dual-polarization technique and further enhanced by urban scale radar networks. Therefore, ground radars are often critical for providing local scale rainfall estimation and a "heads-up" for operational forecasters to issue watches and warnings as well as validation of various space measurements and products. The CASA DFW QPE system, which is based on dual-polarization X-band CASA radars and a local S-band WSR-88DP radar, has demonstrated its excellent performance during several years of operation in a variety of precipitation regimes. The real-time CASA DFW QPE products are used extensively for localized hydrometeorological applications such as urban flash flood forecasting. In this paper, a neural network based data fusion mechanism is introduced to improve the satellite-based CMORPH precipitation product by taking into account the ground radar measurements. A deep learning system is

  9. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  10. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Nielsen, M [and others

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  11. New satellite altimetry products for coastal oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufau, Claire; Mercier, F.; Ablain, M.; Dibarboure, G.; Carrere, L.; Labroue, S.; Obligis, E.; Sicard, P.; Thibaut, P.; Birol, F.; Bronner, E.; Lombard, A.; Picot, N.

    Since the launch of Topex-Poseidon in 1992, satellite altimetry has become one of the most essential elements of the Earth's observing system. Its global view of the ocean state has permitted numerous improvements in the environment understanding, particularly in the global monitoring of climate changes and ocean circulation. Near the coastlines where human activities have a major impact on the ocean, satellite altimeter techniques are unfortunately limited by a growth of their error budget. This quality loss is due to land contamination in the altimetric and radiometric footprints but also to inaccurate geophysical corrections (tides, high-frequency processes linked to atmospheric forcing).Despite instrumental perturbations by emerged lands until 10 km (altimeter) and 50 km (radiometer) off the coasts, measurements are made and may contain useful information for coastal studies. In order to recover these data close to the coast, the French Spatial Agency (CNES) has funded the development of the PISTACH prototype dedicated to Jason-2 altimeter processing in coastal ocean. Since November 2008, these new satellite altimeter products have been providing new retracking solutions, several state-of-the-art or with higher resolution corrections in addition to standard fields. This presentation will present and illustrate this new set of satellite data for the coastal oceans.

  12. Ionospheric response to daytime auroral electron precipitation: Results and analysis of a coordinated experiment between the AUREOL-3 satellite and the EISCAT radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamnes, K.; Roble, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    On June 2, 1982 the Soviet-French polar orbiting satellite AUREOL-3 passed over the EISCAT facility in northern Scandinavia. The EISCAT UHF radar measured electron and ion temperatures, electron density and ion composition, while the satellite measured the incident auroral particle spectra (protons and electrons) presumably giving rise to the densities and temperatures inferred from the radar data. The link between the satellite data obtained well above the atmosphere (at about 1300 km), and the radar measurements is an auroral model that simulates the ionospheric response to auroral particle precipitation and solar EUV radiation and makes predictions of ionospheric properties that 1) can be measured by the radar and 2) are the consequence of the satellite-observed particle precipitation. The analysis shows that there is good agreement between model-predicted and radar-inferred electron and ion temperatures and ion composition. However, inference of the ion composition from the radar data is a non-trivial and time-consuming undertaking which requires very good data (i.e. long integration times). Our initial attempts at analyzing the radar data with a fixed ion composition (as commonly practiced) which greatly simplifies the analysis yielded poor agreement between model predictions and radar measurements. Thus, our analysis demonstrates that the proper ion composition is crucial in order to obtain reliable temperature and density results from the measured autocorrelation functions

  13. Automated invariant alignment to improve canonical variates in image fusion of satellite and weather radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) maximizes correlation between two sets of multivariate data. We applied CCA to multivariate satellite data and univariate radar data in order to produce a subspace descriptive of heavily precipitating clouds. A misalignment, inherent to the nature of the two...... data sets, was observed, corrupting the subspace. A method for aligning the two data sets is proposed, in order to overcome this issue and render a useful subspace projection. The observed corruption of the subspace gives rise to the hypothesis that the optimal correspondence, between a heavily...... precipitating cloud in the radar data and the associated cloud top registered in the satellite data, is found by a scale, rotation and translation invariant transformation together with a temporal displacement. The method starts by determining a conformal transformation of the radar data at the time of maximum...

  14. FLIGHT DEVELOPMENT OF A DISTRIBUTED INERTIAL SATELLITE MICRONAVIGATTION SYSTEM FOR SYNTHETIC - APERTURE RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Chernodarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the onboard systems is characterized by the integration of aviation and radio-electronic equipment systems for solving problems of navigation and control. These problems include micro-navigation of the anten- na phase center (APC of the radar during the review of the Earth's surface from aboard the aircraft. Increasing of the reso- lution of the radar station (RLS by hardware increasing the antenna size is not always possible due to restrictions on the aircraft onboard equipment weight and dimensions. Therefore the implementation of analytic extension of the radiation pattern by "gluing" the images, obtained by RLS on the aircraft motion trajectory is embodied. The estimations are con- verted into amendments to the signals of RLS with synthetic aperture RSA to compensate instabilities. The purpose of the research is building a theoretical basis and a practical implementation of procedures for evaluating the trajectory APS in- stabilities using a distributed system of inertial-satellite micro-navigation (DSMN taking into account the RSA flight oper- ations actual conditions. The technology of evaluation and compensation of RSA trajectory instabilities via DSMN is con- sidered. The implementation of this technology is based on the mutual support of inertial, satellite and radar systems. Syn- chronization procedures of inertial and satellite measurements in the evaluation of DSMN errors are proposed. The given results of DSMN flight testing justify the possibility and expediency to apply the proposed technology in order to improve the resolution of RSA. The compensation of aircraft trajectory instabilities in RSA signals can be provided by inertial- satellite micro-navigation system, taking into account the actual conditions of the RSA flight operations. The researches show that in order to achieve the required resolution of RSA it seems to be appropriate to define the rational balance be- tween accuracy DSMN characteristics

  15. Dielectric properties of Jovian satellite ice analogs for subsurface radar exploration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinelli, Elena; Cosciotti, Barbara; Di Paolo, Federico; Lauro, Sebastian Emanuel; Mattei, Elisabetta; Orosei, Roberto; Vannaroni, Giuliano

    2015-09-01

    The first European mission dedicated to the exploration of Jupiter and its icy moons (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer—JUICE) will be launched in 2022 and will reach its final destination in 2030. The main goals of this mission are to understand the internal structure of the icy crusts of three Galilean satellites (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) and, ultimately, to detect Europa's subsurface ocean, which is believed to be the closest to the surface among those hypothesized to exist on these moons. JUICE will be equipped with the 9 MHz subsurface-penetrating radar RIME (Radar for Icy Moon Exploration), which is designed to image the ice down to a depth of 9 km. Moreover, a parallel mission to Europa, which will host onboard REASON (Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface) equipped with 9MHz and 60MHz antennas, has been recently approved by NASA. The success of these experiments strongly relies on the accurate prediction of the radar performance and on the optimal processing and interpretation of radar echoes that, in turn, depend on the dielectric properties of the materials composing the icy satellite crusts. In the present review we report a complete range of potential ice types that may occur on these icy satellites to understand how they may affect the results of the proposed missions. First, we discuss the experimental results on pure and doped water ice in the framework of the Jaccard theory, highlighting the critical aspects in terms of a lack of standard laboratory procedures and inconsistency in data interpretation. We then describe the dielectric behavior of extraterrestrial ice analogs like hydrates and icy mixtures, carbon dioxide ice and ammonia ice. Building on this review, we have selected the most suitable data to compute dielectric attenuation, velocity, vertical resolution, and reflection coefficients for such icy moon environments, with the final goal being to estimate the potential capabilities of the radar missions as a

  16. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  17. New Techniques for Radar Altimetry of Sea Ice and the Polar Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, T. W. K.; Kwok, R.; Egido, A.; Smith, W. H. F.; Cullen, R.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has proven to be a valuable tool for remote sensing of the polar oceans, with techniques for estimating sea ice thickness and sea surface height in the ice-covered ocean advancing to the point of becoming routine, if not operational, products. Here, we explore new techniques in radar altimetry of the polar oceans and the sea ice cover. First, we present results from fully-focused SAR (FFSAR) altimetry; by accounting for the phase evolution of scatterers in the scene, the FFSAR technique applies an inter-burst coherent integration, potentially over the entire duration that a scatterer remains in the altimeter footprint, which can narrow the effective along track resolution to just 0.5m. We discuss the improvement of using interleaved operation over burst-more operation for applying FFSAR processing to data acquired by future missions, such as a potential CryoSat follow-on. Second, we present simulated sea ice retrievals from the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn), the instrument that will be launched on the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission in 2021, that is capable of producing swath images of surface elevation. These techniques offer the opportunity to advance our understanding of the physics of the ice-covered oceans, plus new insight into how we interpret more conventional radar altimetry data in these regions.

  18. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  19. Simultaneous measurements from the Millstone Hill radar and the Active satellite during the SAID/SAR arc event of the March 1990 CEDAR storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    Full Text Available During a nearby passage of the Active satellite above the Millstone Hill radar on 21 March 1990 at local sunset, the satellite and the radar performed simultaneous measurements of upper ionospheric parameters in nearly the same spatial volume. For this purpose the radar carried out a special azimuth-elevation scan to track the satellite. Direct comparisons of radar data and in situ satellite measurements have been carried out quite rarely. In this case, the coincidence of co-ordinated measurements and active ionospheric-magnetospheric processes during an extended storm recovery phase presents a unique occasion resulting in a very valuable data set. The measurements show generally good agreement both during quiet prestorm and storm conditions and the combination of radar and satellite observations gives a more comprehensive picture of the physical processes involved. We find a close relationship between the rapid westward ion drift peak at subauroral latitudes (SAID event and the occurrence of a stable auroral red (SAR arc observed after sunset by an all-sky imager and reported in an earlier study of this event. The SAID electric field is caused by the penetration of energetic ions with energies between about 1 keV and 100 keV into the outer plasmasphere to a latitude equatorward of the extent of the plasmasheet electrons. Charge separation results in the observed polarisation field and the SAID. Unusually high molecular ion densities measured by the satellite at altitudes of 700-870 km at subauroral and auroral latitudes point on strong upward-directed ion acceleration processes and an intense neutral gas upwelling. These structures are collocated with a narrow trough in electron density and an electron temperature peak as observed simultaneously by the radar and the satellite probes.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density; Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere.

  20. Monsoon Convective During the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment: Observations from Ground-Based Radar and the TRMM Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Rob; Rickenbach, Tom; Halverson, Jeff; Keenan, Tom; Kucera, Paul; Atkinson, Lester; Fisher, Brad; Gerlach, John; Harris, Kathy; Kaufman, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    A main goal of the recent South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study convective processes associated with the onset of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon. The NASA TOGA C-band scanning radar was deployed on the Chinese research vessel Shi Yan #3 for two 20 day cruises, collecting dual-Doppler measurements in conjunction with the BMRC C-Pol dual-polarimetric radar on Dongsha Island. Soundings and surface meteorological data were also collected with an NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS). This experiment was the first major tropical field campaign following the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. These observations of tropical oceanic convection provided an opportunity to make comparisons between surface radar measurements and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite in an oceanic environment. Nearly continuous radar operations were conducted during two Intensive Observing Periods (IOPS) straddling the onset of the monsoon (5-25 May 1998 and 5-25 June 1998). Mesoscale lines of convection with widespread regions of both trailing and forward stratiform precipitation were observed following the onset of the active monsoon in the northern South China Sea region. The vertical structure of the convection during periods of strong westerly flow and relatively moist environmental conditions in the lower to mid-troposphere contrasted sharply with convection observed during periods of low level easterlies, weak shear, and relatively dry conditions in the mid to upper troposphere. Several examples of mesoscale convection will be shown from the ground (ship)-based and spaceborne radar data during times of TRMM satellite overpasses. Examples of pre-monsoon convection, characterized by isolated cumulonimbus and shallow, precipitating congestus clouds, will also be discussed.

  1. Inter-comparison of Rainfall Estimation from Radar and Satellite During 2016 June 23 Yancheng Tornado Event over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Chen, S.; Liang, Z.; Hu, B.

    2017-12-01

    ABSTRACT: On the afternoon of June 23, 2016, Yancheng city in eastern China was hit by a severe thunderstorm that produced a devastating tornado. This tornado was ranked as an EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita scale by China Meteorological Administration, and killed at least 99 people and injured 846 others (152 seriously). This study evaluates rainfall estimates from ground radar network and four satellite algorithms with a relatively dense rain gauge network over eastern China including Jiangsu province and its adjacent regions for the Yancheng June 23 Tornado extreme convective storm in different spatiotemporal scales (from 0.04° to 0.1° and hourly to event total accumulation). The radar network is composed of about 6 S-band Doppler weather radars. Satellite precipitation products include Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMap). Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), and Critical Success Index (CSI) are used to quantify the performance of these precipitation products.

  2. Observing and Modelling the HighWater Level from Satellite Radar Altimetry During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaoli; Gharineiat, Zahra; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the capability of observing tropical cyclones using satellite radar altimetry. Two representative cyclones Yasi (February 2011) and Larry (March 2006) in the northeast Australian coastal area are selected based also on available tide gauge sea level measurements. It is sho...

  3. Offshore limit of coastal ocean variability identified from hydrography and altimeter data in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In this communication, we describe a hitherto-unknown offshore limit to the coastal ocean variability signatures away from the continental shelf in the eastern Arabian Sea, based on hydrographic observations and satellite altimeter (TOPEX...

  4. CAWRES: A Waveform Retracking Fuzzy Expert System for Optimizing Coastal Sea Levels from Jason-1 and Jason-2 Satellite Altimetry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hazrina Idris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Coastal Altimetry Waveform Retracking Expert System (CAWRES, a novel method to optimise the Jason satellite altimetric sea levels from multiple retracking solutions. CAWRES’ aim is to achieve the highest possible accuracy of coastal sea levels, thus bringing measurement of radar altimetry data closer to the coast. The principles of CAWRES are twofold. The first is to reprocess altimeter waveforms using the optimal retracker, which is sought based on the analysis from a fuzzy expert system. The second is to minimise the relative offset in the retrieved sea levels caused by switching from one retracker to another using a neural network. The innovative system is validated against geoid height and tide gauges in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia for Jason-1 and Jason-2 satellite missions. The regional investigations have demonstrated that the CAWRES can effectively enhance the quality of 20 Hz sea level data and recover up to 16% more data than the standard MLE4 retracker over the tested region. Comparison against tide gauge indicates that the CAWRES sea levels are more reliable than those of Sensor Geophysical Data Records (SGDR products, because the former has a higher (≥0.77 temporal correlation and smaller (≤19 cm root mean square errors. The results demonstrate that the CAWRES can be applied to coastal regions elsewhere as well as other satellite altimeter missions.

  5. Single photon laser altimeter simulator and statistical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Michael; Prochazka, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Spaceborne altimeters are common instruments onboard the deep space rendezvous spacecrafts. They provide range and topographic measurements critical in spacecraft navigation. Simultaneously, the receiver part may be utilized for Earth-to-satellite link, one way time transfer, and precise optical radiometry. The main advantage of single photon counting approach is the ability of processing signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio eliminating the need of large telescopes and high power laser source. Extremely small, rugged and compact microchip lasers can be employed. The major limiting factor, on the other hand, is the acquisition time needed to gather sufficient volume of data in repetitive measurements in order to process and evaluate the data appropriately. Statistical signal processing is adopted to detect signals with average strength much lower than one photon per measurement. A comprehensive simulator design and range signal processing algorithm are presented to identify a mission specific altimeter configuration. Typical mission scenarios (celestial body surface landing and topographical mapping) are simulated and evaluated. The high interest and promising single photon altimeter applications are low-orbit (˜10 km) and low-radial velocity (several m/s) topographical mapping (asteroids, Phobos and Deimos) and landing altimetry (˜10 km) where range evaluation repetition rates of ˜100 Hz and 0.1 m precision may be achieved. Moon landing and asteroid Itokawa topographical mapping scenario simulations are discussed in more detail.

  6. Numerical experiment with modelled return echo of a satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have simulated the return echo of a satellite altimeter from a rough ocean surface using an analytical formula and have studied its sensitivity with respect to various oceanic and altimeter parameters. Our numerical expcriment shows that for normally observed significant wave heights (SWFI) the effect of ...

  7. GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO): Geophysical Data Record (NODC Accession 0085960)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) program is the Navy's initiative to develop an operational series of radar altimeter satellites to maintain continuous ocean observation...

  8. GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO): Operational Orbit Determination Data for 1998-2008 (NODC Accession 0085961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) program is the Navy's initiative to develop an operational series of radar altimeter satellites to maintain continuous ocean observation...

  9. GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO): Housekeeping Telemetry, Calibration and Waveform Data (NODC Accession 0085962)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) program is the Navy's initiative to develop an operational series of radar altimeter satellites to maintain continuous ocean observation...

  10. Marine parameters from synergy of optical and radar satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, S.; Hoja, D.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.

    In 2001 the European Space Agency ESA will launch the earth observation satellite ENVISAT. It will carry several instruments that provide new opportunities to measure oceanographic variables. Together, they represent the main measurement techniques of satellite oceanography, and complement each other in an ideal manner. These instruments are to be used in synergy to: Improve the analysis of measured wind and ocean wave fields, and thereby improve weather forecasting at weather centers; Determine the extent and variables of sea ice and develop a five-day sea ice prediction model, to support maritime shipping and offshore activities; Monitor and map sediment and suspended matter transport in coastal regions, especially in areas with large river estuaries, which greatly affects shipping lanes, harbors, and dredging activities; Monitor hydrobiological and bio-geochemical variables related to water quality in coastal regions and large inland waters, which affects ecology, coastal development, aquaculture, drinking water supplies, and tourism. To prepare the oceanographic community to make best use of the ENVISAT sensors in the pre-launch phase, existing algorithms to derive marine parameters are used and validated using data from the ERS SAR, the ERS RA, SeaWiFS and IRS MOS sensors now in operation. Derived products are used to address problems that can best be tackled using the synergy of radar and optical data, such as the effect of surface slicks on radar wind measurements, of sea state on ocean color, of wind and waves on the resuspension of suspended matter, and of wind and waves on sea ice variables.

  11. Sensitivity of Satellite Altimetry Data Assimilation on a Weapon Acoustic Preset Using MODAS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter; Mancini, Steven; Gottshall, Eric; Cwalina, David; Barron, Charlie N

    2007-01-01

    ...) is analyzed with SSP derived from the modular ocean data assimilation system (MODAS). The MODAS fields differ in that one uses altimeter data assimilated from three satellites while the other uses no altimeter data...

  12. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  13. Analysis and Validation of ZY-3 02 Satellite Laser Altimetry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guoyuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZY-3 02 satellite loaded with Chinese first earth observing satellite laser altimeter,and has been launched successfully on 30th May,2016. In this paper,the theoretical accuracy of the laser altimeter is analyzed,and several experimental areas are used to verify the actual accuracy. At the same time,the application of the laser altimetry data in the field of space-borne photogrammetry is tested. The laser altimetry theoretical accuracy of ZY-3 02 satellite in the flat area (slope less than 2 degrees is about 0.85 m and 14.2 m in the elevation and planimetry direction,respectively. The effective laser altimetry data account for about 23.89%,and near the calibration field the elevation accuracy is 0.89 m,and planimetry accuracy is about 14.76 m. Moreover,the verified elevation accuracy is 1.09 m in the North China by high precision DSM terrain data,and laser footprint points accuracy on the surface of the Bohai inland sea is about 0.47 m. When the laser foot print point is used as elevation control point,the elevation accuracy of the ZY-3 02 satellite stereo images in Shaanxi Weinan can be increased from 11.54 m to 1.90 m without GCPs. Although ZY3-02 satellite laser altimeter is just a test,the results proved that the domestic satellite laser altimetry data can effectively improve the stereo images without GCPs,which will be valuable in the global mapping project. It is suggest that operational laser altimeter equip on the next satellite of ZY-3 serials.

  14. Towards an integrated strategy for monitoring wetland inundation with virtual constellations of optical and radar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, B.; Huang, W.; Huang, C.; Jones, J. W.; Lang, M. W.; Creed, I. F.; Carroll, M.

    2017-12-01

    The function of wetlandscapes in hydrological and biogeochemical cycles is largely governed by surface inundation, with small wetlands that experience periodic inundation playing a disproportionately large role in these processes. However, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of inundation in these wetland systems are still poorly understood, resulting in large uncertainties in global water, carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. Satellite imagery provides synoptic and repeat views of the Earth's surface and presents opportunities to fill this knowledge gap. Despite the proliferation of Earth Observation satellite missions in the past decade, no single satellite sensor can simultaneously provide the spatial and temporal detail needed to adequately characterize inundation in small, dynamic wetland systems. Surface water data products must therefore integrate observations from multiple satellite sensors in order to address this objective, requiring the development of improved and coordinated algorithms to generate consistent estimates of surface inundation. We present a suite of algorithms designed to detect surface inundation in wetlands using data from a virtual constellation of optical and radar sensors comprising the Landsat and Sentinel missions (DeVries et al., 2017). Both optical and radar algorithms were able to detect inundation in wetlands without the need for external training data, allowing for high-efficiency monitoring of wetland inundation at large spatial and temporal scales. Applying these algorithms across a gradient of wetlands in North America, preliminary findings suggest that while these fully automated algorithms can detect wetland inundation at higher spatial and temporal resolutions than currently available surface water data products, limitations specific to the satellite sensors and their acquisition strategies are responsible for uncertainties in inundation estimates. Further research is needed to investigate strategies for

  15. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  16. Digital elevation model generation from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Wonjin; Lee, Chang-Wook

    2012-01-01

    An accurate digital elevation model (DEM) is a critical data set for characterizing the natural landscape, monitoring natural hazards, and georeferencing satellite imagery. The ideal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) configuration for DEM production is a single-pass two-antenna system. Repeat-pass single-antenna satellite InSAR imagery, however, also can be used to produce useful DEMs. DEM generation from InSAR is advantageous in remote areas where the photogrammetric approach to DEM generation is hindered by inclement weather conditions. There are many sources of errors in DEM generation from repeat-pass InSAR imagery, for example, inaccurate determination of the InSAR baseline, atmospheric delay anomalies, and possible surface deformation because of tectonic, volcanic, or other sources during the time interval spanned by the images. This chapter presents practical solutions to identify and remove various artifacts in repeat-pass satellite InSAR images to generate a high-quality DEM.

  17. Revised method for forest canopy height estimation from Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefskya; Michael Keller; Yong Panga; Plinio B. de Camargod; Maria O. Hunter

    2007-01-01

    The vertical extent of waveforms collected by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (onboard ICESat - the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) increases as a function of terrain slope and footprint size (the area on the ground that is illuminated by the laser). Over sloped terrain, returns from both canopy and ground surfaces can occur at the same elevation. As a...

  18. A fixed full-matrix method for determining ice sheet height change from satellite altimeter: an ENVISAT case study in East Antarctica with backscatter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuande; Hwang, Cheinway; E, Dongchen

    2014-09-01

    A new method, called the fixed full-matrix method (FFM), is used to compute height changes at crossovers of satellite altimeter ground tracks. Using the ENVISAT data in East Antarctica, FFM results in crossovers of altimeter heights that are 1.9 and 79 times more than those from the fixed half method (FHM) and the one-row method (ORM). The mean standard error of height changes is about 14 cm from ORM, which is reduced to 7 cm by FHM and to 3 cm by FFM. Unlike FHM, FFM leads to uniform errors in the first-half and second-half height-change time series. FFM has the advantage in improving the accuracy of the change of height and backscattered power over ORM and FHM. Assisted by the ICESat-derived height changes, we determine the optimal threshold correlation coefficient (TCC) for a best correction for the backscatter effect on ENVISAT height changes. The TCC value of 0.92 yields an optimal result for FFM. With this value, FFM yields ENVISAT-derived height change rates in East Antarctica mostly falling between and 3 cm/year, and matching the ICESat result to 0.94 cm/year. The ENVISAT result will provide a constraint on the current mass balance result along the Chinese expedition route CHINARE.

  19. Airborne campaigns for CryoSat prelaunch calibration and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Hanson, Susanne; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk

    2011-01-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite is planned for spring 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA’s CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the prelaunch performance...... of the CryoSat radar altimeter (SIRAL), an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) has been flown together with a laser scanner in 2006 and 2008. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of the radar altimeter over both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar...... and laser measurements with in situ observations. Here, an overview of the prelaunch airborne campaigns is given, together with results of the ASIRAS performance over land- and sea ice. The observations, used in this study, are obtained from the Greenland ice sheet and from both multiyear and first year sea...

  20. Satellite remote sensing of river inundation area, stage, and discharge: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C.

    1997-08-01

    The growing availability of multi-temporal satellite data has increased opportunities for monitoring large rivers from space. A variety of passive and active sensors operating in the visible and microwave range are currently operating, or planned, which can estimate inundation area and delineate flood boundaries. Radar altimeters show great promise for directly measuring stage variation in large rivers. It also appears to be possible to obtain estimates of river discharge from space, using ground measurements and satellite data to construct empirical curves that relate water surface area to discharge. Extrapolation of these curves to ungauged sites may be possible for the special case of braided rivers.Where clouds, trees and floating vegetation do not obscure the water surface, high-resolution visible/infrared sensors provide good delineation of inundated areas. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors can penetrate clouds and can also detect standing water through emergent aquatic plants and forest canopies. However, multiple frequencies and polarizations are required for optimal discrimination of various inundated vegetation cover types. Existing single-polarization, fixed-frequency SARs are not sufficient for mapping inundation area in all riverine environments. In the absence of a space-borne multi-parameter SAR, a synergistic approach using single-frequency, fixed-polarization SAR and visible/infrared data will provide the best results over densely vegetated river floodplains.

  1. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the Sentinel-1 satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of high resolution sea surface winds data produced from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites. This...

  2. Comparison of cloud top heights derived from FY-2 meteorological satellites with heights derived from ground-based millimeter wavelength cloud radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zhenhui; Cao, Xiaozhong; Tao, Fa

    2018-01-01

    Clouds are currently observed by both ground-based and satellite remote sensing techniques. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses depending on the observation method, instrument performance and the methods used for retrieval. It is important to study synergistic cloud measurements to improve the reliability of the observations and to verify the different techniques. The FY-2 geostationary orbiting meteorological satellites continuously observe the sky over China. Their cloud top temperature product can be processed to retrieve the cloud top height (CTH). The ground-based millimeter wavelength cloud radar can acquire information about the vertical structure of clouds-such as the cloud base height (CBH), CTH and the cloud thickness-and can continuously monitor changes in the vertical profiles of clouds. The CTHs were retrieved using both cloud top temperature data from the FY-2 satellites and the cloud radar reflectivity data for the same time period (June 2015 to May 2016) and the resulting datasets were compared in order to evaluate the accuracy of CTH retrievals using FY-2 satellites. The results show that the concordance rate of cloud detection between the two datasets was 78.1%. Higher consistencies were obtained for thicker clouds with larger echo intensity and for more continuous clouds. The average difference in the CTH between the two techniques was 1.46 km. The difference in CTH between low- and mid-level clouds was less than that for high-level clouds. An attenuation threshold of the cloud radar for rainfall was 0.2 mm/min; a rainfall intensity below this threshold had no effect on the CTH. The satellite CTH can be used to compensate for the attenuation error in the cloud radar data.

  3. Development of Radar-Satellite Blended QPF (Quantitative Precipitation Forecast) Technique for heavy rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sangmin; Yoon, Sunkwon; Rhee, Jinyoung; Park, Kyungwon

    2016-04-01

    Due to the recent extreme weather and climate change, a frequency and size of localized heavy rainfall increases and it may bring various hazards including sediment-related disasters, flooding and inundation. To prevent and mitigate damage from such disasters, very short range forecasting and nowcasting of precipitation amounts are very important. Weather radar data very useful in monitoring and forecasting because weather radar has high resolution in spatial and temporal. Generally, extrapolation based on the motion vector is the best method of precipitation forecasting using radar rainfall data for a time frame within a few hours from the present. However, there is a need for improvement due to the radar rainfall being less accurate than rain-gauge on surface. To improve the radar rainfall and to take advantage of the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) data, a technique to blend the different data types for very short range forecasting purposes was developed in the present study. The motion vector of precipitation systems are estimated using 1.5km CAPPI (Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator) reflectivity by pattern matching method, which indicates the systems' direction and speed of movement and blended radar-COMS rain field is used for initial data. Since the original horizontal resolution of COMS is 4 km while that of radar is about 1 km, spatial downscaling technique is used to downscale the COMS data from 4 to 1 km pixels in order to match with the radar data. The accuracies of rainfall forecasting data were verified utilizing AWS (Automatic Weather System) observed data for an extreme rainfall occurred in the southern part of Korean Peninsula on 25 August 2014. The results of this study will be used as input data for an urban stream real-time flood early warning system and a prediction model of landslide. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by

  4. SPACE-BORNE LASER ALTIMETER GEOLOCATION ERROR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of space-borne laser altimetry technology over the past 40 years. Taking the ICESAT satellite as an example, a rigorous space-borne laser altimeter geolocation model is studied, and an error propagation equation is derived. The influence of the main error sources, such as the platform positioning error, attitude measurement error, pointing angle measurement error and range measurement error, on the geolocation accuracy of the laser spot are analysed by simulated experiments. The reasons for the different influences on geolocation accuracy in different directions are discussed, and to satisfy the accuracy of the laser control point, a design index for each error source is put forward.

  5. The Impact of DEM Resolution on Relocating Radar Altimetry Data Over Ice Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2016-01-01

    for correcting for such mispointing errors. Here, two techniques are applied to observations near Jakobshavn Isbræ, acquired with Envisat’s Radar Altimeter(RA-2). The apriori knowledge on the surface topography is obtained from a digital elevation model. The methods relocate the measurement location horizontally...

  6. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  7. Mapping ocean tides with satellites - A computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, I. J.; Kuo, J. T.; Jachens, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    As a preliminary study for the future worldwide direct mapping of the open ocean tide with satellites equipped with precision altimeters we conducted a simulated study using sets of artificially generated altimeter data constructed from a realistic geoid and four pairs of major tides in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Recovery of the original geoid and eight tidal maps is accomplished by a space-time, least squares harmonic analysis scheme. The resultant maps appear fairly satisfactory even when random noises up to + or - 100 cm are added to the altimeter data of sufficient space-time density. The method also produces a refined geoid which is rigorously corrected for the dynamic tides.

  8. Satellite based radar interferometry to estimate large-scale soil water depletion from clay shrinkage: possibilities and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, te B.; Hanssen, R.F.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Rooij, de G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based radar interferometry is a technique capable of measuring small surface elevation changes at large scales and with a high resolution. In vadose zone hydrology, it has been recognized for a long time that surface elevation changes due to swell and shrinkage of clayey soils can serve as

  9. CLASSIFIER FUSION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alipour Fard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study concerned with fusion of synthetic aperture radar and optical satellite imagery. Due to the difference in the underlying sensor technology, data from synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical sensors refer to different properties of the observed scene and it is believed that when they are fused together, they complement each other to improve the performance of a particular application. In this paper, two category of features are generate and six classifier fusion operators implemented and evaluated. Implementation results show significant improvement in the classification accuracy.

  10. Mapping plasma structures in the high-latitude ionosphere using beacon satellite, incoherent scatter radar and ground-based magnetometer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neubert

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of the year 2000, four radio receivers capable of tracking various beacon satellites were set up along the southwestern coast of Greenland. They are used to reconstruct images of the ionospheric plasma density distribution via the tomographic method. In order to test and validate tomographic imaging under the highly variable conditions often prevailing in the high-latitude ionosphere, a time interval was selected when the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar conducted measurements of the ionospheric plasma density while the radio receivers tracked a number of beacon satellites. A comparison between two-dimensional images of the plasma density distribution obtained from the radar and the satellite receivers revealed generally good agreement between radar measurements and tomographic images. Observed discrepancies can be attributed to F region plasma patches moving through the field of view with a speed of several hundred meters per second, thereby smearing out the tomographic image. A notable mismatch occurred around local magnetic midnight when a magnetospheric substorm breakup occurred in the vicinity of southwest Greenland (identified from ground-based magnetometer observations. The breakup was associated with a sudden intensification of the westward auroral electrojet which was centered at about 69 and extended up to some 73 corrected geomagnetic latitude. Ground-based magnetometer data may thus have the potential of indicating when the tomographic method is at risk and may fail. We finally outline the application of tomographic imaging, when combined with magnetic field data, to estimate ionospheric Joule heating rates.

  11. Variations in sea surface roughness induced by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Godin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tsunamis away from shore are critically important for improving early warning systems and understanding of tsunami generation and propagation. Tsunamis are difficult to detect and measure in the open ocean because the wave amplitude there is much smaller than it is close to shore. Currently, tsunami observations in deep water rely on measurements of variations in the sea surface height or bottom pressure. Here we demonstrate that there exists a different observable, specifically, ocean surface roughness, which can be used to reveal tsunamis away from shore. The first detailed measurements of the tsunami effect on sea surface height and radar backscattering strength in the open ocean were obtained from satellite altimeters during passage of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami. Through statistical analyses of satellite altimeter observations, we show that the Sumatra-Andaman tsunami effected distinct, detectable changes in sea surface roughness. The magnitude and spatial structure of the observed variations in radar backscattering strength are consistent with hydrodynamic models predicting variations in the near-surface wind across the tsunami wave front. Tsunami-induced changes in sea surface roughness can be potentially used for early tsunami detection by orbiting microwave radars and radiometers, which have broad surface coverage across the satellite ground track.

  12. A global high resolution mean sea surface from multi mission satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry from the GEOSAT and the ERS-1 geodetic missions provide altimeter data with a very dense coverage. Hence, the heights of the sea surface may be recovered very detailed. Satellite altimetry from the 35 days repeat cycle mission of the ERS satellites and, especially, from the 10...

  13. Spaceborne Sensors Track Marine Debris Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Lee, Lucas; Pezold, Blaise; Brook, Chris; Mallett, Candis; Barrett, Shelby; Albin, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Marine debris is a problem for coastal areas throughout the world, including the Gulf of Mexico. To aid the NOAA Marine Debris Program in monitoring marine debris dispersal and regulating marine debris practices, sea surface height and height anomaly data provided by the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research at the University of Colorado, Boulder, were utilized to help assess trash and other discarded items that routinely wash ashore in southeastern Texas, at Padre Island National Seashore. These data were generated from the NASA radar altimeter satellites TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason 1, and Jason 2, as well as the European altimeter satellites ERS-1, ERS-2 (European Remote Sensing Satellite), and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite). Sea surface temperature data from MODIS were used to study of the dynamics of the Loop Current. Sea surface height and MODIS data analysis were used to show that warm water in the core of eddies, which periodically separate from the Loop Current, can be as high as 30 cm above the surrounding water. These eddies are known to directly transfer marine debris to the western continental shelf and the elevated area of water can be tracked using satellite radar altimeter data. Additionally, using sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, and particle path data, foretracking and backtracking simulations were created. These simulation runs demonstrated that marine debris on Padre Island National Seashore may arise from a variety of sources, such as commercial fishing/shrimping, the oil and gas industry, recreational boaters, and from rivers that empty into the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. SAT-WIND project. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Nielsen, Niels Morten

    microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data...

  15. The Radar locates spills of Petroleum Sea inside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acantland Sylvie; De Biegert

    1996-01-01

    The satellite information is helping to the petroleum geologists to determine the potential of new petroleum reserves all over the world. Particularly, radar technology recently available is providing an increased dependability, an improved effectiveness of costs and a quicker access to the information that can be vital to detect and to supervise the petroleum spills that naturally happen. Several projects have been carrying out to evaluate the best use in the technology of the satellite information, specifically radar information for satellite, in sea inside exploration. The authors comment about of the kindness and benefits in the radar use

  16. CryoSat SIRAL Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele; Tagliani, Nicolas; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2013-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed, including both an internal and external calibration. The internal calibration monitors the instrument impulse response and the transfer function, like traditional altimeters. In addition to that, the interferometer requires a special calibration developed ad hoc for SIRAL. The external calibration is performed with the use of a ground transponder, located in Svalbard, which receives SIRAL signal and sends the echo back to the satellite. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. By April 2013, almost 3 years of calibration data will be available, which will be shown in this poster. The external calibration (transponder) data are processed and analyzed independently from the operational chain. The use of an external transponder has been very useful to determine instrument performance and for the tuning of the on-ground processor. This poster presents the transponder results in terms of range noise and datation error.

  17. Monitoring the effect of restoration measures in Indonesian peatlands by radar satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenicke, J; Englhart, S; Siegert, F

    2011-03-01

    In the context of the ongoing climate change discussions the importance of peatlands as carbon stores is increasingly recognised in the public. Drainage, deforestation and peat fires are the main reasons for the release of huge amounts of carbon from peatlands. Successful restoration of degraded tropical peatlands is of high interest due to their huge carbon store and sequestration potential. The blocking of drainage canals by dam building has become one of the most important measures to restore the hydrology and the ecological function of the peat domes. This study investigates the capability of using multitemporal radar remote sensing imagery for monitoring the hydrological effects of these measures. The study area is the former Mega Rice Project area in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, where peat drainage and forest degradation is especially intense. Restoration measures started in July 2004 by building 30 large dams until June 2008. We applied change detection analysis with more than 80 ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS PALSAR images, acquired between 2004 and 2009. Radar signal increases of up to 1.36 dB show that high frequency multitemporal radar satellite imagery can be used to detect an increase in peat soil moisture after dam construction, especially in deforested areas with a high density of dams. Furthermore, a strong correlation between cross-polarised radar backscatter coefficients and groundwater levels above -50 cm was found. Monitoring peatland rewetting and quantifying groundwater level variations is important information for vegetation re-establishment, fire hazard warning and making carbon emission mitigation tradable under the voluntary carbon market or REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) mechanism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  19. Mean dynamic topography over Peninsular Malaysian seas using multimission satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazu, Isaac Chidi; Din, Ami Hassan Md; Omar, Kamaludin Mohd

    2017-04-01

    The development of satellite altimeters (SALTs) has brought huge benefits, among which is the ability to more adequately sense ocean-surface topography. The radar altimeter database system was used to capture and process ENVISAT, CRYOSAT-2, SARAL, JASON-1, and JASON-2 SALT data of 5 years between 2011 and 2015. The time series of monthly multimission SALT data showed an estimated sea level trend of 1.0, 2.4, 2.4, 3.6, and 12.0 mm/year at Gelang, Port Kelang, Kukup, Cendering, and Keling. The correlation analysis for the selected tide gauge stations produced satisfying results of R-squared with 0.86, 0.89, 0.91, and 0.97 for Cendering, Sedili, Gelang, and Geting, respectively. The ITG-Grace2010s geoid model was used to compute the mean dynamic topography (MDT) and plot to a grid of 0.25 deg for the Malacca Strait and South China Sea of Peninsular Malaysia, with Keling, Port Kelang, Geting, Sedili, and Johor Bahru tide gauge stations having values determined by interpolation to be 1.14, 1.19, 1.26, 1.88, and 2.91 m, respectively. MDT is computed from the SALT with respect to Port Kelang, the north-south sea slope ranges between -0.64 and 0.29 m/50 km and -0.01 and 0.52 m/50 km along the east and west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia, respectively.

  20. Orbit Determination of the SELENE Satellites Using Multi-Satellite Data Types and Evaluation of SELENE Gravity Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.

  1. Gravity and Nonconservative Force Model Tuning for the GEOSAT Follow-On Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Marr, Gregory C.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 and the primary objective of the mission was to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Three radar altimeter calibration campaigns have been conducted in 1999 and 2000. The spacecraft is tracked by satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler beacons and a limited amount of data have been obtained from the Global Positioning Receiver (GPS) on board the satellite. Even with EGM96, the predicted radial orbit error due to gravity field mismodelling (to 70x70) remains high at 2.61 cm (compared to 0.88 cm for TOPEX). We report on the preliminary gravity model tuning for GFO using SLR, and altimeter crossover data. Preliminary solutions using SLR and GFO/GFO crossover data from CalVal campaigns I and II in June-August 1999, and January-February 2000 have reduced the predicted radial orbit error to 1.9 cm and further reduction will be possible when additional data are added to the solutions. The gravity model tuning has improved principally the low order m-daily terms and has reduced significantly the geographically correlated error present in this satellite orbit. In addition to gravity field mismodelling, the largest contributor to the orbit error is the non-conservative force mismodelling. We report on further nonconservative force model tuning results using available data from over one cycle in beta prime.

  2. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  3. GAVDOS/west crete cal-val site: Over a decade calibrations for Jason series, SARAL/Altika, cryoSat-2, Sentinel-3 and HY-2 altimeter satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Tziavos, Ilias; Galanakis, Demitris

    This work presents and compares the latest altimeter calibration results for the Sentinel-3, Jason series, as well as the SARAL/AltiKa and the Chinese HY-2 missions, conducted at the Gavdos/Crete calibration/validation facilities. At first, the Jason altimeter calibration values will be given for...

  4. Scientific analysis of satellite ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.

    1994-01-01

    A network of satellite laser ranging (SLR) tracking systems with continuously improving accuracies is challenging the modelling capabilities of analysts worldwide. Various data analysis techniques have yielded many advances in the development of orbit, instrument and Earth models. The direct measurement of the distance to the satellite provided by the laser ranges has given us a simple metric which links the results obtained by diverse approaches. Different groups have used SLR data, often in combination with observations from other space geodetic techniques, to improve models of the static geopotential, the solid Earth, ocean tides, and atmospheric drag models for low Earth satellites. Radiation pressure models and other non-conservative forces for satellite orbits above the atmosphere have been developed to exploit the full accuracy of the latest SLR instruments. SLR is the baseline tracking system for the altimeter missions TOPEX/Poseidon, and ERS-1 and will play an important role in providing the reference frame for locating the geocentric position of the ocean surface, in providing an unchanging range standard for altimeter calibration, and for improving the geoid models to separate gravitational from ocean circulation signals seen in the sea surface. However, even with the many improvements in the models used to support the orbital analysis of laser observations, there remain systematic effects which limit the full exploitation of SLR accuracy today.

  5. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy

  6. CryoSat-2 SIRAL Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, M.; Scagliola, M.; Tagliani, N.; Parrinello, T.

    2012-12-01

    The main payload of CryoSat-2 is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed, including both an internal and external calibration. The internal calibration monitors the instrument impulse response and the transfer function, like traditional altimeters. In addition to that, the interferometer requires a special calibration developed ad hoc for SIRAL. The external calibration is performed with the use of a ground transponder, located in Svalbard, which receives SIRAL signal and sends the echo back to the satellite. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat-2 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. In December 2012, two and a half years of calibration data will be available, which will be shown in this poster. The external calibration (transponder) data are processed and analyzed independently from the operational chain. The use of an external transponder has been very useful to determine instrument performance and for the tuning of the on-ground processor. This poster presents the transponder results in terms of range noise and datation error.

  7. Quantifying South East Asia's forest degradation using latest generation optical and radar satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.; Wijaya, A.; Weisse, M.; Stolle, F.

    2017-12-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation form the 2nd largest source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While deforestation is being globally mapped with satellite image time series, degradation remains insufficiently quantified. Previous studies quantified degradation for small scale, local sites. A method suitable for accurate mapping across large areas has not yet been developed due to the variability of the low magnitude and short-lived degradation signal and the absence of data with suitable resolution properties. Here we use a combination of newly available streams of free optical and radar image time series acquired by NASA and ESA, and HPC-based data science algorithms to innovatively quantify degradation consistently across Southeast Asia (SEA). We used Sentinel1 c-band radar data and NASA's new Harmonized Landsat8 (L8) Sentinel2 (S2) product (HLS) for cloud free optical images. Our results show that dense time series of cloud penetrating Sentinel 1 c-band radar can provide degradation alarm flags, while the HLS product of cloud-free optical images can unambiguously confirm degradation alarms. The detectability of degradation differed across SEA. In the seasonal forest of continental SEA the reliability of our radar-based alarm flags increased as the variability in landscape moisture decreases in the dry season. We reliably confirmed alarms with optical image time series during the late dry season, where degradation in open canopy forests becomes detectable once the undergrowth vegetation has died down. Conversely, in insular SEA landscape moisture is low, the radar time series generated degradation alarms flags with moderate to high reliability throughout the year, further confirmed with the HLS product. Based on the HLS product we can now confirm degradation within time series provides better results than either one on its own. Our results provide significant information with application for carbon trading policy and land management.

  8. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites ...

  9. Design and Performance Measurement of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Li; Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Bartels, Arlin E.

    2004-01-01

    We report the design and test results of the Mercury Laser Altimeter on MESSENGER mission to be launched in May 2004. The altimeter will provide planet surface topography measurements via laser pulse time of flight.

  10. Assessing a multilayered dynamic firn-compaction model for Greenland with ASIRAS radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Stenseng, Lars; Adalgeirsdottir, G.

    2013-01-01

    A method to assess firn compaction using data collected with the Airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar)/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) is developed. For this, we develop a dynamical firn-compaction model that includes meltwater retention. Based on the ASIRAS data, which show...... internal layers as annual horizons in the uppermost firn, the method relies on inferring the age/ depth (internal layers) information from the radar data using a Monte Carlo inversion technique to tune in parallel both the firn model and the atmospheric forcing parameters (temperature and accumulation......). The model is validated against two firn cores, and it is shown that applying both firn densities and age/ depth information for the inversion gives the most accurate understanding of model biases. The method is then applied to a 67 km section of the EGIG line forced by atmospheric output from a regional...

  11. ALES+: Adapting a homogenous ocean retracker for satellite altimetry to sea ice leads, coastal and inland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passaro, Marcello; Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Andersen, Ole B.

    2018-01-01

    ice retracker used for fitting specular echoes. Compared to an existing open ocean altimetry dataset, the presented strategy increases the number of sea level retrievals in the sea ice-covered area and the correlation with a local tide gauge. Further tests against in-situ data show that also......Water level from sea ice-covered oceans is particularly challenging to retrieve with satellite radar altimeters due to the different shapes assumed by the returned signal compared with the standard open ocean waveforms. Valid measurements are scarce in large areas of the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans...... the fitting of the signal depending on the sea state and on the slope of its trailing edge. The algorithm modifies the existing Adaptive Leading Edge Subwaveform retracker originally designed for coastal waters, and is applied to Envisat and ERS-2 missions. The validation in a test area of the Arctic Ocean...

  12. Photogrammetry and altimetry. Part A: Apollo 16 laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenhaupt, W. R.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    The laser altimeter measures precise altitudes of the command and service module above the lunar surface and can function either with the metric (mapping) camera or independently. In the camera mode, the laser altimeter ranges at each exposure time, which varies between 20 and 28 sec (i.e., 30 to 43 km on the lunar surface). In the independent mode, the laser altimeter ranges every 20 sec. These altitude data and the spacecraft attitudes that are derived from simultaneous stellar photography are used to constrain the photogrammetric reduction of the lunar surface photographs when cartographic products are generated. In addition, the altimeter measurements alone provide broad-scale topographic relief around the entire circumference of the moon. These data are useful in investigating the selenodetic figure of the moon and may provide information regarding gravitational anomalies on the lunar far side.

  13. Near-Space Microwave Radar Remote Sensing: Potentials and Challenge Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicong Peng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-space, defined as the region between 20 km and 100 km, offers many new capabilities that are not accessible to low earth orbit (LEO satellites and airplanes, because it is above storm and not constrained by either the orbital mechanics of satellites or the high fuel consumption of airplanes. By placing radar transmitter/receiver in near-space platforms, many functions that are currently performed with satellites or airplanes could be performed in a cheaper way. Inspired by these advantages, this paper introduces several near-space vehicle-based radar configurations, such as near-space passive bistatic radar and high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS synthetic aperture radar (SAR. Their potential applications, technical challenges and possible solutions are investigated. It is shown that near-space is a satisfactory solution to some specific remote sensing applications. Firstly, near-space passive bistatic radar using opportunistic illuminators offers a solution to persistent regional remote sensing, which is particularly interest for protecting homeland security or monitoring regional environment. Secondly, near-space provides an optimal solution to relative HRWS SAR imaging. Moreover, as motion compensation is a common technical challenge for the described radars, an active transponder-based motion compensation is also described.

  14. An Ultra-Wideband, Microwave Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Mapping Near-Surface Internal Layers in Polar Firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.

  15. Ocean Remote Sensing from Chinese Spaceborne Microwave Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.

    2017-12-01

    GF-3 (GF stands for GaoFen, which means High Resolution in Chinese) is the China's first C band multi-polarization high resolution microwave remote sensing satellite. It was successfully launched on Aug. 10, 2016 in Taiyuan satellite launch center. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board GF-3 works at incidence angles ranging from 20 to 50 degree with several polarization modes including single-polarization, dual-polarization and quad-polarization. GF-3 SAR is also the world's most imaging modes SAR satellite, with 12 imaging modes consisting of some traditional ones like stripmap and scanSAR modes and some new ones like spotlight, wave and global modes. GF-3 SAR is thus a multi-functional satellite for both land and ocean observation by switching the different imaging modes. TG-2 (TG stands for TianGong, which means Heavenly Palace in Chinese) is a Chinese space laboratory which was launched on 15 Sep. 2016 from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre aboard a Long March 2F rocket. The onboard Interferometric Imaging Radar Altimeter (InIRA) is a new generation radar altimeter developed by China and also the first on orbit wide swath imaging radar altimeter, which integrates interferometry, synthetic aperture, and height tracking techniques at small incidence angles and a swath of 30 km. The InIRA was switch on to acquire data during this mission on 22 September. This paper gives some preliminary results for the quantitative remote sensing of ocean winds and waves from the GF-3 SAR and the TG-2 InIRA. The quantitative analysis and ocean wave spectra retrieval have been given from the SAR imagery. The image spectra which contain ocean wave information are first estimated from image's modulation using fast Fourier transform. Then, the wave spectra are retrieved from image spectra based on Hasselmann's classical quasi-linear SAR-ocean wave mapping model and the estimation of three modulation transfer functions (MTFs) including tilt, hydrodynamic and velocity bunching

  16. Evaluation of precipitation estimates over CONUS derived from satellite, radar, and rain gauge datasets (2002-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.

    2014-10-01

    We use a suite of quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) derived from satellite, radar, and surface observations to derive precipitation characteristics over CONUS for the period 2002-2012. This comparison effort includes satellite multi-sensor datasets (bias-adjusted TMPA 3B42, near-real time 3B42RT), radar estimates (NCEP Stage IV), and rain gauge observations. Remotely sensed precipitation datasets are compared with surface observations from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-Daily) and from the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model). The comparisons are performed at the annual, seasonal, and daily scales over the River Forecast Centers (RFCs) for CONUS. Annual average rain rates present a satisfying agreement with GHCN-D for all products over CONUS (± 6%). However, differences at the RFC are more important in particular for near-real time 3B42RT precipitation estimates (-33 to +49%). At annual and seasonal scales, the bias-adjusted 3B42 presented important improvement when compared to its near real time counterpart 3B42RT. However, large biases remained for 3B42 over the Western US for higher average accumulation (≥ 5 mm day-1) with respect to GHCN-D surface observations. At the daily scale, 3B42RT performed poorly in capturing extreme daily precipitation (> 4 in day-1) over the Northwest. Furthermore, the conditional analysis and the contingency analysis conducted illustrated the challenge of retrieving extreme precipitation from remote sensing estimates.

  17. Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

  18. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy plan...

  19. Surface Roughness of the Moon Derived from Multi-frequency Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, W.

    2011-12-01

    Surface roughness of the Moon provides important information concerning both significant questions about lunar surface processes and engineering constrains for human outposts and rover trafficabillity. Impact-related phenomena change the morphology and roughness of lunar surface, and therefore surface roughness provides clues to the formation and modification mechanisms of impact craters. Since the Apollo era, lunar surface roughness has been studied using different approaches, such as direct estimation from lunar surface digital topographic relief, and indirect analysis of Earth-based radar echo strengths. Submillimeter scale roughness at Apollo landing sites has been studied by computer stereophotogrammetry analysis of Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC) pictures, whereas roughness at meter to kilometer scale has been studied using laser altimeter data from recent missions. Though these studies shown lunar surface roughness is scale dependent that can be described by fractal statistics, roughness at centimeter scale has not been studied yet. In this study, lunar surface roughnesses at centimeter scale are investigated using Earth-based 70 cm Arecibo radar data and miniature synthetic aperture radar (Mini-SAR) data at S- and X-band (with wavelengths 12.6 cm and 4.12 cm). Both observations and theoretical modeling show that radar echo strengths are mostly dominated by scattering from the surface and shallow buried rocks. Given the different penetration depths of radar waves at these frequencies (< 30 m for 70 cm wavelength, < 3 m at S-band, and < 1 m at X-band), radar echo strengths at S- and X-band will yield surface roughness directly, whereas radar echo at 70-cm will give an upper limit of lunar surface roughness. The integral equation method is used to model radar scattering from the rough lunar surface, and dielectric constant of regolith and surface roughness are two dominate factors. The complex dielectric constant of regolith is first estimated

  20. Technical Description of Radar and Optical Sensors Contributing to Joint UK-Australian Satellite Tracking, Data-fusion and Cueing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastment, J.; Ladd, D.; Donnelly, P.; Ash, A.; Harwood, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.; Bennett, J.; Rutten, M.; Gordon, N.

    2014-09-01

    DSTL, DSTO, EOS and STFC have recently participated in a campaign of co-ordinated observations with both radar and optical sensors in order to demonstrate and to refine methodologies for orbit determination, data fusion and cross-sensor cueing. The experimental programme is described in detail in the companion paper by Harwood et al. At the STFC Chilbolton Observatory in Southern England, an S-band radar on a 25 m diameter fully-steerable dish antenna was used to measure object range and radar cross-section. At the EOS Space Systems facility on Mount Stromlo, near Canberra, Australia, an optical system comprising a 2 m alt / az observatory, with Coude path laser tracking at 400W power, was used to acquire, lock and laser track the cued objects, providing accurate orbit determinations for each. DSTO, located at Edinburgh, Australia, operated an optical system consisting of a small commercial telescope and mount, measuring the direction to the objects. Observation times were limited to the evening solar terminator period. Data from these systems was processed independently, using DSTL-developed and DSTO / EOS-developed algorithms, to perform orbit determination and to cross-cue: (i) the radar, based on the optical measurements; (ii) the optical system, based on the radar measurements; and (iii) the radar, using its own prior observations (self-cueing). In some cases, TLEs were used to initialise the orbit determination process; in other cases, the cues were derived entirely from sensor data. In all 3 scenarios, positive results were obtained for a variety of satellites in low earth orbits, demonstrating the feasibility of the different cue generation techniques. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technical characteristics of the radar and optical systems used, the modes of operation employed to acquire the observations, and details of the parameters measured and the data formats.

  1. Aercibo S-band radar program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    The high powered 12.6 cm wavelength radar on the 1000-ft Arecibo reflector is utilized for a number of solar system studies. Chief among these are: (1) surface reflectivity mapping of Venus, Mercury and the Moon. Resolutions achievable on Venus are less than 1.5 km over some areas, for Mercury about 30 km and for the Moon 200 m at present, (2) high time resolution ranging measurements to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets. These measurements are used to obtain profiles and scattering parameters in the equatorial region. They can also be used to test relativistic and gravitational theories by monitoring the rate of advance of the perihelion of the orbit of Mercury and placing limits on the stability of the gravitational constant, (3) measurements of the orbital parameters, figure, spin vector and surface properties of asteroids and comets, and (4) observations of the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter and the satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter were re-observed with the 12.6 cm radar for the first time since 1981. Much more accurate measurements of the scattering properties of the three icy satellites were obtained that generally confirmed previous observations. Unambiguous measurements of the cross section and circular polarizations ratio of Io were also obtained for the first time. The radar scattering properties of four mainbelt asteroids and one near-earth asteroid were studied

  2. A multi-source precipitation approach to fill gaps over a radar precipitation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfagiorgis, K. B.; Mahani, S. E.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite Precipitation Estimates (SPEs) may be the only available source of information for operational hydrologic and flash flood prediction due to spatial limitations of radar and gauge products. The present work develops an approach to seamlessly blend satellite, radar, climatological and gauge precipitation products to fill gaps over ground-based radar precipitation fields. To mix different precipitation products, the bias of any of the products relative to each other should be removed. For bias correction, the study used an ensemble-based method which aims to estimate spatially varying multiplicative biases in SPEs using a radar rainfall product. Bias factors were calculated for a randomly selected sample of rainy pixels in the study area. Spatial fields of estimated bias were generated taking into account spatial variation and random errors in the sampled values. A weighted Successive Correction Method (SCM) is proposed to make the merging between error corrected satellite and radar rainfall estimates. In addition to SCM, we use a Bayesian spatial method for merging the gap free radar with rain gauges, climatological rainfall sources and SPEs. We demonstrate the method using SPE Hydro-Estimator (HE), radar- based Stage-II, a climatological product PRISM and rain gauge dataset for several rain events from 2006 to 2008 over three different geographical locations of the United States. Results show that: the SCM method in combination with the Bayesian spatial model produced a precipitation product in good agreement with independent measurements. The study implies that using the available radar pixels surrounding the gap area, rain gauge, PRISM and satellite products, a radar like product is achievable over radar gap areas that benefits the scientific community.

  3. Climate-change-driven accelerated sea-level rise detected in the altimeter era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerem, R S; Beckley, B D; Fasullo, J T; Hamlington, B D; Masters, D; Mitchum, G T

    2018-02-27

    Using a 25-y time series of precision satellite altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, and Jason-3, we estimate the climate-change-driven acceleration of global mean sea level over the last 25 y to be 0.084 ± 0.025 mm/y 2 Coupled with the average climate-change-driven rate of sea level rise over these same 25 y of 2.9 mm/y, simple extrapolation of the quadratic implies global mean sea level could rise 65 ± 12 cm by 2100 compared with 2005, roughly in agreement with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5) model projections. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Statistical Analyses of High-Resolution Aircraft and Satellite Observations of Sea Ice: Applications for Improving Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, S. L.; Kurtz, N. T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Harbeck, J. P.; Onana, V.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite-derived estimates of ice thickness and observations of ice extent over the last decade point to a downward trend in the basin-scale ice volume of the Arctic Ocean. This loss has broad-ranging impacts on the regional climate and ecosystems, as well as implications for regional infrastructure, marine navigation, national security, and resource exploration. New observational datasets at small spatial and temporal scales are now required to improve our understanding of physical processes occurring within the ice pack and advance parameterizations in the next generation of numerical sea-ice models. High-resolution airborne and satellite observations of the sea ice are now available at meter-scale resolution or better that provide new details on the properties and morphology of the ice pack across basin scales. For example the NASA IceBridge airborne campaign routinely surveys the sea ice of the Arctic and Southern Oceans with an advanced sensor suite including laser and radar altimeters and digital cameras that together provide high-resolution measurements of sea ice freeboard, thickness, snow depth and lead distribution. Here we present statistical analyses of the ice pack primarily derived from the following IceBridge instruments: the Digital Mapping System (DMS), a nadir-looking, high-resolution digital camera; the Airborne Topographic Mapper, a scanning lidar; and the University of Kansas snow radar, a novel instrument designed to estimate snow depth on sea ice. Together these instruments provide data from which a wide range of sea ice properties may be derived. We provide statistics on lead distribution and spacing, lead width and area, floe size and distance between floes, as well as ridge height, frequency and distribution. The goals of this study are to (i) identify unique statistics that can be used to describe the characteristics of specific ice regions, for example first-year/multi-year ice, diffuse ice edge/consolidated ice pack, and convergent

  5. A new digital elevation model of Antarctica derived from CryoSat-2 altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Thomas; Shepherd, Andrew; McMillan, Malcolm; Muir, Alan; Gilbert, Lin; Hogg, Anna E.; Konrad, Hannes; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2018-05-01

    We present a new digital elevation model (DEM) of the Antarctic ice sheet and ice shelves based on 2.5 × 108 observations recorded by the CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimeter between July 2010 and July 2016. The DEM is formed from spatio-temporal fits to elevation measurements accumulated within 1, 2, and 5 km grid cells, and is posted at the modal resolution of 1 km. Altogether, 94 % of the grounded ice sheet and 98 % of the floating ice shelves are observed, and the remaining grid cells north of 88° S are interpolated using ordinary kriging. The median and root mean square difference between the DEM and 2.3 × 107 airborne laser altimeter measurements acquired during NASA Operation IceBridge campaigns are -0.30 and 13.50 m, respectively. The DEM uncertainty rises in regions of high slope, especially where elevation measurements were acquired in low-resolution mode; taking this into account, we estimate the average accuracy to be 9.5 m - a value that is comparable to or better than that of other models derived from satellite radar and laser altimetry.

  6. A fiducial reference site for satellite altimetry in Crete, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrokordatos, Constantin

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system. This work sets the ground for the...

  7. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  8. Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of temperature and altimeter data with bias correction and application to seasonal prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Keppenne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for a poorly known geoid, satellite altimeter data is usually analyzed in terms of anomalies from the time mean record. When such anomalies are assimilated into an ocean model, the bias between the climatologies of the model and data is problematic. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF is modified to account for the presence of a forecast-model bias and applied to the assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P altimeter data. The online bias correction (OBC algorithm uses the same ensemble of model state vectors to estimate biased-error and unbiased-error covariance matrices. Covariance localization is used but the bias covariances have different localization scales from the unbiased-error covariances, thereby accounting for the fact that the bias in a global ocean model could have much larger spatial scales than the random error.The method is applied to a 27-layer version of the Poseidon global ocean general circulation model with about 30-million state variables. Experiments in which T/P altimeter anomalies are assimilated show that the OBC reduces the RMS observation minus forecast difference for sea-surface height (SSH over a similar EnKF run in which OBC is not used. Independent in situ temperature observations show that the temperature field is also improved. When the T/P data and in situ temperature data are assimilated in the same run and the configuration of the ensemble at the end of the run is used to initialize the ocean component of the GMAO coupled forecast model, seasonal SSH hindcasts made with the coupled model are generally better than those initialized with optimal interpolation of temperature observations without altimeter data. The analysis of the corresponding sea-surface temperature hindcasts is not as conclusive.

  9. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  10. An overview of the laser ranging method of space laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yuwei; Hyyppä, Juha; Li, Song

    2017-11-01

    Space laser altimeter is an active remote sensing instrument to measure topographic map of Earth, Moon and planetary. The space laser altimeter determines the range between the instrument and laser footprint by measuring round trip time of laser pulse. The return pulse reflected from ground surface is gathered by the receiver of space laser altimeter, the pulsewidth and amplitude of which are changeable with the variability of the ground relief. Meantime, several kinds of noise overlapped on the return pulse signal affect its signal-to-noise ratio. To eliminate the influence of these factors that cause range walk and range uncertainty, the reliable laser ranging methods need to be implemented to obtain high-precision range results. Based on typical space laser altimeters in the past few decades, various ranging methods are expounded in detail according to the operational principle of instruments and timing method. By illustrating the concrete procedure of determining time of flight of laser pulse, this overview provides the comparison of the employed technologies in previous and undergoing research programs and prospect innovative technology for space laser altimeters in future.

  11. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...

  12. Evaluation and adjustment of altimeter measurement and numerical hindcast in wave height trend estimation in China's coastal seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuiqing; Guan, Shoude; Hou, Yijun; Liu, Yahao; Bi, Fan

    2018-05-01

    A long-term trend of significant wave height (SWH) in China's coastal seas was examined based on three datasets derived from satellite measurements and numerical hindcasts. One set of altimeter data were obtained from the GlobWave, while the other two datasets of numerical hindcasts were obtained from the third-generation wind wave model, WAVEWATCH III, forced by wind fields from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) and NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The mean and extreme wave trends were estimated for the period 1992-2010 with respect to the annual mean and the 99th-percentile values of SWH, respectively. The altimeter wave trend estimates feature considerable uncertainties owing to the sparse sampling rate. Furthermore, the extreme wave trend tends to be overestimated because of the increasing sampling rate over time. Numerical wave trends strongly depend on the quality of the wind fields, as the CCMP waves significantly overestimate the wave trend, whereas the CFSR waves tend to underestimate the trend. Corresponding adjustments were applied which effectively improved the trend estimates from the altimeter and numerical data. The adjusted results show generally increasing mean wave trends, while the extreme wave trends are more spatially-varied, from decreasing trends prevailing in the South China Sea to significant increasing trends mainly in the East China Sea.

  13. Bottom Pressure Tides Along a Line in the Southeast Atlantic Ocean and Comparisons with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Byrne, Deidre A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor pressure records, collected at 11 stations aligned along a single ground track of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellites, are analyzed for their tidal content. With very low background noise levels and approximately 27 months of high-quality records, tidal constituents can be estimated with unusually high precision. This includes many high-frequency lines up through the seventh-diurnal band. The station deployment provides a unique opportunity to compare with tides estimated from satellite altimetry, point by point along the satellite track, in a region of moderately high mesoscale variability. That variability can significantly corrupt altimeter-based tide estimates, even with 17 years of data. A method to improve the along-track altimeter estimates by correcting the data for nontidal variability is found to yield much better agreement with the bottom-pressure data. The technique should prove useful in certain demanding applications, such as altimetric studies of internal tides.

  14. Combined Use of Multi-Temporal Optical and Radar Satellite Images for Grassland Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Dusseux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of optical images, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images and the combination of both types of data to discriminate between grasslands and crops in agricultural areas where cloud cover is very high most of the time, which restricts the use of visible and near-infrared satellite data. We compared the performances of variables extracted from four optical and five SAR satellite images with high/very high spatial resolutions acquired during the growing season. A vegetation index, namely the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and two biophysical variables, the LAI (Leaf Area Index and the fCOVER (fraction of Vegetation Cover were computed using optical time series and polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH. The polarization ratio and polarimetric decomposition (Freeman–Durden and Cloude–Pottier were calculated using SAR time series. Then, variables derived from optical, SAR and both types of remotely-sensed data were successively classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM technique. The results show that the classification accuracy of SAR variables is higher than those using optical data (0.98 compared to 0.81. They also highlight that the combination of optical and SAR time series data is of prime interest to discriminate grasslands from crops, allowing an improved classification accuracy.

  15. Investigating the Potential Impact of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Altimeter on Ocean Mesoscale Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, M.; Ngodock, H.; Smith, S. R.; Souopgui, I.

    2016-02-01

    NASA's Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) observations with a wider swath width and higher spatial resolution than current satellite altimeters. It is expected that this will help to further constrain ocean models in terms of the mesoscale circulation. In this work, this expectation is investigated by way of twin data assimilation experiments using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model Four Dimensional Variational (NCOM-4DVAR) data assimilation system using a weak constraint formulation. Here, a nature run is created from which SWOT observations are sampled, as well as along-track SSHA observations from simulated Jason-2 tracks. The simulated SWOT data has appropriate spatial coverage, resolution, and noise characteristics based on an observation-simulator program provided by the SWOT science team. The experiment is run for a three-month period during which the analysis is updated every 24 hours and each analysis is used to initialize a 96 hour forecast. The forecasts in each experiment are compared to the available nature run to determine the impact of the assimilated data. It is demonstrated here that the SWOT observations help to constrain the model mesoscale in a more consistent manner than traditional altimeter observations. The findings of this study suggest that data from SWOT may have a substantial impact on improving the ocean model analysis and forecast of mesoscale features and surface ocean transport.

  16. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zawadzki, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    , the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed...... to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter...

  17. Challenges for Greenland-wide mass balance from Cryosat-2 radar-altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    As the Greenland ice sheet warms, a change in the structure of the upper snow/firn occurs. This change further induces changes in the reflective properties of the firn seen from satellite radar altimetry. If not identified as changes in the reflective properties of the firn, these may be interpre......As the Greenland ice sheet warms, a change in the structure of the upper snow/firn occurs. This change further induces changes in the reflective properties of the firn seen from satellite radar altimetry. If not identified as changes in the reflective properties of the firn, these may...... be interpreted as actual surface elevation changes seen from the satellite radar altimetry (Nilsson et al., 2015).Here, we investigate how to correct the elevation change observed from the ESA Cryosat-2 radar altimetry mission to derive elevation change of the air/snow interface of the Greenland ice sheet....... The elevation change of this “real” physical surface is crucial, if the goal is to derive Greenland mass balance as done for LiDAR missions.The investigations look into waveform parameters to correct for the observed bias between Radar and LiDAR observations when using Croysat-2 level-2 data. Based...

  18. M2 Internal Tides and Their Observed Wavenumber Spectra from Satellite Altimetry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2015-01-01

    A near-global chart of surface elevations associated with the stationary M2 internal tide is empirically constructed from multi-mission satellite altimeter data. An advantage of a strictly empirical mapping approach is that results are independent of assumptions about ocean wave dynamics and, in fact, can be used to test such assumptions. A disadvantage is that present-day altimeter coverage is only marginally adequate to support mapping such short-wavelength features. Moreover, predominantly north-south ground-track orientations and contamination from nontidal oceanographic variability can lead to deficiencies in mapped tides. Independent data from Cryosphere Satellite-2 (CryoSat-2) and other altimeters are used to test the solutions and show positive reduction in variance except in regions of large mesoscale variability. The tidal fields are subjected to two-dimensional wavenumber spectral analysis, which allows for the construction of an empirical map of modal wavelengths. Mode-1 wavelengths show good agreement with theoretical wavelengths calculated from the ocean's mean stratification, with a few localized exceptions (e.g., Tasman Sea). Mode-2 waves are detectable in much of the ocean, with wavelengths in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations, but their spectral signatures grow too weak to map in some regions.

  19. Using high-resolution satellite radar to measure lava flow morphology, rheology, effusion rate and subsidence at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Mothes, P. A.; Anderson, K. R.; Albino, F.; Wadge, G.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Ebmeier, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    There are relatively few studies of active lava flows of an andesitic rather than basaltic composition. The flow field at El Reventador volcano, Ecuador is a good example, but observations are hampered by persistent cloud cover. We use high resolution satellite radar from Radarsat-2 and TanDEM-X to map the dimensions of 43 lava flows extruded between 9 Feb 2012 and 24 Aug 2016. Flow height is measured using the width of radar shadow cast by steep sided features, or the difference in radar phase between two sensors separated in space. The cumulative volume of erupted material was 44.8M m3 dense rock equivalent with an average rate of 0.31 ± 0.02 m3s-1, similar to the long term average. The flows were mostly emplaced over durations shorter than the satellite repeat interval of 24 days and ranged in length from 0.3 to 1.7 km. We use the dimensions of the levees to estimate the flow yield strengths and compare measurements of diversions around barriers with observations from laboratory experiments. The rate of effusion, flow length and flow volume all decrease with time, and simple physics-based models can be equally well fit by a closed reservoir depressurising during the eruption with no magma recharge, or an open reservoir with a time-constant magma recharge rate of up to 0.35 ± 0.01 m3s-1. We propose that the conduit acts as magma capacitor and individual flows are volume-limited. Emplaced flows are subsiding at rates proportional to lava thickness that decay with time following a square-root relationship. Radar observations, such as those presented here, could be used to map and measure properties of evolving lava flow fields at other remote or difficult to monitor volcanoes. Physics-based models can be run into the future, but a sudden increase in flow length in 2017 seen by Sentinel illustrates that changes in magma supply can cause rapid changes in behavior, which remain challenging to forecast.

  20. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  1. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michaël; Zawadzki, Lionel; Zuo, Hao; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Scharffenberg, Martin G.; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Joana Fernandes, M.; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Rudenko, Sergei; Cipollini, Paolo; Quartly, Graham D.; Passaro, Marcello; Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2018-02-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change since it integrates the impacts of ocean warming and ice mass loss from glaciers and the ice sheets. Sea level has been listed as an essential climate variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During the past 25 years, the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter standards were selected to produce new sea level products (called SL_cci v2.0) based on nine altimeter missions for the period 1993-2015 (https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2015-v_2.0-201612; Legeais and the ESA SL_cci team, 2016c). Corresponding orbit solutions, geophysical corrections and altimeter standards used in this v2.0 dataset are described in detail in Quartly et al. (2017). The present paper focuses on the description of the SL_cci v2.0 ECV and associated uncertainty and discusses how it has been validated. Various approaches have been used for the quality assessment such as internal validation, comparisons with sea level records from other groups and with in situ measurements, sea level budget closure analyses and comparisons with model outputs. Compared with the previous version of the sea level ECV, we show that use of improved geophysical corrections, careful bias reduction between missions and inclusion of new altimeter missions lead to improved sea level products with reduced uncertainties on different spatial and temporal scales. However, there

  2. About uncertainties in sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2014-03-01

    One goal of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative sea ice Essential Climate Variable project is to provide a quality controlled 20 year long data set of Arctic Ocean winter-time sea ice thickness distribution. An important step to achieve this goal is to assess the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval based on satellite radar altimetry. For this purpose a data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and collocated observations of snow and sea ice freeboard from Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) air-borne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine Upward Looking Sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E) and the Warren Climatology (Warren et al., 1999). An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets stresses the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. This is confirmed by a comparison of snow freeboard measured during OIB and CryoVEx and snow freeboard computed from radar altimetry. For first-year ice the agreement between OIB and AMSR-E snow depth within 0.02 m suggests AMSR-E snow depth as an appropriate alternative. Different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches are realized. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft computed from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the realized approaches is able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests: in order to obtain sea ice thickness as accurate as 0.5 m from radar altimetry, besides a freeboard estimate with centimetre accuracy, an ice-type dependent sea ice density is as mandatory

  3. A practical algorithm for the retrieval of floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byongjun Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an algorithm for summer sea ice conditions that semi-automatically produces the floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Currently, floe size distribution data from satellite images are very rare in the literature, mainly due to the lack of a reliable algorithm to produce such data. Here, we developed the algorithm by combining various image analysis methods, including Kernel Graph Cuts, distance transformation and watershed transformation, and a rule-based boundary revalidation. The developed algorithm has been validated against the ground truth that was extracted manually with the aid of 1-m resolution visible satellite data. Comprehensive validation analysis has shown both perspectives and limitations. The algorithm tends to fail to detect small floes (mostly less than 100 m in mean caliper diameter compared to ground truth, which is mainly due to limitations in water-ice segmentation. Some variability in the power law exponent of floe size distribution is observed due to the effects of control parameters in the process of de-noising, Kernel Graph Cuts segmentation, thresholds for boundary revalidation and image resolution. Nonetheless, the algorithm, for floes larger than 100 m, has shown a reasonable agreement with ground truth under various selections of these control parameters. Considering that the coverage and spatial resolution of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data have increased significantly in recent years, the developed algorithm opens a new possibility to produce large volumes of floe size distribution data, which is essential for improving our understanding and prediction of the Arctic sea ice cover

  4. The Mercury Laser Altimeter Instrument for the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, John F.; Smith, James C.; Sun, Xiaoli; Bartels, Arlin E.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne marie; McGarry, Jan F.; Trunzo, Raymond; Britt, Jamie L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload science instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, which launched on 3 August 2004. The altimeter will measure the round trip time-of-flight of transmitted laser pulses reflected from the surface of the planet that, in combination with the spacecraft orbit position and pointing data, gives a high-precision measurement of surface topography referenced to Mercury's center of mass. The altimeter measurements will be used to determine the planet's forced librations by tracking the motion of large-scale topographic features as a function of time. MLA's laser pulse energy monitor and the echo pulse energy estimate will provide an active measurement of the surface reflectivity at 1064 nm. This paper describes the instrument design, prelaunch testing, calibration, and results of post-launch testing.

  5. Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring and early-stage warning of structural instability in archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapete, D; Fanti, R; Casagli, N; Cecchi, R; Petrangeli, P

    2012-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) monitoring campaigns were performed on the archaeological heritage of the Roman Forum, Palatino and Oppio Hills in the centre of Rome, Italy, to test the capabilities of persistent scatterer interferometry techniques for the preventive diagnosis of deformation threatening the structural stability of archaeological monuments and buried structures. ERS-1/2 and RADARSAT-1/2 SAR images were processed with the permanent scatterers InSAR (PSInSAR) and SqueeSAR approaches, and the identified measurement points (MP) were radar-interpreted to map the conservation criticalities in relation to the local geohazard factors and active deterioration processes. The multi-temporal reconstruction of past/recent instability events based on the MP deformation time series provided evidences of stabilization for the Domus Tiberiana as a consequence of recent restoration works, as well as of persistent deformation for the Temple of Magna Mater on the Palatino Hill and the structures of the Baths of Trajan on the Oppio Hill. Detailed time series analysis was also exploited to back monitor and understand the nature of the 2010 collapse that occurred close to Nero's Golden House, and to establish an early-stage warning procedure useful to preventively detect potential instability. (paper)

  6. The Role of Cloud and Precipitation Radars in Convoys and Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood; Sadowy, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    We provide an overview of which benefits a radar, and only a radar, can provide to any constellation of satellites monitoring Earth's atmosphere; which aspects instead are most useful to complement a radar instrument to provide accurate and complete description of the state of the troposphere; and finally which goals can be given a lower priority assuming that other types of sensors will be flying in formation with a radar.

  7. Evaluation of multi-mode CryoSat-2 altimetry data over the Po River against in situ data and a hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Raphael; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Nielsen, Karina

    2018-01-01

    Coverage of in situ observations to monitor surface waters is insufficient on the global scale, and decreasing across the globe. Satellite altimetry has become an increasingly important monitoring technology for continental surface waters. The ESA CryoSat-2 altimetry mission, launched in 2010, has...... two novel features. (i) The radar altimeter instrument on board of CryoSat-2 is operated in three modes; two of them reduce the altimeter footprint by using Delay-Doppler processing. (ii) CryoSat-2 is placed on a distinct orbit with a repeat cycle of 369 days, leading to a drifting ground track...... pattern. The drifting ground track pattern challenges many common methods of processing satellite altimetry data over rivers. This study evaluates the observation error of CryoSat-2 water level observations over the Po River, Italy, against in situ observations. The average RMSE between CryoSat-2...

  8. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank

    2011-01-01

    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  9. Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  10. Ranging error analysis of single photon satellite laser altimetry under different terrain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiapeng; Li, Guoyuan; Gao, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianmin; Fan, Wenfeng; Zhou, Shihong

    2018-02-01

    Single photon satellite laser altimeter is based on Geiger model, which has the characteristics of small spot, high repetition rate etc. In this paper, for the slope terrain, the distance of error's formula and numerical calculation are carried out. Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the experiment of different terrain measurements. The experimental results show that ranging accuracy is not affected by the spot size under the condition of the flat terrain, But the inclined terrain can influence the ranging error dramatically, when the satellite pointing angle is 0.001° and the terrain slope is about 12°, the ranging error can reach to 0.5m. While the accuracy can't meet the requirement when the slope is more than 70°. Monte Carlo simulation results show that single photon laser altimeter satellite with high repetition rate can improve the ranging accuracy under the condition of complex terrain. In order to ensure repeated observation of the same point for 25 times, according to the parameters of ICESat-2, we deduce the quantitative relation between the footprint size, footprint, and the frequency repetition. The related conclusions can provide reference for the design and demonstration of the domestic single photon laser altimetry satellite.

  11. Research at the Stanford Center for Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The research is reported in the applications of radar and radio techniques to the study of the solar system, and to space programs. Experiments reported include: bistatic-radar on Apollo missions, development of an unmanned geophysical observatory in the Antartic, Bragg scattering probes of sea states, characteristics of dense solar wind disturbances, and satellite communications for Alaska.

  12. Accuracy of three-dimensional glacier surface volocities derived from radar interfeometry and ice-soundin radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Reeh, Niels; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for analyzing the errors involved in measuring three-dimensional glacier velocities with interferometric radar. We address the surface-parallel flow assumption and an augmented approach with a flux-divergence (FD) term. The errors in an interferometric ERS-1/-2 satellite radar...... dataset with ascending- and descending-orbit data covering Storstrommen glacier, northeast Greenland, are assessed. The FD error assessment is carried out on airborne 60 MHz ice-sounding radar data from the same area. A simple model of an interferometric radar system is developed and analyzed. The error...... sources considered include phase noise, atmospheric distortions, baseline calibration errors, a dry snow layer, and the stationary-flow assumption used in differential interferometry. The additional error sources in the analysis of FD errors are noise, bias and unknown variations of the ice thickness...

  13. Geographical representation of radial orbit perturbations due to ocean tides: Implications for satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettadpur, Srinivas V.; Eanes, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    In analogy to the geographical representation of the zeroth-order radial orbit perturbations due to the static geopotential, similar relationships have been derived for radial orbit perturbations due to the ocean tides. At each location these perturbations are seen to be coherent with the tide height variations. The study of this singularity is of obvious importance to the estimation of ocean tides from satellite altimeter data. We derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of altimeter derived ocean tide models to the ocean tide force model induced errors in the orbits of the altimeter satellite. In particular, we focus on characterizing and quantifying the nonresonant tidal orbit perturbations, which cannot be adjusted into the empirical accelerations or radial perturbation adjustments commonly used during orbit determination and in altimeter data processing. As an illustration of the utility of this technique, we study the differences between a TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived ocean tide model and the Cartwright and Ray 1991 Geosat model. This analysis shows that nearly 60% of the variance of this difference for M(sub 2) can be explained by the Geosat radial orbit eror due to the omission of coefficients from the GEM-T2 background ocean tide model. For O(sub 1), K(sub 1), S(sub 2), and K(sub 2) the orbital effects account for approximately 10 to 40% of the variances of these differences. The utility of this technique to assessment of the ocean tide induced errors in the TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived tide models is also discussed.

  14. Coastal flood inundation monitoring with Satellite C-band and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm- and tidal-related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band SAR (PALSAR) (L-band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C-band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006-2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR- and ASAR-based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference-scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR-based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR-based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).

  15. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox: Tools and Tutorial To Use Radar Altimetry For Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J. J.; Bronner, E.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.; Rosmorduc, V.; Earith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Radar altimetry is very much a technique expanding its applications. If quite a lot of efforts have been made for oceanography users (including easy-to-use data), the use of those data for cryosphere application, especially with the new ESA CryoSat-2 mission data is still somehow tedious, especially for new Altimetry data products users. ESA and CNES thus had the Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox developed a few years ago, and are improving and upgrading it to fit new missions and the growing number of altimetry uses. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data. The software is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason-1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat and the future Saral missions, - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data and additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. It is an opportunity to teach remote sensing with practical training. It has been available from April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. About 1200 people downloaded it (Summer 2010), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them, including teachers

  16. A new digital elevation model of Antarctica derived from CryoSat-2 altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slater

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new digital elevation model (DEM of the Antarctic ice sheet and ice shelves based on 2.5 × 108 observations recorded by the CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimeter between July 2010 and July 2016. The DEM is formed from spatio-temporal fits to elevation measurements accumulated within 1, 2, and 5 km grid cells, and is posted at the modal resolution of 1 km. Altogether, 94 % of the grounded ice sheet and 98 % of the floating ice shelves are observed, and the remaining grid cells north of 88° S are interpolated using ordinary kriging. The median and root mean square difference between the DEM and 2.3 × 107 airborne laser altimeter measurements acquired during NASA Operation IceBridge campaigns are −0.30 and 13.50 m, respectively. The DEM uncertainty rises in regions of high slope, especially where elevation measurements were acquired in low-resolution mode; taking this into account, we estimate the average accuracy to be 9.5 m – a value that is comparable to or better than that of other models derived from satellite radar and laser altimetry.

  17. An improved model for the Earth's gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.

  18. Using radar altimetry to update a large-scale hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, F.; Milzow, Christian; Smith, R.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of river and lake water levels from space-borne radar altimeters (past missions include ERS, Envisat, Jason, Topex) are useful for calibration and validation of large-scale hydrological models in poorly gauged river basins. Altimetry data availability over the downstream reaches...... of the Brahmaputra is excellent (17 high-quality virtual stations from ERS-2, 6 from Topex and 10 from Envisat are available for the Brahmaputra). In this study, altimetry data are used to update a large-scale Budyko-type hydrological model of the Brahmaputra river basin in real time. Altimetry measurements...... improved model performance considerably. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increased from 0.77 to 0.83. Real-time river basin modelling using radar altimetry has the potential to improve the predictive capability of large-scale hydrological models elsewhere on the planet....

  19. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  20. High Density GEOSAT/GM Altimeter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The high density Geosat/GM altimeter data south of 30 S have finally arrived. In addition, ERS-1 has completed more than 6 cycles of its 35-day repeat track. These...

  1. Effects of an assimilation of radar and satellite data on a very-short range forecast of heavy convective rainfalls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 93, 1-3 (2009), s. 188-206 ISSN 0169-8095. [European Conference on Severe Storms /4./. Miramare -Trieste, 10.09.2007-14.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk OC 112; GA MŠk 1P05ME748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * NWP model * Assimilation of radar and satellite data * Local convective precipitation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01698095

  2. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, R.; Jones, M.; Herndon, K. E.; Bell, J. R.; Anderson, E. R.; Markert, K. N.; Molthan, A.; Adams, E. C.; Shultz, L.; Cherrington, E. A.; Flores, A.; Lucey, R.; Munroe, T.; Layne, G.; Pulla, S. T.; Weigel, A. M.; Tondapu, G.

    2017-12-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of images to

  3. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Rebekke; Jones, Madeline; Herndon, Kelsey; Schultz, Lori; Bell, Jordan; Anderson, Eric; Markert, Kel; Molthan, Andrew; Adams, Emily; Cherrington, Emil; hide

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and record flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds and by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of

  4. Preliminary results on ocean dynamics from Skylab and their implications for future spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J.; Pierson, W. J.; Cardone, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    The instrument aboard Skylab designated S193 - a combined passive and active microwave radar system acting as a radiometer, scatterometer, and altimeter - is used to measure the surface vector wind speeds in the planetary boundary layer over the oceans. Preliminary results corroborate the hypothesis that sea surface winds in the planetary boundary layer can be determined from satellite data. Future spacecraft plans for measuring a geoid with an accuracy up to 10 cm are discussed.

  5. Thermal Testing and Model Correlation for Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter Instrument (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) part of the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This topic covers the analysis leading up to the test setup for ATLAS thermal testing as well as model correlation to flight predictions. Test setup analysis section will include areas where ATLAS could not meet flight like conditions and what were the limitations. Model correlation section will walk through changes that had to be made to the thermal model in order to match test results. The correlated model will then be integrated with spacecraft model for on-orbit predictions.

  6. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  7. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M.; Escola, R.; Roca, M.; Thibaut, P.; Aublanc, J.; Shepherd, A.; Remy, F.; Benveniste, J.; Ambrózio, A.; Restano, M.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 25 years, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a valuable record of ice sheet elevation change and mass balance. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which reduces their capacity to make measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 heralded the start of a new era of SAR Interferometric (SARIn) altimetry. However, because the satellite operated in SARIn and LRM mode over the ice sheets, many of the non-interferometric SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized for water and sea ice surfaces only. The launch of Sentinel-3, which provides full non-interferometric SAR coverage of the ice sheets, therefore presents the opportunity to further develop these SAR processing methodologies over ice sheets. Here we present results from SPICE, a 2 year study that focuses on (1) developing and evaluating Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry processing methodologies over the Polar ice sheets, and (2) investigating radar wave penetration through comparisons of Ku- and Ka-band satellite measurements. The project, which is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, has worked in advance of the operational phase of Sentinel-3, to emulate Sentinel-3 SAR and pseudo-LRM data from dedicated CryoSat-2 SAR acquisitions made at the Lake Vostok, Dome C and Spirit sites in East Antarctica, and from reprocessed SARIn data in Greenland. In Phase 1 of the project we have evaluated existing processing methodologies, and in Phase 2 we are investigating new evolutions to the Delay-Doppler Processing (DDP) and retracking chains. In this presentation we (1) evaluate the existing Sentinel-3 processing chain by

  8. Change of the high-latitude ionosphere during heating by a powerful short radio wave of the EISCAT/Heating complex according to signals of the GLONASS satellite and the incoherent scattering radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko E. D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of observations of variations of temperature, electron concentration and total electron content of the high-latitude region of the ionosphere during its modification by powerful short radio waves of the heating complex EISCAT/Heating (Tromsø, Norway according to signals of the GLONASS satellites and the incoherent scattering UHF EISCAT radar (Tromsø, Norway have been provided. The geometry of passes of the GLONASS and GPS satellites for operating conditions of the heating complex in Tromsø has been considered. It has been shown that during the experiments on the EISCAT/Heating complex for the study of the modified structure of the high-latitude ionosphere it is more convenient to use the GLONASS satellites. Parameters of orbits of these satellites allow researching changes of total electron content in the direction along the geomagnetic field line at the place of observation. It has been shown that during heating of the ionosphere by powerful short radio waves its structure is becoming an irregular one. Operation of the heating complex in the mode "switched on – switched off" has caused appearance of wavy variations of total electron content with the periods close to the heating period. The main features of behavior of the total electron content in the case of the continuous heating of the ionosphere in the direction of the magnetic zenith according to the GLONASS satellite are: reduction of total electron content in the central zone of the antenna diagram, i. e. in the direction of the magnetic zenith, and presence of the increased values of total electron content at the edges of the heating zone. According to the incoherent scattering radar the heating of the ionosphere by the powerful short radio wave has created the region of the increased electron temperature and electron concentration along the direction of the magnetic zenith. The behavior of total electron content according to the GLONASS satellite and the radar of

  9. Calibrating the SAR SSH of Sentinel-3A and CryoSat-2 over the Corsica Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Bonnefond

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Initially developed to monitor the performance of TOPEX/Poseidon and to follow the Jason legacy satellite altimeters at Senetosa Cape, Corsica, this calibration/validation site has been extended to include a new location at Ajaccio. This addition enables the site to monitor Envisat and ERS missions, CryoSat-2 and, more recently, the SARAL/AltiKa mission and Sentinel-3A satellites. Sentinel-3A and CryoSat-2 carry altimeters that use a synthetic aperture radar (SAR mode that is different to the conventional pulse-bandwidth limited altimeters often termed “low resolution mode” (LRM. The aim of this study is to characterize the sea surface height (SSH bias of the new SAR altimeter instruments and to demonstrate the improvement of data quality close to the coast. Moreover, some passes of Sentinel-3A and CryoSat-2 overfly both Senetosa and Ajaccio with only a few seconds time difference, allowing us to evaluate the reliability and homogeneity of both ground sites in term of geodetic datum. The Sentinel-3A and CryoSat-2 SSH biases for the SAR mode are respectively +22 ± 7 mm and −73 ± 5 mm (for CryoSat-2 baseline C products. The results show that the stability of the SAR SSH bias time series is better than standard LRM altimetry. Moreover, compared to standard LRM data, for which the measurements closer than ~10 km from the coast were generally unusable, SAR mode altimeters provide measurements that are reliable at less than few hundred meters from the coast.

  10. Space communication and radar with lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sensitive heterodyne detection with lasers applied .to radar and satellite communication is seriously hampered by the large electronic bandwidth due to random Doppler shift and frequency instability. These drawbacks can be circumvented by dual signal heterodyne detection. The system consists of

  11. Helmand river hydrologic studies using ALOS PALSAR InSAR and ENVISAT altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Kim, J.-W.; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Duan, J.; Ibaraki, M.; Akyilmaz, O.; Read, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The Helmand River wetland represents the only fresh-water resource in southern Afghanistan and one of the least mapped water basins in the world. The relatively narrow wetland consists of mostly marshes surrounded by dry lands. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) Interferometric SAR (InSAR) to detect the changes of the Helmand River wetland water level. InSAR images are combined with the geocentric water level measurements from the retracked high-rate (18-Hz) Environmental Satellite (Envisat) radar altimetry to construct absolute water level changes over the marshes. It is demonstrated that the integration of the altimeter and InSAR can provide spatio-temporal measurements of water level variation over the Helmand River marshes where in situ measurements are absent. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Monitoring of Damage in Sunflower and Maize Parcels Using Radar and Optical Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Surek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to monitor the temporal behaviour of geometrical structural change of cropland affected by four different types of damage: weed infection, Western Corn Rootworm (WCR, storm damage, and drought by time series of different type of optical and quad-pol RADARSAT2 data. Based on our results it is established that ragweed infection in sunflower can be well identified by evaluation of radar (mid-June and optical (mid-August satellite images. Effect of drought in sunflower is well recognizable by spectral indices derived from optical as well as “I”-component of Shannon entropy (SEI from radar satellite images acquired during the first decade of July. Evaluation of radar and optical satellite images acquired between the last decade of July and mid-August proven to be the most efficient for detecting damages in maize fields caused by either by WCR or storm. Components of Shannon entropy are proven to have significant role in identification. Our project demonstrates the potential in integrated usage of polarimetric radar and optical satellite images for monitoring several types of agricultural damage.

  13. On the unification of geodetic leveling datums using satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, R. S.; Rizos, C.; Morrison, T.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are described for determining the height of Mean Sea Level (MSL) at coastal sites from satellite altimetry. Such information is of value in the adjustment of continental leveling networks. Numerical results are obtained from the 1977 GEOS-3 altimetry data bank at Goddard Space Flight Center using the Bermuda calibration of the altimeter. Estimates are made of the heights of MSL at the leveling datums for Australia and a hypothetical Galveston datum for central North America. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with oceanographic estimates obtained by extrapolation. It is concluded that all gravity data in the Australian bank AUSGAD 76 and in the Rapp data file for central North America refer to the GEOS-3 altimeter geoid for 1976.0 with uncertainties which do not exceed + or - 0.1 mGal.

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  15. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  16. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  17. Flood occurrence mapping of the middle Mahakam lowland area using satellite radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and peatlands in the middle Mahakam lowland area are considered as ecologically important wetland in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, due to a lack of data, the hydrological functioning of the region is still poorly understood. Among remote sensing techniques that can increase data availability, radar is well-suitable for the identification, mapping, and measurement of tropical wetlands, for its cloud unimpeded sensing and night and day operation. Here we aim to extract flood extent and flood occurrence information from a series of radar images of the middle Mahakam lowland area. We explore the use of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery for observing flood inundation dynamics by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, in lakes and in peatlands, using pressure transducers. For validation of the open water flood occurrence map, bathymetry measurements were carried out in the main lakes. A series of PALSAR images covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 through 2010 were collected. A fully inundated region can be easily recognized on radar images from a dark signature. Open water flood occurrence was mapped using a threshold value taken from radar backscatter of the permanently inundated river and lakes areas. Radar backscatter intensity analysis of the vegetated floodplain area revealed consistently high backscatter values, indicating flood inundation under forest canopy. We used those values as the threshold for flood occurrence mapping in the vegetated area.

  18. High resolution radar satellite imagery analysis for safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Christian; Eineder, Michael [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Department of SAR Signal Processing, Wessling, (Germany); Rezniczek, Arnold [UBA GmbH, Herzogenrath, (Germany); Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institue of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Juelich, (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For monitoring nuclear sites, the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows essential promises. Unlike optical remote sensing instruments, radar sensors operate under almost all weather conditions and independently of the sunlight, i.e. time of the day. Such technical specifications are required both for continuous and for ad-hoc, timed surveillance tasks. With Cosmo-Skymed, TerraSARX and Radarsat-2, high-resolution SAR imagery with a spatial resolution up to 1m has recently become available. Our work therefore aims to investigate the potential of high-resolution TerraSAR data for nuclear monitoring. This paper focuses on exploiting amplitude of a single acquisition, assessing amplitude changes and phase differences between two acquisitions, and PS-InSAR processing of an image stack.

  19. Assessing the impact of multiple altimeter missions and Argo in a global eddy-permitting data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Simon; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Remy, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    A series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) is carried out with a global data assimilation system at 1/4° resolution using simulated data derived from a 1/12° resolution free-run simulation. The objective is to not only quantify how well multiple altimeter missions and Argo profiling floats can constrain the global ocean analysis and 7-day forecast at 1/4° resolution but also to better understand the sensitivity of results to data assimilation techniques used in Mercator Ocean operational systems. The impact of multiple altimeter data is clearly evidenced even at a 1/4° resolution. Seven-day forecasts of sea level and ocean currents are significantly improved when moving from one altimeter to two altimeters not only on the sea level, but also on the 3-D thermohaline structure and currents. In high-eddy-energy regions, sea level and surface current 7-day forecast errors when assimilating one altimeter data set are respectively 20 and 45 % of the error of the simulation without assimilation. Seven-day forecasts of sea level and ocean currents continue to be improved when moving from one altimeter to two altimeters with a relative error reduction of almost 30 %. The addition of a third altimeter still improves the 7-day forecasts even at this medium 1/4° resolution and brings an additional relative error reduction of about 10 %. The error level of the analysis with one altimeter is close to the 7-day forecast error level when two or three altimeter data sets are assimilated. Assimilating altimeter data also improves the representation of the 3-D ocean fields. The addition of Argo has a major impact on improving temperature and demonstrates the essential role of Argo together with altimetry in constraining a global data assimilation system. Salinity fields are only marginally improved. Results derived from these OSSEs are consistent with those derived from experiments with real data (observing system evaluations, OSEs) but they allow for more

  20. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration of a rainfall-runoff model of the poorly...... gauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i) surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates derived from radar measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii) radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum river width of about...... one hundred meters; and (iii) temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are shown to be helpful in identifying periods with over-respectively underestimation...

  1. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  2. Absolute Sea Level Monitoring and Altimeter Calibration At Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Gavdos Team

    We present the mean sea level (MSL) monitoring aspect of the altimeter calibration fa- cility under deployment on western Crete and the isle of Gavdos. The Eastern Mediter- ranean area is one of great interest for its intense tectonic activity as well as for its regional oceanography. Recent observations have convincingly demonstrated the im- portance of that area for the regional meteorological and climatological changes. Tide- gauge monitoring with GPS has gained importance lately since tectonics contaminate the inferred sea level variations, and a global network of tide-gauges with long his- torical records can be used as satellite altimeter calibration sites for current and fu- ture missions (e.g. TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.). This is at present a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort, already underway (TIGA). Crete hosts two of the oldest tide-gauges in the regional network and our project will further ex- pand it to the south of the island with a new site on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land. One component of our "GAVDOS" project is the repeated occupation of two already in existence tide-gauge sites at Souda Bay and Heraklion, and their tie to the new facility. We show here initial results from positioning of these sites and some of the available tidal records. Gavdos is situated under a ground-track crossing point of the present T/P and JASON-1 orbits. It is an ideal calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. Our plans include the deployment of additional instrumentation at this site: GPS and DORIS beacons for positioning, transponders for direct calibration, water vapor radiometers, GPS-loaded buoys, airborne surveys with gravimeters and laser profiling lidars, etc., to ensure the best possible and most reliable results.

  3. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Manson; C. E. Meek; T. Chshyolkova; S. K. Avery; D. Thorsen; J. W. MacDougall; W. Hocking; Y. Murayama; K. Igarashi

    2005-01-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opp...

  4. Ambiguity Function and Resolution Characteristic Analysis of DVB-S Signal for Passive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the performance research on the ambiguity function and resolution of passive radar based on DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting-Satellite signal. The radar system structure and signal model of DVB-S signal are firstly studied, then the ambiguity function of DVB-S signal is analyzed. At last, it has been obtained how the bistatic radar position impacts the resolution. Theoretical analyses and computer simulation show that DVB-S signal is applicable as an illuminator for passive radar.

  5. A 25-year Record of Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevation and Mass Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Muir, A. S.; Sundal, A.; McMillan, M.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A.; Engdahl, M.; Gilbert, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1992, the European Remote-Sensing (ERS-1 and ERS-2), ENVISAT, and CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimeters have measured the Antarctic ice sheet surface elevation, repeatedly, at approximately monthly intervals. These data constitute the longest continuous record of ice sheet wide change. In this paper, we use these observations to determine changes in the elevation, volume and mass of the East Antarctic and West Antarctic ice sheets, and of parts of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet, over a 25-year period. The root mean square difference between elevation rates computed from our survey and 257,296 estimates determined from airborne laser measurements is 54 cm/yr. The longevity of the satellite altimeter data record allows to identify and chart the evolution of changes associated with meteorology and ice flow, and we estimate that 3.6 % of the continental ice sheet, and 21.7 % of West Antarctica, is in a state of dynamical imbalance. Based on this partitioning, we estimate the mass balance of the East and West Antarctic ice sheet drainage basins and the root mean square difference between these and independent estimates derived from satellite gravimetry is less than 5 Gt yr-1.

  6. Data Quality Assessment of In Situ and Altimeter Observations Through Two-Way Intercomparison Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinehut, Stephanie; Valladeau, Guillaume; Legeais, Jean-Francois; Rio, Marie-Helene; Ablain, Michael; Larnicol, Gilles

    2013-09-01

    This proceeding presents an overview of the two-way inter-comparison activities performed at CLS for both space and in situ observation agencies and why this activity is a required step to obtain accurate and homogenous data sets that can then be used together for climate studies or in assimilation/validation tools. We first describe the work performed in the frame of the SALP program to assess the stability of altimeter missions through SSH comparisons with tide gauges (GLOSS/CLIVAR network). Then, we show how the SSH comparison between the Argo array and altimeter time series allows the detection of drifts or jumps in altimeter (SALP program) but also for some Argo floats (Ifremer/Coriolis center). Lastly, we describe how the combine use of altimeter and wind observations helps the detection of drogue loss of surface drifting buoys (GDP network) and allow the computation of a correction term for wind slippage.

  7. An Online Satellite Altimetry Data Processing System: Ads Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, A.; Braun, A.; Schöne, T.; Wen, H.; Reigber, C.

    To help solving important issues of climate change and sea level change and to un- derstand the complex system Earth, an interdisciplinary interpretation of various data sets is needed. Several groups on the national and international level are recently ac- tive in building up services to faciliate the access to geoscientific data to a broader community, especially the access to higher level products. In Germany, GFZ-Potsdam is currently building up the modular German Earth Science and Information System (GESIS). In the frame of GESIS the Altimeter Database System (ADS) has been com- pleted recently. This modul provides high quality data and processing capabilities for radar altimetry data to a wide range of users. The ADS modul can be accessed worldwide via the internet based user-interface "ADS Central" with a standard browser at (http://gesis.gfz-potsdam.de/ads). After a registra- tion process the system offers higher level standard products, calculated routinely from the harmonised and intercalibrated satellite database. Additionally, ADS allows to generate individual user specific products. The user is able to perform several processing and analysing steps, e.g. to generate mean sea sur- face height grids, to extract altimetry data time series around a given location, to anal- yse parameter variability, or to perform a crossover analysis. The user can specify general parameters like the satellite mission, time interval and region of the used data. Additionally, different available correction models can be choosen, which will be ap- plied to the data. It is further possible to enter several quality parameters to optimize the data for individual applications. These individual user defined products are au- tomatically processed by ADS at GFZ-Potsdam and are subsequently distributed via anonymous ftp. The system is an attempt to offer easy access to the daily growing satellite altime- try database and numerous correction models and orbits. Due to the effectiveness

  8. Proposed satellite position determination systems and techniques for Geostationary Synthetic Aperture Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Fuster, Roger; Fernández Usón, Marc; Casado Blanco, David; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes two different calibration techniques for Geostationary Synthetic Aperture Radar (GEOSAR) missions requiring a high precision positioning, based on Active Radar Calibrators and Ground Based Interferometry. The research is enclosed in the preparation studies of a future GEOSAR mission providing continuous monitoring at continental scale. Peer Reviewed

  9. Improving maps of ice-sheet surface elevation change using combined laser altimeter and stereoscopic elevation model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Howat, I. M.; Tscherning, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    We combine the complementary characteristics of laser altimeter data and stereoscopic digital elevation models (DEMs) to construct high-resolution (_100 m) maps of surface elevations and elevation changes over rapidly changing outlet glaciers in Greenland. Measurements from spaceborne and airborne...... laser altimeters have relatively low errors but are spatially limited to the ground tracks, while DEMs have larger errors but provide spatially continuous surfaces. The principle of our method is to fit the DEM surface to the altimeter point clouds in time and space to minimize the DEM errors and use...... that surface to extrapolate elevations away from altimeter flight lines. This reduces the DEM registration errors and fills the gap between the altimeter paths. We use data from ICESat and ATM as well as SPOT 5 DEMs from 2007 and 2008 and apply them to the outlet glaciers Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI...

  10. A Stochastic Approach to Noise Modeling for Barometric Altimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Maria Sabatini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes, we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions.

  11. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milzow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration of a rainfall-runoff model of the poorly gauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i surface soil moisture (SSM estimates derived from radar measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum river width of about one hundred meters; and (iii temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are shown to be helpful in identifying periods with over-respectively underestimation of the precipitation input. The accuracy of the radar altimetry data is validated on gauged subbasins of the catchment and altimetry data of an ungauged subbasin is used for model calibration. The radar altimetry data are important to condition model parameters related to channel morphology such as Manning's roughness. GRACE data are used to validate the model and to condition model parameters related to various storage compartments in the hydrological model (e.g. soil, groundwater, bank storage etc.. As precipitation input the FEWS-Net RFE, TRMM 3B42 and ECMWF ERA-Interim datasets are considered and compared.

  12. Tracking the attenuation and nonbreaking dissipation of swells using altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haoyu; Stopa, Justin E.; Wang, He; Husson, Romain; Mouche, Alexis; Chapron, Bertrand; Chen, Ge

    2016-02-01

    A method for systematically tracking swells across oceanic basins is developed by taking advantage of high-quality data from space-borne altimeters and wave model output. The evolution of swells is observed over large distances based on 202 swell events with periods ranging from 12 to 18 s. An empirical attenuation rate of swell energy of about 4 × 10-7 m-1 is estimated using these observations, and the nonbreaking energy dissipation rates of swells far away from their generating areas are also estimated using a point source model. The resulting acceptance range of nonbreaking dissipation rates is -2.5 to 5.0 × 10-7 m-1, which corresponds to a dissipation e-folding scales of at least 2000 km for steep swells, to almost infinite for small-amplitude swells. These resulting rates are consistent with previous studies using in-situ and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. The frequency dispersion and angular spreading effects during swell propagation are discussed by comparing the results with other studies, demonstrating that they are the two dominant processes for swell height attenuation, especially in the near field. The resulting dissipation rates from these observations can be used as a reference for ocean engineering and wave modeling, and for related studies such as air-sea and wind-wave-turbulence interactions.

  13. Characterization of precipitation features over CONUS derived from satellite, radar, and rain gauge datasets (2002-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    We use a suite of quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) derived from satellite, radar, surface observations, and models to derive precipitation characteristics over CONUS for the period 2002-2012. This comparison effort includes satellite multi-sensor datasets of TMPA 3B42, CMORPH, and PERSIANN. The satellite based QPEs are compared over the concurrent period with the NCEP Stage IV product, which is a near real time product providing precipitation data at the hourly temporal scale gridded at a nominal 4-km spatial resolution. In addition, remotely sensed precipitation datasets are compared with surface observations from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-Daily) and from the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model), which provides gridded precipitation estimates that are used as a baseline for multi-sensor QPE products comparison. The comparisons are performed at the annual, seasonal, monthly, and daily scales with focus on selected river basins (Southeastern US, Pacific Northwest, Great Plains). While, unconditional annual rain rates present a satisfying agreement between all products, results suggest that satellite QPE datasets exhibit important biases in particular at higher rain rates (≥4 mm/day). Conversely, on seasonal scales differences between remotely sensed data and ground surface observations can be greater than 50% and up to 90% for low daily accumulation (≤1 mm/day) such as in the Western US (summer) and Central US (winter). The conditional analysis performed using different daily rainfall accumulation thresholds (from low rainfall intensity to intense precipitation) shows that while intense events measured at the ground are infrequent (around 2% for daily accumulation above 2 inches/day), remotely sensed products displayed differences from 20-50% and up to 90-100%. A discussion on the impact of differing spatial and temporal resolutions with respect to the datasets ability to capture extreme

  14. Spaceborne Radar for Mapping Forest and Land Use Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Neha Pankaj

    Degradation (REDD+). The implementation and effectiveness of such mechanisms relies partially on continuous observations of forests using satellite technology and partially on ground-based measurements of forest aboveground volume/biomass (AGV/AGB), carbon density and changes therein. Together, these means...... of forest monitoring enable the development of policies and measures to alter current trends in global forest and biodiversity loss. This thesis investigates the use of long wavelength (~23 cm, L-band) spaceborne radar, which has all-weather and canopy-penetration capabilities, acquired by the Advanced Land...... Observing Satellite (ALOS) for forest monitoring. Using a combination of local expert knowledge, plot inventories, and data from lidar and optical sensors, it aims to understand (1) whether forest disturbance dynamics may be detected with radar, and (2) what physical and macroecological properties influence...

  15. Validation of ERS-1 and high-resolution satellite gravity with in-situ shipborne gravity over the Indian offshore regions: Accuracies and implications to subsurface modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, S.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Michael, L.; Krishna, K.S.; Majumdar, T.J.

    Geoid and gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry are gradually gaining importance in marine geoscientific investigations. Keeping this in mind, we have validated ERS-1 (168 day repeat) altimeter data and very high-resolution free...

  16. Mapping coastal sea level at high resolution with radar interferometry: the SWOT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L. L.; Chao, Y.; Laignel, B.; Turki, I., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial resolution of the present constellation of radar altimeters in mapping two-dimensional sea surface height (SSH) variability is approaching 100 km (in wavelength). At scales shorter than 100 km, the eddies and fronts are responsible for the stirring and mixing of the ocean, especially important in the various coastal processes. A mission currently in development will make high-resolution measurement of the height of water over the ocean as well as on land. It is called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which is a joint mission of US NASA and French CNES, with contributions from Canada and UK. SWOT will carry a pair of interferometry radars and make 2-dimensional SSH measurements over a swath of 120 km with a nadir gap of 20 km in a 21-day repeat orbit. The synthetic aperture radar of SWOT will make SSH measurement at extremely high resolution of 10-70 m. SWOT will also carry a nadir looking conventional altimeter and make 1-dimensional SSH measurements along the nadir gap. The temporal sampling varies from 2 repeats per 21 days at the equator to more than 4 repeats at mid latitudes and more than 6 at high latitudes. This new mission will allow a continuum of fine-scale observations from the open ocean to the coasts, estuaries and rivers, allowing us to investigate a number of scientific and technical questions in the coastal and estuarine domain to assess the coastal impacts of regional sea level change, such as the interaction of sea level with river flow, estuary inundation, storm surge, coastal wetlands, salt water intrusion, etc. As examples, we will illustrate the potential impact of SWOT to the studies of the San Francisco Bay Delta, and the Seine River estuary, etc. Preliminary results suggest that the SWOT Mission will provide fundamental data to map the spatial variability of water surface elevations under different hydrodynamic conditions and at different scales (local, regional and global) to improve our knowledge of the complex

  17. Geodynamics implication of GPS and satellite altimeter and gravity observations to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled H. Zahran

    2012-06-01

    Results show important zones of mass discontinuity in this region correlated with the seismological activities and temporal gravity variations agree with the crustal deformation obtained from GPS observations. The current study indicates that satellite gravity data is a valuable source of data in understanding the geodynamical behavior of the studied region and that satellite gravity data is an important contemporary source of data in the geodynamical studies.

  18. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  19. Laser altimeter measurements at Walnut Gulch Watershed, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Humes, K.S.; Weltz, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of landscape surface roughness properties are necessary for understanding many watershed processes. This paper reviews the use of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and surface roughness properties of the landscape at Walnut Gulch Watershed in Arizona. Airborne laser data were used to measure macro and micro topography as well as canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution. Macro topography of landscape profiles for segments up to 5 km (3 mi) were measured and were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Gullies and stream channel cross-sections and their associated floodplains were measured. Laser measurements of vegetation properties (height and cover) were highly correlated with ground measurements. Landscape segments for any length can be used to measure these landscape roughness properties. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on watershed surface properties for improving the management of watersheds. (author)

  20. Assimilation of radar altimetry to a routing model of the Brahmaputra River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Milzow, Christian; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    .78 to 0.84. The method uses very little in situ data and is easily implemented as an add-on to hydrological models, and it therefore has the potential for large-scale application to improve hydrological predictions in many river basins. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.......While satellite-based remote sensing has provided hydrologists with valuable new data sets, integration of such data sets in operational modeling systems is usually not straightforward due to spatial or temporal resolution issues or because remote sensing does not directly measure the hydrological...... quantities of interest. This is the case for satellite-based radar altimetry. River-level variations can be tracked using radar altimetry at a temporal resolution between 10 and 35 days, depending on the satellite, but hydrologists are typically interested in river flows rather than levels and require...

  1. Characterising and improving the performance of the Sentinel-3 SRAL altimeter: A Report from SCOOP, SHAPE & SPICE Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restano, Marco; Ambrózio, Américo; Cotton, David; Scoop Team; Fabry, Pierre; Shape Team; McMillan, Malcolm; Spice Team; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    Under the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Programme, 3 Projects are currently underway to accurately characterise and improve the performance of the Sentinel-3 SRAL SAR mode altimeter. They are: 1) SCOOP (SAR Altimetry Coastal & Open Ocean Performance Exploitation and Roadmap Study) for Coastal and Open Ocean; 2) SHAPE (Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry PrototypE) for Inland Water; 3) SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance improvement for ICE sheets) for Ice Sheets. As projects started before the launch of Sentinel-3 (a full SAR mission), calibrated Cryosat-2 data have been used as input to a processor replicating the Sentinel-3 baseline processing. For the SCOOP project, a first test dataset has been released to end users including data from 10 regions of interest. The successful SAMOSA retracker, adopted in the previous CP4O Project (CryoSat Plus for Oceans), has been readapted to re-track Sentinel-3 waveforms. An improved version of SAMOSA will be released at the end of the project. The SHAPE project is working towards the design and assessment of alternative/innovative techniques not implemented in the Sentinel-3 ground segment (performing no Inland Water dedicated processing). Both rivers and lakes will be studied. Amazon, Brahmaputra and Danube have been selected as rivers, whereas Titicaca and Vanern have been chosen as lakes. The study will include the assimilation of output products into hydrological models for all regions of interest. A final dataset will be provided to end users. The SPICE project is addressing four high level objectives: 1) Assess and improve the Delay-Doppler altimeter processing for ice sheets. 2) Assess and develop SAR waveform retrackers for ice sheets. 3) Evaluate the performance of SAR altimetry relative to conventional pulse limited altimetry. 4) Assess the impact on SAR altimeter measurements of radar wave interaction with the snowpack. Dataset used for validation include ICESat and IceBridge products. Vostok

  2. Modelling forest canopy height by integrating airborne LiDAR samples with satellite Radar and multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mariano; Saatchi, Sassan; Ustin, Susan; Balzter, Heiko

    2018-04-01

    Spatially-explicit information on forest structure is paramount to estimating aboveground carbon stocks for designing sustainable forest management strategies and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. LiDAR measurements provide samples of forest structure that must be integrated with satellite imagery to predict and to map landscape scale variations of forest structure. Here we evaluate the capability of existing satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with multispectral data to estimate forest canopy height over five study sites across two biomes in North America, namely temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and temperate coniferous forests. Pixel size affected the modelling results, with an improvement in model performance as pixel resolution coarsened from 25 m to 100 m. Likewise, the sample size was an important factor in the uncertainty of height prediction using the Support Vector Machine modelling approach. Larger sample size yielded better results but the improvement stabilised when the sample size reached approximately 10% of the study area. We also evaluated the impact of surface moisture (soil and vegetation moisture) on the modelling approach. Whereas the impact of surface moisture had a moderate effect on the proportion of the variance explained by the model (up to 14%), its impact was more evident in the bias of the models with bias reaching values up to 4 m. Averaging the incidence angle corrected radar backscatter coefficient (γ°) reduced the impact of surface moisture on the models and improved their performance at all study sites, with R2 ranging between 0.61 and 0.82, RMSE between 2.02 and 5.64 and bias between 0.02 and -0.06, respectively, at 100 m spatial resolution. An evaluation of the relative importance of the variables in the model performance showed that for the study sites located within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome ALOS-PALSAR HV polarised backscatter was the most important

  3. Evaluation of precipitation estimates over CONUS derived from satellite, radar, and rain gauge data sets at daily to annual scales (2002-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.

    2015-04-01

    We use a suite of quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) derived from satellite, radar, and surface observations to derive precipitation characteristics over the contiguous United States (CONUS) for the period 2002-2012. This comparison effort includes satellite multi-sensor data sets (bias-adjusted TMPA 3B42, near-real-time 3B42RT), radar estimates (NCEP Stage IV), and rain gauge observations. Remotely sensed precipitation data sets are compared with surface observations from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily (GHCN-D) and from the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model). The comparisons are performed at the annual, seasonal, and daily scales over the River Forecast Centers (RFCs) for CONUS. Annual average rain rates present a satisfying agreement with GHCN-D for all products over CONUS (±6%). However, differences at the RFC are more important in particular for near-real-time 3B42RT precipitation estimates (-33 to +49%). At annual and seasonal scales, the bias-adjusted 3B42 presented important improvement when compared to its near-real-time counterpart 3B42RT. However, large biases remained for 3B42 over the western USA for higher average accumulation (≥ 5 mm day-1) with respect to GHCN-D surface observations. At the daily scale, 3B42RT performed poorly in capturing extreme daily precipitation (> 4 in. day-1) over the Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, the conditional analysis and a contingency analysis conducted illustrated the challenge in retrieving extreme precipitation from remote sensing estimates.

  4. Satellite Altimeters and Gravimeters as Proxy of the Indonesian Throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, R. D.; Song, Y. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), the only pathway for interocean exchange between the Pacific to the Indian Ocean, plays an important role in global ocean circulation and climate. Yet, continuous ITF measurement is difficult and expensive. We demonstrate a plausible approach to derive the ITF transport proxy using satellite altimetry sea surface height (SSH), gravimetry ocean bottom pressure (OBP) data, in situ measurements from the Makassar Strait from 1996-1998 and 2004-2009, and a theoretical formulation. We first identified the optimal locations in the Pacific and Indian Ocean based on the optimal correlation between the ITF transport through the Makassar Strait and the pressure gradients, represented by the SSH and OBP differences between the Pacific and Indian Oceans at a 1° x 1° horizontal resolution. These geographical locations (centred at off-equatorial in the western Pacific Ocean and centred at along the equator in the eastern Indian Ocean) that control the strength and variability of the ITF transport in the Makassar Strait differ from early studies. The proxy time series follow the observation time series quite well, resolving the intraseasonal, monsoonal, and interannual signals with the 1993-2011 annual mean proxy transport of 11.6 ± 3.2 Sv. Our formulation provides a continuous approach to derive the ITF proxy as long as the satellite data are available. Such a continuous record would be difficult to achieve by in situ measurements alone due to logistical and financial challenges. Ideally, the proxy can be used to complement or fill in the gaps of the observations for a continuous ITF proxy for better understanding the ocean climate and validating ocean circulation models.

  5. Assimilation of satellite altimeter data into an open ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Armin; SchröTer, Jens

    1995-08-01

    Geosat sea surface height data are assimilated into an eddy-resolving quasi-geostrophic open ocean model using the adjoint technique. The method adjusts the initial conditions for all layers and is successful on the timescale of a few weeks. Time-varying values for the open boundaries are prescribed by a much larger quasi-geostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Both models have the same resolution of approximately 20×20 km (1/3°×1/6°), have three layers, and include realistic bottom topography and coastlines. The open model box is embedded in the African sector of the ACC. For continuous assimilation of satellite data into the larger model the nudging technique is applied. These results are used for the adjoint optimization procedure as boundary conditions and as a first guess for the initial condition. For the open model box the difference between model and satellite sea surface height that remains after the nudging experiment amounts to a 19-cm root-mean-square error (rmse). By assimilation into the regional model this value can be reduced to a 6-cm rmse for an assimilation period of 20 days. Several experiments which attempt to improve the convergence of the iterative optimization method are reported. Scaling and regularization by smoothing have to be applied carefully. Especially during the first 10 iterations, the convergence can be improved considerably by low-pass filtering of the cost function gradient. The result of a perturbation experiment shows that for longer assimilation periods the influence of the boundary values becomes dominant and they should be determined inversely by data assimilation into the open ocean model.

  6. Baseline Design and Performance Analysis of Laser Altimeter for Korean Lunar Orbiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Chul Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea’s lunar exploration project includes the launching of an orbiter, a lander (including a rover, and an experimental orbiter (referred to as a lunar pathfinder. Laser altimeters have played an important scientific role in lunar, planetary, and asteroid exploration missions since their first use in 1971 onboard the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon. In this study, a laser altimeter was proposed as a scientific instrument for the Korean lunar orbiter, which will be launched by 2020, to study the global topography of the surface of the Moon and its gravitational field and to support other payloads such as a terrain mapping camera or spectral imager. This study presents the baseline design and performance model for the proposed laser altimeter. Additionally, the study discusses the expected performance based on numerical simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the design of system parameters satisfies performance requirements with respect to detection probability and range error even under unfavorable conditions.

  7. Cassini RADAR Observations of Phoebe, Iapetus, Enceladus, and Rhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, S. J.; West, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Zebker, H. A.; Wye, L. C.; Lunine, J. I.; Lopes, R. M.; Kelleher, K.; Hamilton, G. A.; Gim, Y.; Anderson, Y. Z.; Boehmer, R. A.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Operating in its scatterometry mode, the Cassini radar has obtained 2.2-cm-wavelength echo power spectra from Phoebe on the inbound and outbound legs of its flyby (subradar points at W. Long, Lat. = 245,-22 deg and 328,+27 deg), from Iapetus' leading side (66,+39 deg) and trailing side (296,+44 deg) on the inbound and outbound legs of orbit BC, from Enceladus during orbits 3 (0,0 deg) and 4 (70,-13 deg), and from Rhea during orbit 11 (64,-77 deg). Our echo spectra, obtained in the same linear (SL) polarization as transmitted, are broad, nearly featureless, and much stronger than expected if the echoes were due just to single backreflections. Rather, volume scattering from the subsurface probably is primarily responsible for the echoes. This conclusion is supported by the strong anticorrelation between our targets' radar albedos (radar cross section divided by target projected area) and disc brightness temperatures estimated from passive radiometric measurements obtained during each radar flyby. Taking advantage of the available information about the radar properties of the icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter, especially the linear- and circular-polarization characteristics of groundbased echoes from the icy Galilean satellites (Ostro et al. 1992, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18227-18244), we estimate our targets' 2.2-cm total-power (TP) albedos and compare them to Arecibo and Goldstone values for icy satellites at 3.5, 13, and 70 cm. Our four targets' albedos span an order of magnitude and decrease in the same order as their optical albedos: Enceladus/Rhea/Iapetus/Phoebe. This sequence most likely corresponds to increasing contamination of near-surface water ice, whose extremely low electrical loss at radio wavelengths permits the multiple scattering responsible for high radar albedos. Plausible candidates for contaminants causing variations in radar albedo include ammonia, silicates, and polar organics. Modeling of icy Galilean satellite echoes indicates that penetration

  8. The study of the ocean from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novogrudskii, B V; Skliarov, V E; Fedorov, K N; Shifrin, K S

    1978-01-01

    The application of earth satellites and manned spacecraft to the study of the world's oceans is reviewed. Attention is given to the atmospheric transfer function in the visible, near-IR, middle-IR and microwave regions and the use of satellites in ocean data acquisition and transmission systems. The measurement of sea level and the topography of the ocean surface by means of orbital radar altimeters is discussed, together with IR and microwave measurements of ocean surface temperature and the study of surface roughness, surface evidence of internal waves, oil pollution and ice fields. Consideration is also given to the determination of ocean chlorophyll content and color distribution, coastal region characteristics, ocean salinity and other biological parameters from space.

  9. Application of current and future satellite missions to hydrologic prediction in transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Clark, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    More than 256 major global river basins, which cover about 45% of the continental land surface, are shared among two or more countries. The flow of such a large part of the global runoff across international boundaries has led to tension in many cases between upstream and downstream riparian countries. Among many examples, this is the case of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra Rivers, which cross the boundary between India and Bangladesh. Hydrological data (river discharge, reservoir storage) are viewed as sensitive by India (the upstream country) and are therefore not shared with Bangladesh, which can only monitor river discharge and water depth at the international border crossing. These measurements only allow forecasting of floods in the interior and southern portions of the country two to three days in advance. These forecasts are not long enough either for agricultural water management purposes (for which knowledge of upstream reservoir storage is essential) or for disaster preparedness purposes. Satellite observations of river spatial extent, surface slope, reservoir area and surface elevation have the potential to make tremendous changes in management of water within the basins. In this study, we examine the use of currently available satellite measurements (in India) and in-situ measurements in Bangladesh to increase forecast lead time in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers. Using nadir altimeters, we find that it is possible to forecast the discharge of the Ganges River at the Bangladesh border with lead time 3 days and mean absolute error of around 25%. On the Ganges River, 2-day forecasts are possible with a mean absolute error of around 20%. When combined with optical/infra-red MODIS images, it is possible to map water elevations along the river and its floodplain upstream of the boundary, and to compute water storage. However, the high frequency of clouds in this region results in relatively large errors in the water mask. Due to the nadir altimeter

  10. Toward a Framework for Systematic Error Modeling of NASA Spaceborne Radar with NOAA/NSSL Ground Radar-Based National Mosaic QPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstettier, Pierre-Emmanual; Honh, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Chen, S.; Flamig, Z.; Zhang, J.; Howard, K.; Schwaller, M.; Petersen, W.; Amitai, E.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the error associated to satellite rainfall estimates is a necessary component of deterministic and probabilistic frameworks involving space-born passive and active microwave measurement") for applications ranging from water budget studies to forecasting natural hazards related to extreme rainfall events. We focus here on the error structure of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at ground. The problem is addressed by comparison of PR QPEs with reference values derived from ground-based measurements using NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based National Mosaic and QPE system (NMQ/Q2). A preliminary investigation of this subject has been carried out at the PR estimation scale (instantaneous and 5 km) using a three-month data sample in the southern part of US. The primary contribution of this study is the presentation of the detailed steps required to derive trustworthy reference rainfall dataset from Q2 at the PR pixel resolution. It relics on a bias correction and a radar quality index, both of which provide a basis to filter out the less trustworthy Q2 values. Several aspects of PR errors arc revealed and quantified including sensitivity to the processing steps with the reference rainfall, comparisons of rainfall detectability and rainfall rate distributions, spatial representativeness of error, and separation of systematic biases and random errors. The methodology and framework developed herein applies more generally to rainfall rate estimates from other sensors onboard low-earth orbiting satellites such as microwave imagers and dual-wavelength radars such as with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  11. Marsh dieback, loss, and recovery mapped with satellite optical, airborne polarimetric radar, and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Chi, Zhaohui; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite based optical sensors, NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), and field data captured the occurrence and the recovery of an undetected dieback that occurred between the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of coastal Louisiana. Field measurements recorded the dramatic biomass decrease from 2010 to 2011 and a biomass recovery in 2012 dominated by a decrease of live biomass, and the loss of marsh as part of the dieback event. Based on an established relationship, the near-infrared/red vegetation index (VI) and site-specific measurements delineated a contiguous expanse of marsh dieback encompassing 6649.9 ha of 18,292.3 ha of S. alterniflora marshes within the study region. PolSAR data were transformed to variables used in biophysical mapping, and of this variable suite, the cross-polarization HV (horizontal send and vertical receive) backscatter was the best single indicator of marsh dieback and recovery. HV backscatter exhibited substantial and significant changes over the dieback and recovery period, tracked measured biomass changes, and significantly correlated with the live/dead biomass ratio. Within the context of regional trends, both HV and VI indicators started higher in pre-dieback marshes and exhibited substantially and statistically higher variability from year to year than that exhibited in the non-dieback marshes. That distinct difference allowed the capturing of the S. alterniflora marsh dieback and recovery; however, these changes were incorporated in a regional trend exhibiting similar but more subtle biomass composition changes.

  12. Using Satellite Altimetry to Calibrate the Simulation of Typhoon Seth Storm Surge off Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeters can capture storm surges generated by typhoons and tropical storms, if the satellite flies over at the right time. In this study, we show TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter-observed storm surge features off Southeast China on 10 October 1994 during Typhoon Seth. We then use a three-dimensional, barotropic, finite-volume community ocean model (FVCOM to simulate storm surges. An innovative aspect is that satellite data are used to calibrate the storm surge model to improve model performance, by adjusting model wind forcing fields (the National Center for Environment Prediction (NCEP reanalysis product in reference to the typhoon best-track data. The calibration reduces the along-track root-mean-square (RMS difference between model and altimetric data from 0.15 to 0.10 m. It also reduces the RMS temporal difference from 0.21 to 0.18 m between the model results and independent tide-gauge data at Xiamen. In particular, the calibrated model produces a peak storm surge of 1.01 m at 6:00 10 October 1994 at Xiamen, agreeing with tide-gauge data; while the peak storm surge with the NCEP forcing is 0.71 m only. We further show that the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides contributes to the peak storm surge by 34% and that the storm surge propagates southwestward as a coastally-trapped Kelvin wave.

  13. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.

  14. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar interferences and, then, separately matched filtering for each radar. Besides the detailed algorithm derivation, extensive numerical simulation examples are performed with the down-chirp and up-chirp waveforms, partially overlapped or inverse chirp rate linearly frequency modulation (LFM waveforms and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM chirp diverse waveforms. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation results.

  15. On retrieving sea ice freeboard from ICESat laser altimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khvorostovsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice freeboard derived from satellite altimetry is the basis for the estimation of sea ice thickness using the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. High accuracy of altimeter measurements and freeboard retrieval procedure are, therefore, required. As of today, two approaches for estimating the freeboard using laser altimeter measurements from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, referred to as tie points (TP and lowest-level elevation (LLE methods, have been developed and applied in different studies. We reproduced these methods for the ICESat observation periods (2003–2008 in order to assess and analyse the sources of differences found in the retrieved freeboard and corresponding thickness estimates of the Arctic sea ice as produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC. Three main factors are found to affect the freeboard differences when applying these methods: (a the approach used for calculation of the local sea surface references in leads (TP or LLE methods, (b the along-track averaging scales used for this calculation, and (c the corrections for lead width relative to the ICESat footprint and for snow depth accumulated in refrozen leads. The LLE method with 100 km averaging scale, as used to produce the GSFC data set, and the LLE method with a shorter averaging scale of 25 km both give larger freeboard estimates comparing to those derived by applying the TP method with 25 km averaging scale as used for the JPL product. Two factors, (a and (b, contribute to the freeboard differences in approximately equal proportions, and their combined effect is, on average, about 6–7 cm. The effect of using different methods varies spatially: the LLE method tends to give lower freeboards (by up to 15 cm over the thick multiyear ice and higher freeboards (by up to 10 cm over first-year ice and the thin part of multiyear ice; the higher freeboards dominate. We show that the

  16. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  17. Applications of Seasat to the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA satellite Seasat-A (to be launched in 1978) has applications to the offshore oil, gas, and mining industries including: (1) improvements in weather and wave forecasting, (2) studies of past wind and wave statistics for planning design requirements, and (3) monitoring ice formation, breakup, and movement in arctic regions. The primary geographic areas which will be monitored by Seasat-A include: the Beaufort Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. east coast, West Africa, Equatorial East Pacific, the Gulf of Alaska, and the North Sea. Seasat-A instrumentation used in ocean monitoring consists of a radar altimeter, a radar scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a microwave radiometer, and a visible and infrared radiometer. The future outlook of the Seasat program is planned in three phases: measurement feasibility demonstration (1978-1980), data accessibility/utility demonstration (1980-1983), and operational system demonstration (1983-1985).

  18. Comparison of gridded multi-mission and along-track mono-mission satellite altimetry wave heights with in situ near-shore buoy data.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Hithin, N.K.

    and studied the validity of these observations against ship-reported and buoy data. Many studies have been undertaken on how best to use the data available from satellite observation systems in wave models (Mastenbroek, 1994; Young and Glowacki, 1996... Sea wave model. Journal of Geophysical Research 10, 5829–5849. Young, I.R., 1994. Global ocean wave statistics obtained from satellite observations. Applied Ocean Research 16, 235-248. Young, I.R., Glowacki, T.J., 1996. Assimilation of altimeter...

  19. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  20. Observations of Phobos by the Mars Express radar MARSIS: Description of the detection techniques and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, A.; Nenna, C.; Plaut, J. J.; Plettemeier, D.; Noschese, R.; Cartacci, M.; Orosei, R.

    2017-11-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005) is a synthetic aperture low frequency radar altimeter, onboard the ESA Mars Express orbiter, launched in June 2003. It is the first and so far the only spaceborne radar that has observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were collected on different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of sounding Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into its subsurface. MARSIS is optimized for deep penetration investigations and is capable of transmitting at four different bands between 1.3 MHz and 5.5 MHz with a 1 MHz bandwidth. Unfortunately the instrument was originally designed to operate exclusively on Mars, assuming that Phobos would not be observed. Following this assumption, a protection mechanism was implemented in the hardware (HW) to maintain a minimum time separation between transmission and reception phases of the radar. This limitation does not have any impact on Mars observation but it prevented the observation of Phobos. In order to successfully operate the instrument at Phobos, a particular configuration of the MARSIS onboard software (SW) parameters, called ;Range Ambiguity,; was implemented to override the HW protection zone, ensuring at the same time a high level of safety of the instrument. This paper describes the principles of MARSIS onboard processing, and the procedure through which the parameters of the processing software were tuned to observe targets below the minimum distance allowed by hardware. Some preliminary results of data analysis will be shown, with the support of radar echo simulations. A qualitative comparison between the simulated results and the actual data, does not support the detection of subsurface reflectors.

  1. GOLD MINERAL PROSPECTING USING PHASED ARRAY TYPE L-BAND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (PALSAR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING DATA, CENTRAL GOLD BELT, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  2. PENGGUNAAN SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR UNTUK PENENTUAN POSISI PESAWAT UDARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Hafidz Irfandi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Republik Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia yang memiliki lebih dari 17.000 pulau dengan pertumbuhan demografi yang sangat pesat, hal ini menjadikan Indonesia sebagai negara berpenduduk terbesar ke-empat di dunia. Pesawat udara merupakan alat transportasi yang paling efektif dalam mendukung mobilitas penduduk.Navigasi atau pandu arah adalah penentuan kedudukan (position dan arah perjalanan baik di medan sebenarnya atau di peta. Navigasi ini dilakukan pada pesawat udara yang dipandu dari darat melalui sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh instrumen terpasang pada menara (ground base maupun sinyal dari satelit (satellite base.Dalam navigasi ada beberapa macam radar yang umum digunakan yaitu Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR dan Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR.Kedua jenis radar baik PSR maupun SSR mempunyai cara kerja berbeda. Pada PSR sifatnya aktif dan pesawat yang ditargetkan sifatnya pasif.Karena PSR hanya menerima pantulan gelombang radio dari refleksi pesawat tersebut (echo.Sedangkan pesawat itu sendiri tidak ikut aktif dengan pancaran sinyal radar di bawah. Pada SSR, baik radar maupun pesawat kedua-duanya aktif. Hal ini dapat dilakukan karena pesawat terbang telah dilengkapi dengan transponder. Pesawat-pesawat yang tidak dilengkapi transponder tidak akan dapat dilihat pada radar scope seperti identifikasi pesawat, ketinggiannya, dan lain-lain.SSR merupakan peralatan untuk mendeteksi dan mengetahui posisi dan data target yang ada di sekelilingnya secara aktif, dimana pesawat ikut aktif jika menerima pancaran sinyal Radio Frequency (RF radar sekunder. Pancaran radar ini berupa pulsa-pulsa mode, pesawat yang dipasangi transponder, akan menerima pulsa-pulsa tersebut dan akan menjawab berupa pulsa-pulsa code ke sistem penerima radar.

  3. Experimental measurement and theoretical modeling of microwave scattering and the structure of the sea surface influencing radar observations from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, David; Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) bias 'epsilon' is an error present in radar altimetry of the ocean due to the nonuniform reflection from wave troughs and crests. The EM bias is defined as the difference between the mean reflecting surface and the mean sea surface. A knowledge of the EM bias is necessary to permit error reduction in mean sea level measurements by satellite radar altimeters. Direct measurements of the EM bias were made from a Shell Offshore oil production platform in the Gulf of Mexico for a six month period during 1989 and 1990. Measurements of the EM bias were made at 5 and 14 Ghz. During the EM bias experiments by Melville et al., a wire wave gauge was used to obtain the modulation of the high frequency waves by the low frequency waves. It became apparent that the EM bias was primarily caused by the modulation of the short waves. This was reported by Arnold et al. The EM bias is explained using physical optics scattering and an empirical model for the short wave modulation. Measurements of the short wave modulation using a wire wave gauge demonstrated a linear dependence of the normalized bias on the short wave modulation strength, M. The theory accurately predicts this dependence by the relation epsilon = -alphaMH sub 1/3. The wind speed dependence of the normalized bias is explained by the dependence of the short wave modulation strength on the wind speed. While other effects such as long wave tilt and curvature will have an effect on the bias, the primary cause of the bias is shown to be due to the short wave modulation. This report will present a theory using physical optics scattering and an empirical model of the short wave modulation to estimate the EM bias. The estimated EM bias will be compared to measurements at C and Ku bands.

  4. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  5. CRUCIAL: Cryosat-2 Success over Inland Water and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Philip; Berry, Philippa; Balmbra, Robert

    2014-01-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 mission. The fact that the Earth’s land surface is, in general, a relatively poor reflector of Ku band energy, with the exceptions...... of inland water, salar and ice surfaces has enabled Earth-orbiting satellite radar altimeters to be used for land surface applications including mapping and measurement of river and lake systems. Research with EnviSat Burst Echoes has shown that substantial high frequency information content is present...... of Cryosat-2 altimeter in SAR mode (I8 KHz) offers the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over much of the Earth’s land surface, enhancing the inland water height retrieval capability. Constraining this application is the limited availability of SAR Full Bit Rate (FBR) data from Cryosat-2 over...

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing For Aluminum And Nickel Laterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.; Penfield, Glen T.; Grubbs, Donald K.

    1984-08-01

    The new LANDSAT-4,-5/Thematic Mapper (TM) land observational satellite remote sensing systems are providing dramatically new and important short wave infrared (SWIR) data, which combined with Landsat's Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) visible (VIS), very near infrared (VNIR), and thermal infrared (TI) data greatly improves regional geological mapping on a global scale. The TM will significantly improve clay, iron oxide, aluminum, and nickel laterite mapping capabilities over large areas of the world. It will also improve the ability to discriminate vegetation stress and species distribution associated with lateritic environments. Nickel laterites on Gag Island, Indonesia are defined by MSS imagery. Satellite imagery of the Cape Bougainville and the Darling Range, Australia bauxite deposits show the potential use of MSS data for exploration and mining applications. Examples of satellite syn-thetic aperture radar (SAR) for Jamaica document the use of this method for bauxite exploration. Thematic Mapper data will be combined with the French SPOT satellite's high spatial resolution and stereoscopic digital data, and U.S., Japanese, European, and Canadian Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to assist with logistics, mine development, and environ-mental concerns associated with aluminum and nickel lateritic deposits worldwide.

  7. The NASA CYGNSS Small Satellite Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Gleason, S.; McKague, D. S.; Rose, R.; Scherrer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a constellation of eight microsatellite observatories that was launched into a low (35°) inclination, low Earth orbit on 15 December 2016. Each observatory carries a 4-channel GNSS-R bistatic radar receiver. The radars are tuned to receive the L1 signals transmitted by GPS satellites, from which near-surface ocean wind speed is estimated. The mission architecture is designed to improve the temporal sampling of winds in tropical cyclones (TCs). The 32 receive channels of the complete CYGNSS constellation, combined with the 30 GPS satellite transmitters, results in a revisit time for sampling of the wind of 2.8 hours (median) and 7.2 hours (mean) at all locations between 38 deg North and 38 deg South latitude. Operation at the GPS L1 frequency of 1575 MHz allows for wind measurements in the TC inner core that are often obscured from other spaceborne remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the eye wall and inner rain bands. An overview of the CYGNSS mission wil be presented, followed by early on-orbit status and results.

  8. Feasibility Study on Passive-radar Detection of Space Targets Using Spaceborne Illuminators of Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tie-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space target surveillance generally uses active radars. To take full advantage of passive radars, the idea of using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity for space target detection is presented in this paper. Analysis of the detectable time and direct wave suppression shows that passive radar using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity can effectively detect a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO target. Meanwhile, Ku and L band bi-static radar cross section of passive radars that use spaceborne illuminators of opportunity are presented by simulation, providing the basis of choosing space target forward scatter. Finally the key parameters, mainly system gain, accumulation time and radiation source selection are studied. Results show that system size using satellite TV signals as illuminators of opportunity is relatively small. These encouraging results should stimulate the development of passive radar detection of space targets using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity.

  9. Seasonal variability of the Red Sea, from satellite gravity, radar altimetry, and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahr, John; Smeed, David A.; Leuliette, Eric; Swenson, Sean

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations of sea surface height (SSH) and mass within the Red Sea are caused mostly by exchange of heat with the atmosphere and by flow through the strait opening into the Gulf of Aden to the south. That flow involves a net mass transfer into the Red Sea during fall and out during spring, though in summer there is an influx of cool water at intermediate depths. Thus, summer water in the south is warmer near the surface due to higher air temperatures, but cooler at intermediate depths. Summer water in the north experiences warming by air-sea exchange only. The temperature affects water density, which impacts SSH but has no effect on mass. We study this seasonal cycle by combining GRACE mass estimates, altimeter SSH measurements, and steric contributions derived from the World Ocean Atlas temperature climatology. Among our conclusions are: mass contributions are much larger than steric contributions; the mass is largest in winter, consistent with winds pushing water into the Red Sea in fall and out during spring; the steric signal is largest in summer, consistent with surface warming; and the cool, intermediate-depth water flowing into the Red Sea in spring has little impact on the steric signal, because contributions from the lowered temperature are offset by effects of decreased salinity. The results suggest that the combined use of altimeter and GRACE measurements can provide a useful alternative to in situ data for monitoring the steric signal.

  10. UAV-Borne Profiling Radar for Forest Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave Radar is an attractive solution for forest mapping and inventories because microwave signals penetrates into the forest canopy and the backscattering signal can provide information regarding the whole forest structure. Satellite-borne and airborne imaging radars have been used in forest resources mapping for many decades. However, their accuracy with respect to the main forest inventory attributes substantially varies depending on the wavelength and techniques used in the estimation. Systems providing canopy backscatter as a function of canopy height are, practically speaking, missing. Therefore, there is a need for a radar system that would enable the scientific community to better understand the radar backscatter response from the forest canopy. Consequently, we undertook a research study to develop an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-borne profiling (i.e., waveform radar that could be used to improve the understanding of the radar backscatter response for forestry mapping and inventories. A frequency modulation continuous waveform (FMCW profiling radar, termed FGI-Tomoradar, was introduced, designed and tested. One goal is the total weight of the whole system is less than 7 kg, including the radar system and georeferencing system, with centimetre-level positioning accuracy. Achieving this weight goal would enable the FGI-Tomoradar system to be installed on the Mini-UAV platform. The prototype system had all four linear polarization measuring capabilities, with bistatic configuration in Ku-band. In system performance tests in this study, FGI-Tomoradar was mounted on a manned helicopter together with a Riegl VQ-480-U laser scanner and tested in several flight campaigns performed at the Evo site, Finland. Airborne laser scanning data was simultaneously collected to investigate the differences and similarities of the outputs for the same target area for better understanding the penetration of the microwave signal into the forest canopy

  11. The 2015 Gorkha earthquake investigated from radar satellites: Slip and stress modeling along the MHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqi eDiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The active collision at the Himalayas combines crustal shortening and thickening, associated with the development of hazardous seismogenic faults. The 2015 Kathmandu earthquake largely affected Kathmandu city and partially ruptured a previously identified seismic gap. With a magnitude of Mw 7.8 as determined by the GEOFON seismic network, the 25 April 2015 earthquake displays uplift of the Kathmandu basin constrained by interferometrically processed ALOS-2, RADARSAT-2 and Sentinel-1 satellite radar data. An area of about 7,000 km² in the basin showed ground uplift locally exceeding 2 m, and a similarly large area (approx. 9000 km2 showed subsidence in the north, both of which could be simulated with a fault that is localized beneath the Kathmandu basin at a shallow depth of 5-15 km. Coulomb stress calculations reveal that the same fault adjacent to the Kathmandu basin experienced stress increase, similar as at sub-parallel faults of the thin skinned nappes, exactly at the location where the largest aftershock occurred (Mw 7.3 on 12. May, 2015. Therefore this study provides insights into the shortening and uplift tectonics of the Himalayas and shows the stress redistribution associated with the earthquake.

  12. W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

  13. Understanding the Future Market for NovaSAR-S Flood Mapping Products Using Data Mining and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Samantha; Haria, Kajal; Cooksley, Geraint; Farman, Alex; Beaton, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to understand a future market for NovaSAR-S, with a particular focus on flood mapping, through developing a simple Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) simulator that can be used in advance of NovaSAR-S data becoming available.The return signal was determined from a combination of a terrain or elevation model, Envisat S-Band Radar Altimeter (RA)-2, Landsat and CORINE land cover information; allowing for a simulation of a SAR image that's influenced by both the geometry and surface type. The test sites correspond to data from the 2014 AirSAR campaign, and validation is performed by using AirSAR together with Envisat Advanced (ASAR) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite "Daichi" (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data.It's envisaged that the resulting simulated data, and the simulator, will not only aid early understanding of NovaSAR-S, but will also aid the development of flood mapping applications.

  14. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  15. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...

  16. Nanosar-case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.; Sundaramoorthy, P.; Gill, E.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite's payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially

  17. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  18. Inland and Near Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532 nm laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in icecaps, sea ice and vegetation, the polar-orbital satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three year life span, including inland water bodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype or the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the datasets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 km above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 km in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision of approximately 5-7 cm per 100m segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR0, were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when solar background rate was low. Near shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to maximum of 10 m under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1.6 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). The overall results suggest

  19. Inland and Near-Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High-Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532-nanometer laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in ice caps, sea ice, and vegetation, the polar-orbiting satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three-year life span, including inland waterbodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high-altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the data sets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 kilometers above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 kilometers in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near-shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision ofapproximately 5-7 centimeters per 100-meter segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR (sub 0), were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters, depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when the solar background rate was low. Near-shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to a maximum of 10 meters under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1

  20. Equatorial dynamics observed by rocket, radar, and satellite during the CADRE/MALTED campaign 1. Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-11-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alca‸ntara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guará Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3°S) and magnetic (~0.5°S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the CUPRI 50

  1. Equatorial Dynamics Observed by Rocket, Radar, and Satellite During the CADRE/MALTED Campaign. 1; Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alcantara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guard Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3 deg S) and magnetic (approx. 0.5 deg S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the

  2. Objective Classification of Radar Profile Types, and Their Relationship to Lightning Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A cluster analysis technique is used to identify 16 "archetypal" vertical radar profile types from a large, globally representative sample of profiles from the TRMM Precipitation Radar. These include nine convective types (7 of these deep convective) and seven stratiform types (5 of these clearly glaciated). Radar profile classification provides an alternative to conventional deep convective storm metrics, such as 30 dBZ echo height, maximum reflectivity or VIL. As expected, the global frequency of occurrence of deep convective profile types matches satellite-observed total lightning production, including to very small scall local features. Each location's "mix" of profile types provides an objective description of the local convective spectrum, and in turn, is a first step in objectively classifying convective regimes. These classifiers are tested as inputs to a neural network which attempts to predict lightning occurrence based on radar-only storm observations, and performance is compared with networks using traditional radar metrics as inputs.

  3. Precise Time Synchronisation and Ranging in Nano-Satellite Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabs, Martin; Plettemeier, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Precise time synchronization and ranging is very important for a variety of scientific experiments with more than two nano-satellites: For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications, for example, the radar signal phase (which corresponds to a synchronized time) as well as the location must be known on each satellite forming synthetic antenna. Also multi-static radar systems, MIMO radar systems or radio tomography applications will take advantage from highly accurate synchronization and position determination. We propose a method for synchronizing the time as well as measuring the distance between nano-satellites very precisely by utilizing mm-wave radio links. This approach can also be used for time synchronization of more than two satellites and accordingly determinating the precise relative location of nano-satellites in space. The time synchronization signal is modulated onto a mm-wave carrier. In the simplest form it is a harmonic sinusoidal signal with a frequency in the MHz range. The distance is measured with a frequency sweep or short pulse modulated onto a different carrier frequency. The sweep or pulse transmission start is synchronized to the received time synchronization. The time synchronization transmitter receives the pulse/sweep signal and can calculate the (double) time of flight for both signals. This measurement can be easily converted to the distance. The use of a mm-wave carrier leads to small antennas and the free space loss linked to the high frequency reduces non line of sight echoes. It also allows a high sweep/pulse bandwidth enabling superior ranging accuracy. Additionally, there is also less electromagnetic interference probability since telemetry and scientific applications typically do not use mm-wavefrequencies. Since the system is working full-duplex the time synchronization can be performed continuously and coherently. Up to now the required semiconductor processes did not achieve enough gain/bandwidth to realize this concept at

  4. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar/Radiometer Measurements Within the GPM Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM mission centers upon the deployment of a Core Observatory in a 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for intersatellite calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles needed for improving precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1

  5. Structural Health Monitoring of Railway Transition Zones Using Satellite Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger’s comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands. To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring of Railway Transition Zones Using Satellite Radar Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Chang, Ling; Markine, Valeri

    2018-01-31

    Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger's comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches) are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands). To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.

  7. The Fiber Optic System for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm. The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  8. The fiber optic system for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-08-28

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  9. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  10. Considerations in the Design of Future Planetary Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Zuber, M. T.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary laser altimeters have generally been designed to provide high accuracy measurements of the nadir range to an uncooperative surface for deriving the shape of the target body, and sometimes specifically for identifying and characterizing potential landing sites. However, experience has shown that in addition to the range measurement, other valuable observations can be acquired, including surface reflectance and surface roughness, despite not being given high priority in the original altimeter design or even anticipated. After nearly 2 decades of planetary laser altimeter design, the requirements are evolving and additional capabilities are becoming equally important. The target bodies, once the terrestrial planets, are now equally asteroids and moons that in many cases do not permit simple orbital operations due to their small mass, radiation issues, or spacecraft fuel limitations. In addition, for a number of reasons, it has become necessary to perform shape determination from a much greater range, even thousands of kilometers, and thus ranging is becoming as important as nadir altimetry. Reflectance measurements have also proved important for assessing the presence of ice, water or CO2, and laser pulse spreading informed knowledge of surface roughness; all indicating a need for improved instrument capability. Recently, the need to obtain accurate range measurement to laser reflectors on landers or on a planetary surface is presenting new science opportunities but for which current designs are far from optimal. These changes to classic laser altimetry have consequences for many instrument functions and capabilities, including beam divergence, laser power, number of beams and detectors, pixelation, energy measurements, pointing stability, polarization, laser wavelengths, and laser pulse rate dependent range. We will discuss how a new consideration of these trades will help make lidars key instruments to execute innovative science in future planetary

  11. Operational reservoir inflow forecasting with radar altimetry: The Zambezi case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    uncertainty. Data assimilation is widely used in operational applications to update hydrological models with in situ discharge or level measurements. In areas where timely access to in situ data is not possible, remote sensing data products can be used in assimilation schemes. While river discharge itself...... cannot be measured from space, radar altimetry can track surface water level variations at crossing locations between the satellite ground track and the river system called virtual stations (VS). Use of radar altimetry versus traditional monitoring in operational settings is complicated by the low...

  12. Current state of art of satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyszkowicz, Adam Bolesław; Bernatowicz, Anna

    2017-12-01

    One of the fundamental problems of modern geodesy is precise defi nition of the gravitational fi eld and its changes in time. This is essential in positioning and navigation, geophysics, geodynamics, oceanography and other sciences related to the climate and Earth's environment. One of the major sources of gravity data is satellite altimetry that provides gravity data with almost 75% surface of the Earth. Satellite altimetry also provides data to study local, regional and global geophysical processes, the geoid model in the areas of oceans and seas. This technique can be successfully used to study the ocean mean dynamic topography. The results of the investigations and possible products of altimetry will provide a good material for the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) and institutions of IAS (International Altimetry Service). This paper presents the achievements in satellite altimetry in all the above disciplines obtained in the last years. First very shorly basic concept of satellite altimetry is given. In order to obtain the highest accuracy on range measurements over the ocean improved of altimetry waveforms performed on the ground is described. Next, signifi cant improvements of sea and ocean gravity anomalies models developed presently is shown. Study of sea level and its extremes examined, around European and Australian coasts using tide gauges data and satellite altimetry measurements were described. Then investigations of the phenomenon of the ocean tides, calibration of altimeters, studies of rivers and ice-sheets in the last years are given.

  13. Current state of art of satellite altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łyszkowicz Adam Bolesław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental problems of modern geodesy is precise defi nition of the gravitational fi eld and its changes in time. This is essential in positioning and navigation, geophysics, geodynamics, oceanography and other sciences related to the climate and Earth’s environment. One of the major sources of gravity data is satellite altimetry that provides gravity data with almost 75% surface of the Earth. Satellite altimetry also provides data to study local, regional and global geophysical processes, the geoid model in the areas of oceans and seas. This technique can be successfully used to study the ocean mean dynamic topography. The results of the investigations and possible products of altimetry will provide a good material for the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System and institutions of IAS (International Altimetry Service. This paper presents the achievements in satellite altimetry in all the above disciplines obtained in the last years. First very shorly basic concept of satellite altimetry is given. In order to obtain the highest accuracy on range measurements over the ocean improved of altimetry waveforms performed on the ground is described. Next, signifi cant improvements of sea and ocean gravity anomalies models developed presently is shown. Study of sea level and its extremes examined, around European and Australian coasts using tide gauges data and satellite altimetry measurements were described. Then investigations of the phenomenon of the ocean tides, calibration of altimeters, studies of rivers and ice-sheets in the last years are given.

  14. The ARM Cloud Radar Simulator for Global Climate Models: Bridging Field Data and Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Marchand, Roger [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; Clothiaux, Eugene E. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Swales, Dustin [CIRES and NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Haynes, John M. [Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere/Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Collis, Scott [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Jensen, Michael [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Bharadwaj, Nitin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Hardin, Joseph [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Isom, Bradley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2018-01-01

    Clouds play an important role in Earth’s radiation budget and hydrological cycle. However, current global climate models (GCMs) have had difficulties in accurately simulating clouds and precipitation. To improve the representation of clouds in climate models, it is crucial to identify where simulated clouds differ from real world observations of them. This can be difficult, since significant differences exist between how a climate model represents clouds and what instruments observe, both in terms of spatial scale and the properties of the hydrometeors which are either modeled or observed. To address these issues and minimize impacts of instrument limitations, the concept of instrument “simulators”, which convert model variables into pseudo-instrument observations, has evolved with the goal to improve and to facilitate the comparison of modeled clouds with observations. Many simulators have (and continue to be developed) for a variety of instruments and purposes. A community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP; Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2011), contains several independent satellite simulators and is being widely used in the global climate modeling community to exploit satellite observations for model cloud evaluation (e.g., Klein et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2010). This article introduces a ground-based cloud radar simulator developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program for comparing climate model clouds with ARM observations from its vertically pointing 35-GHz radars. As compared to CloudSat radar observations, ARM radar measurements occur with higher temporal resolution and finer vertical resolution. This enables users to investigate more fully the detailed vertical structures within clouds, resolve thin clouds, and quantify the diurnal variability of clouds. Particularly, ARM radars are sensitive to low-level clouds, which are

  15. CryoVEx 2011-12 Airborne Campaigns for CryoSat Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite was carried out in the April-May 2011. Part of this was repeated in Spring 2012. DTU Space has been involved in ESA’s CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since...... 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done...... of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the AlfredWegener Institute (AWI) Polar- 5 carrying an EM induction sounder. The paper presents an overview of the 2011-12 airborne campaigns...

  16. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Christiansen, M.

    2006-11-15

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting wind fields are valuable in offshore wind energy planning as a supplement to on site measurements, which are costly and sparse, and model wind fields, which are not fully validated. Two applications of SAR measurements in offshore wind energy planning are addressed here: the study of wind farm wake effects and the potential of using SAR winds in offshore wind resource assessment. Firstly, wind wakes behind two large offshore wind farms in Denmark Horns Rev and Nysted are identified. A region of reduced wind speed is found downstream of both wind farms from the SAR wind fields. The wake extent and magnitude depends on the wind speed, the atmospheric stability, and the fraction of turbines operating. Wind farm wake effects are detected up to 20 km downwind of the last turbine. This distance is longer than predicted by state-of-the art wake models. Wake losses are typically 10-20% near the wind farms. Secondly, the potential of using SAR wind maps in offshore wind resource assessment is investigated. The resource assessment is made through Weibull fitting to frequency observations of wind speed and requires at least 100 satellite observations per year for a given site of interest. Predictions of the energy density are very sensitive to the wind speed and the highest possible accuracy on SAR wind retrievals is therefore sought. A 1.1 m s{sup -1} deviation on the mean wind speed is found through comparison with mast measurements at Horns Rev. The accuracy on mean wind speeds and energy densities found from satellite measurements varies with different empirical model functions. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the infrequent satellite sampling at fixed times of the day. The accuracy on satellite based wind resource

  17. A Decade of High-Resolution Arctic Sea Ice Measurements from Airborne Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K.; Farrell, S. L.; Connor, L. N.; Jackson, C.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimeters carried on board ERS-1,-2, EnviSat, ICESat, CryoSat-2, AltiKa and Sentinel-3 have transformed our ability to map the thickness and volume of the polar sea ice cover, on seasonal and decadal time-scales. The era of polar satellite altimetry has coincided with a rapid decline of the Arctic ice cover, which has thinned, and transitioned from a predominantly multi-year to first-year ice cover. In conjunction with basin-scale satellite altimeter observations, airborne surveys of the Arctic Ocean at the end of winter are now routine. These surveys have been targeted to monitor regions of rapid change, and are designed to obtain the full snow and ice thickness distribution, across a range of ice types. Sensors routinely deployed as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) campaigns include the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter, the frequency-modulated continuous-wave snow radar, and the Digital Mapping System (DMS). Airborne measurements yield high-resolution data products and thus present a unique opportunity to assess the quality and characteristics of the satellite observations. We present a suite of sea ice data products that describe the snow depth and thickness of the Arctic ice cover during the last decade. Fields were derived from OIB measurements collected between 2009-2017, and from reprocessed data collected during ad-hoc sea ice campaigns prior to OIB. Our bespoke algorithms are designed to accommodate the heterogeneous sea ice surface topography, that varies at short spatial scales. We assess regional and inter-annual variability in the sea ice thickness distribution. Results are compared to satellite-derived ice thickness fields to highlight the sensitivities of satellite footprints to the tails of the thickness distribution. We also show changes in the dynamic forcing shaping the ice pack over the last eight years through an analysis of pressure-ridge sail-height distributions and surface roughness conditions

  18. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  19. Improvement in the radial accuracy of altimeter-satellite orbits due to the geopotential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.; Wagner, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 91, 1-4 (2008), s. 106-120 ISSN 0012-8252 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003407; GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : orbits of Earth artificial satellites * gravity field of the Earth * radial orbit error Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.558, year: 2008

  20. ESA-NASA collaboration in support of CryoSat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, T. G.; Davidson, M.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Perrera, A.; Armitage, T.; Bianchi, R.; Parrinello, T.; Fornari, M.; Skourup, H.

    2012-12-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out groundbased and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal [http://eopi.esa.int]. CryoSat-2, ESA's third Earth Explorer, is Europe's first mission dedicated to monitoring Earth's ice fields. The satellite carries a sophisticated radar altimeter that can measure the thickness of sea ice down to centimetres and also monitor changes in ice sheets, particularly around the edges where icebergs are calved from the vast ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica. On order to gather data to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission, in yet another remarkable collaborative effort, ESA and NASA met up over the Arctic Ocean in April 2012 to perform some carefully coordinated flights directly under CryoSat orbiting above. The aim of this large-scale campaign was to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice exactly along the line traced by ESA's CryoSat satellite orbiting high above. A range of sensors installed on the different aircraft was used to gather

  1. An improvement of wind velocity estimation from radar Doppler spectra in the upper mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Takeda

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new parameter estimation method for Doppler wind spectra in the mesosphere observed with an MST radar such as the MU radar in the DBS (Doppler Beam Swinging mode. Off-line incoherent integration of the Doppler spectra is carried out with a new algorithm excluding contamination by strong meteor echoes. At the same time, initial values on a least square fitting of the Gaussian function are derived using a larger number of integration of the spectra for a longer time and for multiple heights. As a result, a significant improvement has been achieved with the probability of a successful fitting and parameter estimation above 80 km. The top height for the wind estimation has been improved to around 95 km. A comparison between the MU radar and the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI on the UARS satellite is shown and the capability of the new method for a validation of a future satellite mission is suggested.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics – Radio science (remote sensing; signal processing

  2. New evidence for surface water ice in small-scale cold traps and in three large craters at the north polar region of Mercury from the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.

    2017-09-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) measured surface reflectance, rs, at 1064 nm. On Mercury, most water-ice deposits have anomalously low rs values indicative of an insulating layer beneath which ice is buried. Previous detections of surface water ice (without an insulating layer) were limited to seven possible craters. Here we map rs in three additional permanently shadowed craters that host radar-bright deposits. Each crater has a mean rs value >0.3, suggesting that water ice is exposed at the surface without an overlying insulating layer. We also identify small-scale cold traps (rs >0.3 and permanent shadows have biannual maximum surface temperatures <100 K. We suggest that a substantial amount of Mercury's water ice is not confined to large craters but exists within microcold traps, within rough patches and intercrater terrain.

  3. Assessment of Systematic Errors in the Computation of Gravity Gradients from Satellite Altimeter Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouman, J.; Bosch, W.; Sebera, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2011), s. 85-107 ISSN 0149-0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : satellite altimetry * gravity gradients * GOCE Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2011

  4. Greenland Ice sheet mass balance from satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bevis, M. G.; Wahr, J. M.

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively...... short distances. Hence, high spatial resolution data are required to accurately estimate volume changes. Here, we estimate ice volume change rate of the Greenland ice sheet using data from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter during 2003-2009 and CryoSat-2 data during 2010...

  5. Introducing Multisensor Satellite Radiance-Based Evaluation for Regional Earth System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T.; Santanello, J.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Wu, D.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kemp, E.; Chin, M.; Starr, D.; Sekiguchi, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Earth System modeling has become more complex, and its evaluation using satellite data has also become more difficult due to model and data diversity. Therefore, the fundamental methodology of using satellite direct measurements with instrumental simulators should be addressed especially for modeling community members lacking a solid background of radiative transfer and scattering theory. This manuscript introduces principles of multisatellite, multisensor radiance-based evaluation methods for a fully coupled regional Earth System model: NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model. We use a NU-WRF case study simulation over West Africa as an example of evaluating aerosol-cloud-precipitation-land processes with various satellite observations. NU-WRF-simulated geophysical parameters are converted to the satellite-observable raw radiance and backscatter under nearly consistent physics assumptions via the multisensor satellite simulator, the Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit. We present varied examples of simple yet robust methods that characterize forecast errors and model physics biases through the spatial and statistical interpretation of various satellite raw signals: infrared brightness temperature (Tb) for surface skin temperature and cloud top temperature, microwave Tb for precipitation ice and surface flooding, and radar and lidar backscatter for aerosol-cloud profiling simultaneously. Because raw satellite signals integrate many sources of geophysical information, we demonstrate user-defined thresholds and a simple statistical process to facilitate evaluations, including the infrared-microwave-based cloud types and lidar/radar-based profile classifications.

  6. CryoSat SIRAL: Instrument Performance After 5 Years of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-08-01

    CryoSat's Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) [1] is a Ku-band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for Delay/Doppler processing [2]. Moreover SIRAL takes advantage of two antennas mounted across-track for interferometric capability, in order to determine the across-track direction from which the echo is received [3].The calibration strategy for SIRAL includes both internal calibrations and external calibration [1,7]. Due to the fact that SIRAL is an interferometric phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed. In this paper we will describe as first the internal calibration strategy and then the different calibration corrections that are applied to science data. The internal calibration results over more than five years of mission will be presented, analysing their temporal evolution in order to highlight the stability of the instrument over its life.

  7. Surge of Bering Glacier and Bagley Ice Field: Parameterization of surge characteristics based on automated analysis of crevasse image data and laser altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachura, M.; Herzfeld, U. C.; McDonald, B.; Weltman, A.; Hale, G.; Trantow, T.

    2012-12-01

    The dynamical processes that occur during the surge of a large, complex glacier system are far from being understood. The aim of this paper is to derive a parameterization of surge characteristics that captures the principle processes and can serve as the basis for a dynamic surge model. Innovative mathematical methods are introduced that facilitate derivation of such a parameterization from remote-sensing observations. Methods include automated geostatistical characterization and connectionist-geostatistical classification of dynamic provinces and deformation states, using the vehicle of crevasse patterns. These methods are applied to analyze satellite and airborne image and laser altimeter data collected during the current surge of Bering Glacier and Bagley Ice Field, Alaska.

  8. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox for Sentinel 3 Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Bruno; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Niemeijer, Sander; Bronner, Emilie; Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2006 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales). The latest version of the software, 3.1, was released on March 2012. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, being the most used way, the Graphical User Interface (BratGui). This GUI is a front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. The BratDisplay (graphic visualizer) can be launched from BratGui, or used as a stand-alone tool to visualize netCDF files - it is distributed with another ESA toolbox (GUT) as the visualizer. The most frequent uses of BRAT are teaching remote sensing, altimetry data reading (all missions from ERS-1 to Saral and soon Sentinel-3), quick data visualization/export and simple computation on the data fields. BRAT can be used for importing data and having a quick look at his contents, with several different types of plotting available. One can also use it to translate the data into other formats such as netCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BratGui involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas (MSS, -SSH, MSLA, editing of spurious data, etc.). The documentation collection includes the standard user manual explaining all the ways to interact with the set of software tools but the most important item is the Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to

  9. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox: Tools and Tutorial to Use Cryosat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Bronner, E.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.; Rosmorduc, V.; Earith, D.; Niemeijer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Radar altimetry is very much a technique expanding its applications. Even If quite a lot of effort has been invested for oceanography users, the use of Altimetry data for cryosphere application, especially with the new ESA CryoSat-2 mission data is still somehow tedious for new Altimetry data products users. ESA and CNES therfore developed the Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox a few years ago, and are improving and upgrading it to fit new missions and the growing number of altimetry uses. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data. The software is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason-1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat, the future Saral missions and is ready for adaptation to Sentinel-3 products - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data and additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. It is an opportunity to teach remote sensing with practical training. It has been available since April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. About 2000 people downloaded it (Summer 2011), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them

  10. Incoherent-scatter radar measurements of electric field and plasma in the auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrak, R.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter summarizes Chatanika radar measurements of electric fields and currents, and their relation to E-region ionization and conductivity. Electric-field coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere and the relationship between field-aligned currents and meridional ionospheric currents are examined. Topics considered include the diurnal pattern of the ionization and electric field; electrical coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere; and the relationship between meridional currents and field-aligned currents. It is concluded that the incoherent-scatter radar technique has been developed into a powerful method for remotely measuring the electrical and thermal properties of the auroral ionospheric plasma, and that the usefulness of the radar measurements is greatly enhanced when combined with simultaneous satellite measurements

  11. Developments in radar and remote-sensing methods for measuring and forecasting rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, C G

    2002-07-15

    Over the last 25 years or so, weather-radar networks have become an integral part of operational meteorological observing systems. While measurements of rainfall made using radar systems have been used qualitatively by weather forecasters, and by some operational hydrologists, acceptance has been limited as a consequence of uncertainties in the quality of the data. Nevertheless, new algorithms for improving the accuracy of radar measurements of rainfall have been developed, including the potential to calibrate radars using the measurements of attenuation on microwave telecommunications links. Likewise, ways of assimilating these data into both meteorological and hydrological models are being developed. In this paper we review the current accuracy of radar estimates of rainfall, pointing out those approaches to the improvement of accuracy which are likely to be most successful operationally. Comment is made on the usefulness of satellite data for estimating rainfall in a flood-forecasting context. Finally, problems in coping with the error characteristics of all these data using both simple schemes and more complex four-dimensional variational analysis are being addressed, and are discussed briefly in this paper.

  12. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  13. Initial development of a laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, J. P.

    1985-09-01

    A design study was carried out of a small, expendable, self-contained laser altimeter for overwater operation at low altitude. A .904 micrometer Gallium Arsenide laser was used to build a prototype transmitter/ receiver at a cost of less than $600 and small enough to fit inside a 5 inch diameter cylinder, 5 inches long. Tests at a height of 120 feet above the surface of a lake resulted in a signal-to-noise ratio of 6, and validated the trade-off equation used in this study. A second test model, with design improvements incorporated, is predicted to yield a SNR of over 20 for an altitude of 150 meters.

  14. Subsurface Scattered Photons: Friend or Foe? Improving visible light laser altimeter elevation estimates, and measuring surface properties using subsurface scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Neumann, T.; Cook, W. B.; Markus, T.

    2016-12-01

    Photon counting laser altimeters such as MABEL (Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar) - a single photon counting simulator for ATLAS (Advanced Topographical Laser Altimeter System) - use individual photons with visible wavelengths to measure their range to target surfaces. ATLAS, the sole instrument on NASA's upcoming ICESat-2 mission, will provide scientists a view of Earth's ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice with unprecedented detail. Precise calibration of these instruments is needed to understand rapidly changing parameters such as sea ice freeboard, and to measure optical properties of surfaces like snow covered ice sheets using subsurface scattered photons. Photons that travel through snow, ice, or water before scattering back to an altimeter receiving system travel farther than photons taking the shortest path between the observatory and the target of interest. These delayed photons produce a negative elevation bias relative to photons scattered directly off these surfaces. We use laboratory measurements of snow surfaces using a flight-tested laser altimeter (MABEL), and Monte Carlo simulations of backscattered photons from snow to estimate elevation biases from subsurface scattered photons. We also use these techniques to demonstrate the ability to retrieve snow surface properties like snow grain size.

  15. Estimation of wind stress using dual-frequency TOPEX data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfouhaily, Tanos; Vandemark, Douglas; Gourrion, Jéro‸me; Chapron, Bertrand

    1998-10-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite carries the first dual-frequency radar altimeter. Monofrequency (Ku-band) algorithms are presently used to retrieve surface wind speed from the altimeter's radar cross-section measurement (σ0Ku). These algorithms work reasonably well, but it is also known that altimeter wind estimates can be contaminated by residual effects, such as sea state, embedded in the σ0Ku measurement. Investigating the potential benefit of using two frequencies for wind retrieval, it is shown that a simple evaluation of TOPEX data yields previously unavailable information, particularly for high and low wind speeds. As the wind speed increases, the dual-frequency data provides a measurement more directly linked to the short-scale surface roughness, which in turn is associated with the local surface wind stress. Using a global TOPEX σ0° data set and TOPEX's significant wave height (Hs) estimate as a surrogate for the sea state's degree of development, it is also shown that differences between the two TOPEX σ0 measurements strongly evidence nonlocal sea state signature. A composite scattering theory is used to show how the dual-frequency data can provide an improved friction velocity model, especially for winds above 7 m/s. A wind speed conversion is included using a sea state dependent drag coefficient fed with TOPEX Hs data. Two colocated TOPEX-buoy data sets (from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphre, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) campaign) are employed to test the new wind speed algorithm. A measurable improvement in wind speed estimation is obtained when compared to the monofrequency Witter and Chelton [1991] model.

  16. CryoSat data quality assessment and product evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jerome; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Fornari, Marco; Brockley, David; Scagliola, Michele; Calafat, Francisco; Roca, Monica

    2015-04-01

    The main payload of the ESA Earth Explorer CryoSat satellite is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, operating in 3 different modes function of a mask of geographical zones. Over the ocean and ice sheet interiors, CryoSat mainly operates like a conventional pulse-limited radar altimeter whereas over sea ice, coherently transmitted echoes are combined in order to carry out measurements at a higher resolution. Around ice sheet margins, a 2nd antenna is used as an interferometer in order to determine the across-track angle to the earliest radar returns. Two kinds of data are distributed to the scientific user community and are quality controlled and validated by ESA/ESRIN SPPA office with the support of an industrial consortium: the Level 1b products essentially contain average echoes collected along the ground track while the Level 2 products contain elevations and associated geophysical parameters retrieved from these echoes. In this poster we first briefly present the characteristics of Level 1b and Level 2 CryoSat products over ocean, land ice and sea ice in addition to the results of recent quality control activities. Due to anomalies detected in previous data release and the need of continuously improving the data quality, ESA and its industrial partners has implemented a new version of the processors by the early of 2015, followed by a full reprocessing campaign. The main evolutions of this so called "Baseline C", the validation of the associated Test Data Set and the main improvements expected from this new release are also presented.

  17. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L1B Time-Tagged Laser Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L1B Time-Tagged Laser Ranges (ILUTP1B) data set contains laser ranges, returned pulses, and deviation for returned pulses in...

  18. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data...... of political unwillingness to share data which is a common problem in particular in transboundary settings. In this context, remote sensing (RS) datasets provide an appealing alternative to traditional in-situ data and much research effort has gone into the use of these datasets for hydrological applications...... response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study...

  19. The impact of curved satellite tracks on SAR focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the geometric effect of processing single look complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to a reference squint angle different from that given by the center of the real antenna beam. For data acquired on a straight flight line, the required transformation of radar coordinat...... from one Doppler reference to another is independent of the target elevation but for data acquired from a satellite orbit over a rotating Earth that is not true. Also the effect of ignoring Earth rotation is addressed....

  20. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the RADARSAT-2 satellite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived high resolution wind products are calculated from high resolution SAR images of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the...

  1. Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Estimation from CryoSat-2 Satellite Data Using Machine Learning-Based Lead Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggyun Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeters have been used to monitor Arctic sea ice thickness since the early 2000s. In order to estimate sea ice thickness from satellite altimeter data, leads (i.e., cracks between ice floes should first be identified for the calculation of sea ice freeboard. In this study, we proposed novel approaches for lead detection using two machine learning algorithms: decision trees and random forest. CryoSat-2 satellite data collected in March and April of 2011–2014 over the Arctic region were used to extract waveform parameters that show the characteristics of leads, ice floes and ocean, including stack standard deviation, stack skewness, stack kurtosis, pulse peakiness and backscatter sigma-0. The parameters were used to identify leads in the machine learning models. Results show that the proposed approaches, with overall accuracy >90%, produced much better performance than existing lead detection methods based on simple thresholding approaches. Sea ice thickness estimated based on the machine learning-detected leads was compared to the averaged Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM-bird data collected over two days during the CryoSat Validation experiment (CryoVex field campaign in April 2011. This comparison showed that the proposed machine learning methods had better performance (up to r = 0.83 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.29 m compared to thickness estimation based on existing lead detection methods (RMSE = 0.86–0.93 m. Sea ice thickness based on the machine learning approaches showed a consistent decline from 2011–2013 and rebounded in 2014.

  2. Using high sampling rate (10/20 Hz) altimeter data for the observation of coastal surface currents: A case study over the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Florence; Delebecque, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Satellite altimetry, measuring sea surface heights (SSHs), has unique capabilities to provide information about the ocean dynamics. In this paper, the skill of the original full rate (10/20 Hz) measurements, relative to conventional 1-Hz data, is evaluated in the context of coastal studies in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The performance and the question of the measurement noise are quantified through a comparison with different tide gauge sea level time series. By applying a specific processing, closer than 30 km to the land, the number of valid data is higher for the 10/20-Hz than for the 1-Hz observations: + 4.5% for T/P, + 10.3 for Jason-1 and + 13% for Jason-2. By filtering higher sampling rate measurements (using a 30-km cut-off low-pass Lanczos filter), we can obtain the same level of sea level accuracy as we would using the classical 1-Hz altimeter data. The gain in near-shore data results in a better observation of the Liguro-Provençal-Catalan Current. The seasonal evolution of the currents derived from 20-Hz data is globally consistent with patterns derived from the corresponding 1-Hz observations. But the use of higher frequency altimeter measurements allows us to observe the variability of the regional flow closer to the coast (~ 10-15 km from land).

  3. The Earth Gravitational Model 1996: The NCCS: Resource for Development, Resource for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For centuries, men have attempted to understand the climate system through observations obtained from Earth's surface. These observations yielded preliminary understanding of the ocean currents, tides, and prevailing winds using visual observation and simple mechanical tools as their instruments. Today's sensitive, downward-looking radar systems, called altimeters, onboard satellites can measure globally the precise height of the ocean surface. This surface is largely that of the equipotential gravity surface, called the geoid - the level surface to which the oceans would conform if there were no forces acting on them apart from gravity, as well as having a significant 1-2- meter-level signal arising from the motion of the ocean's currents.

  4. A new regional high-resolution map of basal and surface topography for the Greenland ice-sheet margin at Paakitsoq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottram, R.; Nielsen, C.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 an airborne survey was carried out from a Twin Otter aircraft at Pâkitsup Akuliarusersua (Paakitsoq) near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The survey aimed to measure ice thickness with a 60 MHz cohrent radar and surface elevation with a scanning laser altimeter.......In 2005 an airborne survey was carried out from a Twin Otter aircraft at Pâkitsup Akuliarusersua (Paakitsoq) near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The survey aimed to measure ice thickness with a 60 MHz cohrent radar and surface elevation with a scanning laser altimeter....

  5. Building Damage Estimation by Integration of Seismic Intensity Information and Satellite L-band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuoto Nojima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For a quick and stable estimation of earthquake damaged buildings worldwide, using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR loaded on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS satellite, a model combining the usage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-scale seismic intensity is proposed. In order to expand the existing C-band SAR based damage estimation model into L-band SAR, this paper rebuilds a likelihood function for severe damage ratio, on the basis of dataset from Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1/SAR (L-band SAR images observed during the 1995 Kobe earthquake and its detailed ground truth data. The model which integrates the fragility functions of building damage in terms of seismic intensity and the proposed likelihood function is then applied to PALSAR images taken over the areas affected by the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru. The accuracy of the proposed damage estimation model is examined by comparing the results of the analyses with field investigations and/or interpretation of high-resolution satellite images.

  6. Summer planetary-scale oscillations: aura MLS temperature compared with ground-based radar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Meek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of satellite based sampling brings with it the opportunity to examine virtually any part of the globe. Aura MLS mesospheric temperature data are analysed in a wavelet format for easy identification of possible planetary waves (PW and aliases masquerading as PW. A calendar year, 2005, of eastward, stationary, and westward waves at a selected latitude is shown in separate panels for wave number range −3 to +3 for period range 8 h to 30 days (d. Such a wavelet analysis is made possible by Aura's continuous sampling at all latitudes 82° S–82° N. The data presentation is suitable for examination of years of data. However this paper focuses on the striking feature of a "dish-shaped" upper limit to periods near 2 d in mid-summer, with longer periods appearing towards spring and fall, a feature also commonly seen in radar winds. The most probable cause is suggested to be filtering by the summer jet at 70–80 km, the latter being available from ground based medium frequency radar (MFR. Classically, the phase velocity of a wave must be greater than that of the jet in order to propagate through it. As an attempt to directly relate satellite and ground based sampling, a PW event of period 8d and wave number 2, which appears to be the original rather than an alias, is compared with ground based radar wind data. An appendix discusses characteristics of satellite data aliases with regard to their periods and amplitudes.

  7. Progress in coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  8. Generating High-Resolution Lake Bathymetry over Lake Mead using the ICESat-2 Airborne Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Gao, H.; Jasinski, M. F.; Zhang, S.; Stoll, J.

    2017-12-01

    Precise lake bathymetry (i.e., elevation/contour) mapping is essential for optimal decision making in water resources management. Although the advancement of remote sensing has made it possible to monitor global reservoirs from space, most of the existing studies focus on estimating the elevation, area, and storage of reservoirs—and not on estimating the bathymetry. This limitation is attributed to the low spatial resolution of satellite altimeters. With the significant enhancement of ICESat-2—the Ice, Cloud & Land Elevation Satellite #2, which is scheduled to launch in 2018—producing satellite-based bathymetry becomes feasible. Here we present a pilot study for deriving the bathymetry of Lake Mead by combining Landsat area estimations with airborne elevation data using the prototype of ICESat-2—the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL). First, an ISODATA classifier was adopted to extract the lake area from Landsat images during the period from 1982 to 2017. Then the lake area classifications were paired with MABEL elevations to establish an Area-Elevation (AE) relationship, which in turn was applied to the classification contour map to obtain the bathymetry. Finally, the Lake Mead bathymetry image was embedded onto the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM), to replace the existing constant values. Validation against sediment survey data indicates that the bathymetry derived from this study is reliable. This algorithm has the potential for generating global lake bathymetry when ICESat-2 data become available after next year's launch.

  9. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology. [satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  10. Satellite-based technique for nowcasting of thunderstorms over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suman Goyal

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Due to inadequate radar network, satellite plays the dominant role for nowcast of these thunderstorms. In this study, a nowcast based algorithm ForTracc developed by Vila ... of actual development of cumulonimbus clouds, ... MCS over Indian region using Infrared Channel ... (2016) based on case study of.

  11. ERS-1 - Our new window on the oceans for the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1986-05-01

    ESA's First Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) due for launch in 1989 will monitor a carefully selected set of geophysical parameters in an effort to describe the state of the sea-surface. The payload instruments of ERS-1, how they make their measurements, and how the data will be dealt with, are described and discussed. The payload consists of three microwave radars: (1) a wind and wave scatterometer, (2) a synthetic aperture radar, and (3) a radar altimeter. These instruments are complemented by an Along Track Scanning Radiometer and a Precise Range and Range-Rate Experiment. The concept of fast delivery data products is an essential element of the ERS-1 system, meaning that the processed ERS-1 data will be distributed to designated points of contact within three hours of being obtained by the spacecraft. It is concluded that these measurements will lead to a better scientific understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions; moreover, they will pave the way to the application of such data products to a large range of commercial activities.

  12. Impact probabilities of meteoroid streams with artificial satellites: An assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foschini, L.; Cevolani, G.

    1997-01-01

    Impact probabilities of artificial satellites with meteoroid streams were calculated using data collected with the CNR forward scatter (FS) bistatic radar over the Bologna-Lecce baseline (about 700 km). Results show that impact probabilities are 2 times higher than other previously calculated values. Nevertheless, although catastrophic impacts are still rare even in the case of meteor storm conditions, it is expected that high meteoroid fluxes can erode satellites surfaces and weaken their external structures

  13. Bubbles in Titan’s Seas: Nucleation, Growth, and RADAR Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Daniel; Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2018-05-01

    In the polar regions of Titan, the main satellite of Saturn, hydrocarbon seas have been discovered by the Cassini–Huygens mission. RADAR observations have revealed surprising and transient bright areas over the Ligeia Mare surface. As suggested by recent research, bubbles could explain these strange features. However, the nucleation and growth of such bubbles, together with their RADAR reflectivity, have never been investigated. All of these aspects are critical to an actual observation. We have thus applied the classical nucleation theory to our context, and we developed a specific radiative transfer model that is appropriate for bubble streams in cryogenic liquids. According to our results, the sea bed appears to be the most plausible place for the generation of bubbles, leading to a signal comparable to observations. This conclusion is supported by thermodynamic arguments and by RADAR properties of a bubbly column. The latter are also valid in the case of bubble plumes, due to gas leaking from the sea floor.

  14. Ice Sheet Change Detection by Satellite Image Differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Scambos, Ted A.; Choi, Hyeungu; Haran, Terry M.

    2010-01-01

    Differencing of digital satellite image pairs highlights subtle changes in near-identical scenes of Earth surfaces. Using the mathematical relationships relevant to photoclinometry, we examine the effectiveness of this method for the study of localized ice sheet surface topography changes using numerical experiments. We then test these results by differencing images of several regions in West Antarctica, including some where changes have previously been identified in altimeter profiles. The technique works well with coregistered images having low noise, high radiometric sensitivity, and near-identical solar illumination geometry. Clouds and frosts detract from resolving surface features. The ETM(plus) sensor on Landsat-7, ALI sensor on EO-1, and MODIS sensor on the Aqua and Terra satellite platforms all have potential for detecting localized topographic changes such as shifting dunes, surface inflation and deflation features associated with sub-glacial lake fill-drain events, or grounding line changes. Availability and frequency of MODIS images favor this sensor for wide application, and using it, we demonstrate both qualitative identification of changes in topography and quantitative mapping of slope and elevation changes.

  15. Combined Lidar-Radar Remote Sensing: Initial Results from CRYSTAL-FACE and Implications for Future Spaceflight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Li, Li-Hua; Hart, William D.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.

    2003-01-01

    In the near future NASA plans to fly satellites carrying a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar and a 94-GHz cloud profiling radar in formation to provide complete global profiling of cloud and aerosol properties. The CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign, conducted during July 2002, provided the first high-altitude colocated measurements from lidar and cloud profiling radar to simulate these spaceborne sensors. The lidar and radar provide complementary measurements with varying degrees of measurement overlap. This paper presents initial results of the combined airborne lidar-radar measurements during CRYSTAL-FACE. The overlap of instrument sensitivity is presented, within the context of particular CRYSTAL-FACE conditions. Results are presented to quantify the portion of atmospheric profiles sensed independently by each instrument and the portion sensed simultaneously by the two instruments.

  16. In-situ calibration and validation of Cryosat-2 observations over arctic sea ice north of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerland, Sebastian; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar

    CryoSat-2's radar altimeter allows to observe the panArctic sea ice thickness up to 88°N on a monthly basis. However, calibration and validation are crucial to assess limitations and accuracy of the altimeter, and to better quantify the uncertainties involved in converting sea ice freeboard to th...

  17. Test Port for Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley; Rinis, Haris; Cavanaugh, John

    2011-01-01

    A test port designed as part of a fiber optic coupled laser altimeter receiver optical system allows for the back-illumination of the optical system for alignment verification, as well as illumination of the detector(s) for testing the receiver electronics and signal-processing algorithms. Measuring the optical alignment of a laser altimeter instrument is difficult after the instrument is fully assembled. The addition of a test port in the receiver aft-optics allows for the back-illumination of the receiver system such that its focal setting and boresight alignment can be easily verified. For a multiple-detector receiver system, the addition of the aft-optics test port offers the added advantage of being able to simultaneously test all the detectors with different signals that simulate the expected operational conditions. On a laser altimeter instrument (see figure), the aft-optics couple the light from the receiver telescope to the receiver detector(s). Incorporating a beam splitter in the aft-optics design allows for the addition of a test port to back-illuminate the receiver telescope and/or detectors. The aft-optics layout resembles a T with the detector on one leg, the receiver telescope input port on the second leg, and the test port on the third leg. The use of a custom beam splitter with 99-percent reflection, 1-percent transmission, and a mirrored roof can send the test port light to the receiver telescope leg as well as the detector leg, without unduly sacrificing the signal from the receiver telescope to the detector. The ability to test the receiver system alignment, as well as multiple detectors with different signals without the need to disassemble the instrument or connect and reconnect components, is a great advantage to the aft-optics test port. Another benefit is that the receiver telescope aperture is fully back-illuminated by the test port so the receiver telescope focal setting vs. pressure and or temperature can be accurately measured (as

  18. INTERFÉROMÉTRIE RADAR APPLIQUÉE AUX VOLCANS : CAS DE L’ETNA ET DES CHAMPS PHLÉGRÉENS (ITALIE)

    OpenAIRE

    Briole, Pierre; Avallone, Antonio; Beauducel, François; Bonforte, Alessandro; Cayol, Valerie; Deplus, Christine; Delacourt, Christophe; Froger, Jean-Luc; Malengreau, B.; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years, the radar images collected by the European satellites ERS1 and ERS2, the Japanese satellite JERS and the Canadian satellite RADARSAT have been used with success to create interferograms. This technique has been applied for geophysical applications like co-seismic deformation mapping, volcano deformation monitoring, landslides monitoring, mining subsidence detection, glaciers monitoring. Here we report the research carried out by our group on Etna volcano (Italy) ...

  19. Improved Radio Emissivities for Satellites of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The size distribution of TNOs is one of the most important constraints on the history of the early solar system. However, while TNOs are most detectable in the visible and near-IR wavelengths, their albedos vary substantially, thus creating uncertainty in their sizes when determined from reflected light alone. One way of determining the size distribution for a large number of TNOs is to measure their thermal emission, such as has been done with Spitzer and Herschel. However, in just a few year's time, ALMA will be coming online, and will be able to detect thermal emission from even more TNOs. However, thermal emission from Solar System bodies in the millimeter and submillimeter, such as that which ALMA will detect, is not that of a pure blackbody. Pluto, the Gallillean satellites, and Vesta have all shown deviations from unity emissivity. However, the cause of this variation is not well understood. Here we re-analayze data from the Cassini RADAR instrument at 2.5 cm. Cassini RADAR measured the brightness temperature and emissivity of several of Saturn's icy satellites, at least one of which, Phoebe, is thought to be a captured TNO. Previous emissivity determinations relied on relatively simple thermal models. We recalculate emissivities using thermal models based on recent data obtained with the CIRS (infrared) instrument on Cassini which account for, among other things, diurnal effects and the rotation during the RADAR observations. For one important result, we demonstrate that deviation from unity emissivity on Iapetus is due solely to surface depth effects at long wavelengths when RADAR data at 2.5 cm is combined with data obtained at 3.3 mm on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This research is supported by a grant under the NRAO Student Observing Support program.

  20. The Ocean Surface Topography SENTINEL-6/JASON-CS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission will consist of 2 spacecraft and will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on- board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (expected March 2015). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of platform, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. The programme is a part of the EC Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The programme brings together: ESA for development, procurement & early orbit activities; EUMETSAT for mission management, ground segment, flight ops, contributing funding of the 1st satellite and participation in funding for the 2nd satellite; NASA for the US payload and launcher procurement in addition to funding US science opportunities; EC for funding the operations and participation in funding (with EUMETSAT) for the 2nd satellite; NOAA are expected to provide US ground stations & operations services; CNES for mission expertise and provision of the POD service. The consortium plan to procure 2 satellites with the 1st planned for launch readiness in the 1st half of 2020 with the 2nd satellite 5 years later. The first major commitment to funding was given by the ESA member states that approved the programme in June 2014 and in addition the European Commission funding is also fully secure. The design is based on a platform derived from CryoSat-2 adjusted to the specific requirements of the higher orbit. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface

  1. The Ocean Surface Topography JASON-CS/SENTINEL-6 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, R.; Francis, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 programme will consist of 2 spacecraft and will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on-board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (expected March 2015). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of platform, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. The programme is a part of the EC Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The programme brings together: ESA for development, procurement & early orbit activities; EUMETSAT for mission management, ground segment, flight ops, contributing funding of the 1st satellite and participation in funding for the 2nd satellite; NOAA for US payload instruments, launcher, ground stations & operations; NASA for developing the US payload, launcher procurement and funding US science; EU for funding the operations and participation in funding (with EUMETSAT) for the 2nd satellite; CNES for mission expertise and provision of POD. The consortium plan to procure 2 satellites with the 1st planned for launch readiness in the 1st half of 2020 with the 2nd satellite 5 years later. The first major commitment to funding was given by the ESA member states that approved the programme in June 2014 and in addition the European Union funding is also secure. The design will be based on a platform derived from CryoSat-2 but adjusted to the specific requirements of the higher orbit. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface elevation, wind speed and SWH) from

  2. Satellite microwave remote sensing of North Eurasian inundation dynamics: development of coarse-resolution products and comparison with high-resolution synthetic aperture radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R; Rawlins, M A; McDonald, K C; Podest, E; Zimmermann, R; Kueppers, M

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are not only primary producers of atmospheric greenhouse gases but also possess unique features that are favourable for application of satellite microwave remote sensing to monitoring their status and trend. In this study we apply combined passive and active microwave remote sensing data sets from the NASA sensors AMSR-E and QuikSCAT to map surface water dynamics over Northern Eurasia. We demonstrate our method on the evolution of large wetland complexes for two consecutive years from January 2006 to December 2007. We apply river discharge measurements from the Ob River along with land surface runoff simulations derived from the Pan-Arctic Water Balance Model during and after snowmelt in 2006 and 2007 to interpret the abundance of widespread flooding along the River Ob in early summer of 2007 observed in the remote sensing products. The coarse-resolution, 25 km, surface water product is compared to a high-resolution, 30 m, inundation map derived from ALOS PALSAR (Advanced Land Observation Satellite phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar) imagery acquired for 11 July 2006, and extending along a transect in the central Western Siberian Plain. We found that the surface water fraction derived from the combined AMSR-E/QuikSCAT data sets closely tracks the inundation mapped using higher-resolution ALOS PALSAR data.

  3. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  4. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witek; Wolff, David; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  5. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David; Krajewski, Witek; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  6. Comparison Between CCCM and CloudSat Radar-Lidar (RL) Cloud and Radiation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    To enhance cloud properties, LaRC and CIRA developed each combination algorithm for obtained properties from passive, active and imager in A-satellite constellation. When comparing global cloud fraction each other, LaRC-produced CERES-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) products larger low-level cloud fraction over tropic ocean, while CIRA-produced Radar-Lidar (RL) shows larger mid-level cloud fraction for high latitude region. The reason for different low-level cloud fraction is due to different filtering method of lidar-detected cloud layers. Meanwhile difference in mid-level clouds is occurred due to different priority of cloud boundaries from lidar and radar.

  7. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resourcestudies. Comparison results from complex...... terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined withroughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute...... an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface...

  8. KARIN: The Ka-Band Radar Interferometer for the Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Peral, Eva; McWatters, Dalia; Pollard, Brian; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Hughes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several nadir profiling radar altimeters have provided our first global look at the ocean basin-scale circulation and the ocean mesoscale at wavelengths longer than 100 km. Due to sampling limitations, nadir altimetry is unable to resolve the small wavelength ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale that are responsible for the vertical mixing of ocean heat and gases and the dissipation of kinetic energy from large to small scales. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would be a partnership between NASA, CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spaciales) and the Canadian Space Agency, and would have as one of its main goals the measurement of ocean topography with kilometer-scale spatial resolution and centimeter scale accuracy. In this paper, we provide an overview of all ocean error sources that would contribute to the SWOT mission.

  9. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  10. Comparison of sea-ice freeboard distributions from aircraft data and cryosat-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricker, Robert; Hendricks, Stefan; Helm, Veit

    2012-01-01

    highly accurate range measurements. During the CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) 2011 in the Lincoln Sea Cryosat-2 underpasses were accomplished with two aircraft which carried an airborne laser scanner, a radar altimeter and an electromagnetic induction device for direct sea ice thickness...... retrieval. Both aircraft flew in close formation at the same time of a CryoSat-2 overpass. This is a study about the comparison of the sea-ice freeboard distribution of laser scanner and radar altimeter measurements with the CryoSat-2 product within the multi-year sea ice region of the Lincoln Sea in spring...

  11. Water level monitoring using radar remote sensing data: Application to Lake Kivu, central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, Omar; Wali, Umaru G.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Maskey, Shreedhar; Mlotha, McArd J.

    Satellite radar altimetry measures the time required for a pulse to travel from the satellite antenna to the earth’s surface and back to the satellite receiver. Altimetry on inland lakes generally shows some deviation from in situ level measurements. The deviation is attributed to the geographically varying corrections applied to account for atmospheric effects on radar waves. This study was focused on verification of altimetry data for Lake Kivu (2400 km 2), a large inland lake between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and estimating the lake water levels using bathymetric data combined with satellite images. Altimetry data obtained from ENVISAT and ERS-2 satellite missions were compared with water level data from gauging stations for Lake Kivu. Gauge data for Lake Kivu were collected from the stations ELECTROGAZ and Rusizi. ENVISAT and ERS-2 data sets for Lake Kivu are in good agreement with gauge data having R2 of 0.86 and 0.77, respectively. A combination of the two data sets improved the coefficient of determination to 95% due to the improved temporal resolution of the data sets. The calculated standard deviation for Lake Kivu water levels was 0.642 m and 0.701 m, for ENVISAT and ERS-2 measurements, respectively. The elevation-surface area characteristics derived from bathymetric data in combination with satellite images were used to estimate the lake level gauge. Consequently, the water level of Lake Kivu could be estimated with an RMSE of 0.294 m and an accuracy of ±0.58 m. In situations where gauges become malfunctioning or inaccessible due to damage or extreme meteorological events, the method can be used to ensure data continuity.

  12. The synchronization method for distributed small satellite SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Gong, Xiaochun; Qiu, Wenxun; Sun, Zhaowei

    2007-11-01

    One of critical requirement for distributed small satellite SAR is the trigger time precision when all satellites turning on radar loads. This trigger operation is controlled by a dedicated communication tool or GPS system. In this paper a hardware platform is proposed which has integrated navigation, attitude control, and data handling system together. Based on it, a probabilistic synchronization method is proposed for SAR time precision requirement with ring architecture. To simplify design of transceiver, half-duplex communication way is used in this method. Research shows that time precision is relevant to relative frequency drift rate, satellite number, retry times, read error and round delay length. Installed with crystal oscillator short-term stability 10 -11 magnitude, this platform can achieve and maintain nanosecond order time error with a typical three satellites formation experiment during whole operating process.

  13. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) From Space - Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or lidar, is like radar but atoptical wavelengths. The principle of operation and theirapplications in remote sensing are similar. Lidars havemany advantages over radars in instrument designs andapplications because of the much shorter laser wavelengthsand narrower beams. The lidar transmitters and receiveroptics are much smaller than radar antenna dishes. Thespatial resolution of lidar measurement is much finer thanthat of radar because of the much smaller footprint size onground. Lidar measurements usually give a better temporalresolution because the laser pulses can be much narrowerthan radio frequency (RF) signals. The major limitation oflidar is the ability to penetrate clouds and ground surfaces.

  14. Satellite Eye for the Galathea 3 ship expedition: Global tour 2006-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 (www.satellitecye.dk contains education at the internet for secondary and upper secondary schools and the public. The Galathea 3 ship expedition circumnavigated the globe starting from Denmark 11 August 2006, visiting Greenland, Azores, South Africa, Australia, Solomon...... of the expedition and these classes in particular used the Satellite Eye teaching material. In Google Earth satellite images of many themes are shown. These include sea ice, sea surface temperature, ocean wind, wave height, sea surface level, ozone, clouds and radar images of ocean and land. Also high spatial...

  15. ALGORITHM OF SAR SATELLITE ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT USING GPS AIDED BY KINEMATIC VECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)satellite attitude using Global Positioning System (GPS) wide-band carrier phase, the SAR satellite attitude kinematic vector and Kalman filter are introduced. Introducing the state variable function of GPS attitude determination algorithm in SAR satellite by means of kinematic vector and describing the observation function by the GPS wide-band carrier phase, the paper uses the Kalman filter algorithm to obtian the attitude variables of SAR satellite. Compared the simulation results of Kalman filter algorithm with the least square algorithm and explicit solution, it is indicated that the Kalman filter algorithm is the best.

  16. Software Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  17. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  18. Fusion of Satellite Multispectral Images Based on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR Data for the Investigation of Buried Concealed Archaeological Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Agapiou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the superficial layers of an archaeological landscape based on the integration of various remote sensing techniques. It is well known in the literature that shallow depths may be rich in archeological remains, which generate different signal responses depending on the applied technique. In this study three main technologies are examined, namely ground-penetrating radar (GPR, ground spectroscopy, and multispectral satellite imagery. The study aims to propose a methodology to enhance optical remote sensing satellite images, intended for archaeological research, based on the integration of ground based and satellite datasets. For this task, a regression model between the ground spectroradiometer and GPR is established which is then projected to a high resolution sub-meter optical image. The overall methodology consists of nine steps. Beyond the acquirement of the in-situ measurements and their calibration (Steps 1–3, various regression models are examined for more than 70 different vegetation indices (Steps 4–5. The specific data analysis indicated that the red-edge position (REP hyperspectral index was the most appropriate for developing a local fusion model between ground spectroscopy data and GPR datasets (Step 6, providing comparable results with the in situ GPR measurements (Step 7. Other vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, have also been examined, providing significant correlation between the two datasets (R = 0.50. The model is then projected to a high-resolution image over the area of interest (Step 8. The proposed methodology was evaluated with a series of field data collected from the Vésztő-Mágor Tell in the eastern part of Hungary. The results were compared with in situ magnetic gradiometry measurements, indicating common interpretation results. The results were also compatible with the preliminary archaeological investigations of the area (Step 9. The overall

  19. Development of Spaceborne Radar Simulator by NICT and JAXA using JMA Cloud-resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Eito, H.; Aonashi, K.; Hashimoto, A.; Iguchi, T.; Hanado, H.; Shimizu, S.; Yoshida, N.; Oki, R.

    2009-12-01

    We are developing synthetic spaceborne radar data toward a simulation of the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) aboard the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core-satellite. Our purposes are a production of test-bed data for higher level DPR algorithm developers, in addition to a diagnosis of a cloud resolving model (CRM). To make the synthetic data, we utilize the CRM by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-NHM) (Ikawa and Saito 1991, Saito et al. 2006, 2007), and the spaceborne radar simulation algorithm by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) named as the Integrated Satellite Observation Simulator for Radar (ISOSIM-Radar). The ISOSIM-Radar simulates received power data in a field of view of the spaceborne radar with consideration to a scan angle of the radar (Oouchi et al. 2002, Kubota et al. 2009). The received power data are computed with gaseous and hydrometeor attenuations taken into account. The backscattering and extinction coefficients are calculated assuming the Mie approximation for all species. The dielectric constants for solid particles are computed by the Maxwell-Garnett model (Bohren and Battan 1982). Drop size distributions are treated in accordance with those of the JMA-NHM. We assume a spherical sea surface, a Gaussian antenna pattern, and 49 antenna beam directions for scan angles from -17 to 17 deg. in the PR. In this study, we report the diagnosis of the JMA-NHM with reference to the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) using the ISOSIM-Radar from the view of comparisons in cloud microphysics schemes of the JMA-NHM. We tested three kinds of explicit bulk microphysics schemes based on Lin et al. (1983), that is, three-ice 1-moment scheme, three-ice 2-moment scheme (Eito and Aonashi 2009), and newly developed four-ice full 2-moment scheme (Hashimoto 2008). The hydrometeor species considered here are rain, graupel

  20. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  1. Combining Envisat and CryoSat-2 altimetry to inform hydrodynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Raphael; Nygaard Godiksen, Peter; Ridler, Marc-Etienne

    2016-01-01

    fitted to the CryoSat-2 data: In a first step, the average simulated water levels along the river were calibrated to the CryoSat-2 data by adapting the hydrodynamic cross section datums. Subsequently the simulated water level amplitudes were fitted to those obtained from Envisat virtual station time......Remote sensing provides valuable data for parameterization and updating of hydrological models, for example water level measurements of inland water bodies from satellite radar altimeters. Many studies have used satellite altimetry data from repeat-orbit missions such as Envisat, ERS or Jason...... on Sentinel-3. CryoSat-2 SARIn level 2 data is used to improve a 1D hydrodynamic model of the Brahmaputra river basin in South Asia set up in the DHI MIKE 11 software. CryoSat-2 water levels were extracted over river masks derived from Landsat imagery. After discharge calibration, simulated water levels were...

  2. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  3. Inter-seasonal surface deformations of an active rock glacier imaged with radar and lidar remote sensing; Turtmann valley, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Andrew; Buchli, Thomas; Strozzi, Tazio; Springman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Inter-seasonal changes in surface deformation were imaged using a portable radar interferometer and terrestrial laser scanner during a series of three campaigns that took place in autumn 2011, summer 2012 and autumn 2012 on a rock glacier located in the Turtmann valley, Switzerland. Satellite radar interferometry (ERS 1 & 2, CosmoSkymed) indicate that accelerated downslope movement of the rock glacier commenced during the 1990s. Due to signal decorrelation associated with the satellite repeat pass time interval, continuous ground-based radar interferometry measurements were undertaken. Results show that the rock glacier accelerated significantly in Summer (Vmax = 6.0cm/25hrs), probably in response to the condition of the subsurface hydrology (e.g. post-peak spring snow melt and/or infiltration of rainfall). In autumn, the displacement velocity was reduced (Vmax = 2.0cm/25hrs). A one year surface difference of the glacier topography, derived from terrestrial laser scanning, provided insight into the rock glacier kinematics. Ongoing research is aimed at integrating surface displacement results with an extensive borehole monitoring system consisting of inclinometers and temperature sensors.

  4. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  5. The effect of recombination and attachment on meteor radar diffusion coefficient profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Younger, J. P.; Reid, I. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J.-H.

    2013-04-01

    Estimates of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient producedusing meteor radar echo decay times display an increasing trend below 80-85 km, which is inconsistent with a diffusion-only theory of the evolution of meteor trails. Data from the 33 MHz meteor radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica, have been compared with observations from the Aura Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder satellite instrument. It has been found that the height at which the diffusion coefficient gradient reverses follows the height of a constant neutral atmospheric density surface. Numerical simulations of meteor trail diffusion including dissociative recombination with atmospheric ions and three-body attachment of free electrons to neutral molecules indicate that three-body attachment is responsible for the distortion of meteor radar diffusion coefficient profiles at heights below 90 km, including the gradient reversal below 80-85 km. Further investigation has revealed that meteor trails with low initial electron line density produce decay times more consistent with a diffusion-only model of meteor trail evolution.

  6. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  7. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for model calibration and validation in a large ungauged catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration and validation of a rainfall-runoff model...... of the ungauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i) Surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates derived from SAR measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii) Radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum width of about one...... hundred meters; and (iii) Temporal changes of the Earth’s gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are compared to simulated moisture conditions in the top soil layer. They cannot be used for model...

  8. The OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) Investigation and Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M. G.; Barnouin, O. S.; Dickinson, C.; Seabrook, J.; Johnson, C. L.; Cunningham, G.; Haltigin, T.; Gaudreau, D.; Brunet, C.; Aslam, I.; Taylor, A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Boynton, W.; Nolan, M.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has contributed to the Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA). The OSIRIS-REx mission will sample asteroid 101955 Bennu, the first B-type asteroid to be visited by a spacecraft. Bennu is thought to be primitive, carbonaceous, and spectrally most closely related to CI and/or CM meteorites. As a scanning laser altimeter, the OLA instrument will measure the range between the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and the surface of Bennu to produce digital terrain maps of unprecedented spatial scales for a planetary mission. The digital terrain maps produced will measure ˜7 cm per pixel globally, and ˜3 cm per pixel at specific sample sites. In addition, OLA data will be used to constrain and refine the spacecraft trajectories. Global maps and highly accurate spacecraft trajectory estimates are critical to infer the internal structure of the asteroid. The global and regional maps also are key to gain new insights into the surface processes acting across Bennu, which inform the selection of the OSIRIS-REx sample site. These, in turn, are essential for understanding the provenance of the regolith sample collected by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. The OLA data also are important for quantifying any hazards near the selected OSIRIS-REx sample site and for evaluating the range of tilts at the sampling site for comparison against the capabilities of the sample acquisition device.

  9. Esa Cryovex 2011 Airborne Campaign For Cryosat-2 Calibration And Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Einarsson, Indriði; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar and laser...... measurements, as the laser reflects on the surface, and by overflight of laser reflectors. In the spring of 2011 the DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice north...

  10. Quality Control and Calibration of the Dual-Polarization Radar at Kwajalein, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David A.; Wolff, David B.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Tokay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Weather radars, recording information about precipitation around the globe, will soon be significantly upgraded. Most of today s weather radars transmit and receive microwave energy with horizontal orientation only, but upgraded systems have the capability to send and receive both horizontally and vertically oriented waves. These enhanced "dual-polarimetric" (DP) radars peer into precipitation and provide information on the size, shape, phase (liquid / frozen), and concentration of the falling particles (termed hydrometeors). This information is valuable for improved rain rate estimates, and for providing data on the release and absorption of heat in the atmosphere from condensation and evaporation (phase changes). The heating profiles in the atmosphere influence global circulation, and are a vital component in studies of Earth s changing climate. However, to provide the most accurate interpretation of radar data, the radar must be properly calibrated and data must be quality controlled (cleaned) to remove non-precipitation artifacts; both of which are challenging tasks for today s weather radar. The DP capability maximizes performance of these procedures using properties of the observed precipitation. In a notable paper published in 2005, scientists from the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma developed a method to calibrate radars using statistically averaged DP measurements within light rain. An additional publication by one of the same scientists at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) in Norman, Oklahoma introduced several techniques to perform quality control of radar data using DP measurements. Following their lead, the Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite Validation Office at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has fine-tuned these methods for specific application to the weather radar at Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, approximately 2100 miles

  11. Validation of Sentinel-3A altimetry data by using in-situ multi-platform observations near Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Román, Antonio; Heslop, Emma; Reeve, Krissy; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pujol, Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Torner, Marc; Tintoré, Joaquín; Pascual, Ananda

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) Sea Level Thematic Assembly Center (SL-TAC), a glider mission was undertaken between May and June 2016 along the same track as the overpass of the Sentinel 3A satellite in the Southern Mallorca region. Moreover, a one-day ship mission on May 30, synchronous with the overpass of the satellite, captured two transects of moving vessel ADCP close to the coastal area. The aim was to compare the along track altimeter products and multi-platform in-situ observations in the southern coastal zone of the Mallorca Island and the Algerian Basin. In addition, we explored the potential of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Mode (SARM) instrumentation of Sentinel-3 mission, which enables the satellite to measure nearest the coasts with both higher spatial resolution and higher precision than previous missions. With the ultimate goal of contributing to a more complete understanding of both ocean and coastal physical processes and the biogeochemical impacts. The analyses presented here are conducted through the comparison of Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) obtained from the Sentinel-3A altimetry measurements along ground-track #713 and Dynamic Height (DH) derived from temperature and salinity profiles measured by the glider along the trajectory followed by the satellite. Moreover, currents derived from altimetry and in-situ glider data along the track followed by the satellite; and from ADCP data collected in the coastal region are analysed. Results show a good agreement between ADT from altimetry and DH from glider data with maximum differences of around 2 cm that promote a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1 cm, the correlation coefficient between both datasets is 0.89. The satellite data closely resemble the geostrophic velocity pattern observed by the glider measurements along the Algerian Current, and also the ADCP data in the coastal zone, exhibiting a RMSE lower than 10 cm/s and a correlation coefficient

  12. Quantifying offshore wind resources from satellite wind maps: Study area the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Christiansen, Merete B.

    2006-01-01

    Offshore wind resources are quantified from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and satellite scatterometer observations at local and regional scale respectively at the Horns Rev site in Denmark. The method for wind resource estimation from satellite observations interfaces with the wind atlas...... of the Horns Rev wind farm is quantified from satellite SAR images and compared with state-of-the-art wake model results with good agreement. It is a unique method using satellite observations to quantify the spatial extent of the wake behind large offshore wind farms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... analysis and application program (WAsP). An estimate of the wind resource at the new project site at Horns Rev is given based on satellite SAR observations. The comparison of offshore satellite scatterometer winds, global model data and in situ data shows good agreement. Furthermore, the wake effect...

  13. Improved oceanographic measurements fom SAR altimetry: Results and scientific roadmap from ESA cryosat plus for oceans project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotton, P. D.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. It thus provides the first opportunity to test and evaluate, using real data, the significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications. The obje...

  14. Intercomparison of Vertical Structure of Storms Revealed by Ground-Based (NMQ and Spaceborne Radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Fall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR, which are onboard NASA’s CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE. This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors’ type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts.

  15. CryoSat-2: Post launch performance of SIRAL-2 and its calibration/validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Robert; Francis, Richard; Davidson, Malcolm; Wingham, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION The main payload of CryoSat-2 [1], SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter which transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing [2]. The azimuth processing in conjunction with correction for slant range improves along track resolution to about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited systems such as Envisat RA-2, [3]. CryoSat-2 will be launched on 25th February 2010 and this paper describes the pre and post launch measures of CryoSat/SIRAL performance and the status of mission validation planning. 2. SIRAL PERFORMANCE: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CALIBRATION Phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeters such as SIRAL-2 pose a new challenge when considering a strategy for calibration. Along with the need to generate the well understood corrections for transfer function amplitude with respect to frequency, gain and instrument path delay there is also a need to provide corrections for transfer function phase with respect to frequency and AGC setting, phase variation across bursts of pulses. Furthermore, since some components of these radars are temperature sensitive one needs to be careful when the deciding how often calibrations are performed whilst not impacting mission performance. Several internal calibration ground processors have been developed to model imperfections within the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL-2) hardware and reduce their effect from the science data stream via the use of calibration correction auxiliary products within the ground segment. We present the methods and results used to model and remove imperfections and describe the baseline for usage of SIRAL-2 calibration modes during the commissioning phase and the operational exploitation phases of the mission. Additionally we present early results derived from external calibration of SIRAL via

  16. JAXA's activities for environmental health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the first ten years after establishment of the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) in 2003, our focuses were mainly on technical development (hardware and software) and accumulation of application research. In the next decade, we focus more on solution on social issues using innovative space science technology. Currently, JAXA is operating and developing several earth observation satellites and sensors: Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) "IBUKI", Global Change Observation Mission - Water "SHIZUKU" (GCOM-W), Global Precipitation Measurement/Dual- frequency Precipitation Radar (GPM/DPR), Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 "DAICHI-2" (ALOS-2), Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE), and GOSAT-2. They will provide essential environmental parameters, such as aerosols, clouds, land vegetation, ocean color, GHGs, and so on. In addition to the above missions, we are studying new instruments (altimeter, LIDAR, detectors, optical components) to obtain new parameters. Our activities will advance to provide essential inputs for diagnosis, prediction, and management of climate change, environmental assessment, and disaster monitoring.

  17. Improving Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates by Combining two Types of Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of how Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) X-band measurements can be combined with meteorological C–band measurements into a single radar product. For this purpose, a blending method has been developed which combines the strengths of the two radar systems. Combining...... the two radar types achieves a radar product with both long range and high temporal resolution. It is validated that the blended radar product performs better than the individual radars based on ground observations from laser disdrometers. However, the data combination is challenged by lower performance...... of the LAWR. Although both radars benefits from the data combination, it is also found that advection based temporal interpolation is a more favourable method for increasing the temporal resolution of meteorological C–band measurements....

  18. Applying NASA Imaging Radar Datasets to Investigate the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Alexander, P. M.; Cracraft, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity rich biome and plays a significant role into shaping Earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of this basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity and its response to climate change. During March 2013, the NASA/JPL L-band polarimetric airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired during that time over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess the utility of these high quality imaging radar data for use in identifying geomorphologic features and vegetation communities within the context of improving the understanding of evolutionary processes, and their utility in aiding interpretation of datasets from Earth-orbiting satellites to support a basin-wide characterization across the Amazon. We derive maps of landcover and river branching structure from UAVSAR imagery. We compare these maps to those derived using imaging radar datasets from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS PALSAR and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Results provide an understanding of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon planalto as well as its relationship to geologic processes and will support interpretation of the evolutionary history of the Amazon Basin. Portions of this work have been carried out within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility.This work is carried out with support from the NASA Biodiversity Program and the NSF DIMENSIONS of Biodiversity Program.

  19. Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Phillips, Roger J; Peale, Stanton J; Head, James W; Hauck, Steven A; McNutt, Ralph L; Oberst, Jürgen; Neumann, Gregory A; Lemoine, Frank G; Sun, Xiaoli; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Harmon, John K

    2008-07-04

    A 3200-kilometers-long profile of Mercury by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft spans approximately 20% of the near-equatorial region of the planet. Topography along the profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer dynamic range and 930-meter root-mean-square roughness. At long wavelengths, topography slopes eastward by 0.02 degrees , implying a variation of equatorial shape that is at least partially compensated. Sampled craters on Mercury are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part the result of Mercury's higher gravity. Crater floors vary in roughness and slope, implying complex modification over a range of length scales.

  20. Prime mission results of the dual-frequency precipitation radar on the global precipitation measurement core spacecraft and the version 5 GPM standard products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, K.; Nio, T.; Oki, R.; Kubota, T.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-09-01

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite was developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The objective of the GPM mission is to observe global precipitation more frequently and accurately. The GPM core satellite is a joint product of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), JAXA and NICT. NASA developed the satellite bus and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and JAXA and NICT developed the DPR. The inclination of the GPM core satellite is 65 degrees, and the nominal flight altitude is 407 km. The non-sunsynchronous circular orbit is necessary for measuring the diurnal change of rainfall. The DPR consists of two radars, which are Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band precipitation radar (KaPR). GPM core observatory was successfully launched by H2A launch vehicle on Feb. 28, 2014. DPR orbital check out was completed in May 2014. DPR products were released to the public on Sep. 2, 2014 and Normal Observation Operation period was started. JAXA is continuing DPR trend monitoring, calibration and validation operations to confirm that DPR keeps its function and performance on orbit. The results of DPR trend monitoring, calibration and validation show that DPR kept its function and performance on orbit during the 3 years and 2 months prime mission period. The DPR Prime mission period was completed in May 2017. The version 5 GPM products were released to the public in 2017. JAXA confirmed that GPM/DPR total system performance and the GPM version 5 products achieved the success criteria and the performance indicators that were defined for the JAXA GPM/DPR mission.

  1. Photon counting altimeter and lidar for air and spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Michael; Michalek, Vojtech; Peca, Marek; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Kodet, Jan

    2011-06-01

    We are presenting the concept and preliminary design of modular multipurpose device for space segment: single photon counting laser altimeter, atmospheric lidar, laser transponder and one way laser ranging receiver. For all the mentioned purposes, the same compact configuration of the device is appropriate. Overall estimated device weight should not exceed 5 kg with the power consumption below 10 W. The device will consists of three main parts, namely, receiver, transmitter and control and processing unit. As a transmitter a commercial solid state laser at 532 nm wavelength with 10 mW power will be used. The transmitter optics will have a diameter at most of 50 mm. The laser pulse width will be of hundreds of picoseconds order. For the laser altimeter and atmospheric lidar application, the repetition rate of 10 kHz is planned in order to obtain sufficient number of data for a distance value computing. The receiver device will be composed of active quenched Single Photon Avalanche Diode module, tiny optics, and narrow-band optical filter. The core part of the control and processing unit including high precision timing unit is implemented using single FPGA chip. The preliminary device concept includes considerations on energy balance, and statistical algorithms to meet all the mentioned purposes. Recently, the bread board version of the device is under construction in our labs. The concept, construction, and timing results will be presented.

  2. Surveying glacier bedrock topography with a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, L.; Rabenstein, L.; Schmid, L.; Bauder, A.; Schaer, P.; Maurer, H.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier mass estimations are crucial for future run-off projections in the Swiss Alps. Traditionally, ice thickness modeling approaches and ground-based radar transects have been the tools of choice for estimating glacier volume in high mountain areas, but these methods either contain high uncertainties or are logistically expensive and offer mostly only sparse subsurface information. We have developed a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system, which enhances operational feasibility in rough, high-elevation terrain and increases the data output per acquisition campaign significantly. Our system employs a prototype pulseEKKO device with two broadside 25-MHz antenna pairs fixed to a helicopter-towed wooden frame. Additionally attached to the system are a laser altimeter for measuring the flight height above ground, three GPS receivers for accurate positioning and a GoPro camera for obtaining visual images of the surface. Previous investigations have shown the significant impact of the antenna dipole orientation on the detectability of the bedrock reflection. For optimal results, the dipoles of the GPR should be aligned parallel to the strike direction of the surrounding mountain walls. In areas with a generally unknown bedrock topography, such as saddle areas or diverging zones, a dual-polarization system is particularly useful. This could be demonstrated with helicopter-borne GPR profiles acquired on more than 25 glaciers in the Swiss Alps. We observed significant differences in ice-bedrock interface visibility depending on the orientation of the antennas.

  3. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaiah Chintalapudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  4. Measurement of Precipitation in the Alps Using Dual-Polarization C-Band Ground-Based Radars, the GPM Spaceborne Ku-Band Radar, and Rain Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gabella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex problem of quantitative precipitation estimation in the Alpine region is tackled from four different points of view: (1 the modern MeteoSwiss network of automatic telemetered rain gauges (GAUGE; (2 the recently upgraded MeteoSwiss dual-polarization Doppler, ground-based weather radar network (RADAR; (3 a real-time merging of GAUGE and RADAR, implemented at MeteoSwiss, in which a technique based on co-kriging with external drift (CombiPrecip is used; (4 spaceborne observations, acquired by the dual-wavelength precipitation radar on board the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM core satellite. There are obviously large differences in these sampling modes, which we have tried to minimize by integrating synchronous observations taken during the first 2 years of the GPM mission. The data comprises 327 “wet” overpasses of Switzerland, taken after the launch of GPM in February 2014. By comparing the GPM radar estimates with the MeteoSwiss products, a similar performance was found in terms of bias. On average (whole country, all days and seasons, both solid and liquid phases, underestimation is as large as −3.0 (−3.4 dB with respect to RADAR (GAUGE. GPM is not suitable for assessing what product is the best in terms of average precipitation over the Alps. GPM can nevertheless be used to evaluate the dispersion of the error around the mean, which is a measure of the geographical distribution of the error inside the country. Using 221 rain-gauge sites, the result is clear both in terms of correlation and in terms of scatter (a robust, weighted measure of the dispersion of the multiplicative error around the mean. The best agreement was observed between GPM and CombiPrecip, and, next, between GPM and RADAR, whereas a larger disagreement was found between GPM and GAUGE. Hence, GPM confirms that, for precipitation mapping in the Alpine region, the best results are obtained by combining ground-based radar with rain-gauge measurements using

  5. Gravity and magma induces spreading of Mount Etna volcano revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungren, P.; Casu, F.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Berardino, P.; Sansosti, E.; Lanari, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mount Etna underwent a cycle of eruptive activity over the past ten years. Here we compute ground displacement maps and deformation time series from more than 400 radar interferograms to reveal Mount Etna's average and time varying surface deformation from 1992 to 2001.

  6. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry over Coastal and Open Ocean: performance assessment and improved retrieval methods in the ESA SCOOP Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Moreau, T.; Raynal, M.; Varona, E.; Cipollini, P.; Cancet, M.; Martin, F.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Naeije, M.; Fernandes, J.; Lazaro, C.; Restano, M.; Ambrózio, A.

    2017-12-01

    The ESA Sentinel-3 satellite, launched in February 2016 as a part of the Copernicus programme, is the second satellite to operate a SAR mode altimeter. The Sentinel 3 Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) is based on the heritage from Cryosat-2, but this time complemented by a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) to provide a wet troposphere correction, and operating at Ku and C-Bands to provide an accurate along-track ionospheric correction. The SRAL is operated in SAR mode over the whole ocean and promises increased performance w.r.t. conventional altimetry. SCOOP (SAR Altimetry Coastal & Open Ocean Performance) is a project funded under the ESA SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) Programme Element, started in September 2015, to characterise the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SRAL SAR mode altimeter products, in the coastal zone and open-ocean, and then to develop and evaluate enhancements to the baseline processing scheme in terms of improvements to ocean measurements. There is also a work package to develop and evaluate an improved Wet Troposphere correction for Sentinel-3, based on the measurements from the on-board MWR, further enhanced mostly in the coastal and polar regions using third party data, and provide recommendations for use. In this presentation we present results from the SCOOP project that demonstrate the excellent performance of SRAL in terms of measurement precision, and we illustrate the development and testing of new processing approaches designed specifically to improve performance close to the coast. The SCOOP test data sets and relevant documentation are available to external researchers on application to the project team. At the end of the project recommendations for further developments and implementations will be provided through a scientific roadmap.

  7. The Ocean Surface Topography Sentinel-6/Jason-CS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulicchi, L.; Cullen, R.; Donlon, C.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission consists of two identical satellites flying in sequence and designed to provide operational measurements of sea surface height significant wave high and wind speed to support operational oceanography and climate monitoring. The mission will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on- board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (launched in January 2016). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of spacecraft, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. As a secondary objective the mission will also include Radio Occultation user services. Each satellite will be launched sequentially into the Jason orbit (up to 66 latitude) respectively in 2020 and 2025. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface elevation, wind speed and SWH) from the altimeter data require supporting measurements: a DORIS receiver for Precise Orbit Determination; The Climate Quality Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR-C) for high stability path delay correction. Orbit tracking data are also provided by GPS & LRA. An additional GPS receiver will be dedicated to radio-occultation measurements. The programme is a part of the European Community Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS in particular is a cooperative mission with contributions from NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT, ESA, CNES and the European Union.

  8. Calibration And Validation Of CryoSat-2 Low Resolution Mode Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, M.; Schrama, E.; Scharroo, R.

    2011-02-01

    Running ahead of the continuously growing need for operational use of sea level products, TUDelft started off the Radar Altimeter Database System RADS many years ago. This system attends to a global international sea- level service. It supports, on one hand, science, like studies on ocean circulation, El Nio, sea level change, and ice topography, and on the other hand (offshore) operations, like delivery of ocean current information, wind and wave statistics, ice detection and ice classification. At present, the database is used by a large scientific community throughout the world, and is daily maintained and developed by Altimetrics LLC, TUDelft and NOAA. It contains all historic altimeter data, and now has to be up- dated with the data from ESAs ice mission CryoSat-2, which was launched successfully in April 2010. These new data are important to augment the data set and by that to improve the estimates of sea level change and its contributors. For this the data have to be validated and calibrated, necessary corrections added and improved (including modelling of corrections that are not directly available from the CryoSat-2 platform), and the orbit ac- curacy verified and if possible the orbits brushed up. Subsequently, value-added ocean and ice products need to be developed in synergy with all the other satellite altimeter data. During the commissioning phase we primarily looked at the sanity of the available level-1b and level-2 Low Resolution Mode (LRM) data. Here, for the 2011 CryoSat Validation Workshop, we present the results of our calibration and validation of LRM L2 data by internal comparison of CryoSat-2 and external comparison with other satellites. We have established a range bias of 3.77 (measurement range too long) and a timing bias of 8.2ms (measurement range too late).

  9. Measurements of land surface features using an airborne laser altimeter: the HAPEX-Sahel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Menenti, M.; Weltz, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    An airborne laser profiling altimeter was used to measure surface features and properties of the landscape during the HAPEX-Sahel Experiment in Niger, Africa in September 1992. The laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical resolution of 5 cm. Airborne laser and detailed field measurements of vegetation heights had similar average heights and frequency distribution. Laser transects were used to estimate land surface topography, gully and channel morphology, and vegetation properties ( height, cover and distribution). Land surface changes related to soil erosion and channel development were measured. For 1 km laser transects over tiger bush communities, the maximum vegetation height was between 4-5 and 6-5 m, with an average height of 21 m. Distances between the centre of rows of tiger bush vegetation averaged 100 m. For two laser transects, ground cover for tiger bush was estimated to be 225 and 301 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5m tall and 190 and 25-8 per cent for vegetation greater than 10m tall. These values are similar to published values for tiger bush. Vegetation cover for 14 and 18 km transects was estimated to be 4 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5 m tall. These cover values agree within 1-2 per cent with published data for short transects (⩾ 100 m) for the area. The laser altimeter provided quick and accurate measurements for evaluating changes in land surface features. Such information provides a basis for understanding land degradation and a basis for management plans to rehabilitate the landscape. (author)

  10. Comparison of Ground- and Space-based Radar Observations with Disdrometer Measurements During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. D.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.

    2015-12-01

    Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) was a large field campaign that studied nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), convective initiation, bores, and low-level jets across the central plains in the United States. MCSs are responsible for over half of the warm-season precipitation across the central U.S. plains. The rainfall from deep convection of these systems over land have been observed to be underestimated by satellite radar rainfall-retrieval algorithms by as much as 40 percent. These algorithms have a strong dependence on the generally unmeasured rain drop-size distribution (DSD). During the campaign, our group measured rainfall DSDs, precipitation fall velocities, and total precipitation in the convective and stratiform regions of MCSs using Ott Parsivel optical laser disdrometers. The disdrometers were co-located with mobile pod units that measured temperature, wind, and relative humidity for quality control purposes. Data from the operational NEXRAD radar in LaCrosse, Wisconsin and space-based radar measurements from a Global Precipitation Measurement satellite overpass on July 13, 2015 were used for the analysis. The focus of this study is to compare DSD measurements from the disdrometers to radars in an effort to reduce errors in existing rainfall-retrieval algorithms. The error analysis consists of substituting measured DSDs into existing quantitative precipitation estimation techniques (e.g. Z-R relationships and dual-polarization rain estimates) and comparing these estimates to ground measurements of total precipitation. The results from this study will improve climatological estimates of total precipitation in continental convection that are used in hydrological studies, climate models, and other applications.

  11. Earth-satellite propagation above GHz: Papers from the 1972 spring URSI session on experiments utilizing the ATS-5 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J. (Compiler)

    1972-01-01

    Papers are reported from the Special Session on Earth-Satellite Propagation Above 10 GHz, presented at The 1972 Spring Meeting of the United States National Committee, International Union of Radio Science, April 1972, Washington, D. C. This session was devoted to propagation measurements associated with the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-5), which provided the first operational earth-space links at frequencies above 15 GHz. A comprehensive summary is presented of the major results of the ATS-5 experiment measurements and related radiometric, radar and meteorological studies. The papers are organized around seven selected areas of interest, with the results of the various investigators combined into a single paper presented by a principal author for that area. A comprehensive report is provided on the results of the ATS-5 satellite to earth transmissions. A complete list of published reports and presentations related to the ATS-5 Millimeter Wave Experiment is included.

  12. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    variations are clearly visible across the domain; for instance sheltering effects caused by the land masses. The satellite based wind resource maps have two shortcomings. One is the lack of information at the higher vertical levels where wind turbines operate. The other is the limited number of overlapping...... years of WRF data – specifically the parameters heat flux, air temperature, and friction velocity – are used to calculate a long-term correction for atmospheric stability effects. The stability correction is applied to the satellite based wind resource maps together with a vertical wind profile...... from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly suitable for offshore wind energy applications because they offer a spatial resolution up to 500 m and include coastal seas. In this presentation, satellite wind maps are used in combination with mast observations and numerical...

  13. South Atlantic Ocean circulation: Simulation experiments with a quasi-geostrophic model and assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenchie, P.; Verron, J.

    1998-10-01

    Simulation experiments of South Atlantic Ocean circulations are conducted with a 1/6°, four-layered, quasi-geostrophic model. By means of a simple nudging data assimilation procedure along satellite tracks, TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimeter measurements are introduced into the model to control the simulation of the basin-scale circulation for the period from October 1992 to September 1994. The model circulation appears to be strongly influenced by the introduction of altimeter data, offering a consistent picture of South Atlantic Ocean circulations. Comparisons with observations show that the assimilating model successfully simulates the kinematic behavior of a large number of surface circulation components. The assimilation procedure enables us to produce schematic diagrams of South Atlantic circulation in which patterns ranging from basin-scale currents to mesoscale eddies are portrayed in a realistic way, with respect to their complexity. The major features of the South Atlantic circulation are described and analyzed, with special emphasis on the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region, the Subtropical Gyre with the formation of frontal structures, and the Agulhas Retroflection. The Agulhas eddy-shedding process has been studied extensively. Fourteen eddies appear to be shed during the 2-year experiment. Because of their strong surface topographic signature, Agulhas eddies have been tracked continuously during the assimilation experiment as they cross the South Atlantic basin westward. Other effects of the assimilation procedure are shown, such as the intensification of the Subtropical Gyre, the appearance of a strong seasonal cycle in the Brazil Current transport, and the increase of the mean Brazil Current transport. This last result, combined with the westward oriention of the Agulhas eddies' trajectories, leads to a southward transport of mean eddy kinetic energy across 30°S.

  14. Night and Day: The Opacity of Clouds Measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G. A.; Wilson, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) [l] on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft ranged to clouds over the course of nearly two Mars years [2] using an active laser ranging system. While ranging to the surface, the instrument was also able to measure the product of the surface reflectivity with the two-way atmospheric transmission at 1064 nm. Furthermore, the reflectivity has now been mapped over seasonal cycles using the passive radiometric capability built into MOLA [3]. Combining these measurements, the column opacity may be inferred. MOLA uniquely provides these measurements both night and day. This study examines the pronounced nighttime opacity of the aphelion season tropical water ice clouds, and the indiscernibly low opacity of the southern polar winter clouds. The water ice clouds (Figure 1) do not themselves trigger the altimeter but have measured opacities tau > 1.5 and are temporally and spatially correlated with temperature anomalies predicted by a Mars Global Circulation Model (MGCM) that incorporates cloud radiative effects [4]. The south polar CO2 ice clouds trigger the altimeter with a very high backscatter cross-section over a thickness of 3-9 m and are vertically dispersed over several km, but their total column opacities lie well below the MOLA measurement limit of tau = 0.7. These clouds correspond to regions of supercooled atmosphere that may form either very large specularly reflecting particles [2] or very compact, dense concentrations (>5x10(exp 6)/cu m) of 100-p particles

  15. Surface current measurements in Juan de Fuca Strait using the SeaSonde HF [high frequency] radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1994-09-01

    The shore-based SeaSonde high-frequency (HF) radar was deployed for three weeks in summer 1993 to measure surface currents in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Experimental objectives included documenting the complex flow regime generated by large tides and the brackish plume of the Fraser River, and determining the radar performance under low-wind, low-salinity conditions. The radar data showed that surface flows are dominated by the plume jet formed by the Fraser River outflow, giving rise to recurring, energetic eddies with scales of 8-12 km, strong flow meanders, and convergent fronts. These features were continuously modulated by the along-channel tidal flows. Comparisons with a detailed numerical model hindcast gave good correlation between observed and predicted flow fields, especially at tidal and low frequencies. Radar return was found to be correlated with local winds and radar performance was independent of salinity variations in the plume. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a map of the radar scattering characteristics of the ocean surface on a capillary wave scale. ERS-1 satellite and airborne SAR images for July 28, 1993 were obtained and surface features were examined in the context of the HF radar current fields. Results show that SAR images alone cannot reliably provide the dynamical data required in this region by oil spill models. Under certain conditions, however, the radar imagery offers valuable physical information on phenomena affecting oil slick development. Interpretation of SAR imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing information would offer more quantitative prediction data. 28 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab

  16. Downscaling, 2-way Nesting, and Data Assimilative Modeling in Coastal and Shelf Waters of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, J.; Levin, J.; Lopez, A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ocean models that downscale output from basin and global scale models are widely used to study regional circulation at enhanced resolution and locally important ecosystem, biogeochemical, and geomorphologic processes. When operated as now-cast or forecast systems, these models offer predictions that assist decision-making for numerous maritime applications. We describe such a system for shelf waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GoM) where the MARACOOS and NERACOOS associations of U.S. IOOS operate coastal ocean observing systems that deliver a dense observation set using CODAR HF-radar, autonomous underwater glider vehicles (AUGV), telemetering moorings, and drifting buoys. Other U.S. national and global observing systems deliver further sustained observations from moorings, ships, profiling floats, and a constellation of satellites. Our MAB and GoM re-analysis and forecast system uses the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; myroms.org) with 4-dimensional Variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to adjust initial conditions, boundary conditions, and surface forcing in each analysis cycle. Data routinely assimilated include CODAR velocities, altimeter satellite sea surface height (with coastal corrections), satellite temperature, in situ CTD data from AUGV and ships (NMFS Ecosystem Monitoring voyages), and all in situ data reported via the WMO GTS network. A climatological data assimilative analysis of hydrographic and long-term mean velocity observations specifies the regional Mean Dynamic Topography that augments altimeter sea level anomaly data and is also used to adjust boundary condition biases that would otherwise be introduced in the process of downscaling from global models. System performance is described with respect to the impact of satellite, CODAR and in situ observations on analysis skill. Results from a 2-way nested modeling system that adds enhanced resolution over the NSF OOI Pioneer Array in the central MAB are also

  17. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  18. Determination of ocean tides from the first year of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X. C.; Shum, C. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.

    1994-01-01

    An improved geocentric global ocean tide model has been determined using 1 year of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements to provide corrections to the Cartwright and Ray (1991) model (CR91). The corrections were determined on a 3 deg x 3 deg grid using both the harmonic analysis method and the response method. The two approaches produce similar solutions. The effect on the tide solution of simultaneously adjusting radial orbit correction parameters using altimeter measurements was examined. Four semidiurnal (N(sub 2), M(sub 2), S(sub 2) and K(sub 2)), four diurnal (Q(sdub 1), O(sub 1), P(sub 1), and K(sub 1)), and three long-period (S(sub sa), M(sub m), and M(sub f)) constituents, along with the variations at the annual frequency, were included in the harmomnic analysis solution. The observed annual variations represents the first global measurement describing accurate seasonal changes of the ocean during an El Nino year. The corrections to the M(sub 2) constituent have an root mean square (RMS) of 3.6 cm and display a clear banding pattern with regional highs and lows reaching 8 cm. The improved tide model reduces the weighted altimeter crossover residual from 9.8 cm RMS, when the CR91 tide model is used, to 8.2 cm on RMS. Comparison of the improved model to pelagic tidal constants determined from 80 tide gauges gives RMS differences of 2.7 cm for M(sub 2) and 1.7 cm for K(sub 1). Comparable values when the CR91 model is used are 3.9 cm and 2.0 cm, respectively. Examination of TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level anomaly variations using the new tide model further confirms that the tide model has been improved.

  19. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    forthcoming Canadian RADARSAT satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  20. Insertion, Validation, and Application of Barotropic and Baroclinic Tides in 1/12 and 1/25 Degree Global HYCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    implications for the development of the proposed wide-swath satellite altimeter (NASA/CNES SWOT mission). Three-dimensional maps of internal-wave driven...planned wide-swath satellite altimeter mission ( SWOT ). 4 --Conrad Luecke, graduate student in the UM Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences...harmonic analysis . If instead they are mostly non-stationary, then harmonic analysis will not suffice. In Figure 2 we display the non-stationarity as

  1. Mapping Pyroclastic Flow Inundation Using Radar and Optical Satellite Images and Lahar Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wook Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinabung volcano, located above the Sumatra subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Eurasian plate, became active in 2010 after about 400 years of quiescence. We use ALOS/PALSAR interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR images to measure surface deformation from February 2007 to January 2011. We model the observed preeruption inflation and coeruption deflation using Mogi and prolate spheroid sources to infer volume changes of the magma chamber. We interpret that the inflation was due to magma accumulation in a shallow reservoir beneath Mount Sinabung and attribute the deflation due to magma withdrawal from the shallow reservoir during the eruption as well as thermoelastic compaction of erupted material. The pyroclastic flow extent during the eruption is then derived from the LAHARZ model based on the coeruption volume from InSAR modeling and compared to that derived from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image. The pyroclastic flow inundation extents between the two different methods agree at about 86%, suggesting the capability of mapping pyroclastic flow inundation by combing radar and optical imagery as well as flow modeling.

  2. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  3. Technical Description of a Novel Sensor Network Architecture and Results of Radar and Optical Sensors contributing to a UK Cueing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, D.; Reeves, R.; Rumi, E.; Trethewey, M.; Fortescue, M.; Appleby, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Sherwood, R.; Ash, A.; Cooper, C.; Rayfield, P.

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Control Loop Concepts Limited (CL2), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL), have recently participated in a campaign of satellite observations, with both radar and optical sensors, in order to demonstrate an initial network concept that enhances the value of coordinated observations. STFC and CL2 have developed a Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) server/client architecture to slave one sensor to another. The concept was originated to enable the Chilbolton radar (an S-band radar on a 25 m diameter fully-steerable dish antenna called CASTR – Chilbolton Advanced Satellite Tracking Radar) which does not have an auto-track function to follow an object based on position data streamed from another cueing sensor. The original motivation for this was to enable tracking during re-entry of ATV-5, a highly manoeuvrable ISS re-supply vessel. The architecture has been designed to be extensible and allows the interface of both optical and radar sensors which may be geographically separated. Connectivity between the sensors is TCP/IP over the internet. The data transferred between the sensors is translated into an Earth centred frame of reference to accommodate the difference in location, and time-stamping and filtering are applied to cope with latency. The server can accept connections from multiple clients, and the operator can switch between the different clients. This architecture is inherently robust and will enable graceful degradation should parts of the system be unavailable. A demonstration was conducted in 2016 whereby a small telescope connected to an agile mount (an EO tracker known as COATS - Chilbolton Optical Advanced Tracking System) located 50m away from the radar at Chilbolton, autonomously tracked several objects and fed the look angle data into a client. CASTR, slaved to COATS through the server followed and successfully detected the objects

  4. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  5. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon

    1999-01-01

    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  6. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  7. Offshore Wind Potential in South India from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Bingöl, Ferhat; Badger, Merete

    are from Wide Swath Mode and each cover approximately 400 km by 400 km. The ocean wind speed maps are retrieved and processed at Risø DTU. The results show wind energy density from 200 W/m2 to 500 W/m2 at 10 m height above sea level. QuikSCAT ocean winds are included as background information on the 10......The offshore wind energy potential for pre-feasibility in South India in the area from 77° to 80° Eastern longitude and 7° to 10° Northern latitude is observed from a total of 164 ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) satellite images during the years 2002 to 2011. All satellite scenes......-year mean and a general description of the winds and climate with monsoons in India is presented....

  8. Offshore wind potential in South India from synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Badger, M.; Karagali, I.; Sreevalsan, E.

    2011-10-15

    The offshore wind energy potential for pre-feasibility in South India in the area from 77 deg. to 80 deg. Eastern longitude and 7 deg. to 10 deg. Northern latitude is observed from a total of 164 ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) satellite images during the years 2002 to 2011. All satellite scenes are from Wide Swath Mode and each cover approximately 400 km by 400 km. The ocean wind speed maps are retrieved and processed at Risoe DTU. The results show wind energy density from 200 W/m2 to 500 W/m2 at 10 m height above sea level. QuikSCAT ocean winds are included as background information on the 10-year mean and a general description of the winds and climate with monsoons in India is presented. (Author)

  9. Radar orthogonality and radar length in Finsler and metric spacetime geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The radar experiment connects the geometry of spacetime with an observers measurement of spatial length. We investigate the radar experiment on Finsler spacetimes which leads to a general definition of radar orthogonality and radar length. The directions radar orthogonal to an observer form the spatial equal time surface an observer experiences and the radar length is the physical length the observer associates to spatial objects. We demonstrate these concepts on a forth order polynomial Finsler spacetime geometry which may emerge from area metric or premetric linear electrodynamics or in quantum gravity phenomenology. In an explicit generalization of Minkowski spacetime geometry we derive the deviation from the Euclidean spatial length measure in an observers rest frame explicitly.

  10. On the feasibility of space-based radar ice sounding of the Antarctic ice sheet at P-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Corr, Hugh

    . In this study the feasibility of space-based radar ice sounding is assessed. A two-step approach is applied: (1) Key ice sheet parameters are estimated from the airborne POLARIS data acquired in Antarctica. (2) The performance of potential space-based ice sounding radars is simulated based on the estimated ice...... data analysis estimating the scattering patterns via the Doppler spectra of the POLARIS data. The scattering patterns of the ice surfaces are relevant because the geometry of a space-based radar increases the risk that off-nadir surface clutter masks the nadir depth-signal of interest. Currently...... the ice sheet model is being established and validated. At the symposium measured and simulated satellite waveforms will be compared, and the feasibility of space-based ice sounding will be addressed....

  11. Assessment of Current Estimates of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level from the TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and OSTM 17-Year Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Brian D.; Ray, Richard D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Holmes, S. A.; Desal, Shailen D.; Brown, Shannon; Mitchum, G. T.; Jacob, Samuel; Luthcke, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    The science value of satellite altimeter observations has grown dramatically over time as enabling models and technologies have increased the value of data acquired on both past and present missions. With the prospect of an observational time series extending into several decades from TOPEX/Poseidon through Jason-1 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), and further in time with a future set of operational altimeters, researchers are pushing the bounds of current technology and modeling capability in order to monitor global sea level rate at an accuracy of a few tenths of a mm/yr. The measurement of mean sea-level change from satellite altimetry requires an extreme stability of the altimeter measurement system since the signal being measured is at the level of a few mm/yr. This means that the orbit and reference frame within which the altimeter measurements are situated, and the associated altimeter corrections, must be stable and accurate enough to permit a robust MSL estimate. Foremost, orbit quality and consistency are critical to satellite altimeter measurement accuracy. The orbit defines the altimeter reference frame, and orbit error directly affects the altimeter measurement. Orbit error remains a major component in the error budget of all past and present altimeter missions. For example, inconsistencies in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) used to produce the precision orbits at different times cause systematic inconsistencies to appear in the multimission time-frame between TOPEX and Jason-1, and can affect the intermission calibration of these data. In an effort to adhere to cross mission consistency, we have generated the full time series of orbits for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP), Jason-1, and OSTM based on recent improvements in the satellite force models, reference systems, and modeling strategies. The recent release of the entire revised Jason-1 Geophysical Data Records, and recalibration of the microwave radiometer correction also

  12. Radar adjusted data versus modelled precipitation: a case study over Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casaioli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European VOLTAIRE project (Fifth Framework Programme, simulations of relatively heavy precipitation events, which occurred over the island of Cyprus, by means of numerical atmospheric models were performed. One of the aims of the project was indeed the comparison of modelled rainfall fields with multi-sensor observations. Thus, for the 5 March 2003 event, the 24-h accumulated precipitation BOlogna Limited Area Model (BOLAM forecast was compared with the available observations reconstructed from ground-based radar data and estimated by rain gauge data. Since radar data may be affected by errors depending on the distance from the radar, these data could be range-adjusted by using other sensors. In this case, the Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite was used to adjust the ground-based radar data with a two-parameter scheme. Thus, in this work, two observational fields were employed: the rain gauge gridded analysis and the observational analysis obtained by merging the range-adjusted radar and rain gauge fields. In order to verify the modelled precipitation, both non-parametric skill scores and the contiguous rain area (CRA analysis were applied. Skill score results show some differences when using the two observational fields. CRA results are instead quite in agreement, showing that in general a 0.27° eastward shift optimizes the forecast with respect to the two observational analyses. This result is also supported by a subjective inspection of the shifted forecast field, whose gross features agree with the analysis pattern more than the non-shifted forecast one. However, some open questions, especially regarding the effect of other range adjustment techniques, remain open and need to be addressed in future works.

  13. Evaluation of multi-mode CryoSat-2 altimetry data over the Po River against in situ data and a hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Raphael; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Nielsen, Karina; Madsen, Henrik; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Coverage of in situ observations to monitor surface waters is insufficient on the global scale, and decreasing across the globe. Satellite altimetry has become an increasingly important monitoring technology for continental surface waters. The ESA CryoSat-2 altimetry mission, launched in 2010, has two novel features. (i) The radar altimeter instrument on board of CryoSat-2 is operated in three modes; two of them reduce the altimeter footprint by using Delay-Doppler processing. (ii) CryoSat-2 is placed on a distinct orbit with a repeat cycle of 369 days, leading to a drifting ground track pattern. The drifting ground track pattern challenges many common methods of processing satellite altimetry data over rivers. This study evaluates the observation error of CryoSat-2 water level observations over the Po River, Italy, against in situ observations. The average RMSE between CryoSat-2 and in situ observations was found to be 0.38 meters. CryoSat-2 was also shown to be useful for channel roughness calibration in a hydrodynamic model of the Po River. The small across-track distance of CryoSat-2 means that observations are distributed almost continuously along the river. This allowed resolving channel roughness with higher spatial resolution than possible with in situ or virtual station altimetry data. Despite the Po River being extensively monitored, CryoSat-2 still provides added value thanks to its unique spatio-temporal sampling pattern.

  14. APPLICATION OF SENTINEL-1 RADAR DATA FOR MAPPING HARD-TO-REACH NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Baldina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new European space satellites Sentinel-1A and 1B with C-band radars on board, launched in 2014 and 2016 respectively, provide regular radar data on the Earth’s surface with high temporal resolution. These new non-commercial data provides extensive opportunities for research of remote Arctic territories, poorly supplied with optical images due to cloud conditions. Difficulties in recognizing objects on radar images can be compensated for by the possibility of using multiple repeated surveys, which make it possible to identify areas of the terrain which are similar in character of changes. In the study, four Sentinel-1A images of the largest from the New Siberian islands – Kotelny – were used, which were acquired during the summer period from July 3 to August 20, 2015. After preprocessing aimed at improving the visual properties and coregistration of the multitemporal images, an automated clustering of the multitemporal image set was carried out. Clustering results were analyzed on comparison with additional sources of spatial information. Both specialized software for Sentinel-1 radar data processing - SNAP, and the GIS software complex ArcGIS were used. The latter provided the creation of the spatial data base for comparing the results of radar data processing and cartographic sources. The map of the territory zoning was obtained as clustering results which is based on the changes in the normalized radar cross section (sigma nought over the summer period, and the approximate correspondence of the areas to the main types of the relief and landscapes of the island was established.

  15. VERTICAL ACCURACY COMPARISON OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FROM LIDAR AND MULTITEMPORAL SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Octariady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation model serves to illustrate the appearance of the earth's surface. DEM can be produced from a wide variety of data sources including from radar data, LiDAR data, and stereo satellite imagery. Making the LiDAR DEM conducted using point cloud data from LiDAR sensor. Making a DEM from stereo satellite imagery can be done using same temporal or multitemporal stereo satellite imagery. How much the accuracy of DEM generated from multitemporal stereo stellite imagery and LiDAR data is not known with certainty. The study was conducted using LiDAR DEM data and multitemporal stereo satellite imagery DEM. Multitemporal stereo satellite imagery generated semi-automatically by using 3 scene stereo satellite imagery with acquisition 2013–2014. The high value given each of DEM serve as the basis for calculating high accuracy DEM respectively. The results showed the high value differences in the fraction of the meter between LiDAR DEM and multitemporal stereo satellite imagery DEM.

  16. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Clark, S.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Polk, M.; Roebuck, B.; Rushing, R.; Sorge, M.; Werremeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the DebriSat project is to characterize fragments generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 s US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of DebriSat - an engineering model representing a modern, 60-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD s and NASA s satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite.

  17. An earth remote sensing satellite- 1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Mosaic of the Tanana River Basin in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wivell, Charles E.; Olmsted, Coert; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Taylor, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Because the pixel location in a line of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image data is directly related to the distance the pixel is from the radar, terrain elevations cause large displacement errors in the geo-referenced location of the pixel. This is especially true for radar systems with small angles between the nadir and look vectors. Thus, to geo-register a SAR image accurately, the terrain of the area must be taken into account. (Curlander et al., 1987; Kwok et al., 1987, Schreier et al., 1990; Wivell et al., 1992). As part of the 1992 National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Version 0 activities, a prototype SAR geocod-. ing and terrain correction system was developed at the US. Geological Survey's (USGS) E~os Data Center (EDC) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Using this system with 3-arc-second digital elevation models (DEMs) mosaicked at the ED^ Alaska Field Office, 21 ERS-I s.4~ scenes acquired at the Alaska SAR Facility were automatically geocoded, terrain corrected, and mosaicked. The geo-registered scenes were mosaicked using a simple concatenation.

  18. Testing in a stratospheric balloon of a semiconductor detector altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, L.; Jourdan, P.

    1968-01-01

    An altimeter containing a semiconductor detector has been operated on flight. We have used a stratospheric balloon launched from AIRE-SUR-ADOUR with the C.N.E.S. collaboration. During this assay two apparatus have been used. The first allowed to follow the balloon during its ascension and descent, the second to follow its evolution at its maximum altitude. Informations transmitted by radio and recorded on Magnetophon, have been studied after the flight. Results are identical with these given by the barometer used by the C.N.E.S. in this essay. (authors) [fr

  19. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  20. To the question on accuracy of forest heights’ measurements by the TanDEM-X radar interferometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Chimitdorzhiev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the validation results of the InSAR method for determining the forest canopy height, based on TanDEM-X and ALOS PALSAR data. The research conducted on the territory of the Baikal-Kudara forest area of the Republic of Buryatia (52°10'N, 106°48'E. Forest vegetation is represented mainly by conifers – pine, and spruce, with a small admixture of deciduous trees – aspen, birch, etc. The forest vegetation height was determined by subtracting the digital elevation model (DEM of the digital terrain model (DTM. DEM is built according to the L-band (wavelength of 23.5 cm ALOS PALSAR satellite with horizontal co-polarization mode. In the investigation it was assumed that a radar signal of ALOS PALSAR passes all forest thickness and reflected from the underlying surface, made it possible to recover terrain under forest canopy. DTM has been built using the TanDEM-X data (wavelength 3 cm. In this case, it was assumed that the radar echoes scattered from a some virtual phase centers of scattering surface, which characterizes the upper limit of the continuous forest canopy. To check the accuracy of satellite definitions of forest height in study area were made high-precision geodetic measurement of trees heights using electronic total station and the coordinates of geographic control points using differential GPS receivers. The discrepancy between the satellite and ground-based measurements at 11 test sites did not exceed 2 m, which is mainly due to the difference in measurement techniques: height of individual trees by ground methods and continuous forest canopy height using radar interferometry.

  1. The DNSC08GRA global marine gravity field from double retracked satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Berry, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has been monitoring the earth's oceans from space for several decades. However, only the GEOSAT and ERS-1 geodetic mission data recorded more than a decade ago provide altimetry with adequate spatial coverage to derive a high-resolution marine gravity field. The original...

  2. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  3. Influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring of maritime oil pollution in German waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Peer; Baschek, Björn; Hunsänger, Thomas; Kranz, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    For detecting accidental and illegal pollution by mineral oil, the German exclusive economic zone and surrounding waters have been monitored by aircraft operationally for more than 25 years. Aircraft surveillance uses predominantly Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar for visualization of the effect of oil to smoothen capillary waves. A set of near range sensors complements the remote sensing data available for the human operator to classify the detected features as "mineral oil", "natural phenomenon", "other substance" or "unknown" pollution. Today, as an add-on to aerial surveillance, the German Central Command of Maritime Emergencies uses the operational satellite service "CleanSeaNet" provided by the European Maritime Safety Agency: Radar satellite data is analyzed in near real time and alerts of potential pollution are sent out. Shortly after receiving the results, aircraft surveillance flights are started by the 3rd Naval Air Wing and the locations of the satellite alerts are checked. Thus, a combined system of satellite and aerial surveillance is in place. The German Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG, has access to the data of the pollution events detected during these flights and the corresponding meta-data of flights and satellite images. In this work, a period of two years of this data is analyzed. The probability to detect pollutions is evaluated for (A) flight missions associated with satellite scenes, and (B) additional flights performed independently from satellite scenes. Thus, the influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring is investigated. Coverage and coordination of the monitoring by aircraft and satellite are assessed and implications for the operational monitoring are discussed.

  4. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  5. First Joint Observations of Radio Aurora by the VHF and HF Radars of the ISTP SB RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Lebedev, V. P.; Kutelev, K. A.; Kushnarev, D. S.; Grkovich, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    Two modern radars for diagnosis of the ionosphere by the radio-wave backscattering method, namely, the Irkutsk incoherent scatter radar at VHF (IISR, 154-162 MHz) and the Ekaterinburg coherent radar at HF (EKB, 8-20 MHz) are operated at the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS). The paper analyzes the results of joint observations of strong scattering (radio aurora) on June 8, 2015. To determine the geographical position of the radio aurora, we developed original methods that take into account both the features of the radio-wave propagation and the features of the radar antenna systems. It is shown that there are areas where the spatial position of the HF and VHF radio aurora can coincide. This permits using the radars as a single complex for diagnosis of the characteristics of small-scale high-latitude irregularities in the ionospheric E and F layers. A comparative analysis of the characteristics and temporal dynamics of the radio-aurora region in the HF and VHF ranges is performed. Using the DMSP satellite data, it has been shown that the radio aurora dynamics during this experiment with the EKB radar can be related with the spatial dynamics of the localized area with high electric field, which moves from high to equatorial latitudes. It is found that due to the broader field of view, radio aurora at the HF radar was stably observed 6-12 min earlier than at the VHF radar. This permits using the EKB radar data for prediction of the radio-aurora detection by the IISR radar.

  6. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. 3.1.2.5 Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  7. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  8. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  9. Social Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Tronin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.

  11. Sea-level-rise trends off the Indian coasts during the last two decades

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Nidheesh, A.G.; Lengaigne, M.

    The present communication discusses sea-level-rise trends in the north Indian Ocean, particularly off the Indian coasts, based on estimates derived from satellite altimeter and tide-gauge data. Altimeter data analysis over the 1993–2012 period...

  12. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimating the Sampling-Related Uncertainty of Satellite Rainfall Averages Based on a Large Radar Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Bell, Thomas L.; Steiner, Matthias; Zhang, Yu; Wood, Eric F.

    2002-01-01

    The uncertainty of rainfall estimated from averages of discrete samples collected by a satellite is assessed using a multi-year radar data set covering a large portion of the United States. The sampling-related uncertainty of rainfall estimates is evaluated for all combinations of 100 km, 200 km, and 500 km space domains, 1 day, 5 day, and 30 day rainfall accumulations, and regular sampling time intervals of 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 8 h, and 12 h. These extensive analyses are combined to characterize the sampling uncertainty as a function of space and time domain, sampling frequency, and rainfall characteristics by means of a simple scaling law. Moreover, it is shown that both parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques of estimating the sampling uncertainty produce comparable results. Sampling uncertainty estimates, however, do depend on the choice of technique for obtaining them. They can also vary considerably from case to case, reflecting the great variability of natural rainfall, and should therefore be expressed in probabilistic terms. Rainfall calibration errors are shown to affect comparison of results obtained by studies based on data from different climate regions and/or observation platforms.

  13. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  14. Signatures of Kelvin and Rossby wave propagation in the northern Indian Ocean from TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    The climatological monthly mean sea surface height (SSH) anomalies derived from T/P altimeter in the northern Indian Ocean, during 1993 to 1997, are used to prepare time-longitude plots. Along the equator they reveal strong semi-annual variability...

  15. Satellite observations and modeling of oil spill trajectories in the Bohai Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yongliang

    2013-01-01

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, separate oil spill accidents occurred at two oil platforms in the Bohai Sea, China. The oil spills were subsequently observed on different types of satellite images including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NASA MODIS. To illustrate the fate of the oil...

  16. New Processing of Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Gracheva, V.; Arko, S. A.; Labelle-Hamer, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was a radar system, which successfully operated on two separate shuttle missions in April and October 1994. During these two missions, a total of 143 hours of radar data were recorded. SIR-C was the first multifrequency and polarimetric spaceborne radar system, operating in dual frequency (L- and C- band) and with quad-polarization. SIR-C had a variety of different operating modes, which are innovative even from today's point of view. Depending on the mode, it was possible to acquire data with different polarizations and carrier frequency combinations. Additionally, different swaths and bandwidths could be used during the data collection and it was possible to receive data with two antennas in the along-track direction.The United States Geological Survey (USGS) distributes the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images as single-look complex (SLC) and multi-look complex (MLC) products. Unfortunately, since June 2005 the SIR-C processor has been inoperable and not repairable. All acquired SLC and MLC images were processed with a course resolution of 100 m with the goal of generating a quick look. These images are however not well suited for scientific analysis. Only a small percentage of the acquired data has been processed as full resolution SAR images and the unprocessed high resolution data cannot be processed any more at the moment.At the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) a new processor was developed to process binary SIR-C data to full resolution SAR images. ASF is planning to process the entire recoverable SIR-C archive to full resolution SLCs, MLCs and high resolution geocoded image products. ASF will make these products available to the science community through their existing data archiving and distribution system.The final paper will describe the new processor and analyze the challenges of reprocessing the SIR-C data.

  17. Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Hawley, Robert L.; Lutz, Eric R.; Studinger, Michael; Sonntag, John G.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Neumann, Thomas A.

    2017-03-01

    A series of NASA airborne lidars have been used in support of satellite laser altimetry missions. These airborne laser altimeters have been deployed for satellite instrument development, for spaceborne data validation, and to bridge the data gap between satellite missions. We used data from ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of an 11 km long track near Summit Station, Greenland, to assess the surface-elevation bias and measurement precision of three airborne laser altimeters including the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS), and the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL). Ground-based GPS data from the monthly ground-based traverses, which commenced in 2006, allowed for the assessment of nine airborne lidar surveys associated with ATM and LVIS between 2007 and 2016. Surface-elevation biases for these altimeters - over the flat, ice-sheet interior - are less than 0.12 m, while assessments of measurement precision are 0.09 m or better. Ground-based GPS positions determined both with and without differential post-processing techniques provided internally consistent solutions. Results from the analyses of ground-based and airborne data provide validation strategy guidance for the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) elevation and elevation-change data products.

  18. Verifying Air Force Weather Passive Satellite Derived Cloud Analysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has developed an hourly World-Wide Merged Cloud Analysis (WWMCA) using imager data from 16 geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. The analysis product contains information on cloud fraction, height, type and various optical properties including optical depth and integrated water path. All of these products are derived using a suite of algorithms which rely exclusively on passively sensed data from short, mid and long wave imager data. The system integrates satellites with a wide-range of capabilities, from the relatively simple two-channel OLS imager to the 16 channel ABI/AHI to create a seamless global analysis in real time. Over the last couple of years, AFW has started utilizing independent verification data from active sensed cloud measurements to better understand the performance limitations of the WWMCA. Sources utilized include space based lidars (CALIPSO, CATS) and radar (CloudSat) as well as ground based lidars from the Department of Energy ARM sites and several European cloud radars. This work will present findings from our efforts to compare active and passive sensed cloud information including comparison techniques/limitations as well as performance of the passive derived cloud information against the active.

  19. Minimum redundancy MIMO radars

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chun-Yang; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    2008-01-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept has drawn considerable attention recently. In the traditional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar system, the transmitter emits scaled versions of a single waveform. However, in the MIMO radar system, the transmitter transmits independent waveforms. It has been shown that the MIMO radar can be used to improve system performance. Most of the MIMO radar research so far has focused on the uniform array. However, i...

  20. Structural investigation of the Grenville Province by radar and other imaging and nonimaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Blodget, H. W.; Webster, W. J., Jr.; Paia, S.; Singhroy, V. H.; Slaney, V. R.

    1984-01-01

    The structural investigation of the Canadian Shield by orbital radar and LANDSAT, is outlined. The area includes parts of the central metasedimentary belt and the Ontario gneiss belt, and major structures as well-expressed topographically. The primary objective is to apply SIR-B data to the mapping of this key part of the Grenville orogen, specifically ductile fold structures and associated features, and igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rock (including glacial and recent sediments). Secondary objectives are to support the Canadian RADARSAT project by evaluating the baseline parameters of a Canadian imaging radar satellite planned for late in the decade. The baseline parameters include optimum incidence and azimuth angles. The experiment is to develop techniques for the use of multiple data sets.

  1. Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brozovic, M.; Benner, L. A. M.; Taylor, P.A.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Scheeres, D.J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Pollock, J.; Pravec, Petr; Galád, Adrián; Fang, J.; Margot, J. L.; Busch, M.W.; Shepard, M.K.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K.M.; Haislip, J.B.; LaCluyze, A.; Jao, J.; Slade, M. A.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 1 (2011), s. 241-256 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107 Grant - others:SAV(SK) Vega 2/0016/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * radar observations * near-Earth objects * satellites of asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2011

  2. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  3. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2005-02-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  4. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability.

    Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric

  5. Coastal sea-level in Norway from CryoSat-2 SAR altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idžanović, Martina; Ophaug, Vegard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    Conventional spaceborne altimeters determine the sea surface height with an accuracy of a few centimeters. Although satellite altimetry may be regarded as a mature technology, altimeter observations collected over coastal regions suffer from numerous effects which degrade their quality. For examp...

  6. Assessment of the Performance of the Chilbolton 3-GHz Advanced Meteorological Radar for Cloud-Top-Height Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, C. M.; Muller, J.-P.; Slack, E. C.; Wrench, C. L.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2005-06-01

    The Chilbolton 3-GHz Advanced Meteorological Radar (CAMRa), which is mounted on a fully steerable 25-m dish, can provide three-dimensional information on the presence of hydrometeors. The potential for this radar to make useful measurements of low-altitude liquid water cloud structure is investigated. To assess the cloud-height assignment capabilities of the 3-GHz radar, low-level cloud-top heights were retrieved from CAMRa measurements made between May and July 2003 and were compared with cloud-top heights retrieved from a vertically pointing 94-GHz radar that operates alongside CAMRa. The average difference between the 94- and 3-GHz radar-derived cloud-top heights is shown to be -0.1 ± 0.4 km. To assess the capability of 3-GHz radar scans to be used for satellite-derived cloud-top-height validation, multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) cloud-top heights were compared with both 94- and 3-GHz radar retrievals. The average difference between 94-GHz radar and MISR cloud-top heights is shown to be 0.1 ± 0.3 km, while the 3-GHz radar and MISR average cloud-top-height difference is shown to be -0.2 ± 0.6 km. In assessing the value of the CAMRa measurements, the problems associated with low-reflectivity values from stratiform liquid water clouds, ground clutter, and Bragg scattering resulting from turbulent mixing are all addressed. It is shown that, despite the difficulties, the potential exists for CAMRa measurements to contribute significantly to liquid water cloud-top-height retrievals, leading to the production of two-dimensional transects (i.e., maps) of cloud-top height.

  7. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  8. Investigation of Weather Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Methodologies in Complex Orography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montopoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Near surface quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE from weather radar measurements is an important task for feeding hydrological models, limiting the impact of severe rain events at the ground as well as aiding validation studies of satellite-based rain products. To date, several works have analyzed the performance of various QPE algorithms using actual and synthetic experiments, possibly trained by measurement of particle size distributions and electromagnetic models. Most of these studies support the use of dual polarization radar variables not only to ensure a good level of data quality but also as a direct input to rain estimation equations. One of the most important limiting factors in radar QPE accuracy is the vertical variability of particle size distribution, which affects all the acquired radar variables as well as estimated rain rates at different levels. This is particularly impactful in mountainous areas, where the sampled altitudes are likely several hundred meters above the surface. In this work, we analyze the impact of the vertical profile variations of rain precipitation on several dual polarization radar QPE algorithms when they are tested in a complex orography scenario. So far, in weather radar studies, more emphasis has been given to the extrapolation strategies that use the signature of the vertical profiles in terms of radar co-polar reflectivity. This may limit the use of the radar vertical profiles when dual polarization QPE algorithms are considered. In that case, all the radar variables used in the rain estimation process should be consistently extrapolated at the surface to try and maintain the correlations among them. To avoid facing such a complexity, especially with a view to operational implementation, we propose looking at the features of the vertical profile of rain (VPR, i.e., after performing the rain estimation. This procedure allows characterization of a single variable (i.e., rain when dealing with

  9. Feasibility Study of Synthetic Aperture Radar - Adaptability of the Payload to KOMPSAT Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Kim

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has been used for mapping the surface geomorphology of cloudy planets like Venus as well as the Earth. The cloud-free Mars is also going to be scanned by SAR in order to detect buried water channels and other features under the very shallow subsurface of the ground. According to the 'Mid and Long-term National Space Development Plan' of Korea, SAR satellites, in addition to the EO (Electro-Optical satellites, are supposed to be developed in the frame of the KOMPSAT (Korean Multi-Purpose Satellite program. Feasibility of utilizing a SAR payload on KOMPSAT platform has been studied by KARI in collaboration with Astrium U.K. The purpose of the SAR program is Scientific and Civil applications on the Earth. The study showed that KOMPSAT-2 platform can accommodate a small SAR like Astrium's MicroSAR. In this paper, system aspects of the satellite design are presented, such as mission scenario, operation concept, and capabilities. The spacecraft design is also discussed and conclusion is followed.

  10. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2003-01-01

    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  11. Radar Chart

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  12. Precise topography assessment of Lop Nur Lake Basin using GLAS altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Longfei; Gong, Huaze; Shao, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Lop Nur is a dried-up salt lake lying in the eastern part of Tarim basin, which used to be the second largest lagon in China. The ''ear'' rings in Lop Nur attract many interests and are regarded as the lake shorelines during its recession. The topography of the lake basin is important in understanding the formation of the ''ear'' rings. In this paper, elevation data along three transects obtained from laser altimeter were taken as the basic material of the topography in Lop Nur. Elevation data of laser altimeter show great consistency between adjacent passes. Orthometric height (OH) derived from altimetry data and the geoid model are used to analyze the elevation characteristic along ''ear'' rings. The result shows the ''ear'' rings are basically identical in elevation, supporting the statement that ''ear'' rings are former lake shorelines. A discrepancy of approximately 1 meter in OH is observed on the same ''ear'' ring, lower in the north and higher in the south, which is found for the first time. Possible explanations could be deformation of ground surface due to earthquake or tectonic movement after the ''ear'' rings are formed, or tilt of water surface due to wind stress or lake current during the formation of the rings

  13. Satellite sar detection of hurricane helene (2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ju, Lian; Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the wind structure of hurricane Helene (2006) over the Atlantic Ocean is investigated from a C-band RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired on 20 September 2006. First, the characteristics, e.g., the center, scale and area of the hurricane eye (HE) are determined. ...... observations from the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) on NOAA P3 aircraft. All the results show the capability of hurricane monitoring by satellite SAR. Copyright © 2013 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  14. Hurricane Rita Track Radar Image with Topographic Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Animation About the animation: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Galveston and portions of south Houston was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by a 17-foot sea wall against storm surges, flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes remains a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments. About the image: The Gulf Coast from the Mississippi Delta through the Texas coast is shown in this satellite image from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) overlain with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and the predicted storm track for Hurricane Rita. The prediction from the National Weather Service was published Sept. 22 at 4 p.m. Central Time, and shows the expected track center in black with the lighter shaded area indicating the range of potential tracks the storm could take. Low-lying terrain along the coast has been highlighted using the SRTM elevation data, with areas within 15 feet of sea level shown in red, and within 30 feet in yellow. These areas are more at risk for flooding and the destructive effects of storm surge and high waves. Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial

  15. Improving Satellite Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Using GOES-Retrieved Cloud Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenz, Ronald; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Feng, Zhe; Kuligowski, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    To address significant gaps in ground-based radar coverage and rain gauge networks in the U.S., geostationary satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) such as the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrievals (SCaMPR) can be used to fill in both the spatial and temporal gaps of ground-based measurements. Additionally, with the launch of GOES-R, the temporal resolution of satellite QPEs may be comparable to that of Weather Service Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scans as GOES images will be available every five minutes. However, while satellite QPEs have strengths in spatial coverage and temporal resolution, they face limitations particularly during convective events. Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) have large cloud shields with similar brightness temperatures (BTs) over nearly the entire system, but widely varying precipitation rates beneath these clouds. Geostationary satellite QPEs relying on the indirect relationship between BTs and precipitation rates often suffer from large errors because anvil regions (little/no precipitation) cannot be distinguished from rain-cores (heavy precipitation) using only BTs. However, a combination of BTs and optical depth (τ) has been found to reduce overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions (Stenz et al. 2014). A new rain mask algorithm incorporating both τ and BTs has been developed, and its application to the existing SCaMPR algorithm was evaluated. The performance of the modified SCaMPR was evaluated using traditional skill scores and a more detailed analysis of performance in individual DCS components by utilizing the Feng et al. (2012) classification algorithm. SCaMPR estimates with the new rain mask applied benefited from significantly reduced overestimates of precipitation in anvil regions and overall improvements in skill scores.

  16. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  17. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  18. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  19. Current Trends and Challenges in Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Graham M.; Bianco, Giuseppe; Noll, Carey E.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Pearlman, Michael R.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is used to measure accurately the distance from ground stations to retro-reflectors on satellites and on the Moon. SLR is one of the fundamental space-geodetic techniques that define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), which is the basis upon which many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology are measured; with VLBI the two techniques define the scale of the ITRF; alone the SLR technique defines its origin (geocenter). The importance of the reference frame has recently been recognized at the inter-governmental level through the United Nations, which adopted in February 2015 the Resolution "Global Geodetic Reference Frame for Sustainable Development." Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration and validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice mass-balance, and terrestrial topography. It is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants and theories. With the exception of the currently in-orbit GPS constellation, all GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation; the next generation of GPS satellites due for launch from 2019 onwards will also carry retro-reflectors. The ILRS delivers weekly realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter series with a daily resolution. SLR technology continues to evolve towards the next-generation laser ranging systems and it is expected to successfully meet the challenges of the GGOS2020 program for a future Global Space Geodetic Network. Ranging precision is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers, and faster detectors are implemented within the network. Automation and pass interleaving at some stations is expanding temporal coverage and

  20. Satellite passive microwave rain measurement techniques for land and ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiseasonal rainfall was found to be measurable over land with satellite passive microwave data, based upon comparisons between Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMME) brightness temperatures (T sub B) and operational WSR-57 radar rain rates. All of the SMMR channels (bipolarized 37, 21, 18, 10.7, and 6.6. GHz T sub B) were compared to radar reflectivities for 25 SMMR passes and 234 radar scans over the U.S. during the spring, summer, and fall of 1979. It was found that the radar rain rates were closely related to the difference between 37 and 21 GHz T sub B. This result is due to the volume scattering effects of precipitation which cause emissivity decreases with frequency, as opposed to emissive surfaces (e.g., water) whose emissivities increase with frequency. Two frequencies also act to reduce the effects of thermometric temperature variations on T sub B to a miminum. During summer and fall, multiple correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.75 were obtained. These approach the limit of correlation that can be expected to exist between two very different data sources, especially in light of the errors attributable to manual digitization of PPI photographs of variable quality from various operational weather radar not calibrated for research purposes. During the spring, a significantly lower (0.63) correlation was found. This poorer performance was traced to cases of wet, unvegetated soil being sensed at the lower frequencies through light rain, partly negating the rain scattering signal.

  1. Impact study of the Argo array definition in the Mediterranean Sea based on satellite altimetry gridded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Roman, Antonio; Ruiz, Simón; Pascual, Ananda; Guinehut, Stéphanie; Mourre, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    The existing Argo network provides essential data in near real time to constrain monitoring and forecasting centers and strongly complements the observations of the ocean surface from space. The comparison of Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) provided by satellite altimeters with in-situ Dynamic Heights Anomalies (DHA) derived from the temperature and salinity profiles of Argo floats contribute to better characterize the error budget associated with the altimeter observations. In this work, performed in the frame of the E-AIMS FP7 European Project, we focus on the Argo observing system in the Mediterranean Sea and its impact on SLA fields provided by satellite altimetry measurements in the basin. Namely, we focus on the sensitivity of specific SLA gridded merged products provided by AVISO in the Mediterranean to the reference depth (400 or 900 dbar) selected in the computation of the Argo Dynamic Height (DH) as an integration of the Argo T/S profiles through the water column. This reference depth will have impact on the number of valid Argo profiles and therefore on their temporal sampling and the coverage by the network used to compare with altimeter data. To compare both datasets, altimeter grids and synthetic climatologies used to compute DHA were spatially and temporally interpolated at the position and time of each in-situ Argo profile by a mapping method based on an optimal interpolation scheme. The analysis was conducted in the entire Mediterranean Sea and different sub-regions of the basin. The second part of this work is devoted to investigate which configuration in terms of spatial sampling of the Argo array in the Mediterranean will properly reproduce the mesoscale dynamics in this basin, which is comprehensively captured by new standards of specific altimeter products for this region. To do that, several Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) were conducted assuming that altimetry data computed from AVISO specific reanalysis gridded merged product for

  2. Using radar altimetry to update a routing model of the Zambezi River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry allows for the global monitoring of lakes and river levels. However, the widespread use of altimetry for hydrological studies is limited by the coarse temporal and spatial resolution provided by current altimetric missions and the fact that discharge rather than level...... is needed for hydrological applications. To overcome these limitations, altimetry river levels can be combined with hydrological modeling in a dataassimilation framework. This study focuses on the updating of a river routing model of the Zambezi using river levels from radar altimetry. A hydrological model...... of the basin was built to simulate the land phase of the water cycle and produce inflows to a Muskingum routing model. River altimetry from the ENVISAT mission was then used to update the storages in the reaches of the Muskingum model using the Extended Kalman Filter. The method showed improvements in modeled...

  3. Cross Validation of Rain Drop Size Distribution between GPM and Ground Based Polarmetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, C. V.; Biswas, S.; Le, M.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite has reflectivity measurements at two independent frequencies, Ku- and Ka- band. Dual-frequency retrieval algorithms have been developed traditionally through forward, backward, and recursive approaches. However, these algorithms suffer from "dual-value" problem when they retrieve medium volume diameter from dual-frequency ratio (DFR) in rain region. To this end, a hybrid method has been proposed to perform raindrop size distribution (DSD) retrieval for GPM using a linear constraint of DSD along rain profile to avoid "dual-value" problem (Le and Chandrasekar, 2015). In the current GPM level 2 algorithm (Iguchi et al. 2017- Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document) the Solver module retrieves a vertical profile of drop size distributionn from dual-frequency observations and path integrated attenuations. The algorithm details can be found in Seto et al. (2013) . On the other hand, ground based polarimetric radars have been used for a long time to estimate drop size distributions (e.g., Gorgucci et al. 2002 ). In addition, coincident GPM and ground based observations have been cross validated using careful overpass analysis. In this paper, we perform cross validation on raindrop size distribution retrieval from three sources, namely the hybrid method, the standard products from the solver module and DSD retrievals from ground polarimetric radars. The results are presented from two NEXRAD radars located in Dallas -Fort Worth, Texas (i.e., KFWS radar) and Melbourne, Florida (i.e., KMLB radar). The results demonstrate the ability of DPR observations to produce DSD estimates, which can be used subsequently to generate global DSD maps. References: Seto, S., T. Iguchi, T. Oki, 2013: The basic performance of a precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's single/dual-frequency radar measurements. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and

  4. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  5. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  6. On the coordination of EISCAT measurements with rocket and satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1977-01-01

    The scientific interest of combining EISCAT measurements of the thermal ionospheric plasma with sounding rocket and/or satellite measurements of the hot plasma distribution function and other variables is discussed briefly. Some examples are presented where such coordinated measurements are of great interest. The importance of being able to launch rockets through, or at least quite close to, the radar beam is emphasized. (Auth.)

  7. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  8. Synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) a novel multi-frequency MIMO radar

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Baixiao

    2014-01-01

    Analyzes and discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, and experimental results of this advanced radar technology This book systematically discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, target measurement technology, and experimental results of a new kind of radar called synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR). The purpose is to help readers acquire an insight into the concept and principle of the SIAR, to know its operation mode, signal processing method, the difference between the traditional radar and itself, the designing ideals, and the developing me

  9. Recurring dynamically induced thinning during 1985 to 2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K.H.; Korsgaard, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    elevation satellite laser altimeter data supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper during 2002 to 2010. To assess thinning prior to 2002, we analyze aerial photographs from 1985. We document at least two distinct periods of dynamically induced ice loss during 1985 to 2010...

  10. Space-borne polarimetric SAR sensors or the golden age of radar polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SAR Polarimetry represents an active area of research in Active Earth Remote Sensing. This interest is clearly supported by the fact that nowadays there exists, or there will exist in a very next future, a non negligible quantity of launched Polarimetric SAR Spaceborne sensors. The ENVISAT satellite, developed by ESA, was launched on March 2002, and was the first Spaceborne sensor offering an innovative dualpolarization Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR system operating at C-band. The second Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is ALOS, a Japanese Earth-Observation satellite, developed by JAXA and was launched in January 2006. This mission includes an active L-band polarimetric radar sensor (PALSAR whose highresolution data may be used for environmental and hazard monitoring. The third Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is TerraSAR-X, a new German radar satellite, developed by DLR, EADS-Astrium and Infoterra GmbH, was launched on June 2007. This sensor carries a dual-polarimetric and high frequency X-Band SAR sensor that can be operated in different modes and offers features that were not available from space before. At least, the Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor, developed by CSA and MDA, and named RADARSAT-2 was launched in December 2007 The Radarsat program was born out the need for effective monitoring of Canada’s icy waters, and some Radarsat-2 capabilities that benefit sea- and river ice applications are the multi-polarization options that will improve ice-edge detection, ice-type discrimination and structure information. The many advances in these different Polarimetric Spaceborne platforms were developed to respond to specific needs for radar data in environmental monitoring applications around the world, like : sea- and river-ice monitoring, marine surveillance, disaster management, oil spill detection, snow monitoring, hydrology, mapping, geology, agriculture, soil characterisation, forestry applications (biomass, allometry, height

  11. Multi-variable X-band radar observation and tracking of ash plume from Mt. Etna volcano on November 23, 2013 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Riccci, Matteo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Marzano, Frank S.

    2015-04-01

    Ground based weather radar observations of volcanic ash clouds are gaining momentum after recent works which demonstrated their potential use either as stand alone tool or in combination with satellite retrievals. From an operational standpoint, radar data have been mainly exploited to derive the height of ash plume and its temporal-spatial development, taking into account the radar limitation of detecting coarse ash particles (from approximately 20 microns to 10 millimeters and above in terms of particle's radius). More sophisticated radar retrievals can include airborne ash concentration, ash fall rate and out-flux rate. Marzano et al. developed several volcanic ash radar retrieval (VARR) schemes, even though their practical use is still subject to a robust validation activity. The latter is made particularly difficult due to the lack of field campaigns with multiple observations and the scarce repetition of volcanic events. The radar variable, often used to infer the physical features of actual ash clouds, is the radar reflectivity named ZHH. It is related to ash particle size distribution and it shows a nice power law relationship with ash concentration. This makes ZHH largely used in radar-volcanology studies. However, weather radars are often able to detect Doppler frequency shifts and, more and more, they have a polarization-diversity capability. The former means that wind speed spectrum of the ash cloud is potentially inferable, whereas the latter implies that variables other than ZHH are available. Theoretically, these additional radar variables are linked to the degree of eccentricity of ash particles, their orientation and density as well as the presence of strong turbulence effects. Thus, the opportunity to refine the ash radar estimates so far developed can benefit from the thorough analysis of radar Doppler and polarization diversity. In this work we show a detailed analysis of Doppler shifts and polarization variables measured by the X band radar

  12. Array-Based Ultrawideband through-Wall Radar: Prediction and Assessment of Real Radar Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Maaref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new through-the-wall (TTW radar demonstrator for the detection and the localisation of people in a room (in a noncooperative way with the radar situated outside but in the vicinity of the first wall. After modelling the propagation through various walls and quantifying the backscattering by the human body, an analysis of the technical considerations which aims at defining the radar design is presented. Finally, an ultrawideband (UWB frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar is proposed, designed, and implemented. Some representative trials show that this radar is able to localise and track moving people behind a wall in real time.

  13. High Resolution Airborne InSAR DEM of Bagley Ice Valley, South-central Alaska: Geodetic Validation with Airborne Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, R. R.; Lingle, C. S.; Echelmeyer, K. A.; Valentine, V. B.; Elsberg, D.

    2001-12-01

    Bagley Ice Valley, in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains of south-central Alaska, is an integral part of the largest connected glacierized terrain on the North American continent. From the flow divide between Mt. Logan and Mt. St. Elias, Bagley Ice Valley flows west-northwest for some 90 km down a slope of less than 1o, at widths up to 15 km, to a saddle-gap where it turns south-west to become Bering Glacier. During 4-13 September 2000, an airborne survey of Bagley Ice Valley was performed by Intermap Technologies, Inc., using their Star-3i X-band SAR interferometer. The resulting digital elevation model (DEM) covers an area of 3243 km2. The DEM elevations are orthometric heights, in meters above the EGM96 geoid. The horizontal locations of the 10-m postings are with respect to the WGS84 ellipsoid. On 26 August 2000, 9 to 18 days prior to the Intermap Star-3i survey, a small-aircraft laser altimeter profile was acquired along the central flow line for validation. The laser altimeter data consists of elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid and orthometric heights above GEOID99-Alaska. Assessment of the accuracy of the Intermap Star-3i DEM was made by comparison of both the DEM orthometric heights and elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid with the laser altimeter data. Comparison of the orthometric heights showed an average difference of 5.4 +/- 1.0 m (DEM surface higher). Comparison of elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid showed an average difference of -0.77 +/- 0.93 m (DEM surface lower). This indicates that the X-band Star-3i interferometer was penetrating the glacier surface by an expected small amount. The WGS84 comparison is well within the 3 m RMS accuracy quoted for GT-3 DEM products. Snow accumulation may have occurred, however, on Bagley Ice Valley between 26 August and 4-13 September 2000. This will be estimated using a mass balance model and used to correct the altimeter-derived surface heights. The new DEM of Bagley Ice Valley will provide a reference

  14. G-REALM: A lake/reservoir monitoring tool for drought monitoring and water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, C. M.; Ricko, M.; Beckley, B. D.; Yang, X.; Tetrault, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    G-REALM is a NASA/USDA funded operational program offering water-level products for lakes and reservoirs and these are currently derived from the NASA/CNES Topex/Jason series of satellite radar altimeters. The main stakeholder is the USDA/Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) though many other end-users utilize the products for a variety of interdisciplinary science and operational programs. The FAS utilize the products within their CropExplorer Decision Support System (DSS) to help assess irrigation potential, and to monitor both short-term (agricultural) and longer-term (hydrological) drought conditions. There is increasing demand for a more global monitoring service that in particular, captures the variations in the smallest (1 to 100km2) reservoirs and water holdings in arid and semi-arid regions. Here, water resources are critical to both agriculture and regional security. A recent G-REALM 10-day resolution product upgrade and expansion has allowed for more accurate lake level products to be released and for a greater number of water bodies to be monitored. The next program phase focuses on the exploration of the enhanced radar altimeter data sets from the Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions with their improved spatial resolution, and the expansion of the system to the monitoring of 1,000 water bodies across the globe. In addition, a new element, the monitoring of surface water levels in wetland zones, is also being introduced. This aims to satisfy research and stakeholder requirements with respect to programs examining the links between inland fisheries catch potential and declining water levels, and to those monitoring the delicate balance between water resources, agriculture, and fisheries management in arid basins.

  15. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  16. Use of geostationary meteorological satellite images in convective rain estimation for flash-flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardah, T.; Abu Bakar, S. H.; Bardossy, A.; Maznorizan, M.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryFrequent flash-floods causing immense devastation in the Klang River Basin of Malaysia necessitate an improvement in the real-time forecasting systems being used. The use of meteorological satellite images in estimating rainfall has become an attractive option for improving the performance of flood forecasting-and-warning systems. In this study, a rainfall estimation algorithm using the infrared (IR) information from the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5) is developed for potential input in a flood forecasting system. Data from the records of GMS-5 IR images have been retrieved for selected convective cells to be trained with the radar rain rate in a back-propagation neural network. The selected data as inputs to the neural network, are five parameters having a significant correlation with the radar rain rate: namely, the cloud-top brightness-temperature of the pixel of interest, the mean and the standard deviation of the temperatures of the surrounding five by five pixels, the rate of temperature change, and the sobel operator that indicates the temperature gradient. In addition, three numerical weather prediction (NWP) products, namely the precipitable water content, relative humidity, and vertical wind, are also included as inputs. The algorithm is applied for the areal rainfall estimation in the upper Klang River Basin and compared with another technique that uses power-law regression between the cloud-top brightness-temperature and radar rain rate. Results from both techniques are validated against previously recorded Thiessen areal-averaged rainfall values with coefficient correlation values of 0.77 and 0.91 for the power-law regression and the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, respectively. An extra lead time of around 2 h is gained when the satellite-based ANN rainfall estimation is coupled with a rainfall-runoff model to forecast a flash-flood event in the upper Klang River Basin.

  17. Satellite imagery in safeguards: progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, I.; Listner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of satellite imagery has become very important for the verification of the safeguards implementation under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The main applications of satellite imagery are to verify the correctness and completeness of the member states' declarations, and to provide preparatory information for inspections, complimentary access and other technical visits. If the area of interest is not accessible, remote sensing sensors provide one of the few opportunities of gathering data for nuclear monitoring, as for example in Iraq between 1998 and 2002 or currently in North Korea. Satellite data of all available sensor types contains a considerable amount of safeguard-relevant information. Very high-resolution optical satellite imagery provides the most detailed spatial information on nuclear sites and activities up to 0.41 m resolution, together with up to 8 spectral bands from the visible light and near infrared. Thermal infrared (TIR) images can indicate the operational status of nuclear facilities and help to identify undeclared activities. Hyper-spectral imagery allows a quantitative estimation of geophysical, geochemical and biochemical characteristics of the earth's surface and is therefore useful for assessing, for example, surface cover changes due to drilling, mining and milling activities. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image data up to 1 m spatial resolution provides an all-weather, day and night monitoring capability. However, the absence (or existence) of nuclear activities can never be confirmed completely based on satellite imagery. (A.C.)

  18. Volcanic and Tectonic Activity in the Red Sea Region (2004-2013): Insights from Satellite Radar Interferometry and Optical Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Studying recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region is important for improving our knowledge of the Red Sea plate boundary and for regional geohazard assessments. However, limited information has been available about the past activity due to insufficient in-situ data and remoteness of some of the activity. In this dissertation, I have used satellite remote sensing to derive new information about several recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region. I first report on three volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea, the 2007-8 Jebel at Tair eruption and the 2011-12 & 2013 Zubair eruptions, which resulted in formation of two new islands. Series of high- resolution optical images were used to map the extent of lava flows and to observe and analyze the growth and destructive processes of the new islands. I used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to study the evolution of lava flows, to estimate their volumes, as well as to generate ground displacements maps, which were used to model the dikes that fed the eruptions. I then report on my work of the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion and the 2004 Tabuk earthquake sequence in western Saudi Arabia. I used InSAR observations and stress calculations to study the intruding dike at Harrat Lunayyir, while I combined InSAR data and Bayesian estimation to study the Tabuk earthquake activity. The key findings of the thesis are: 1) The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea indicate that the area is magmatically more active than previously acknowledged and that a rifting episode has been taken place in the southern Red Sea; 2) Stress interactions between an ascending dike intrusion and normal faulting on graben-bounding faults above the dike can inhibit vertical propagation of magma towards the surface; 3) InSAR observations can improve locations of shallow earthquakes and fault model uncertainties are useful to associate earthquake activity with mapped faults; 4). The

  19. ANALYSIS OF RADAR AND OPTICAL SPACE BORNE DATA FOR LARGE SCALE TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term “Rapid Mapping”. In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the

  20. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Zhu, Rong; Badger, Merete

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from...... ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR) for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard...... density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from...

  1. Sensitivity of Attitude Determination on the Model Assumed for ISAR Radar Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.

    2013-09-01

    Inverse synthetic aperture radars (ISAR) are valuable instrumentations for assessing the state of a large object in low Earth orbit. The images generated by these radars can reach a sufficient quality to be used during launch support or contingency operations, e.g. for confirming the deployment of structures, determining the structural integrity, or analysing the dynamic behaviour of an object. However, the direct interpretation of ISAR images can be a demanding task due to the nature of the range-Doppler space in which these images are produced. Recently, a tool has been developed by the European Space Agency's Space Debris Office to generate radar mappings of a target in orbit. Such mappings are a 3D-model based simulation of how an ideal ISAR image would be generated by a ground based radar under given processing conditions. These radar mappings can be used to support a data interpretation process. E.g. by processing predefined attitude scenarios during an observation sequence and comparing them with actual observations, one can detect non-nominal behaviour. Vice versa, one can also estimate the attitude states of the target by fitting the radar mappings to the observations. It has been demonstrated for the latter use case that a coarse approximation of the target through an 3D-model is already sufficient to derive the attitude information from the generated mappings. The level of detail required for the 3D-model is determined by the process of generating ISAR images, which is based on the theory of scattering bodies. Therefore, a complex surface can return an intrinsically noisy ISAR image. E.g. when many instruments on a satellite are visible to the observer, the ISAR image can suffer from multipath reflections. In this paper, we will further analyse the sensitivity of the attitude fitting algorithms to variations in the dimensions and the level of detail of the underlying 3D model. Moreover, we investigate the ability to estimate the orientations of different

  2. Radar remote sensing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  3. CryoSat-2 SIRAL Calibration: Strategy, Application and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, T.; Fornari, M.; Bouzinac, C.; Scagliola, M.; Tagliani, N.

    2012-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat-2 is a Ku band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is an important improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed. In fact, not only the corrections for transfer function amplitude with respect to frequency, gain and instrument path delay have to be computed but it is also needed to provide corrections for transfer function phase with respect to frequency and AGC setting as well as the phase variation across bursts of pulses. As a consequence, SIRAL performs regularly four types of calibrations: (1) CAL1 in order to calibrate the internal path delay and peak power variation, (2) CAL2 in order to compensate the instrument transfer function, (3) CAL4 to calibrate the interferometer and (4) AutoCal, a specific sequence in order to calibrate the gain and phase difference for each AGC setting. Commissioning phase results (April-December 2010) revealed high stability of the instrument, which made possible to reduce the calibration frequency during Operations. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat-2 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. In this poster we will describe as first the calibration strategy and then how the four different types of calibration are applied to science data. Moreover the calibration results over almost 2 years of mission will be presented, analyzing their temporal evolution in order to highlight the stability of the instrument over its life.

  4. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  5. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  6. Straylight analysis of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, T.; Rugi-Grond, E.; Kudielka, K.

    2008-09-01

    The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA) shall profile the surface of planet Mercury and operates on the day side as well as on the night side. Because of the high thermal loads, most interior surfaces of the front optics are highly reflective and specular, including the baffle. This puts a handicap on the straylight performance, which is needed to limit the solar background. We present the design measures used to reach an attenuation of about 10-8. We resume the method of backward straylight analysis which starts the rays at the detector and analyses the results in object space. The backward analysis can be quickly compiled and challenges computer resources rather than labor effort. This is very useful in a conceptual design phase when a design is iterated and trade-offs are to be performed. For one design, we compare the results with values obtained from a forward analysis.

  7. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  8. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  9. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    Modern multi-mode active phased array radars require highly efficient radar control system for hassle free real time radar operation. The requirement comes due to the distributed architecture of the active phased array radar, where each antenna element in the array is connected to a dedicated Transmit-Receive (TR) module. Controlling the TR modules, which are generally few hundreds in number, and functioning them in synchronisation, is a huge task during real time radar operation and should be handled with utmost care. Indian MST Radar, located at NARL, Gadanki, which is established during early 90's, as an outcome of the middle atmospheric program, is a remote sensing instrument for probing the atmosphere. This radar has a semi-active array, consisting of 1024 antenna elements, with limited beam steering, possible only along the principle planes. To overcome the limitations and difficulties, the radar is being augmented into fully active phased array, to accomplish beam agility and multi-mode operations. Each antenna element is excited with a dedicated 1 kW TR module, located in the field and enables to position the radar beam within 20° conical volume. A multi-channel receiver makes the radar to operate in various modes like Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS), Spaced Antenna (SA), Frequency Domain Interferometry (FDI) etc. Present work describes the real-time radar control (RC) system for the above described active phased array radar. The radar control system consists of a Spartan 6 FPGA based Timing and Control Signal Generator (TCSG), and a computer containing the software for controlling all the subsystems of the radar during real-time radar operation and also for calibrating the radar. The main function of the TCSG is to generate the control and timing waveforms required for various subsystems of the radar. Important components of the RC system software are (i) TR module configuring software which does programming, controlling and health parameter monitoring of the

  10. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  11. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  12. Constraining the thickness of polar ice deposits on Mercury using the Mercury Laser Altimeter and small craters in permanently shadowed regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Radar-bright deposits at the poles of Mercury are located in permanently shadowed regions, which provide thermally stable environments for hosting and retaining water ice on the surface or in the near subsurface for geologic timescales. While the areal distribution of these radar-bright deposits is well characterized, their thickness, and thus their total mass and volume, remain poorly constrained. Here we derive thickness estimates for selected water-ice deposits using small, simple craters visible within the permanently shadowed, radar-bright deposits. We examine two endmember scenarios: in Case I, these craters predate the emplacement of the ice, and in Case II, these craters postdate the emplacement of the ice. In Case I, we find the difference between estimated depths of the original unfilled craters and the measured depths of the craters to find the estimated infill of material. The average estimated infilled material for 9 craters assumed to be overlain with water ice is ∼ 41-14+30 m, where 1-σ standard error of the mean is reported as uncertainty. Reported uncertainties are for statistical errors only. Additional systematic uncertainty may stem from georeferencing the images and topographic datasets, from the radial accuracy of the altimeter measurements, or from assumptions in our models including (1) ice is flat in the bowl-shaped crater and (2) there is negligible ice at the crater rims. In Case II, we derive crater excavation depths to investigate the thickness of the ice layer that may have been penetrated by the impact. While the absence of excavated regolith associated with the small craters observed suggests that impacts generally do not penetrate through the ice deposit, the spatial resolution and complex illumination geometry of images may limit the observations. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude whether the small craters in this study penetrate through the ice deposit, and thus Case II does not provide a constraint on the ice thickness

  13. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Processing for Ocean and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    methods and processing chains need to be developed. Subsequently, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved alongtrack resolution over both the oceans and over land. The main objective of the LOTUS project is to prepare the scientific and operational use of data from......The Sentinel-3 satellite mission with its SRAL instrumentation contains new features compared to the conventional radar altimeter mission that form the basis for new innovative scientific analyses of both ocean and inland water levels. To utilize the full potential of the new data source, new...... that they will be used for commercial activities. LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution sea surface heights, wave heights and wind speeds from SAR mode data. Over land, the LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution river and lake heights, soil moisture, and snow...

  14. Survey of Ultra-wideband Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokole, Eric L.; Hansen, Pete

    The development of UWB radar over the last four decades is very briefly summarized. A discussion of the meaning of UWB is followed by a short history of UWB radar developments and discussions of key supporting technologies and current UWB radars. Selected UWB radars and the associated applications are highlighted. Applications include detecting and imaging buried mines, detecting and mapping underground utilities, detecting and imaging objects obscured by foliage, through-wall detection in urban areas, short-range detection of suicide bombs, and the characterization of the impulse responses of various artificial and naturally occurring scattering objects. In particular, the Naval Research Laboratory's experimental, low-power, dual-polarized, short-pulse, ultra-high resolution radar is used to discuss applications and issues of UWB radar. Some crucial issues that are problematic to UWB radar are spectral availability, electromagnetic interference and compatibility, difficulties with waveform control/shaping, hardware limitations in the transmission chain, and the unreliability of high-power sources for sustained use above 2 GHz.

  15. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find...... the most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser...... and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed....

  16. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  17. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  18. CAMEX-4 TOGA RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  19. Forest Biomass Mapping From Lidar and Radar Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon; Guo, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Montesano, P.; Kimes, D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of lidar and radar instruments to measure forest structure attributes such as height and biomass at global scales is being considered for a future Earth Observation satellite mission, DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice). Large footprint lidar makes a direct measurement of the heights of scatterers in the illuminated footprint and can yield accurate information about the vertical profile of the canopy within lidar footprint samples. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to sense the canopy volume, especially at longer wavelengths and provides image data. Methods for biomass mapping by a combination of lidar sampling and radar mapping need to be developed. In this study, several issues in this respect were investigated using aircraft borne lidar and SAR data in Howland, Maine, USA. The stepwise regression selected the height indices rh50 and rh75 of the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data for predicting field measured biomass with a R(exp 2) of 0.71 and RMSE of 31.33 Mg/ha. The above-ground biomass map generated from this regression model was considered to represent the true biomass of the area and used as a reference map since no better biomass map exists for the area. Random samples were taken from the biomass map and the correlation between the sampled biomass and co-located SAR signature was studied. The best models were used to extend the biomass from lidar samples into all forested areas in the study area, which mimics a procedure that could be used for the future DESDYnI Mission. It was found that depending on the data types used (quad-pol or dual-pol) the SAR data can predict the lidar biomass samples with R2 of 0.63-0.71, RMSE of 32.0-28.2 Mg/ha up to biomass levels of 200-250 Mg/ha. The mean biomass of the study area calculated from the biomass maps generated by lidar- SAR synergy 63 was within 10% of the reference biomass map derived from LVIS data. The results from this study are preliminary, but do show the

  20. Comparison of Cloud Properties from CALIPSO-CloudSat and Geostationary Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Chang, F.; Winker, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Spangenberg, D.; Austin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud properties are being derived in near-real time from geostationary satellite imager data for a variety of weather and climate applications and research. Assessment of the uncertainties in each of the derived cloud parameters is essential for confident use of the products. Determination of cloud amount, cloud top height, and cloud layering is especially important for using these real -time products for applications such as aircraft icing condition diagnosis and numerical weather prediction model assimilation. Furthermore, the distribution of clouds as a function of altitude has become a central component of efforts to evaluate climate model cloud simulations. Validation of those parameters has been difficult except over limited areas where ground-based active sensors, such as cloud radars or lidars, have been available on a regular basis. Retrievals of cloud properties are sensitive to the surface background, time of day, and the clouds themselves. Thus, it is essential to assess the geostationary satellite retrievals over a variety of locations. The availability of cloud radar data from CloudSat and lidar data from CALIPSO make it possible to perform those assessments over each geostationary domain at 0130 and 1330 LT. In this paper, CloudSat and CALIPSO data are matched with contemporaneous Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), and Meteosat-8 data. Unlike comparisons with cloud products derived from A-Train imagers, this study considers comparisons of nadir active sensor data with off-nadir retrievals. These matched data are used to determine the uncertainties in cloud-top heights and cloud amounts derived from the geostationary satellite data using the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud retrieval algorithms. The CERES multi-layer cloud detection method is also evaluated to determine its accuracy and limitations in the off-nadir mode. The results will be useful for

  1. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  2. Estimation of High-Frequency Earth-Space Radio Wave Signals via Ground-Based Polarimetric Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for

  3. OVERVIEW OF MODERN RESEARCH OF LANDSLIDES ACCORDING TO AERIAL AND SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Lyapishev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of researches of landslides using remote sensing methods such as aerial photography, satellite images, radar interferometry, and their combination with the use of GIS technology. Modern methods of investigation of landslides are very diverse. The authors propose different approaches to the identification, classification and monitoring of landslides. Data analysis techniques can help in creating more sophisticated approach to the analysis of landslides.

  4. Applications of the SWOT Mission to Reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, M.; Hossain, F.

    2017-12-01

    The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission has the potential to significantly improve our ability to observe artificial reservoirs globally from a remote sensing perspective. By providing simultaneous estimates of reservoir water surface extent and elevation with near global coverage, reservoir storage changes can be estimated. Knowing how reservoir storage changes over time is critical for understanding reservoir impacts on river systems. In data limited regions, remote sensing is often the only viable method of retrieving such information about reservoir operations. When SWOT launches in 2021, it will join an array of satellite sensors with long histories of reservoir observation and monitoring capabilities. There are many potential synergies in the complimentary use of future SWOT observations with observations from current satellite sensors. The work presented here explores the potential benefits of utilizing SWOT observations over 20 reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin. The SWOT hydrologic simulator, developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is used to generate realistic SWOT observations, which are then inserted into a previously established remote sensing modeling framework of the 20 Mekong Basin reservoirs. This framework currently combines data from Landsat missions, Jason radar altimeters, and the Shuttle Radar and Topography Mission (SRTM), to provide monthly estimates of reservoir storage change. The incorporation of SWOT derived reservoir surface area and elevation into the model is explored in an effort to improve both accuracy and temporal resolution of observed reservoir operations.

  5. Satellite rainfall monitoring over Africa for food security, using multi-channel MSG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, R.; Grimes, D.; Saunders, R.; Blackmore, T.; Francis, P.

    2009-04-01

    Near real-time rainfall estimates are crucial in sub-Saharan Africa for a variety of humanitarian and agricultural purposes. However, for economic and infrastructural reasons, regularly reporting rain-gauges are sparse and precipitation radar networks extremely rare. Satellite rainfall estimates, particularly from geostationary satellites such as Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), present one method of filling this information gap, as they produce data at high temporal and spatial resolution. An algorithm has been developed to produce rainfall estimates for Africa from multi-channel MSG data. The algorithm is calibrated using precipitation radar data collected in Niamey, Niger as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) project in 2006, and is based on an algorithm used operationally over Europe by the UK Met Office. Contingency tables are used to establish a statistical relationship between multi-channel MSG data and probability of rainfall at several different rain-rate magnitudes as sensed by the radar. Rain-rate estimates can then be produced at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, with MSG scan length (15 minutes) and pixel size (3-4km) as the lower limit. Results will be presented of a validation of this algorithm over the Sahel region of Africa. Rainfall estimates from this algorithm, processed for 2004, will be validated against gridded rain-gauge data at a 0.5 degree and 10 day timescale suitable for drought monitoring purposes. A comparison will also be made against rainfall estimates from the TAMSAT algorithm, which uses single channel IR data from MSG, and has been shown to perform well in the Sahel region.

  6. Revised coordinates of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, S.; Stark, A.; Gwinner, K.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.

    2017-09-01

    We revised the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) footprint locations (i.e. areocentric body-fixed latitude and longitude), using updated trajectory models for the Mars Global Surveyor and updated rotation parameters of Mars, including precession, nutation and length-of-day variation. We assess the impact of these updates on the gridded MOLA maps. A first comparison reveals that even slight corrections to the rotational state of Mars can lead to height differences up to 100 m (in particular in regions with high slopes, where large interpolation effects are expected). Ultimately, we aim at independent measurements of the rotation parameters of Mars. We co-register MOLA profiles to digital terrain models from stereo images (stereo DTMs) and measure offsets of the two data sets.

  7. Cross-polarization microwave radar return at severe wind conditions: laboratory model and geophysical model function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Abramov, Victor; Ermoshkin, Alexey; Zuikova, Emma; Kazakov, Vassily; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is one of the main techniques of monitoring severe weather conditions over the ocean. The principal difficulty of the existing algorithms of retrieving wind based on dependence of microwave backscattering cross-section on wind speed (Geophysical Model Function, GMF) is due to its saturation at winds exceeding 25 - 30 m/s. Recently analysis of dual- and quad-polarization C-band radar return measured from satellite Radarsat-2 suggested that the cross-polarized radar return has much higher sensitivity to the wind speed than co-polarized back scattering [1] and conserved sensitivity to wind speed at hurricane conditions [2]. Since complete collocation of these data was not possible and time difference in flight legs and SAR images acquisition was up to 3 hours, these two sets of data were compared in [2] only statistically. The main purpose of this paper is investigation of the functional dependence of cross-polarized radar cross-section on the wind speed in laboratory experiment. Since cross-polarized radar return is formed due to scattering at small-scale structures of the air-sea interface (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc), which are well reproduced in laboratory conditions, then the approach based on laboratory experiment on radar scattering of microwaves at the water surface under hurricane wind looks feasible. The experiments were performed in the Wind-wave flume located on top of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, where the airflow was produced in the flume with the straight working part of 10 m and operating cross section 0.40?0.40 sq. m, the axis velocity can be varied from 5 to 25 m/s. Microwave measurements were carried out by a coherent Doppler X-band (3.2 cm) scatterometer with the consequent receive of linear polarizations. Experiments confirmed higher sensitivity to the wind speed of the cross-polarized radar return. Simultaneously parameters of the air flow in the turbulent boundary layer

  8. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered bathymetric data. The paper reviews the concepts of bathymetry assessment by radar, the radar imaging mechanism, and the possibilities and limitations of the use of radar data in rapid assessment.

  9. Use of a GCM to Explore Sampling Issues in Connection with Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth Radiation Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Randall, David A.; Branson, Mark D.; Gibson, Gary G.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Collocated in time and space, top-of-the-atmosphere measurements of the Earth radiation budget (ERB) and cloudiness from passive scanning radiometers, and lidar- and radar-in-space measurements of multilayered cloud systems, are the required combination to improve our understanding of the role of clouds and radiation in climate. Experiments to fly multiple satellites "in formation" to measure simultaneously the radiative and optical properties of overlapping cloud systems are being designed. Because satellites carrying ERB experiments and satellites carrying lidars- or radars-in space have different orbital characteristics, the number of simultaneous measurements of radiation and clouds is reduced relative to the number of measurements made by each satellite independently. Monthly averaged coincident observations of radiation and cloudiness are biased when compared against more frequently sampled observations due, in particular, to the undersampling of their diurnal cycle, Using the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), the goal of this study is to measure the impact of using simultaneous observations from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform and companion satellites flying lidars or radars on monthly averaged diagnostics of longwave radiation, cloudiness, and its cloud optical properties. To do so, the hourly varying geographical distributions of coincident locations between the afternoon EOS (EOS-PM) orbit and the orbit of the ICESAT satellite set to fly at the altitude of 600 km, and between the EOS PM orbit and the orbits of the PICASSO satellite proposed to fly at the altitudes of 485 km (PICA485) or 705 km (PICA705), are simulated in the CSU GCM for a 60-month time period starting at the idealistic July 1, 2001, launch date. Monthly averaged diagnostics of the top-of-the-atmosphere, atmospheric, and surface longwave radiation budgets and clouds accumulated over grid boxes corresponding to satellite overpasses are compared against

  10. Comparison of Monthly Mean Cloud Fraction and Cloud Optical depth Determined from Surface Cloud Radar, TOVS, AVHRR, and MODIS over Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Frisch, Shelby; Wang, Xuan-Ji; Key, Jeff; Schweiger, Axel; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A one year comparison is made of mean monthly values of cloud fraction and cloud optical depth over Barrow, Alaska (71 deg 19.378 min North, 156 deg 36.934 min West) between 35 GHz radar-based retrievals, the TOVS Pathfinder Path-P product, the AVHRR APP-X product, and a MODIS based cloud retrieval product from the CERES-Team. The data sets represent largely disparate spatial and temporal scales, however, in this paper, the focus is to provide a preliminary analysis of how the mean monthly values derived from these different data sets compare, and determine how they can best be used separately, and in combination to provide reliable estimates of long-term trends of changing cloud properties. The radar and satellite data sets described here incorporate Arctic specific modifications that account for cloud detection challenges specific to the Arctic environment. The year 2000 was chosen for this initial comparison because the cloud radar data was particularly continuous and reliable that year, and all of the satellite retrievals of int