WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite power stations

  1. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  2. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  3. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  4. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  5. HETE Satellite Power Subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The HETE (High-Energy Transient Experiment) satellite a joint project between MIT's Center for Space Research and AeroAstro. is a high-energy gamma-ray burst/X-Ray/UV observatory platform. HETE will be launched into a 550 km circular orbit with an inclination of 37.7°, and has a design lifetime of 18 months. This paper presents a description of the spacecraft's power subsystem, which collects, regulates, and distributes power to the experiment payload modules and to the various spacecraft sub...

  6. The power relay satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  7. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  8. Uplink Power Control For Earth/Satellite/Earth Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dayamoy

    1994-01-01

    Proposed control subsystem adjusts power radiated by uplink transmitter in Earth station/satellite relay station/ Earth station communication system. Adjustments made to compensate for anticipated changes in attenuation by rain. Raw input is a received downlink beacon singal, amplitude of which affected not only by rain fade but also by scintillation, attenuation in atmospheric gases, and diurnal effects.

  9. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  10. Thermoelectrical power stations in 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, M. (University of Padova, Italy)

    1968-01-01

    In Italy in 1967, geothermal electric power production was 2.66% of the national energy production. The implementation of traditional and nuclear power plants is described. The trend in conventional thermoelectric power plants is characterized by ever-increasing block capacities (100-160 MW at present), they are expected to increase to 600 MW in Europe and to 1200 MW in the USA 10 years from now. Nuclear power plants with pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and graphite-gas reactors have been built recently in Italy. Studies are being conducted in the area of high-speed reactors and breeder reactors. A description is presented of a power station using geothermal energy. At the end of 1967, geothermal power plants with an electrical capacity of 340 MW were in operation. Generally, U.S. thermoelectrical engine blocks with high productivity were used. The thermodynamic characteristics of these blocks are described in detail. The most powerful engine in the field in Italy- a turbocompressore Franco Tosi- was constructed in the ENEL central Castlenuovo Val Cecina in the Larderello region. The compressor is fed by a combined flow of steam, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. It is characterized by a load of 22 t/h and an input pressure of 0.0905 atm at the outlet. The absorbed power is 2.28 MW at a velocity of 50 rotations/sec. Thirty figures are presented.

  11. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  12. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  13. Nagymaros power station on the River Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilka, J.

    1987-02-01

    This article deals with the economic aspects of Austrian cooperation in power station construction as practised in the consulting activities of Oesterreichische Donaukraftwerke AG, and discusses in detail this company's participation in the construction of the main structure for the Nagymaros power station on the Danube under a general contract.

  14. POSITION ERROR IN STATION-KEEPING SATELLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    of an error in satellite orientation and the sun being in a plane other than the equatorial plane may result in errors in position determination. The nature of the errors involved is described and their magnitudes estimated.

  15. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  16. 78 FR 39200 - Federal Earth Stations-Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-11341; FCC 13-65] Federal Earth Stations--Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum... interference protection for Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) and Mobile- Satellite Service (MSS) earth stations... and the important role it will play in our nation's economy and technological innovation now and in...

  17. Micro hydro-electric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monition, L.; Le Nir, M.; Roux, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion of all aspects of hydro-power exploitation using micro-power stations. It offers guidance to techniques for assessing the power available from a given stream, designing and building siteworks, selecting the appropriate turbine types for given conditions, and measuring and controlling environmental hazards associated with micro-hydro installations.

  18. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  19. case study of afam power station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    checking of emergency failure of components or .... 1, 2002. Madueme. 87. Table 7: History of Afam generating plans from 1962 to 1997 ... was no maintenance management section in the power station ... Training School, 1998. 5. Clifton, R.N. ...

  20. Optimal link budget to maximize data receiving from remote sensing satellite at different ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godse, Vinay V.; Rukmini, B.

    2016-10-01

    Earth observation satellite plays a significant role for global situation awareness. The earth observation satellite uses imaging payloads in RF and IR bands, which carry huge amount of data, needs to be transferred during visibility of satellite over the ground station. Location of ground station plays a very important role in communication with LEO satellites, as orbital speed of LEO satellite is much higher than earth rotation speed. It will be accessible for particular equatorial ground station for a very short duration. In this paper we want to maximize data receiving by optimizing link budget and receiving data at higher elevation links. Data receiving at multiple ground stations is preferred to counter less pass duration due to higher elevation links. Our approach is to calculate link budget for remote sensing satellite with a fixed power input and varying different minimum elevation angles to obtain maximum data. The minimum pass duration should be above 3 minutes for effective communication. We are proposing to start process of command handling as soon as satellite is visible to particular ground station with low elevation angle up to 5 degree and start receiving data at higher elevation angles to receive data with higher speed. Cartosat-2B LEO earth observation satellite is taken for the case study. Cartosat-2B will complete around 14 passes over equator in a day, out of which only 4-5 passes will be useful for near equator ground stations. Our aim is to receive data at higher elevation angles at higher speed and increase amount of data download, criteria being minimum pass duration of 3 minutes, which has been set for selecting minimum elevation angle.

  1. Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor

    1990-01-01

    NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

  2. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a) New fixed-satellites shall comply with...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite...-Satellite Stations § 80.1185 Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations. Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service must meet the eligibility requirements contained in this section. (a)...

  4. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  5. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  6. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  7. Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

  8. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  9. Bit Error Rate Due to Misalignment of Earth Station Antenna Pointing to Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One problem causing reduction of energy in satellite communications system is the misalignment of earth station antenna pointing to satellite. Error in pointing would affect the quality of information signal to energy bit in earth station. In this research, error in pointing angle occurred only at receiver (Rx antenna, while the transmitter (Tx antennas precisely point to satellite. The research was conducted towards two satellites, namely TELKOM-1 and TELKOM-2. At first, measurement was made by directing Tx antenna precisely to satellite, resulting in an antenna pattern shown by spectrum analyzer. The output from spectrum analyzers is drawn with the right scale to describe swift of azimuth and elevation pointing angle towards satellite. Due to drifting from the precise pointing, it influenced the received link budget indicated by pattern antenna. This antenna pattern shows reduction of power level received as a result of pointing misalignment. As a conclusion, the increasing misalignment of pointing to satellite would affect in the reduction of received signal parameters link budget of down-link traffic.

  10. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  11. Satellite power system (SPS) initial insurance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The beginning of a process to educate the insurance industry about the Satellite Power System is reported. The report is divided into three sections. In the first section a general history describes how space risks are being insured today. This is followed by an attempt to identify the major risks inherent to the SPS. The final section presents a general projection of insurance market reactions to the Satellite Power System.

  12. Numerical flow analysis of hydro power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    For the hydraulic engineering and design of hydro power stations and their hydraulic optimisation, mainly experimental studies of the physical submodel or of the full model at the hydraulics laboratory are carried out. Partially, the flow analysis is done by means of computational fluid dynamics based on 2D and 3D methods and is a useful supplement to experimental studies. For the optimisation of hydro power stations, fast numerical methods would be appropriate to study the influence of a wide field of optimisation parameters and flow states. Among the 2D methods, especially the methods based on the shallow water equations are suitable for this field of application, since a lot of experience verified by in-situ measurements exists because of the widely used application of this method for the problems in hydraulic engineering. As necessary, a 3D model may supplement subsequently the optimisation of the hydro power station. The quality of the results of the 2D method for the optimisation of hydro power plants is investigated by means of the results of the optimisation of the hydraulic dividing pier compared to the results of the 3D flow analysis.

  13. Energy-Efficient Network Transmission between Satellite Swarms and Earth Stations Based on Lyapunov Optimization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advent of satellite swarm technologies has enabled space exploration with a massive number of picoclass, low-power, and low-weight spacecraft. However, developing swarm-based satellite systems, from conceptualization to validation, is a complex multidisciplinary activity. One of the primary challenges is how to achieve energy-efficient data transmission between the satellite swarm and terrestrial terminal stations. Employing Lyapunov optimization techniques, we present an online control algorithm to optimally dispatch traffic load among different satellite-ground links for minimizing overall energy consumption over time. Our algorithm is able to independently and simultaneously make control decisions on traffic dispatching over intersatellite-links and up-down-links so as to offer provable energy and delay guarantees, without requiring any statistical information of traffic arrivals and link condition. Rigorous analysis and extensive simulations have demonstrated the performance and robustness of the proposed new algorithm.

  14. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  15. The geo-control system for station keeping and colocation of geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenbruck, O.; Eckstein, M. C.; Gonner, J.

    1993-01-01

    GeoControl is a compact but powerful and accurate software system for station keeping of single and colocated satellites, which has been developed at the German Space Operations Center. It includes four core modules for orbit determination (including maneuver estimation), maneuver planning, monitoring of proximities between colocated satellites, and interference and event prediction. A simple database containing state vector and maneuver information at selected epochs is maintained as a central interface between the modules. A menu driven shell utilizing form screens for data input serves as the central user interface. The software is written in Ada and FORTRAN and may be used on VAX workstations or mainframes under the VMS operating system.

  16. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  17. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  18. A preliminary design for a satellite power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Clara V.; Kokaly, Ray; Nandi, Saumya; Timmons, Mike; Garrard, Mark; Mercado, Rommel; Rogers, Brian; Ugaz, Victor

    1991-01-01

    Outlined here is a preliminary design for a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system. The SPS will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for mass consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy which can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting to one ground station. The SPs technology uses multi-layer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 sq km planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit and array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on the solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing panels (SSAPs). The primary truss elements used to support the arrays are composed on composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  19. Design considerations for solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Leopold, L.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance characteristics of a conceptual solar power satellite (SPS) system with emphasis on the microwave power transmission system. The latest tradeoff studies on photovoltaic and thermal systems for converting solar energy into electricity at the satellite are reviewed. The microwave system, consisting of dc-RF amplifiers, a 1-km phased array, and a ground antenna/rectifier scheme is capable of delivering 5 GW of power to the commercial grid. The transmission efficiencies of smaller system sizes (down to 1 GW) are compared with that of the nominal 5 GW system. At present the frequency region of interest is the IMS (industrial, medical, and scientific) band at 2450 plus or minus 50 MHz. Economic and technical tradeoffs as a function of the microwave operating frequency are considered. Candidate dc-RF power converter tubes, including medium-power amplitrons, high-power klystrons, and low-power solid state amplifiers, are examined.

  20. Special Protection Scheme at BTPS Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Makarand Sudhakar; Suryawanshi, Hiralal Murlidhar; Ballal, Deepali Makarand; Mishra, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    After 2003 free licensees' act in power sector, it is observed that many power plants from public sector as well as from private sectors are going to be commissioned. The load growth in India is about more than 10% pa. As these plants are going to connect to the power grid, therefore the grid is going to become more complicated. Also the problems related to grid stability are enhanced. There shall be possibilities regarding failure of grid system and under such circumstance it is always desirable to island minimum single generating unit in power plant of specified geographical area. After islanding the generating unit, this unit has to survive not only for the restoration of grid but also for power supply to important consumers. For the grid stability and effective survival of islanded generating unit, it is mandatory to maintain the power balance equation. This paper focuses on the lacunae's observed in implementation of special protection scheme to carry out islanding operation at Bhusawal Thermal Power Station (BTPS) by considering the case studies. The concepts of islanding, load shedding, generator tripping and along with importance of power balance equation is discussed. Efforts are made to provide the solution for the survival of islanding scheme.

  1. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  2. Retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Simkin; V.S. Naumchik; B.D. Kozitskii (and others) [OAO L' vovORGRES, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2008-04-15

    Approaches and principles for retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations are considered. The results obtained from retrofitting the monitoring and control system of Unit 9 at the Burshtyn thermal power station are described.

  3. Efficient chaotic based satellite power supply subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Turci, Luiz Felipe [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: felipeturci@yahoo.com.br; Macau, Elbert E.N. [National Institute of Space Research (Inpe), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: elbert@lac.inpe.br; Yoneyama, Takashi [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: takashi@ita.br

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we investigate the use of the Dynamical System Theory to increase the efficiency of the satellite power supply subsystems. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that more efficiency can be drawn from a power supply subsystem if the DC/DC converter operates in regions of high nonlinearity. In special, if it operates in a chaotic regime, is has an intrinsic sensitivity that can be exploited to efficiently drive the power subsystem over high ranges of power requests by using control of chaos techniques.

  4. Space Power for Communication Satellites Beyond 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The space power trends for communication satellites beginning in the mid-70's are reviewed. Predictions of technology advancements and requirements were compared with actual growth patterns. The conclusions derived suggest that the spacecraft power system technology base and present rate of advancement will not be able to meet the power demands of the early to mid-90's. It is recommended that an emphasis on accelerating the technology development be made to minimize the technology gap.

  5. Design description report for a photovoltaic power system for a remote satellite earth terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. A.; Naff, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) power system has been installed as an adjunct to an agricultural school at Wawatobi on the large northern island of the Republic of Indonesia. Its purpose is to provide power for a satellite earth station and a classroom. The renewable energy developed supports the video and audio teleconferencing systems as well as the facility at large. The ground station may later be used to provide telephone service. The installation was made in support of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program, whose purpose is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for rural development assistance applications. The objective of this particular PV power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid PV engine-generator configuration for remote satellite earth stations.

  6. Electrical Power Station Theory. A Course of Technical Information for Electrical Power Station Wireman Apprentices. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This third-year course for electrical power station wirer apprentices is a foundation for the study of all aspects of installation and maintenance of power station equipment. It also provides a good technical background as well as the general knowledge essential to power station operator trainees. The course is intended to be equivalent to a…

  7. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  8. Conversion options for Peterhead Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibble, I.R.; O' Donnell, I.H. [Scottish Hydro-Electric plc, Perth (United Kingdom); Hunt, G.F. [Thermoflow Ltd., Tewkesbury (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The two gas/oil-fired 660 MW generating sets at Scottish Hydro-Electric's Peterhead Power Station were originally commissioned in 1981/2 and in order to remain competitive it was essential to upgrade the plant. This paper describes the plant performance aspects of a study carried out by Scottish Hydro-Electric to identify the possible routes for plant modification and the associated efficiency of each option. Scottish Hydro-Electric employed the suite of Thermoflow programs to carry out the performance study. These programs had sufficient flexibility to model the performance of the original plant and then to analyse the variety of re-powering options available, using the original accurate modes as the basis. (author)

  9. Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, S

    1999-05-20

    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the lines of sight of their optics must be aligned for the duration of the communication. The satellite pointing and tracking systems perform the alignment. The satellite pointing systems vibrate because of tracking noise and mechanical impacts (such as thruster operation, the antenna pointing mechanism, the solar array driver, navigation noise, tracking noise). These vibrations increase the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. An expression is derived for adaptive transmitter power that compensates for vibration effects in heterodyne laser satellite links. This compensation makes it possible to keep the link BER performance constant for changes in vibration amplitudes. The motivation for constant BER is derived from the requirement for future satellite communication networks with high quality of service. A practical situation of a two-low-Earth-orbit satellite communication link is given. From the results of the example it is seen that the required power for a given BER increases almost exponentially for linear increase in vibration amplitude.

  10. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairlie Ian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  11. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  12. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  13. Baseline Testing of the Ultracapacitor Enhanced Photovoltaic Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing an advanced ultracapacitor enhanced photovoltaic power station. Goals of this effort include maximizing photovoltaic power generation efficiency and extending the life of photovoltaic energy storage systems. Unique aspects of the power station include the use of a solar tracker, and ultracapacitors for energy storage. The photovoltaic power station is seen as a way to provide electric power in remote locations that would otherwise not have electric power, provide independence form utility systems, reduce pollution, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB), and the E-Bike. The power station complements the E-Bike extremely well in that it permits the charging of the vehicle batteries in remote locations. Other applications include scientific research and medical power sources in isolated regions. The power station is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in power technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the ultracapacitor enhanced power station, the results of performance testing and future power station development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the ultracapacitor enhanced power station provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  14. Transportable IOT measurement station for direct-broadcast satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Michael

    A transportable 11.7-12.5-GHz flux-density measurement facility for use in the in-orbit testing (IOT) of the FRG TV-Sat direct-broadcast satellites is described. Major components include a 1.2-m-diameter antenna, the fluxmeter, a radiometer to determine atmospheric attenuation, a weather station, and a control and data-processing computer; all of the components are mounted on a 5.10 x 2.35 x 2.70-m trailer. IOT performance parameters include gain/temperature ratio 15.9 dB/K, measurement range -97 to -117 dBW/sq m, measurement accuracy less than 0.5 dB rms, and measurement rate 250-650 msec. Photographs and a block diagram are provided.

  15. Coal fired power stations and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.H.

    1982-12-01

    Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal in power stations were discussed in a conference in Copenhagen in August, 1982. Topics included: 1) Discussions of the adverse temperature effects of cooling tower water. The pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been isolated in two of eight cooling tower systems; 2) Uses of power plant ash. Dense blocks of the ash have been used to build artificial reefs with, as yet, not adverse effects on the marine community; 3) Long-range transport of particulates which bind heavy metals in the ash; and 4) The effects of acid rain. An examination of the fish status of Scandanavian lakes did not reveal a simple relationship between pH and fishlessness. It was concluded that levels of calcium and aluminum, food supply, genetically determined tolerance and ecological factors have also played a part in the fish regime of acid-affected lakes. The Norwegian attitude is that there are good grounds for thinking acid rain is a global problem implicating the discharge of nitrogen and sulfur oxides and either micropollutants. (JMT)

  16. Modern power station practice incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PM

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi

  17. User Context Aware Base Station Power Flow Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  18. Laser power beaming for satellite applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-09-22

    A serious consideration of laser power beaming for satellite applications appears to have grown out of a NASA mission analysis for transmitting power to lunar bases during the two week dark period. System analyses showed that laser power beaming to the moon in conjunction with efficient, large area solar cell collection panels, were an attractive alternative to other schemes such as battery storage and nuclear generators, largely because of the high space transportation costs. The primary difficulty with this scheme is the need for very high average power visible lasers. One system study indicated that lasers in excess of 10 MW at a wavelength of approximately 850 nm were required. Although such lasers systems have received much attention for military applications, their realization is still a long term goal.

  19. 47 CFR 25.215 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. 25.215 Section 25.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.215 Technical requirements for space stations in the Direct Broadcast Satellite Service. In addition to §...

  20. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  1. Modernisation work commences at the Moabit power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    A major part of the modernisation programme for existing power stations is the replacement of combustion block 2 at the Moabit power station by a new circulating fluidised-bed combustor, whose reduced emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust eliminate the need for downstream flue-gas desulphurisation.

  2. Electric power management for the International Space Station experiment racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burcham, M. [Boeing Missile and Space, Huntsville, AL (United States); Darty, M.A.; Thibodeau, P.E. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Huntsville, AL (United States); Coe, R. [SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Dunn, M. [Europa Ltd., Glenrothes (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    An intelligent, all solid state, electric power management system for International Space Station experiment racks is described. This power system is implemented via redundant internal microcomputers, controlling hybridized solid state power controllers in response to 1553B data bus commands. The solid state power controllers are programmable for current trip level and for normally-open or normally-closed operation.

  3. Satellite power system (SPS) public outreach experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeal, S.R.

    1980-12-01

    To improve the results of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program, an outreach experiment was conducted. Three public interest groups participated: the L-5 Society (L-5), Citizen's Energy Project (CEP), and the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST). Each group disseminated summary information about SPS to approximately 3000 constituents with a request for feedback on the SPS concept. The objectives of the outreach were to (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept, and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. Due to the combined efforts of all three groups, 9200 individuals/organizations received information about the SPS concept. Over 1500 receipients of this information provided feedback. The response to the outreach effort was positive for all three groups, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS Project Division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The general response to the SPS differed with each group. The L-5 position is very much in favor of SPS; CEP is very much opposed and FASST is relatively neutral. The responses are analyzed, and from the responses some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented in the appendix. (WHK)

  4. Lightweight Solar Power for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    The innovation targets small satellites or CubeSats for which conventional deployable arrays are not feasible due to their size, weight and complexity. This novel solar cell array includes a thin and flexible photovoltaic cell applied to an inflatable structure to create a high surface area array for collecting solar energy in a lightweight, simple and deployable structure. The inflatable array, with its high functional surface area, eliminates the need and the mechanisms required to point the system toward the sun. The power density achievable in these small arrays is similar to that of conventional high-power deployable/pointable arrays used on large satellites or space vehicles. Although inflatable solar arrays have been previously considered by others, the arrays involved the use of traditional rigid solar cells. Researchers are currently working with thin film photovoltaics from various suppliers so that the NASA innovation is not limited to any particular solar cell technology. NASA has built prototypes and tested functionality before and after inflation. As shown in the current-voltage currents below, deployment does not damage the cell performance.

  5. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV... TV or TV translator station or change the facilities of an existing station will not be accepted...

  6. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  7. Fault Detection and Isolation of Satellite Formations using a Ground Station Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm for a formation of satellites but processed at a ground station. The algorithm...

  8. Station planning and design incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, PC

    1991-01-01

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with ""non-engineering"" factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are

  9. Identifying potential solar power generation sites using satellite apt images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawz-Ul-Haq, K. R.; Siddiqui, Z. R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, satellite APT images have been used to study cloud-cover over Pakistan, so as to determine those areas which have the least frequency of cloudiness. Such areas are likely to receive maximum insolation, and have been shown on a contour map of Pakistan. It is observed that more than half of Pakistan is highly sunny, and has many promising areas for establishing large scale solar electric power generation stations. It is further observed that, some of the productive mineral-rich areas in remote parts, such as Chagai, are highly cloud-free, therefore, it may be possible to meet their mining needs through solar energy. Thus Pakistan, on the threshold of industrialization, has high prospects of obtaining `clean' energy, free of greenhouse gases.

  10. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... purchasing power on the volatile open electric market. The Action Alternative at White Site 1 would be... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations...

  11. Economic benefits of the Space Station to commercial communication satellite operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Dixson, John E.; Weyandt, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and financial aspects of newly defined space-based activities, procedures, and operations (APOs) and associated satellite system designs are presented that have the potential to improve economic performance of future geostationary communications satellites. Launch insurance, launch costs, and the economics of APOs are examined. Retrieval missions and various Space Station scenarios are addressed. The potential benefits of the new APOs to the commercial communications satellite system operator are quantified.

  12. East–West GEO Satellite Station-Keeping with Degraded Thruster Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stoian Borissov; Yunhe Wu; Daniele Mortari

    2015-01-01

    The higher harmonic terms of Earth’s gravitational potential slowly modify the nominal longitude of geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, while the third-body presence (Moon and Sun) mainly affects their latitude. For this reason, GEO satellites periodically need to perform station-keeping maneuvers, namely, east–west and north–south maneuvers to compensate for longitudinal and latitudinal variations, respectively. During the operational lifetime of GEO satellites, the thrusters’ respon...

  13. Mass and power modeling of communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Pidgeon, David; Tsao, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Analytic estimating relationships for the mass and power requirements for major satellite subsystems are described. The model for each subsystem is keyed to the performance drivers and system requirements that influence their selection and use. Guidelines are also given for choosing among alternative technologies which accounts for other significant variables such as cost, risk, schedule, operations, heritage, and life requirements. These models are intended for application to first order systems analyses, where resources do not warrant detailed development of a communications system scenario. Given this ground rule, the models are simplified to 'smoothed' representation of reality. Therefore, the user is cautioned that cost, schedule, and risk may be significantly impacted where interpolations are sufficiently different from existing hardware as to warrant development of new devices.

  14. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule;...

  15. SCAP optimization of the Pasajes de San Juan power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, L.; Perez, J.M.; Cerezo, J.; Catediano, J.; Martin-Sanchez, J.M. [Iberdrola, Bilbao (Spain)

    1995-08-01

    In July 1990 the company Iberduero, now Iberdrola, decided to carry out a development project using the Spanish technology SCAP in the Pasajes de San Juan power plant. This methodology, featured by the utilization of adaptive predictive control methodology, had been successfully applied in order to achieve the optimization of other industrial processes. The ultimate aim of this project was the replacement of the power station conventional control system, with a SCAP control system with a distributed structure able to optimize the electric energy generation process by optimizing power station operation, maximizing efficiency and working life, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing safety and availability. The project was divided into two stages to evaluate the quality of SCAP technology in the control and optimization of a power station. In the present report, the results obtained in the control of the most critical variables during the power station operation are gathered together. Beforehand, and in order to place these results in a suitable context, the project proceedings summarized in the following phases are considered: the SCAP technology; problems in a thermal power plant; and the Pasajes de San Juan power plant and its control system. The results are presented through comparative graphs that show the performance of the SCAP system as compared to the power station conventional control. 17 figs., 4 tabs., 11 refs.

  16. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  17. Pipe rupture incident of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yushi; Nakagami, Motonori; Hayashi, Haruhisa; Ichikawa, Yoshihiro [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    At the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (540 MWe of electric output; BWR-4 type) of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd., an incident of pipe rupture of residual heat removal system on steam condenser system occurred on November, 2001. This incident gave no effects on outer parts of the station, because safety system apparatuses in the station worked adequately from a standpoint of accidental phenomenon. On the other hand, on its forming processes, as it is no similar case at the nuclear power stations in and out of Japan, to securely carry out countermeasures for preventing a recurrence of the incidence, its cause was striven to elucidate thoroughly. This paper was introduced about contents and results on site surveys, and surveys such as tests, analysis, and so on performed for about a half year after the incident, for preventing a recurrence of similar incidents. (G.K.)

  18. Optimal Selection of Floating Platform for Tidal Current Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With continuous development of marine engineering, more and more new structures are used in the exploring of tidal current energy. Three are there different kinds of support structures for tidal current power station, which are sea-bed mounted/gravity based system, pile mounted system and floating moored platform. Comparison with them, the floating mooring system is suit for deep water and the application of which will be widely. In this study, catamaran and semi-submersible as floating platform of tidal current power station are studied. And they are compared with its economic, efficiency of turbine and stability of station. It is found that the catamaran is optimal choice. Based on basic ship theory and using software MOSES, the stability of Catamaran tidal current power station is also calculated. The research of this study is significant and it will be as the reference for the future study.

  19. 37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....

  20. 37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....

  1. Space Station Freedom power - A reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, S. R.; Twombly, M.; Hoffman, D.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) was performed using the unit reliability, availability, and maintainability (UNIRAM) analysis methodology. Orbital replacement units (ORUs) having the most significant impact on EPS availability measures were identified. Also, the sensitivity of the EPS to variations in ORU RAM data was evaluated for each ORU. Estimates were made of average EPS power output levels and availability of power to the core area of the space station. The results of assessments of the availability of EPS power and power to load distribution points in the space stations are given. Some highlights of continuing studies being performed to understand EPS availability considerations are presented.

  2. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  3. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelqvist, G. [State Power Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Bliselius, P. Aa.; Blomberg, P.E.; Jonsson, E.; Aakerhielm, F. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-09-15

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is {+-} 0.5 dB in amplitude and {+-} 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  4. Study on fault locating technology for satellite power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Bing; JIANG Xing-wei; SONG Zheng-ji

    2005-01-01

    It is currently prevalent to locate faults for a satellite power system based on an expert system, not utilizing all the available information provided by tests. The casual network model for a satellite power system is presented. Considerations for failure probability of each component of the power system, the cost of applying each test, the influence of a precedent test result on the next test selection, and an optimal sequential testing algorithm for fault location is presented. This program is applied to locate the failure component of the power system of a satellite. The results show this program is very effective and it is very fast to generate an optimal diagnosis tree.

  5. Measuring Atmospheric Emissions of CH4 from Permafrost with Remote Low-Power Automated Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, T.; Haapanala, S.; Mammarella, I.; McDermitt, D. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peltola, O.; Rinne, J.; Schreiber, P.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Zulueta, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    number of permafrost ecosystems (Fig.1). Principles of operation, station characteristics, and method requirements are also discussed. Figure 1. Different types of automated remote low-power stations, indicated by stars, measure methane emission rates in cold regions using the eddy covariance technique. A satellite map of light intensity at night (NASA, 2006) is used as a proxy for power grid distribution, and is overlaid on a satellite map of methane concentration in the atmosphere (SCIAMACHY, 2005), showing the lack of proximity of mains power to methane generating areas of the Earth. The dotted white line is an approximate permafrost border.

  6. GHG PSD Permit: Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power / Black Hills Power, Inc. – Cheyenne Prairie Generating Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the final PSD permit for the Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power / Black Hills Power, Inc. Cheyenne Prairie Generating Station, located in Laramie, Wyoming, and operated by Black Hills Service Company.

  7. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  8. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2001-02-01

    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  9. Global solar radiation: comparison of satellite-based climatology with station records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel; Stepanek, Petr; Farda, Ales

    2016-04-01

    We analyze surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) from the SARAH dataset prepared by the EUMETSAT Climate Monitoring Satellite Applications Facility from satellite observations of the visible channels of the MVIRI and SEVIRI instruments onboard the geostationary Meteosat satellites. The satellite SIS data are evaluated within the period 1984-2014 on various time scales: from individual months and years to long-term climate means. The validation is performed using the ground measurements of global solar radiation (GLBR) carried out on 11 meteorological stations of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in the Czech Republic with at least 30 years long data series. Our aim is to explore whether the SIS data could potentially serve as an alternative source of information on GLBR outside of a relatively sparse network of meteorological stations recording GLBR. Acknowledgement: Supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the National Sustainability Program I (NPU I), grant number LO1415.

  10. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  11. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  12. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  13. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations.

  14. Tsinghua-1 Micro-Satellite Power System Architecture and Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Tsinghua-1 Micro-satellite, the first satellite made by Tsinghua University, was launched in 2000. The power system of the Tsinghua-1 Micro-satellite is one of the most important subsystems. It provides all the power for the satellite platform and the payloads. The power system design includes the regulation,protection and distribution of a 4 × 35 W solar array and 7 Ah NiCd batteries. This subsystem essentially offerstwo buses: an unregulated 14 V bus and a regulated 5 V bus. All distributed power lines to the users areprotected by current tripping switches. In addition, some essential loads, such as the tele-command system,are supplied through fuses. The Tsinghua-1 Micro-satellite power system provides an efficient, flexible,reliable, and cost-effective solution for small satellites in low earth orbit. A better maximum power pointtracking method has been used to increase reliability margins and to increase the efficiency of the powersystem. The power system reliability was evaluated using several different tests, such as the power boardtest, the assembly integrate test (AIT), the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test and the thermal vacuumtest (TVT).``

  15. Efficiency of Modern Power Plants of Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers efficiency and prospects in development of different types of fossil-fuel power plants – gas turbine, steam turbine and combined (gas and steam cycles.The paper provides information on plant selection, fuel consumption, specific output cost. It describes main advantages of various power plants.

  16. Power Processing Unit For Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System (MEPS program has been originated by the increasing need to provide a low-cost and low-power Electric Propulsion System (EPS for small satellites ( 92%, small size and weight and high reliability. Its functional modules and preliminary results obtained at breadboard level are also presented.

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  18. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  19. Investigation on Satellite-borne High-power Solid-state Power Amplifier Technology and Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Xiao-po; Zhao Hai-yang; Xi Song-tao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research and development efforts of satellite-borne lumped solid-state transmitters, the design of a satellite-borne high-power microwave amplifier module is introduced. Focusing on satellite-borne applications, aspects of the high-power density thermal design, multipactor proof design, EMC design and so on, which are critical technologies for a solid-state power amplifier, are discussed. Subsequently, experiments are used to verify the concept.

  20. Investigation on Satellite-borne High-power Solid-state Power Amplifier Technology and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiao-po

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research and development efforts of satellite-borne lumped solid-state transmitters, the design of a satellite-borne high-power microwave amplifier module is introduced. Focusing on satellite-borne applications, aspects of the high-power density thermal design, multipactor proof design, EMC design and so on, which are critical technologies for a solid-state power amplifier, are discussed. Subsequently, experiments are used to verify the concept.

  1. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  2. Satellite power system. Concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The Reference System description emphasizes technical and operational information required in support of environmental, socioeconomic, and comparative assessment studies. Supporting information has been developed according to a guideline of implementing two 5 GW SPS systems per year for 30 years beginning with an initial operational data of 2000 and with SPS's being added at the rate of two per year (10 GW/year) until 2030. The Reference System concept, which features gallium--aluminum--arsenide (GaAlAs) and silicon solar cell options, is described in detail. The concept utilizes a planar solar array (about 55 km/sup 2/) built on a graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic structure. The silicon array uses a concentration ratio of one (no concentration), whereas the GaAlAs array uses a concentration ratio of two. A one-kilometer diameter phased array microwave antenna is mounted on one end. The antenna uses klystrons as power amplifiers with slotted waveguides as radiating elements. The satellite is constructed in geosynchronous orbit in a six-month period. The ground receiving stations (rectenna) are completed during the same time period. The other two major components of an SPS program are (1) the construction bases in space and launch and mission control bases on earth and (2) fleets of various transportation vehicles that support the construction and maintenance operations of the satellites. These transportation vehicles include Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV), Personnel Launch Vehicles (PLV), Cargo Orbit Transfer Vehicles (COTV), and Personnel Orbit Transfer Vehicles (POTV). The earth launch site chosen is the Kennedy Space Center, pending further study.

  3. Determination of the position of the Station Borowiec No. 7811 by satellite laser observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobaczewská, W.; Drozyner, A.; Rutkowska, M.; Schillak, S.; Zieliňski, J. B.

    Laser observations were performed in Borowiec in three years 1977 - 79 of the satellites Geos A and Geos C. These data were processed by means of the program ORBITA and station coordinates were calculated by dynamical methods. Another solution was found with the processing by the program GRIPE of SAO. These two dynamical solutions are compared with the translocation solution Wettzel-Borowiec.

  4. 47 CFR 25.210 - Technical requirements for space stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service shall have a minimum capability to change transponder saturation flux densities by ground command... spatially independent beams. (g)-(h) (i)(1) Space station antennas in the Fixed-Satellite Service, other than antennas in the 17/24 GHz BSS, must be designed to provide a cross-polarization isolation...

  5. Piracy of Satellite Signals by Domestic Receive-Only Earth Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Steven D.

    Innovations in technology have enabled homeowners to pirate satellite signals intended for cable television operators through the use of home earth-stations. Section 605 of the Communications Act of 1934, which governs reception of signals, is inadequate to regulate this situation because it appears that publication of received programing outside…

  6. East–West GEO Satellite Station-Keeping with Degraded Thruster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Borissov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The higher harmonic terms of Earth’s gravitational potential slowly modify the nominal longitude of geostationary Earth orbit (GEO satellites, while the third-body presence (Moon and Sun mainly affects their latitude. For this reason, GEO satellites periodically need to perform station-keeping maneuvers, namely, east–west and north–south maneuvers to compensate for longitudinal and latitudinal variations, respectively. During the operational lifetime of GEO satellites, the thrusters’ response when commanded to perform these maneuvers slowly departs from the original nominal impulsive behavior. This paper addresses the practical problem of how to perform reliable east–west station-keeping maneuvers when thruster response is degraded. The need for contingency intervention from ground-based satellite operators is reduced by breaking apart the scheduled automatic station-keeping maneuvers into smaller maneuvers. Orbital alignment and attitude are tracked on-board during and in between sub-maneuvers, and any off nominal variations are corrected for with subsequent maneuvers. These corrections are particularly important near the end of the lifetime of GEO satellites, where thruster response is farthest from nominal performance.

  7. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 3: Manned Space Station relevance to commercial telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A document containing a forecast of satellite traffic and revelant technology trends to the year 2000 was prepared which includes those space station capabilities and characteristics that should be provided to make the station useful to commercial satellite owners. The document was circulated to key representative organizations within the commercial telecommunications satellite and related communities of interest, including spacecraft manufacturers, commercial satellite owners, communications carriers, networks and risk insurers. The prospectus document is presented as well as the transmittal letter and the mailing list of the people and companies that were asked to review it. Key commercial telecommunications comments are summarized the actual response letters from the industry are included.

  8. Influence of urbanization on the thermal environment of meteorological station:Satellite-observed evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Tao; HUANG Yong; WANG Hong; SHI Chun-E; YANG Yuan-Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, five national meteorological stations in Anhui province are taken as typical examples to explore the effects of local urbanization on their thermal environment by using Landsat data from 1990 to 2010. Satellite-based land use/land cover (LULC), land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are used to investigate the effects. The study shows that LULC around meteorological stations changed significantly due to urban expansion. Fast urbanization is the main factor that affects the spatial-temporal distribution of thermal environment around meteorological stations. Moreover, the normalized LST and NDVI exhibit strong inverse correlations around meteorological stations, so the variability of LST can be monitored through evaluating the variability of NDVI. In addition, station-relocation plays an important role in improving representativeness of thermal environment. Notably, the environment representativeness was improved, but when using the data from the station to study climate change, the relocation-induced inhomogeneous data should be considered and adjusted. Consequently, controlling the scale and layout of the urban buildings and constructions around meteorological stations is an effective method to ameliorate observational thermal environment and to improve regional representativeness of station observation. The present work provides observational evidences that high resolution Landsat images can be used to evaluate the thermal environment of meteorological stations.

  9. Advanced Power Technology Development Activities for Small Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Taylor, Linda M.; Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne; Raffaelle, Ryne; Landi, Brian; Hubbard, Seth; Schauerman, Christopher; Ganter, Mathew; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history related to the development of advanced power technology for space applications. This expertise covers the breadth of energy generation (photovoltaics, thermal energy conversion, etc.), energy storage (batteries, fuel cell technology, etc.), power management and distribution, and power systems architecture and analysis. Such advanced technology is now being developed for small satellite and cubesat applications and could have a significant impact on the longevity and capabilities of these missions. A presentation during the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on various advanced power technologies being developed and demonstrated by NASA, and their possible application within the small satellite community.

  10. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

    1994-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

  11. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  12. Efficient ways for setting up the operation of nuclear power stations in power systems in the base load mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Burdenkova, E. Yu.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2011-05-01

    The results obtained from studies of efficient ways and methods for organizing the operation of developing nuclear power stations in the base load mode are presented. We also show comparative efficiency of different scenarios for unloading condensing thermal power stations, cogeneration stations, combined-cycle power plants, nuclear power stations, and using off-peak electric energy for electricity-intensive loads: pumped-hydroelectric storage, electric-powered heat supply, and electrolysis of water for producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...

  14. Preliminary Electrical Designs for CTEX and AFIT Satellite Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    activated failsafe marker != 0 = 0 Tube 2 Tube 3 Shutdown Describes the primary operation of the experiment control system. [DiS01] Tube Processes: Each...the 400-1,200 nm range. This band is known to contain peaks for Hematites , Geothites and other iron bearing minerals [2]. Looking at this data and...Motion Controllers Motor Amplifier PSU DCCU Power 12-30V DC 56V AC USB General Purpose I/O 32-PIN Proprietary Connection Ethernet Primary Data

  15. Paving the Way for Small Satellite Access to Orbit: Cyclops' Deployment of SpinSat, the Largest Satellite Ever Deployed from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Matthew P.; Newswander, Daniel R.; Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, successfully deployed the largest satellite ever (SpinSat) from the ISS on November 28, 2014. Cyclops, a collaboration between the NASA ISS Program, NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering, and Department of Defense Space Test Program (DoD STP) communities, is a dedicated 10-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. This paper will showcase the successful deployment of SpinSat from the ISS. It will also outline the concept of operations, interfaces, requirements, and processes for satellites to utilize the Cyclops satellite deployment system.

  16. Floating tidal power station. Schwimmkoerper-Gezeiten-Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenzner, H.J.

    1987-03-19

    This is a floating tidal power station, characterized by the fact that water stores are lifted by the tide by float lifts in the form of docks; on the flood tide they are supported mechanically at the height reached by support members or hydraulically, until after several tides a favourable and economically justifiable height for the technical efficiency of water turbines is reached by the first water store. The stored water is then released through water turbines to obtain energy. This emptied water store is then lowered to the initial position with the support members with the aid of emptied float lifts built like ship's lifting equipment (which only require a slight movement of a weight for lifting and lowering). The filling and lifting is then repeated. During this regeneration, the energy is obtained from the next water store. A whole floating tidal power station consists of as many water stores as are required for uninterrupted continuous operation.

  17. Update on the Solar Power Satellite transmitter design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    A number of remaining problems in the conceptual design of the transmitting antenna for the Solar Power Satellite have been solved as a result of additional technology development. Much of the technology was derived from the conceptual design of a ground-based transmitting antenna for beaming power to a high altitude airship or airplane.

  18. Controlling chaos in a satellite power supply subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macau, E. E. N.; Ramos Turci, L. F.; Yoneyama, T.

    2008-12-01

    In this work, we show that chaos control techniques can be used to increase the region that can be efficiently used to supply the power requests for an artificial satellite. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that chaos control can be used to efficiently extend the applicability region of the satellite power subsystem when it operates in regions of high nonlinearity.

  19. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; N. Pappa

    2012-01-01

    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  20. Legionella control in power station cooling towers using oxidising biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Christian; Rawlinson, Julia; Killeen, Paul [Ecolab PTY LTD, Ascot, WA (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Power stations have used oxidising biocides such as chlorine or bromine for many years to control microbial growth in their cooling towers. In this paper Ecolab trademark looks at the direct effect halogen concentration has on Legionella populations in order to determine the most effective halogenation rate required to ensure that the site key performance indicator (KPI) of < 100 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL can be maintained. (orig.)

  1. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from...

  2. Station normal : the power of the Stave River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, M.; Wilson, H. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This book documented the history of power development along the Stave River and Stave Falls in British Columbia. The book was compiled from memories of employees and retired employees who helped to build the power station along the Stave River. The book provided details of the technical achievements accomplished during the construction of the hydro-electric project, and described the roles and functions of BC Hydro workers at the plant. The book also chronicled the project's growth over time, and discussed its impact on communities in the region. The book included over 100 photographs, as well as a chronology. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Application of ORC power station to increase electric power of gas compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocarski Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculation results of efficiency of the subcritical low temperature ORC power station powered by waste heat resulting from the process of cooling a stationary compression ignition engine. The source of heat to supply the ORC power station is the heat in a form of water jet cooling the engine at a temperature of 92°C, and the exhaust gas stream at a temperature of 420°C. The study considers three variants of systems with the ORC power stations with different ways of using heat source. The first variant assumes using just engine cooling water to power the ORC station. In the second variant the ORC system is powered solely by a heat flux from the combustion gases by means of an intermediary medium - thermal oil, while the third variant provides the simultaneous management of both heat fluxes to heat the water stream as a source of power supply to the ORC station. The calculations were made for the eight working media belonging both to groups of so-called dry media (R218, R1234yf, R227ea and wet media (R32, R161, R152a, R134a, R22.

  4. Determination of the position of the station Borowiec Nr 7811 by satellite laser observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobaczewska, W.; Drozyner, A.; Rutkowska, M.; Schillak, S.; Zielinski, J. B.

    Laser observations during 1977-1979 of the GEOS-1 and GEOS-3 satellites, used to determine the geocentric position of the Astronomical Latitude Observatory in Borowiec (station No. 7811) are examined. The data are processed by means of the ORBITA program and the GRIPE program elaborated at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The coordinates of the station are calculated by a dynamical orbital method. Results of the ORBITA and GRIPE solutions are presented in tables. A comparison of these two solutions with the Wettzel-Borowiec translocation solution is considered.

  5. A Low Power Approach to Small Satellite Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Cardin, Joe; Mosher, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Small Satellites are emerging as the preferred platform for a wide variety of earth orbit and even interplanetary missions. These spacecraft are, by their very nature, extremely limited in volume, mass and power. Existing fluid propulsion options are too large, costly and complex for many small satellite applications. In an attempt to address this problem the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, as part of an advanced development contract with NASA, has contracted with V AC...

  6. The SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) Small Satellite Mission: From Payload to Ground Station Development and Everything in Between

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Cotten, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    This work introduces the mission concept, technologies, and development status for the measuring SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) small satellite mission, which will use a hyperspectral imager to map sensitive coastal regions and off coast water quality near the state of Georgia and beyond. SPOC is being developed by The University of Georgia's Small Satellite Research Laboratory (SSRL) with funds from NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP). The project is led by undergraduates from a wide range of backgrounds and supervised by a multidisciplinary team of Principal Investigators. Using optical components, electronics boards, a grating spectrometer, and a CMOS array the students will assemble and integrate the payload components and ensure their compatibility with the other subsystems. In-house development and assembly includes building the hyperspectral imager, as well integrating it into the satellite, and testing of the different subsystems of the satellite. The mission will collect spectral data along a 300 km swath using the grating spectrometer to diffract the incoming radiation into the 440-865 nm spectral range. The resulting images will be 75 km x 300 km in size, have a 120 m spatial resolution, and a spectral resolution of 2 nm, covering 100 spectral bands. The resulting dataset will allow for spectral analysis comparisons with some of NASA's legacy satellites. The work describes the timeline and current progress of the SPOC mission. Focus will be equally distributed to all the different systems of the satellite including their development, testing, and integration. Particular emphasis is given to Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS), command and data handling (CDH), payload, power generation, S-Band/X-Band transceivers, and the development of ground station capabilities (S-Band/X-Band).

  7. Renewable Power for the Swedish Antarctic Station Wasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Mattias; Svensson, Martin [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    As the debate on fossil fuel usage in Antarctica has been more and more highlighted, the participating countries, bound by the Antarctic treaty, have encouraged changes in their power systems. Some of the stations or research stations in Antarctica are very large, constituting smaller towns with all conceivable service, and hence very energy consuming. Focus is put on partly or completely replacing fossil fuelled energy with renewable energy such as wind and solar power, supported by either batteries or fuel cells. Today there are a number of both successful and unsuccessful installations of renewable energy systems in Antarctica. Implementing a power system in remote areas where continuous access is limited comprises great technical challenges and Antarctica fulfils by all means every difficulty involved. The objective of this thesis is to propose ways of meeting power and energy demands for the Swedish Antarctic Research Program (SWEDARP) under the strict environmental legislations by as far as possible utilising the free renewable energy resources. A new power system is aimed at supplying 1 kW of electric power for continuous monitoring and collection of research data. The station is manned for three months, which implies a need of an autonomous system with high reliability. The following was based on a technical viability and economical feasibility study. Results are based upon analyses and computer simulations (HOMER) on how each fundamental system component is expected to work in the harsh climate conditions found at the station Wasa in Antarctica. It was found that wind power has the greatest potential as primary energy source in Antarctica. Supported by appropriate batteries, a reliable and in many ways feasible system can be obtained. Nevertheless, for the chosen techniques to endure the harsh climate conditions, sufficient modifications and developments of each component are needed. Based on the analyses the survey results in a proposal for a final system

  8. High-Temperature Superconductive Cabling Investigated for Space Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA has been directed by Congress to take a fresh look at the Space Solar Power (SSP) concept that was studied by the Department of Energy and NASA about 20 years ago. To summarize, the concept involves (1) collecting solar energy and converting it to electrical energy via photovoltaic arrays on satellites in Earth orbit, (2) conducting the electricity to the microwave transmitting portion of the satellite, and (3) transmitting the power via microwave transmitters (or possibly via lasers) to ground power station antennas located on the surface of the Earth. One Sun Tower SSP satellite concept is illustrated here. This figure shows many photovoltaic arrays attached to a "backbone" that conducts electricity down to a wireless transmitter, which is pointed toward the Earth. Other variations on this concept use multiple backbones to reduce the overall length of the satellite structure. In addition, non-Sun-Tower concepts are being considered. The objective of the work reported here was to determine the benefits to the SSP concept of using high-temperature superconductors (HTS) to conduct the electricity from the photovoltaic arrays to the wireless power transmitters. Possible benefits are, for example, reduced mass, improved efficiency, and improved reliability. Dr. James Powell of Plus Ultra Technologies, Inc., of Stony Brook, New York, is conducting the study, and it is being managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field via a task-order contract through Scientific Applications International Corp. (SAIC).

  9. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  10. Floating type ocean wave power station equipped with hydroelectric unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shun; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Umekage, Toshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The authors have invented the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type platform with a pair of the floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the counter-rotating type wave power unit, its runners are submerged in the seawater at the middle position of the platform. Such profiles make the flow velocity at the runner is twice faster than that of the traditional fixed/caisson type OWC, on the ideal flow conditions. Besides, the runners counter-rotate the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively, and the relative rotational speed is also twice faster than the speed of the single runner/armature. Such characteristics make the runner diameter large, namely the output higher, as requested, because the torque of the power unit never act on the floating type platform. At the preliminary reseach, this paper verifies to get the power using a Wells type single runner installed in the model station. The runner takes the output which is affected by the oscillating amplitude of the platform, the rotational speed and the inertia force of the runner, etc.

  11. Climate Monitoring Network on Maunakea - Master Station at Summit and Lower Elevation Satellite Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. M.; Klasner, F.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Maunakea, a dormant shield volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i, rises 13,796 feet above sea level, making it the highest point in the Pacific Basin. From sea floor to summit, it's the tallest mountain in the world. The high elevation, low air and light pollution, as well as dry weather year round make it the best location in the world for astronomy observations. The summit is home to 13 ground based telescope facilities. Like all alpine regions, it is an extremely fragile and unique ecosystem because of the harsh conditions and short growing seasons located at high altitudes. The summit is home to several federal and/or state protected species. It supports 11 species of arthropods found nowhere else on Earth. Most noted of these is the Wēkiu bug, whose habitat has been altered by the infrastructural development on the mountain. Arthropod habitat model development has highlighted gaps in climate information, for example, lack of climate precipitation data, snow data and reliable temperature data. Furthermore, in tropical regions, precipitation is the most variable climate component due to topography and local winds. The telescopes collect weather data for the purpose of knowing when it is dry and clear for astronomical observation. Although existing weather stations associated with the telescopes meet some weather and climate monitoring needs, it cannot address the full range of issues needed due to technological limitation and site design. Precipitation does not occur often and is likely to be in the form of snow or ice. Snow cover data has not been directly recorded despite astronomical recording of other meteorological data that began in the1960s. Therefore, the need to monitor the weather and climate in a long-term and well-calibrated way is critical for management of the ecosystems on the slopes of Maunakea. Long-term weather and climate monitoring stations are the primary building blocks for research partnerships, which encourage collaboration and ultimately

  12. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based scheme...

  13. Comparison of microwave satellite humidity data and radiosonde profiles: a survey of European stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. John

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A method to compare upper tropospheric humidity (UTH from satellite and radiosonde data has been applied to the European radiosonde stations. The method uses microwave data as a benchmark for monitoring the performance of the stations. The present study utilizes three years (2002–2003 of data from channel 18 (183.31±1.00 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B aboard the satellites NOAA-15 and NOAA-16. The comparison is done in the radiance space, the radiosonde data were transformed to the channel radiances using a radiative transfer model. The comparison results confirm that there is a dry bias in the UTH measured by the radiosondes. This bias is highly variable among the stations and the years. This variability is attributed mainly to the differences in the radiosonde humidity measurements. The results also hint at a systematic difference between the two satellites, the channel 18 brightness temperature of NOAA-15 is on average 1.0 K higher than that of NOAA-16. The difference of 1 K corresponds to approximately 7% relative error in UTH which is significant for climatological applications.

  14. Preliminary design of a satellite observation system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabe, Greg (Editor); Gallagher, Chris; Wilson, Brian; Rehfeld, James; Maurer, Alexa; Stern, Dan; Nualart, Jaime; Le, Xuan-Trang

    1992-01-01

    Degobah Satellite Systems (DSS), in cooperation with the University Space Research Association (USRA), NASA - Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the University of Texas, has completed the preliminary design of a satellite system to provide inexpensive on-demand video images of all or any portion of Space Station Freedom (SSF). DSS has narrowed the scope of the project to complement the work done by Mr. Dennis Wells at Johnson Space Center. This three month project has resulted in completion of the preliminary design of AERCAM, the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera, detailed in this design report. This report begins by providing information on the project background, describing the mission objectives, constraints, and assumptions. Preliminary designs for the primary concept and satellite subsystems are then discussed in detail. Included in the technical portion of the report are detailed descriptions of an advanced imaging system and docking and safing systems that ensure compatibility with the SSF. The report concludes by describing management procedures and project costs.

  15. GT power generation stations in noise sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambino, V.; Richarz, W. [Aercoustics Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Noise impact must be quantified during the initial planning phase of a power plant because it may play a part in potential land acquisitions and system configuration. Noise control measures are required at gas turbine power generating stations located in noise sensitive areas. This study used graphs to illustrate that assigning noise control priorities may be complicated. Noise ranking with respect to the contribution of sound power was plotted against the ranking with respect to the contribution of sound pressure levels. Noise impact estimates based on a simplistic source model tend to over-predict the actual sound levels. More detailed emission models are needed during the initial planning phase to help assess the cost of any noise controls. The methodology described in this paper was developed to help the developer during the planning phases to determine the relative contribution of various components to the overall sound and to mitigate excessive noise. 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Analysis of broadcasting satellite service feeder link power control and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical analyses of carrier to interference power ratios (C/Is) were performed in assessing 17.5 GHz feeder links using (1) fixed power and power control, and (2) orthogonal linear and orthogonal circular polarizations. The analysis methods and attenuation/depolarization data base were based on CCIR findings to the greatest possible extent. Feeder links using adaptive power control were found to neither cause or suffer significant C/I degradation relative to that for fixed power feeder links having similar or less stringent availability objectives. The C/Is for sharing between orthogonal linearly polarized feeder links were found to be significantly higher than those for circular polarization only in links to nominally colocated satellites from nominally colocated Earth stations in high attenuation environments.

  17. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system.

  18. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  19. Low-Power Reflective Optical Communication System for Pico- and Nano-Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, A.; Riel, T.; Deisl, F.; Saathof, R.; Schitter, G.

    2016-09-01

    Pico- and nano-satellites (PNS) are promising options for cost-effective and rapid deployable satellite systems. Due to their small size, the available power and therefore the transmittable data volume is limited. This paper proposes optical communication by means of reflected laser light using a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) for energy efficient optical communication with PNS. No laser source or beam steering assembly is necessary at the satellite, thus allowing a weight and energy efficient communication interface. Existing ground stations (GS) as used for satellite laser ranging (SLR) provide all equipment required for this system. By providing a link budget for communication to PNS in LEOs feasibility is investigated. It is shown that an affordable GS based on small telescopes with diameters below 0.3m in combination with commercial mounts enables the targeted application. A detailed analysis of LCD based MRRs is shown, denoting cost-efficient modulators for reflective optical communication. A data-rate of 2.5kbps at an input power of less than 80 mW is shown in a laboratory setup. Using a high performance sampling circuit and a laser power of only 1mW, a bit error ratio (BER) of below 10e-3 is achieved, successfully demonstrating reflective optical communication as an alternative to current RF based systems.

  20. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  1. Solid state device technology for Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using solid state elements in the solar power satellite transmitter system is addressed. Recommendations are given concerning device types, the antenna modules, and the overall antenna system. The development of a solid state amplifier based on GaAs field effect transistor devices is also described.

  2. A compact and low cost TT&C S-Band Ground Station for low orbit satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacola, Luiz C.; Ferrari, Carlos A.

    Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE's) S-Band Ground Station for satellite control and monitoring is revised consdiering the current software and hardware technology. A Ground Station concept for low orbit satellites is presented. The front-end uses a small antenna and low cost associated equipment without loss of performance. The baseband equipment is highly standardized and developed on a personal computer IBM compatible using extensively Digital Signal Processing (DSP). A link budget for ranging, telecommand and telemetry is also presented.

  3. Performance of International Space Station Alpha electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.; Lu, C.Y.; Padhye, V.; Hajela, G.; Hague, L. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Division

    1995-12-31

    The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will be an Earth-orbiting laboratory in space. It will house experimental payloads, distribute resource utilities, and support human habitation for conducting research and science experiments in a microgravity environment. Electrical power is a major utility to support successful achievement of the mission goal. The ISSA United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) Electric Power System (EPS) power generation capability will vary with orbital parameters, natural and induced environment, and hardware aging/replacement throughout the ISSA life. Power capability will be further restricted by various assembly configurations during ISSA buildup, by various flight attitudes, by shadowing on the solar arrays, by EPS operational constraints, such as pointing accuracy, battery charging, as well as operating voltage setpoints, and by ISSA operational constraints either to avoid long-term solar array shadowing from the adjacent solar array or to accommodate ISSA maneuver during proximity operations with other space vehicles, mating, and departing. Design of the ISSA USOS EPS takes into consideration the various equipment degradation modes, operation constraints, and orbital conditions to make it compatible with the environments and to meet power, lifetime, and performance requirements.

  4. Biofouling surveillance at a power station with seawater intake gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasikumar, N.; Nair, K.V.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1997-04-01

    Biofouling monitoring of the seawater intake gates of Madras` atomic power station (MAPS) in India was carried out for a period of two years. The settlement and growth rates, composition, and biomass of fouling between the intake filter gates and the test panels exposed in the coastal waters were compared and the results showed significant differences. The major foulant of the tunnel -green mussel, Perna viridis, and barnacle, Megabalanus tintinnabulum - though generally absent on test panels, was present on the intake gates. Relatively-high growth rates with heavy biomass were found at the intake gates as compared to the test panel. The study suggests that the intake gates can be used for a reliable fouling prediction in coastal power plants. (Author).

  5. High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrus, Vaclav [AHT Energetika s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic); Koci, Petr [ZVVZ Milevsko a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Brown coal fired power stations, located in Northern Bohemia, have mostly older boiler blocks with an output of 110 and 200 MWe. Flue gases are cleaned by the desulphurization plants installed between 1993 and 1997. Usually, each boiler block has two air fans and one to three flue gas fans. Flue gas fans operate in severe conditions; fan blades should be resistant to the flue gases containing sulphur and acid drops with the operating temperature at 170 C to 190 C. Additionally, flue gas also often contains ash particles. Currently, some boiler blocks are gradually being refurbished. New blocks with an electrical power output of 600 to 700 MWe are at the design stage. Submitted paper shows our design study of one stage axial flow fan for the new blocks. Results from the new aerodynamic research of the axial flow stages were used in the fan design. (orig.)

  6. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  7. Flyash disposal problems at thermal power stations - an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, E.S.; Peter, E.C.N.; Sastri, K.R.; Kura, B. [JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1999-06-10

    Disposal of fly ash at coal-fired power stations is carried out in the form of ash slurry by mixing the ash with water. The ash slurry is stored in an ash pond. The water in the slurry is gradually drained out, through decanting wells, earthen embankments and over spillways, leaving the ash to deposit in the pond. The design of decanting wells presently being used in power stations, such as Vijayawada in India allows a considerable amount of flyash to flow out with water, leading to the contamination of soil and the water courses. Further, the failure of earthen bunds of ash ponds, which results in a major damage to the environment, is mainly due to ineffective functioning of filters in the bunds. This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation carried out to study the role of geotextiles in improving the performance of decanting wells and earthen bunds. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series two model decanting wells were tested with geotextile lining. In the second series, a number of model earthen bunds were tested with and without geotextiles. Economics of providing geotextiles in earthen bunds is studied. The results indicated that, the use of geotextiles is economical and effective in improving the performance of decanting wells and the earthen bunds of an ash pond. 15 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  9. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  10. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  11. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... that need to be resolved to complete the low power television station digital transition....

  12. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  13. Precise Orbit Determination of BeiDou Satellites with Contributions from Chinese National Continuous Operating Reference Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The precise orbit determination (POD for BeiDou satellites is usually limited by the insufficient quantity and poor distribution of ground tracking stations. To cope with this problem, this study used the GPS and BeiDou joint POD method based on Chinese national continuous operating reference stations (CNCORS and IGS/MGEX stations. The results show that the 3D RMS of the differences of overlapping arcs is better than 22 cm for geostationary orbit (GEO satellites and better than 10 cm for inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO and medium earth orbit (MEO satellites. The radial RMS is better than 2 cm for all three types of BeiDou satellites. The results of satellite laser ranging (SLR residuals show that the RMS of the IGSO and MEO satellites is better than 5 cm, whereas the GEO satellite has a systematic bias. This study investigates the contributions of CNCORS to the POD of BeiDou satellites. The results show that after the incorporation of CNCORS, the precision of overlapping arcs of the GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites is improved by 15.5%, 57.5%, and 5.3%, respectively. In accordance with the improvement in the precision of overlapping arcs, the accuracy of the IGSO and MEO satellites assessed by the SLR is improved by 30.1% and 4.8%, respectively. The computation results and analysis demonstrate that the inclusion of CNCORS yields the biggest contribution in the improvement of orbit accuracy for IGSO satellites, when compared to GEO satellites, while the orbit improvement for MEO satellites is the lowest due to their global coverage.

  14. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S, Motty G, E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, M., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Krishnakumar, V., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji k., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  15. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle W.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  16. Minimum-fuel station-change for geostationary satellites using low-thrust considering perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, ShuGe; Zhang, JingRui

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to find the minimum-fuel station change for geostationary satellites with low-thrust while considering significant perturbation forces for geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). The effect of Earth's triaxiality, lunisolar perturbations, and solar radiation pressure on the terminal conditions of a long duration GEO transfer is derived and used for establishing the station change model with consideration of significant perturbation forces. A method is presented for analytically evaluating the effect of Earth's triaxiality on the semimajor axis and longitude during a station change. The minimum-fuel problem is solved by the indirect optimization method. The easier and related minimum-energy problem is first addressed and then the energy-to-fuel homotopy is employed to finally obtain the solution of the minimum-fuel problem. Several effective techniques are employed in solving the two-point boundary-value problem with a shooting method to overcome the problem of the small convergence radius and the sensitivity of the initial costate variables. These methods include normalization of the initial costate vector, computation of the analytic Jacobians matrix, and switching detection. The simulation results show that the solution of the minimum-fuel station change with low-thrust considering significant perturbation forces can be obtained by applying these preceding techniques.

  17. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  18. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  19. Aquatic impacts from operation of three midwestern nuclear power stations: Fort Calhoun station, Unit No. 1 environmental appraisal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, F.

    1981-10-01

    Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1, is located on the west bank of the Missouri River in Washington County, Nebraska. The station, a nuclear powered generating facility producing 475 net megawatts, utilizes a once-through cooling design. The station influences the aquatic biota of the Missouri River vicinity in several ways. The heated discharges of the station were found to have no significant impacts to fish, periphyton, and benthic macroinvertebrates. Minor effects to phytoplankton were noted in warm summer months at the point of discharge. An estimated 227,900,000 fish larvae were entrained annually from the river's ichthyoplankton community, the majority identified as freshwater drum. Fort Calhoun Station impinged an estimated 170,882 fish annually, large numbers of which were freshwater drum and gizzard shad with potential losses to channel and flathead catfish. The station was shown to have little impact on the zooplankton community.

  20. Small geothermic heat and power station with power plants on organic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, W.; Wos, M. [Szczecin Univ. of Tech. (Poland). Chair of Heat Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of the calculations of heat-flow heats and power stations were introduced in the work geothermic with one circulation, with two circulations and with three circulations. They are reinforced network water heated up in the geothermic heat exchanger to temperatures 100 C and stream. In this solution the temperature of water force to the geothermic hest exchanger changes and amount out suitably 39,35 C (one circulation), 49,83 C (two circulations), 58,91 C (three circulations). He results that the solution of heat and power station is the most profitable variant with three circulations from the analysis of the received results of calculations. He keeps the highest power of the circulation C.R. from three considered variants. (orig.)

  1. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  2. Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.

    1981-01-01

    A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

  3. The Design and Application of Data Storage System in Miyun Satellite Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiping; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Zhao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    China has launched Chang'E-3 satellite in 2013, firstly achieved soft landing on moon for China's lunar probe. Miyun satellite ground station firstly used SAN storage network system based-on Stornext sharing software in Chang'E-3 mission. System performance fully meets the application requirements of Miyun ground station data storage.The Stornext file system is a sharing file system with high performance, supports multiple servers to access the file system using different operating system at the same time, and supports access to data on a variety of topologies, such as SAN and LAN. Stornext focused on data protection and big data management. It is announced that Quantum province has sold more than 70,000 licenses of Stornext file system worldwide, and its customer base is growing, which marks its leading position in the big data management.The responsibilities of Miyun satellite ground station are the reception of Chang'E-3 satellite downlink data and management of local data storage. The station mainly completes exploration mission management, receiving and management of observation data, and provides a comprehensive, centralized monitoring and control functions on data receiving equipment. The ground station applied SAN storage network system based on Stornext shared software for receiving and managing data reliable.The computer system in Miyun ground station is composed by business running servers, application workstations and other storage equipments. So storage systems need a shared file system which supports heterogeneous multi-operating system. In practical applications, 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16 channels, and the maximum data transfer rate of each channel is up to 15MB/s. Thus the network throughput of file system is not less than 240MB/s. At the same time, the maximum capacity of each data file is up to 810GB. The storage system planned requires that 10 nodes simultaneously write data to the file system through 16

  4. Carbon burnout of pulverised coal in power station furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Backreedy; L.M. Fletcher; J.M. Jones; L. Ma; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; K. Johnson; D.J. Waldron; P. Stephenson [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The degree of carbon burnout in pulverised fuel fired power stations is important because it is linked with power plant efficiency and coal ash suitability for construction purposes. The use of computational methods to calculate carbon burnout in such systems has been aided by the increasing availability of fast computers and improvements in computational methodologies. Despite recent advances in fluid flow, coal devolatilisation and coal combustion models, the use of CFD methods for detailed design purposes or for the selection of commercial coals is still limited. In parallel, industrial engineering codes, which combine simplified thermal models with advanced coal combustion models, are still undergoing development since they provide economic advantages over detailed CFD analysis. Although the major coal combustion processes are well established, an understanding regarding the role of coal macerals and the influence of ash on the combustion process is still lacking. A successful coal model must be able to handle all the complexities of combustion, from the details of the burner geometry through to the formation of unburnt carbon as well as NOx. The development of such a model is described here.

  5. Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control Systems (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously storing electrical energy in wheels and utilizing the resulting momentum for spacecraft attitude control. It was shown that such a system possessed many advantages over other contemporary energy storage and attitude control systems in many applications. More recent technology advances in composite rotors, magnetic bearings, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the feasibility and merits of such a system. The paper presents the results of a recent study whose focus was to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for the Space Station application. A system and component design concept is developed to establish the system performance capability. A system level trade study, including life-cycle costing, is performed to define the merits of the system relative to two other candidate systems. It is concluded that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but offers substantial savings in mass, and life-cycle cost.

  6. International Space Station power module thermal control system hydraulic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, V. [Boeing North American, Inc., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

    1997-12-31

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses four photovoltaic power modules (PVMs) to provide electric power for the US On-Orbit Segment. The PVMs consist of photovoltaic arrays (PVAs), orbit replaceable units (ORUs), photovoltaic radiators (PVRs), and a thermal control system (TCS). The PVM TCS function is to maintain selected PVM components within their specified operating ranges. The TCS consists of the pump flow control subassembly (PFCS), piping system, including serpentine tubing for individual component heat exchangers, headers/manifolds, fluid disconnect couplings (FQDCs), and radiator (PVR). This paper describes the major design requirements for the TCS and the results of the system hydraulic performance predictions in regard to these requirements and system component sizing. The system performance assessments were conducted using the PVM TCS fluid network hydraulic model developed for predicting system/component pressure losses and flow distribution. Hardy-Cross method of iteration was used to model the fluid network configuration. Assessments of the system hydraulic performance were conducted based on an evaluation of uncertainties associated with the manufacturing and design tolerances. Based on results of the analysis, it was concluded that all design requirements regarding system performance could be met. The hydraulic performance range, enveloping possible system operating parameter variations was determined.

  7. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  8. A Comparison Of A Solar Power Satellite Concept To A Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the Solar Power Satellite concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, that the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground.

  9. DC-DC power converter research for Orbiter/Station power exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, M.

    1993-01-01

    This project was to produce innovative DC-DC power converter concepts which are appropriate for the power exchange between the Orbiter and the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The new converters must interface three regulated power buses on SSF, which are at different voltages, with three fuel cell power buses on the Orbiter which can be at different voltages and should be tracked independently. Power exchange is to be bi-directional between the SSF and the Orbiter. The new converters must satisfy the above operational requirements with better weight, volume, efficiency, and reliability than is available from the present conventional technology. Two families of zero current DC-DC converters were developed and successfully adapted to this application. Most of the converters developed are new and are presented.

  10. Solar Power Satellites for Space Exploration and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnet, C.; Sein, E.; Celeste, A.; Summerer, L.

    2004-12-01

    Power generation is one of the crucial elements of space vehicles and of future infrastructures on planets and moons. The increased demand for power faces many constraints, in particular the sizing of the power generation system also driven by eclipse periods and the solar intensity at the operational spot. In the medium term, Earth orbiting platforms will require higher power levels. Interplanetary exploration vehicles face the problem of distance to the Sun, especially when large amount of power may be needed. Large infrastructures on Moon and planets, like Mars, are constrained by environment attenuation, long eclipse or distance to the Sun. New systems and technologies have to be found, which go beyond simple improvements of the current technologies. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) systems, based on wireless power transmission, are attractive candidate solutions to provide power to space vehicles or to elements on planet surface. Studies have been carried out for many years on the problem of providing renewable electrical energy from space to Earth with SPS. This paper reviews the main results of an ESA funded study, led by EADS Astrium with the support of the Université of La Réunion, which assessed the utilisation of SPS concepts for space-to-space and space-to-planet applications.

  11. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  12. A combined data and power management infrastructure for small satellites

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the need for a suitable onboard computer design arose for the small satellite project at the Institute of Space Systems, University of Stuttgart, Germany. It had to meet the constraints imposed by the small satellite (a 130 kg CubeSat) with its full featured ACS, diverse payloads and full CCSDS telecommand and telemetry standard compliance. The design of the Onboard Computer system lead to a functional merging between onboard computer components and the satellite's Power Control and Distribution Unit, resulting in a very innovative solution – the so-called Combined Data and Power Management Infrastructure. The technical implementation of such a design was achieved with the support of an international industry partner consortium consisting of Astrium GmbH, Aeroflex Colorado Springs Inc., 4Links Ltd., Aeroflex Gaisler AB, Vectronic Aerospace GmbH and HEMA Kabeltechnik GmbH & Co. KG. At end of the flight unit's development the consortium decided to provide a single consistent documentation of the d...

  13. The Role of Anchor Stations in the Validation of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Products. The Valencia and the Alacant Anchor Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar

    Space technology facilitates humanity and science with a global revolutionary view of the Earth through the acquisition of Earth Observation satellite data. Satellites capture information over different spatial and temporal scales and assist in understanding natural climate processes and in detecting and explaining climate change. Accurate Earth Observation data is needed to describe climate processes by improving the parameterisations of different climate elements. Algorithms to produce geophysical parameters from raw satellite observations should go through selection processes or participate in inter-comparison programmes to ensure performance reliability. Geophysical parameter datasets, obtained from satellite observations, should pass a quality control before they are accepted in global databases for impact, diagnostic or sensitivity studies. Calibration and Validation, or simply "Cal/Val", is the activity that endeavours to ensure that remote sensing products are highly consistent and reproducible. This is an evolving scientific activity that is becoming increasingly important as more long-term studies on global change are undertaken, and new satellite missions are launched. Calibration is the process of quantitatively defining the system responses to known, controlled signal inputs. Validation refers to the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the data products derived from the system outputs. These definitions are generally accepted and most often used in the remote sensing context to refer specifically and respectively to sensor radiometric calibration and geophysical parameter validation. Anchor Stations are carefully selected locations at which instruments measure quantities that are needed to run, calibrate or validate models and algorithms. These are needed to quanti-tatively evaluate satellite data and convert it into geophysical information. The instruments collect measurements of basic quantities over a long timescale

  14. Relativistic electrons high doses at International Space Station and Foton M2/M3 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Yu.; Dimitrov, Pl.; Bankov, N.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents observation of relativistic electrons. Data are collected by the Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeters (R3D) B2/B3 modifications during the flights of Foton M2/M3 satellites in 2005 and 2007 as well as by the R3DE instrument at the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) on the Columbus External Payload Adaptor at the International Space Station (ISS) in the period February 20 - April 28, 2008. On the Foton M2/M3 satellites relativistic electrons are observed more frequently than on the ISS because of higher (62.8°) inclination of the orbit. At both Foton satellites the usual duration of the observations are a few minutes long. On the ISS the duration usually is about 1 min or less. The places of observations of high doses due to relativistic electrons are distributed mainly at latitudes above 50° geographic latitude in both hemispheres on Foton M2/M3 satellites. A very high maximum is found in the southern hemisphere at longitudinal range 0°-60°E. At the ISS the maximums are observed between 45° and 52° geographic latitude in both hemispheres mainly at longitudes equatorward from the magnetic poles. The measured absolute maximums of dose rates generated by relativistic electrons are found to be as follows: 304 μGy h -1 behind 1.75 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M2, 2314 μGy h -1 behind 0.71 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M3 and 19,195 μGy h -1 (Flux is 8363 cm -2 s -1) behind les than 0.4 g cm -2 shielding at ISS.

  15. Space Station Freedom electric power system photovoltaic power module integrated launch package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Theodore H.; Clemens, Donald D.; Spatz, Raymond R.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the Space Station Freedom solar power module requires a weight efficient structure that will include large components within the limited load capacity of the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The design iterations to meet these requirements have evolved from a proposal concept featuring a separate cradle and integrated equipment assembly (IEA), to a package that interfaces directly with the Shuttle. Size, weight, and cost have been reduced as a result.

  16. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  18. A gravity gradient stabilized solar power satellite design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a solar power satellite (SPS) is reviewed, and a design proposed for such a satellite taking advantage of solar radiation pressure and gravity gradient forces to eliminate much of the structure from the baseline configuration. The SPS design consists of a solar cell array lying in the orbital plane and a free floating mirror above to reflect sunlight down onto it. The structural modes of the solar cell array are analyzed and found to be well within control limitations. Preliminary calculations concerning the free floating mirror and its position-keeping propellant requirements are also performed. A numerical example is presented, which shows that, even in terms of mass only, this configuration is a competitive design when compared to the conventional Department of Energy reference design. Other advantages, such as easier assembly in orbit, lower position-keeping propellant requirements, possibilities for decreasing necessary solar cell area, and longer solar cell life, may make this design superior.

  19. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  20. 75 FR 8153 - Nebraska Public Power District; Cooper Nuclear Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Nebraska Public Power District; Cooper Nuclear Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... District (NPPD, the licensee), for operation of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS), located in Nemaha County... Statement for the Cooper Nuclear Station dated February 1973. Agencies and Persons Consulted In...

  1. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... forwarding and receiving communications signals via a system of satellites or reselling satellite... specialized telecommunications services, such as satellite tracking, communications telemetry, and radar... of Subjects in 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Frequency allocations, Satellites. Federal Communications...

  2. Flyash disposal problems at thermal power stations - an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, E.S.; Peter, E.C. Nirmala; Sastri, K. Rama [JNTU Coll. of Engineering, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Hyderabad (India); Kura, Bhaskar [New Orleans Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Disposal of flyash at thermal power stations is carried out in the form of ash slurry by mixing the ash with water. The ash slurry is stored in an ash pond. The water in the slurry is gradually drained out, through decanting wells, earthen embankments and over spillways, leaving the ash to deposit in the pond. It is observed that, the design of decanting wells presently being used allows a considerable amount of flyash to flow out with water, leading to the contamination of soil and the water courses. Further, it is observed that, the failure of earthen bunds of ash ponds, which results in a major damage to the environment, is mainly due to ineffective functioning of filters in the bunds. This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation carried out to study the role of geotextiles in improving the performance of decanting wells and earthen bunds. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series two model decanting wells were tested with geotextile lining. In the second series, a number of model earthen bunds were tested with and without geotextiles. Economics of providing geotextiles in earthen bunds is studied. The results indicated that, the use of geotextiles is economical and effective improving the performance of decanting wells and the earthen bunds of an ash pond. (Author)

  3. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulating brick from fly ash of thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S.N.; Majumdar, A.; Majumdar, S.K.

    1986-04-01

    Disposal of fly ash, a major byproduct of thermal power stations burning high ash pulverized fuel, has posed a serious problem of storage space required on one hand and the cost involved on the other. Fly ash possesses pozzolanic property. R and D work on utilization of fly ash in the form of sand-lime brick or cellular concrete has been already done. Other avenues of utilization are cement and concrete industry. All these are based on pozzolanic property of fly ash which decreases with the increase of unburnt carbon content in the same. The overall present consumption of fly ash is barely 5-7 per cent of the total production. A process has been developed to utilize fly ash with comparatively higher amount of carbonaceous matter in particular, to make insulating/semi-insulating bricks of standard size through use of other normal ingredients like clay (a plastic material), sulphite lye, molasses, etc. as binder along with some propertion of saw dust. The bricks made so far have been tested for their normal properties and these conform to a product of semi-insulating type. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  6. Solar power satellites: our next generation of satellites will deliver the sun's energy to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flournoy, Don M.

    2009-12-01

    The paper addresses the means for gathering energy from sunlight in space and transmitting it to Earth via Solar Power Satellites. The motivating factor is that the output of our sun is the largest potential energy source available, with the capability of providing inexhaustible quantities of clean electrical energy to every location on Earth. The challenge is that considerable financial, intellectual and diplomatic resources must be focused on designing and implementing new types of energy infrastructures in space and on the ground. These include: 1) next-generation space platforms, arrays, and power transmission systems; 2) more flexible and powerful launch vehicles for delivering materials to space; 3) specialized receivers, converters and storage systems on earth, and the in-orbit position allocations, spectrum and software that make these systems work together efficiently and safely.

  7. Phase control system concepts and simulations. [solar power satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A phase control system concept for a solar power satellite is proposed which partitions the system into three major levels. The first level of phase control consists of a reference phase distribution system implemented in the form of phase distribution tree structure. The major purpose of the tree structure is to electronically compensate for the phase shift due to the transition path lengths from the center of the spacetenna to each phase control center located in each subarray. In the reference system, this is accomplished using the master slave returnable timing system technique. The second level of phase control consists of the beam steering and microwave power generating system which houses the power transponders. This transponder consists of a set of phase conjugation multipliers driven by the reference phase distribution system output and the output of a pilot spread spectrum receiver which accepts the received pilot via a diplexer connected to a separate receive horn or the subarray itself. The output of the phase conjugation circuits serve as inputs to the third level of the phase control system. The third level of phase control is associated with maintaining an equal and constant phase shift through the microwave power amplifier devices while minimizing the associated phase noise effects on the generated power beam. This is accomplished by providing a phase locked loop around each high power amplifier.

  8. Satellite Power System (SPS) financial/management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajk, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The possible benefits of a Satellite Power System (SPS) program, both domestically and internationally, justify detailed and imaginative investigation of the issues involved in financing and managing such a large-scale program. In this study, ten possible methods of financing a SPS program are identified ranging from pure government agency to private corporations. The following were analyzed and evaluated: (1) capital requirements for SPS; (2) ownership and control; (3) management principles; (4) organizational forms for SPS; (5) criteria for evaluation; (6) detailed description and preliminary evaluation of alternatives; (7) phased approaches; and (8) comparative evaluation. Key issues and observations and recommendations for further study are also presented.

  9. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  10. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 {mu}m mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials.This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m{sup 3}. This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of

  11. Novel Radio on Fiber Access Eliminating External Electric Power Supply at Base Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya; Miki; Katsuyasu; Kawano; Nobuo; Nakajima; Naoto; Kishi; Masaru; Miyamoto; Tetsu; Aoki

    2003-01-01

    A novel Radio On Fiber(ROF) access is proposed and demonstrated which enables the pico-cell Base Station (BS) for high-speed wireless communications to eliminate external electric power supply facilities. We demonstrated 2.4-GHz band radio signal transmission through the BS without external electric power supply. The electrical power used for BS circuit is feeded by optical power over optical fiber from central station.

  12. Choice of antenna geometry for microwave power transmission from solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison is made between square and circular transmitting antennas for solar power satellite microwave power transmission. It is seen that the exclusion zone around the rectenna needed to protect populations from microwaves is smaller for a circular antenna operating at 2.45 GHz than it is for a square antenna at that frequency. If the frequency is increased, the exclusion zone size remains the same for a square antenna, but becomes even smaller for a circular antenna. Peak beam intensity is the same for both antennas if the frequency and antenna area are equal. The circular antenna puts a somewhat greater amount of power in the main lobe and somewhat less in the side lobes. Since rain attenuation and atmospheric heating remain problems above 10 GHz, it is recommended that future solar power satellite work concentrate on circular transmitting antennas at frequencies of roughly 10 GHz.

  13. Status of the microwave power transmission components for the solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the 1970-1980 time period a substantial advance has been made in developing all portions of a microwave power transmission system for the solar power satellite (SPS). The most recent advances pertain to the transmitting portion of the system in the satellite and are based upon experimental observations of the use of the magnetron combined with a passive directional device to convert it into a highly efficient directional amplifier with excellent low-noise properties and potentially very long life. The ability of its microwave output to track a phase reference makes it possible to combine it with many other radiating units to provide a highly coherent microwave beam. The ability of its output to track an amplitude reference while operating from a dc power source with varying voltage makes it possible to eliminate most of the power conditioning equipment that would otherwise be necessary.

  14. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... 73 and 74 of the Commission's Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power, Television...

  15. Construction of a nuclear power station in one's locality: attitudes and salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.; Spears, R.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the attitudes toward the building of a nuclear power station in one's locality by surveying 290 residents (mean age 47.5 yrs) of 3 small rural communities that were listed as possible locations for a new nuclear power station. Results show that a large majority of Ss opposed the building of

  16. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations, MB Docket No. 03-185; FCC 11-110,...

  17. 78 FR 66385 - Omaha Public Power District Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-40, which authorizes operation of Fort Calhoun Station...

  18. 78 FR 37592 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License, which authorizes operation of Fort Calhoun Station (FCS), Unit 1....

  19. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  20. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.I. Karpenko; Y.E. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [RAO Unified Energy Systems of Russia, Gusinoozersk (Russian Federation). Russia Sectional Center for Plasma-Power Technologies

    2009-07-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  1. Local opposition to the construction of a nuclear power station: differential salience of impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiser, J.R.; van der Pligt, J.; Spears, R.

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed attitudes among 290 residents of 3 villages in southwest England toward proposals to build a nuclear power station nearby. Ss were grouped according to being neutral or in favor of a new power station either locally or elsewhere (Group PN), against one locally but neutral or pro elsewhere (

  2. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  3. Solid-state retrodirective phased array concepts for microwave power transmission from Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K. G.; Petroff, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed is on-going solid-state amplifier development.

  4. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of pollutants from Elcogas IGCC power station effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; García-Peña, F; Coca, P

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the quality of water effluents coming from Elcogas IGCC power station (Puertollano, Spain) with the purpose of fulfilling future more demanding normative, using heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation processes (UV/H(2)O(2)/TiO(2) or ZnO). The efficiency of photocatalytic degradation for the different catalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) was determined from the analysis of the following parameters: cyanides, formates and ammonia content. In a first stage, the influence of two parameters (initial concentration of H(2)O(2) and amount of catalyst) on the degradation kinetics of cyanides and formates was studied based on a factorial experimental design. pH was always kept in a value >9.5 to avoid gaseous HCN formation. The degradation of cyanides and formates was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). The mathematical model reproduces experimental data within 90% of confidence and allows the simulation of the process for any value of parameters in the experimental range studied. Moreover, a measure of the saliency of the input variables was made based upon the connection weights of the neural networks, allowing the analysis of the relative relevance of each variable with respect to the others. Results showed that the photocatalytic process was effective, being the degradation rate of cyanides about five times higher when compared to removal of formates. Finally, the effect of lowering pH on the degradation of formates was evaluated after complete cyanides destruction was reached (10 min of reaction). Under the optimum conditions (pH 5.2, [H(2)O(2)]=40 g/l; [TiO(2)]=2g/l), 100% of cyanides and 92% of initial NH(3) concentration are degraded after 10 min, whereas 35 min are needed to degrade 98% of formates.

  6. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  7. Information management system: A summary discussion. [for use in the space shuttle sortie, modular space station and TDR satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An information management system is proposed for use in the space shuttle sortie, the modular space station, the tracking data relay satellite and associated ground support systems. Several different information management functions, including data acquisition, transfer, storage, processing, control and display are integrated in the system.

  8. Structural Design and Protective Methods for the 100 kW Shoreline Wave Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游亚戈; 郑永红; 马玉久; 余志; 蒋念东

    2003-01-01

    The structural design and protective methods for the 100 kW shoreline wave power station in China are described in detail. The proper structural type is designed for effective minimization of wave loads and bending stress. Various protective devices are adopted to protect the station in the extreme conditions against excessive power of airflow, excessive torsion of the shaft, over-pressure of the chamber, over-speed of rotation, power failure, and so on. It turns out that the structural design and protective methods for the 100 kW shoreline wave power station are successful.

  9. Orbital performance of communication satellite microwave power amplifiers (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents background data on the performance of microwave power amplifiers (MPAs) used as transmitters in currently operating commercial communication satellites. Specifically aspects of two competing MPA types are discussed. These are well known TWTA (travelling wave tube amplifier) and the SSPA (solid state power amplifier). Extensive in-orbit data has been collected from over 2000 MPAs in 1991 and 1993. The study in 1991 invovlved 75 S/C (spacecraft) covering 463 S/C years. The 1993 'second-look' study encompassed a slightly different population of 72 S/C with 497 S/C years of operation. A surprising result of both studies was that SSPAs, although quite reliable, did not achieve the reliability of TWTAs were one-third more reliable in the 1993 study. This was at C-band with comparable power amplifiers, e.g. 6-16W of RF output power and similar gains. Data at K(sub u)-band is for TWTAs only since there are no SSPAs in the current S/C inventory. The other complementary result was that the projected failure rates used as S/C payload design guidelines were, on average, somewhat higher for TWTAs than the actual failure rates uncovered by this study. SSPA rates were as projected.

  10. Prediction of Conducted Emissions in Satellite Power Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Spadacini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a modeling methodology for the prediction of conducted emissions (CE in a wide frequency range (up to 100 MHz, which are generated by dc/dc converters and propagate along the power buses of satellites. In particular, the dc/dc converter seen as a source of CE is represented by a behavioral model, whose parameters can be identified by two unit-level experimental procedures performed in controlled test setups. A simplified multiconductor transmission-line (MTL model is developed to account for the propagation of CE in shielded bundles of twisted-wire pairs used as power cables. The whole power system is represented by the interconnection of the circuit models of dc/dc converters, cables, and Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU. By solving the obtained network, frequency spectra of CE can be predicted. Experimental results are reported to substantiate the accuracy of the proposed unit-level dc/dc converter model and the MTL model of cables. Finally, a system-level test setup composed of three dc/dc converters connected to a PCDU is considered, and predicted CE are compared versus experimental measurements.

  11. Influence of Mobile Users' Density Distribution on the CDMA Base Station Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Aleksandar; Mitić, Dragan; Popović, Miroslav; Markov, Žarko; Mileusnić, Mladen; Matić, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the influence of users' density distribution in one cell of CDMA mobile network (ie adjusted power control on the forward link) on base station emission power. This influence is analyzed for different circles radii around base station within which same emission power is generated for all mobile users, and for different values of propagation loss coefficient. It is proved that emission power in this cell must be increased comparing to the similar cell, which uses complete power control. The power increase is greater when greater number of users are situated near base station, and for greater values of propagation loss coefficient. The results are presented, illustrated by numerical examples and verified by simulation for three users' density distributions: uniform, decreasing and increasing density from the base station to the cell rim. The simulation process, which is based on random traffic process, is presented briefly.

  12. Determination of SLR station coordinates on the basis of tracking 45 GNSS satellites: benefits for future ITRF realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Bury, Grzegorz; Zajdel, Radosław; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Drożdżewski, Mateusz

    2017-04-01

    The SLR station coordinates and SLR-derived Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) are typically derived on the basis of SLR tracking of four spherical geodetic satellites: two LAGEOS and two Etalons. Between 2014 and 2016, the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) initiated four intensive SLR tracking campaigns for Galileo and three campaigns devoted to tracking all GNSS spacecraft. As a result, the number of SLR observations and the number of tracked GNSS satellites have dramatically increased allowing for determining SLR station coordinates and ERPs solely on the basis of SLR tracking of GNSS satellites. This paper shows, for the first time, the solution in which the SLR station coordinates, geocenter motion, and ERPs are determined using the SLR observations to 26 GLONASS, 14 Galileo, 2 BeiDou IGSO, 2 BeiDou MEO, and 1 QZSS satellite. We compare the SLR station coordinate stability derived from GNSS-based results to the LAGEOS-only solution and from a combined 'SLR to GNSS+LAGEOS' solution. We address the issues related to the GNSS orbit determination using sparse SLR data and the issues related to handling range biases in the GNSS solutions. We found that the coordinate stability of those SLR stations which provide a large number of GNSS observations can remarkably be improved. The Length-of-day parameter can be derived from SLR-GNSS solutions with a much better accuracy than from the LAGEOS-only solutions. Finally, we show that the SLR tracking of GNSS satellites improves the consistency between SLR and GNSS solutions, and thus, can be beneficial for the future ITRF realizations.

  13. EVALUATION OF POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF PASSIVE INTERMODULATION DISTORTION IN HIGH-POWER COMMUNICATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shiquan; Ge Debiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the deleterious effects of Passive InterModulation (PIM) on high power communication satellite systems, the basic concept of PIM is introduced, and an equation for the power spectral density of the n-th order PIM distortion insuch systems is derived by applying flat signal-power spectrum assumption and Fourier transform method. It is indicated that PIM level generally decreases with order and the lowest frequency receive channel in the receive band is the channel of most affected by PIM interference.

  14. Dynamic characteristics of power-tower space stations with 15-foot truss bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A power tower space station concept which generates power with photovoltaic arrays and where the truss structure has a bay size of 15 ft is described. Rigid body and flexible body dynamic characteristics are presented for a 75-kW Initial Operating Capability (IOC) and 150-kW and 300-kW growth stations. The transient response of the IOC and 300-kW growth stations to shuttle dock, orbit reboost, and mobile remote manipulator system translation loads are studied. Displacements, accelerations, and bending moments at various locations on the IOC and 300-kW growth stations are presented.

  15. Fuel Characteristics of Thermal Power Station as Index of Its Thermal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Piir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to calculate values of specific consumptions of conventional fuel for generating heat and electric power in a combined electrical installation (Thermal Power Station on the basis of a thermal and dynamic approach or an exergetic balance of a turbine plant. It is shown that a fuel characteristic of Thermal Power Station is an objective index of a thermal electrical installation

  16. Merged dust climatology in Phoenix, Arizona based on satellite and station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hang; Wang, Julian X. L.; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lee, Pius

    2016-11-01

    In order to construct climate quality long-term dust storm dataset, merged dust storm climatology in Phoenix is developed based on three data sources: regular meteorological records, in situ air quality measurements, and satellite remote sensing observations. The result presented in this paper takes into account the advantages of each dataset and integrates individual analyses demonstrated and presented in previous studies that laid foundation to reconstruct a consistent and continuous time series of dust frequency. A key for the merging procedure is to determine analysis criteria suitable for each individual data source. A practical application to historic records of dust storm activities over the Phoenix area is presented to illustrate detailed steps, advantages, and limitations of the newly developed process. Three datasets are meteorological records from the Sky Harbor station, satellite observed aerosol optical depth data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System particulate matter data of eight sites surrounding Phoenix. Our purpose is to construct dust climatology over the Phoenix region for the period 1948-2012. Data qualities of the reconstructed dust climatology are assessed based on the availability and quality of the input data. The period during 2000-2012 has the best quality since all datasets are well archived. The reconstructed climatology shows that dust storm activities over the Phoenix region have large interannual variability. However, seasonal variations show a skewed distribution with higher frequency of dust storm activities in July and August and relatively quiet during the rest of months. Combining advantages of all the available datasets, this study presents a merged product that provides a consistent and continuous time series of dust storm activities suitable for climate studies.

  17. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment is presented. Information that has appeared in documents referenced herein is integrated and assimilated. The state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies is disclosed, and prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980 are defined. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed in order that a plan can be selected which will be consistent with the fiscal and time constraints on the SPS Environmental Assessment Program. Health and ecological effects of microwave radiation, nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment (terrestrial operations and space operations), effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are examined in detail. (WHK)

  18. The silicon solar satellite power system - A net energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, B.; Naughton, J. P.

    The physical aspects and net energy balance of a Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) are examined. The feasibility of operating with or without laser annealing for the cells, possible variations in the total system costs, the projected worth of the energy, and the R&D costs are explored. The energy needed to mine, refine, fabricate, manufacture, launch, and maintain the SSPS materials and structures are included in the energy analysis, and cost-to-energy ratio of energy used to energy produced graphs are provided for the cases of the use or non-use of laser annealing for radiation protection for the solar cells. The resulting energy ratios indicate that the reference SSPS compares unfavorably with coal or nuclear earth-based plants, although further research is necessary to determine what level of technology is actually required for construction of the SSPS.

  19. Mathematical modeling of vibrations in turbogenerator sets of Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, G. A.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Solovyeva, E. P.

    2016-02-01

    Oscillations in turbogenerator sets, which consist of a synchronous generator, a hydraulic turbine, and an automatic speed regulator, are investigated. This study was motivated by the emergency that took place at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station in 2009. During modeling of the parameters of turbogenerator sets of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station, the ranges corresponding to undesired oscillation regimes were determined. These ranges agree with the results of the full-scale tests of the hydropower units of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station performed in 1988.

  20. Estimate of arsenic emission amount from the coal power stations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Kunli; ZHANG Xinmin; CHEN Changhe; LU Yilun

    2004-01-01

    To study the amount of arsenic emission from the coal power stations (mainly Permo-Carboniferous coal) in China in different combustion conditions, the arsenic content of the coal, the fly ash and the cinder in high- temperature power stations as well as mid-low temperature power stations have been analyzed. This note provides a rough estimate of the total amount of arsenic emission as well as emission ratio from steam coal combustion in China. The results show that by combustion of 1 t of Permo-Carbonif- erous coal (containing roughly 5 mg/kg arsenic), high-tem- perature power stations emit roughly 0.40 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 7.70%; mid-low power stations emit roughly 0.15 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 2.97%. A total of 600 million tons coal is burnt annually in China power stations, and the coal comes mainly from Permo- Carboniferous depositing in the North China Plate and northwest China coal mines. Taking the average arsenic content of the coal used at the value of 5 mg/kg, the total annual arsenic emission from steam coal combustion into the atmosphere is about 195.0 t. Most of the arsenic in coal can be released in the process of coal combustion, and the most of the released arsenic can be seized by the fly ash and then both of them are seized by the dust catcher of power station, so the arsenic emission ratio to the atmosphere is declined; in addition, research on the arsenic emission amount and emission rules from the coal power stations in China should go on the coal power stations with the dry-process dust catchers by the experiments results. In the wet process of dust catcher, 20% of the arsenic in the fly ash is dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank in high-temperature power station; in the mid-low temperature power station there are 70% of the arsenic in the fly ash dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank, this is an important source of arsenic pollution in

  1. 47 CFR 73.6019 - Digital Class A TV station protection of low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and digital TV translator stations. 73.6019 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6019 Digital Class A TV station protection...

  2. UAS Satellite Earth Station Emission Limits for Terrestrial System Interference Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bishop, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will have a major impact on future aviation. Medium and large UA operating at altitudes above 3000 feet will require access to non-segregated, that is, controlled airspace. In order for unmanned aircraft to be integrated into the airspace and operate with other commercial aircraft, a very reliable command and control (C2, a. k. a. control and non-payload communications, (CNPC)) link is required. For operations covering large distances or over remote locations, a beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) CNPC link would need to be implemented through satellite. Significant progress has taken place on several fronts to advance the integration of UAS into controlled airspace, including the recent completion of Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for terrestrial line-of-sight (LOS) UAS command and control (C2) links. The development of MOPS for beyond line-of-sight C2 satellite communication links is underway. Meanwhile the allocation of spectrum for UAS C2 by the International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) has also progressed. Spectrum for LOS C2 was allocated at the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12), and for BLOS C2 an allocation was made at WRC-15, under WRC-15 Resolution 155. Resolution 155, however, does not come into effect until several other actions have been completed. One of these required actions is the identification of a power flux density (pfd) limit on the emissions of UAS Ku-Band satellite communications transmitters reaching the ground. The pfd limit is intended to protect terrestrial systems from harmful interference. WRC-19 is expected to finalize the pfd limit. In preparation for WRC-19, analyses of the required pfd limit are on-going, and supporting activities such as propagation modeling are also planned. This paper provides the status of these activities.

  3. Accuracy of Satellite-Measured Wave Heights in the Australian Region for Wave Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meath, Sian E.; Aye, Lu; Haritos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the accuracy of satellite data, which may then be used in wave power applications. The satellite data are compared to data from wave buoys, which are currently considered to be the most accurate of the devices available for measuring wave characteristics. This article presents an analysis of satellite- (Topex/Poseidon) and…

  4. a Technical Overview of the "suntower" Solar Power Satellite Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-03-01

    During 1995-1996, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a far-reaching reexamination of the technologies, systems concepts and terrestrial markets that might be involved in future space solar power (SSP) systems. The principal objective of this "fresh look" study was to determine whether a solar power satellite (SPS) and associated systems could be defined that could deliver energy into terrestrial electrical power grids at prices equal to or below ground alternatives in a variety of markets, do so without major environmental drawbacks, and which could be developed at a fraction of the initial investment projected for the SPS Reference System of the late 1970s. One of the key concepts emerging from the "fresh look" SSP study is the "SunTower" SPS system. This concept exploits a variety of innovative technologies and design approaches to achieve a potential breakthrough in establishing the technical and programmatic feasibility on initial commercial SSP operations. Capable of being deployed to either low Earth orbit or middle Earth orbit altitudes and various inclinations, the SunTower concept involves essentially no in-space infrastructure and requires no unique heavy lift launch vehicle. The concept, which can provide power to global market places appears to allow up to a factor of 30:1 reduction in initial investment requirements, compared to the 1979 SPS Reference Concept. This paper presents a technical overview of the SunTower SPS concept, including key technologies, sensitivity trades, operational scenarios. Potential non-SPS space program uses of the SunTower concept and related technologies are identified, including human exploration, space science and commercial space applications.

  5. Harmonic incursion at the point of common coupling due to small grid-connected power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mumtaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The orthodox electric power distribution systems used to be generally radial and direction of flow of power was often from grid towards consumer. Sometimes, the transmission of power generated from newly set small power stations by using transmission network is not feasible due to the transmission losses, service cost on transmission lines and other related issues. That is why, in many cases, small power stations are connected directly to the local distribution network. These small power stations inject active and reactive power to the existing network, badly disturbing the flow of power hence injecting harmonics in the system at the point of common coupling (PCC. This harmonic injection at PCC due to a direct grid-connection of small power stations to the existing large electric power systems is identified. Also, the impact of harmonic incursion by these small generation units is analysed using a straightforward and an effortless method. This simulation based method uses power system components simplified to basic inductive and capacitive elements and can be very helpful for a fast assessment of harmonic incursion at PCC if extended to the practical large inter-connected electric power systems.

  6. 77 FR 52765 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Millstone Power Station Unit 1, a permanently defueled boiling water reactor nuclear unit, and Millstone...-water nuclear power reactors,'' requires that each power reactor meet the acceptance criteria for ECCS... Reactions at High Temperatures, III. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Zirconium-Water...

  7. 75 FR 52997 - Nebraska Public Power District; Cooper Nuclear Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nebraska Public Power District; Cooper Nuclear Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Nebraska Public... authorizes operation of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS). The license provides, among other things, that...

  8. 75 FR 47856 - Nebraska Public Power District: Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nebraska Public Power District: Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Availability of the Final... operation for the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS). CNS is located near Brownville, Nebraska, on the...

  9. 75 FR 10517 - Nebraska Public Power District, Cooper Nuclear Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nebraska Public Power District, Cooper Nuclear Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Nebraska Public... authorizes operation of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS). The license provides, among other things, that...

  10. 75 FR 76055 - Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. 50-298; NRC-2008-0617] Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of... operator of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS). Renewed facility operating license No. DPR-46...

  11. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  12. 75 FR 16517 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos 1, 2, and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alarm station requirements by September 30, 2010, and certain uninterruptible power supply requirements... certain uninterruptible power requirements and September 30, 2010, for certain alarm station requirements... COMMISSION Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos 1, 2, and 3; Exemption...

  13. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim® PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB® and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  14. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, KernRiver, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'KernRiver'. Data by...

  15. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  16. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin, E-mail: ruben.fair@converteam.co [Advanced Technology Group, Converteam, Rugby, CV21 1BD (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  17. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  18. Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Karimian, N a; Wilson, JWa; Peyton, AJa; Yin, W a; Liu, J. B.; Davis, CLb

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and aft...

  19. Assesment of Carbon Credits for Power Generation Systems at GSM Base Station Site

    OpenAIRE

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu; Ani, Emmanuel Onyeka

    2016-01-01

    Electricity production is often a source of CO2 emissions, for instance when fossil fuel is combusted in power plants. Therefore the root cause of pollution coming from telecommunication industry is the source of energy (diesel genset) the network operators used in running their Base station sites. Energy consumption of using diesel to power base station by telecom networks is a contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper presents the comparative carbon credits of hybrid ...

  20. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations (6 MWe) on environment wasinvestigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways. It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  1. Approach to reducing the effect of bone—coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIShi-Ying; GUPei-Long; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations(6MWe) on environment was investigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways.It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder(BCC),soot and ash in the catchers.

  2. Optimization of Determinant Factors of Satellite Electrical Power System with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Biglarahmadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weight and dimension, cost, and performance are determinant factors for design, fabrication, and launch the satellites which are related to the mission type of the satellites. Each satellite includes several subsystems such as Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS, Navigation Subsystem, Thermal Subsystem, etc. The purpose of this paper is to optimize these determinant factors by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, for Electrical Power Subsystem. This paper considers the effects of selecting various types of Photovoltaic (PV cells and batteries on weight and dimension, cost, and performance of the satellite. We have used two various types of PVs and two various type of batteries in optimization of the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS

  3. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  4. Using MapReduce to Improve the Power Generation of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, William R., II

    The International Space Station (ISS) spends approximately 98% of its time in orbits that experience Earth eclipse. Since the station's solar arrays produce no power when in Earth's shadow, the total power generated decreases substantially, lowering the power budget available to experimental payloads. Therefore, increasing the power output during these eclipsed orbits would be of great benefit to the space station's scientific endeavors. The ISS's current solar array configuration tracks the Sun throughout each orbit, keeping each of its 16 solar panels perpendicular to the Sun at all times. While this is the optimal orientation for solar panels with unobstructed views of the Sun, the space station's solar arrays experience shadowing from the spacecraft's structure as well as from the other solar panels. Deviating from the Sun-tracking scheme at strategic points in certain orbits can provide an increase in power output. The goal of this research was to provide a programmatic solution that increases the power generation capabilities of the ISS in orbits experiencing Earth-eclipse without requiring any physical modifications to the space station's structure. To achieve this goal, a simulator was developed to model the ISS-Earth-Sun environment and calculate the power output of the station's solar arrays based on each panel's orientation and shadowing. Many combinations of array configurations were analyzed, taking into account the physical constraints of the gimbals responsible for rotating the solar panels. The power output of the ISS was improved for the subset of Earth-eclipsed orbits that experience a high degree of shadowing from the station's structure, resulting in an average energy increase of 1.08 kWh per orbit. The power gains were achieved by quickly rotating the solar arrays through the points in each orbit that experienced the highest degree of shadowing.

  5. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  6. Application of Hybrid Optimization-Expert System for Optimal Power Management on Board Space Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Basheer, Omar Ali AL

    1996-01-01

    The space power system has two sources of energy: photo-voltaic blankets and batteries. The optimal power management problem on-board has two broad operations: off-line power scheduling to determine the load allocation schedule of the next several hours based on the forecast of load and solar power availability. The nature of this study puts less emphasis on speed requirement for computation and more importance on the optimality of the solution. The second category problem, on-line power rescheduling, is needed in the event of occurrence of a contingency to optimally reschedule the loads to minimize the 'unused' or 'wasted' energy while keeping the priority on certain type of load and minimum disturbance of the original optimal schedule determined in the first-stage off-line study. The computational performance of the on-line 'rescheduler' is an important criterion and plays a critical role in the selection of the appropriate tool. The Howard University Center for Energy Systems and Control has developed a hybrid optimization-expert systems based power management program. The pre-scheduler has been developed using a non-linear multi-objective optimization technique called the Outer Approximation method and implemented using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The optimization model has the capability of dealing with multiple conflicting objectives viz. maximizing energy utilization, minimizing the variation of load over a day, etc. and incorporates several complex interaction between the loads in a space system. The rescheduling is performed using an expert system developed in PROLOG which utilizes a rule-base for reallocation of the loads in an emergency condition viz. shortage of power due to solar array failure, increase of base load, addition of new activity, repetition of old activity etc. Both the modules handle decision making on battery charging and discharging and allocation of loads over a time-horizon of a day divided into intervals of 10

  7. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  8. On Variable Reverse Power Flow-Part I: Active-Reactive Optimal Power Flow with Reactive Power of Wind Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouss Gabash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV active distribution network (ADN with embedded wind stations (WSs can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN. However, unity power factors (PFs of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I, we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1 Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2 Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of an ADN under different demand scenarios. (3 Derivation of the function of reactive energy losses in the grid with an equivalent-π circuit and comparing its value with active energy losses. (4 Balancing the energy curtailment of wind generation, active-reactive energy losses in the grid and active-reactive energy import-export by a meter-based method. In Part-II, the potential of the developed model is studied through analyzing an electricity market model and a 41-bus network with different locations of WSs.

  9. Correlation Between the "seeing FWHM" of Satellite Optical Observations and Meteorological Data at the OWL-Net Station, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Ho; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Park, Sun-Youp; Moon, Hong Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Roh, Dong-Goo; Choi, Jin; Park, Maru; Cho, Sungki; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jung; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between meteorological data collected at the optical wide-field patrol network (OWL-Net) Station No. 1 and the seeing of satellite optical observation data was analyzed. Meteorological data and satellite optical observation data from June 2014 to November 2015 were analyzed. The analyzed meteorological data were the outdoor air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and cloud index data, and the analyzed satellite optical observation data were the seeing full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) data. The annual meteorological pattern for Mongolia was analyzed by collecting meteorological data over four seasons, with data collection beginning after the installation and initial set-up of the OWL-Net Station No. 1 in Mongolia. A comparison of the meteorological data and the seeing of the satellite optical observation data showed that the seeing degrades as the wind strength increases and as the cloud cover decreases. This finding is explained by the bias effect, which is caused by the fact that the number of images taken on the less cloudy days was relatively small. The seeing FWHM showed no clear correlation with either temperature or relative humidity.

  10. Pumped storage power stations. Overview of new projects in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, G. [KELAG-Kaerntner Elektrizitaets-Aktiengesellschaft, Klagenfurt (Austria). Production Div.; Puerer, E. [Vorarlberger Illwerke AG, Schruns (Austria). Engineering Div.

    2008-07-01

    New framework conditions, due to the liberalisation of the electricity market and the development of renewable energy, especially wind energy with its stochastic production, led to a renaissance of pump storage technology in central Europe. Austria is lucky, first of all in providing natural water resources as well as in topography highly suitable for hydro power plants. Pump storage power plants represent even today an essential asset of the Austrian energy production. A boom for the planning and the construction of new power plants can be also observed. Currently there are pump storage power plants with a total capacity of approximately 1.100 MW under construction as well as others of approximately 1.200 MW in the stage of concrete planning. (orig.)

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) FY 79 Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Satellite Power System (SPS) program is a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is managed by the SPS Project Office within DOE's Office of Energy Research. SPS project organization is shown in Figure 1. The SPS Project Office was established in 1978 and is responsible for the planning, management and integration of SPS research in four areas: systems definition, environmental assessment, societal assessment, and comparative assessment. In fulfilling its responsibilities, the SPS Project Office directs research and assessment efforts to determine the feasibility of the SPS concept, funds organizations supporting the program, and disseminates information developed from project research and assessments. The objective of the SPS program is to develop an initial understanding of the technical feasibility, the economic practicality, and the social and environmental acceptability of the SPS concept. This is being accomplished through implementation of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program Plan which is scheduled for completion by the end of FY 1980. The SPS Project Office annually issues a Program Summary which describes the research undertaken during the preceding fiscal year. This Program Summary covers FY 1979. It includes work completed in FY 1977 and FY 1978 in order to give a comprehensive picture of the DOE involvement in the SPS concept development and evaluation process.

  12. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep charging, in contrast to surface charging, focuses on electron penetration deep into insulating materials applied over conductors. A classic example of this scenario is an insulated wire. Deep charging can pose a threat to material integrity, and to sensitive electronics, when it gives rise to an electrostatic discharge or arc. With the advent of Electric Orbit Raising, which requires spiraling through Earth's radiation belts, satellites are subjected to high energy electron environments which they normally would not encounter. Beyond Earth orbit, missions to Jupiter and Saturn face deep charging concerns due to the high energy radiation environments. While predictions can be made about charging in insulating materials, it is difficult to extend those predictions to complicated geometries, such as the case of an insulating coating around a small wire, or a non-uniform silicone grouting on a bus bar. Therefore, to conclusively determine the susceptibility of a system to arcs from deep charging, experimental investigations must be carried out. This paper will describe the evaluation carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. Specifically, deep charging evaluations of solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, will be discussed. The results of each evaluation will be benchmarked against control sample tests, as well as typical power system levels, to show no significant deep charging threat existed for this set of samples under the conditions tested.

  13. CTS United States experiments - A progress report. [Communications Technology Satellite for high power broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a high-power broadcast satellite launched by NASA on January 17, 1976. CTS is the first satellite to operate at a frequency of 12 gigahertz and incorporates technology making possible new satellite telecommunications services. CTS is a cooperative program of the United States and Canada. This paper presents the results of the United States experimental activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program, including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  14. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  15. Construction and preoperational test of Kashiwasaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Nobuo; Noda, Hiroshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Unit 6 of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the world`s first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), is progressing ahead of the originally established schedule since the start of its construction in September 1991, and commercial operation is scheduled to start before the end of 1996.

  16. 75 FR 15744 - Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District; Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Omaha Public Power District (OPPD, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-40 which authorizes operation of the Fort...

  17. 75 FR 42790 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...-62, issued to Exelon Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Clinton Power... have access to ADAMS or who encounter problems in accessing the documents located in ADAMS...

  18. Magnetic sensing for microstructural assessment of power station steels: Magnetic Barkhausen noise and minor loop measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Karimian, N.; Yin, W.; Liu, J.; Davis, C. L.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    There are currently no techniques available to monitor the microstructural condition of power station steel components in-service (at elevated temperatures). Electromagnetic (EM) inspection methods have the potential to provide a solution to this problem. Tests have been carried out on power generation steel (P9 and T22) samples with different microstructural states using major and minor B-H loop measurements and correlations established between EM properties and material properties such as Vickers hardness. These correlations will be used to develop a field deployable tool for the quantification of degradation in power station steels.

  19. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko

    2010-09-15

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  20. Changes in satellite-derived impervious surface area at US historical climatology network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin; Xian, George

    2016-10-01

    The difference between 30 m gridded impervious surface area (ISA) between 2001 and 2011 was evaluated within 100 and 1000 m radii of the locations of climate stations that comprise the US Historical Climatology Network. The amount of area associated with observed increases in ISA above specific thresholds was documented for the climate stations. Over 32% of the USHCN stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% between 2001 and 2011 for at least 1% of the grid cells within a 100 m radius of the station. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased from ⩾1% to ⩾10%, the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 113 (9% of stations). When the 1000 m radius associated with each station was examined, over 52% (over 600) of the stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% within at least 1% of the grid cells within that radius. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased to ⩾10% the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 35 (less than 3% of the stations). The gridded ISA data provides an opportunity to characterize the environment around climate stations with a consistently measured indicator of a surface feature. Periodic evaluations of changes in the ISA near the USHCN and other networks of stations are recommended to assure the local environment around the stations has not significantly changed such that observations at the stations may be impacted.

  1. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  2. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M R

    1980-11-01

    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  3. Improving the Transient States Caused by Switching of Capacitor Banks in Power Dispatching Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Sajjad Salehi Ghaleh SEFID

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The high reactive power demand on the electrical power grid reduces the power factor and increases voltage drop. One of the compensation methods of required reactive power is the application of capacitor banks. Among the major problems with this equipment is shock, created at the moment of connection to the grid, which can cause accidents in power stations. While studying the statistical analysis of the incidents due to use of capacitor banks, this paper analyzes the shock caused by their connection, and realistically simulates a sample power station in the EMTP / WORKS software. Finally, this paper suggests useful and efficient methods to reduce the transient conditions caused by transient capacitor banks switching to the grid.

  4. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  6. Exploiting the power law distribution properties of satellite fire radiative power retrievals: A method to estimate fire radiative energy and biomass burned from sparse satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. S.; Roy, D. P.; Boschetti, L.; Kremens, R.

    2011-10-01

    Instantaneous estimates of the power released by fire (fire radiative power, FRP) are available with satellite active fire detection products. The temporal integral of FRP provides an estimate of the fire radiative energy (FRE) that is related linearly to the amount of biomass burned needed by the atmospheric emissions modeling community. The FRE, however, is sensitive to satellite temporal and spatial FRP undersampling due to infrequent satellite overpasses, cloud and smoke obscuration, and failure to detect cool and/or small fires. Satellite FRPs derived over individual burned areas and fires have been observed to exhibit power law distributions. This property is exploited to develop a new way to derive FRE, as the product of the fire duration and the expected FRP value derived from the FRP power law probability distribution function. The method is demonstrated and validated by the use of FRP data measured with a dual-band radiometer over prescribed fires in the United States and by the use of FRP data retrieved from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire detections over Brazilian deforestation and Australian savanna fires. The biomass burned derived using the conventional FRP temporal integration and power law FRE estimation methods is compared with biomass burned measurements (prescribed fires) and available fuel load information reported in the literature (Australian and Brazilian fires). The results indicate that the FRE power law derivation method may provide more reliable burned biomass estimates under sparse satellite FRP sampling conditions and correct for satellite active-fire detection omission errors if the FRP power law distribution parameters and the fire duration are known.

  7. High altitude clouds impacts on the design of optical feeder link and optical ground station network for future broadband satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulenard, S.; Ruellan, M.; Roy, B.; Riédi, J.; Parol, F.; Rissons, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optical links at 1.55μm are envisaged to cope with the increasing capacity demand from geostationary telecom satellite operators without the need of Radio Frequency (RF) coordination. Due to clouds blockages, site diversity techniques based on a network of Optical Ground Stations (OGS) are necessary to reach the commonly required link availability (e.g. 99.9% over the year). Evaluation of the N Optical Ground Station Network (N-OGSN) availability is based on Clouds Masks (CMs) and depends on the clouds attenuation taken in the optical communication budget link. In particular, low attenuation of high semitransparent clouds (i.e. cirrus) could be incorporated into the budget link at the price of larger or more powerful optical terminals. In this paper, we present a method for the calibration of the attenuation at 1.55 μm of high semitransparent clouds. We perform OGS localization optimization in Europe and we find that the incorporation of thin cirrus attenuation in the budget link reduces by 20% the number of handover (i.e. switches OGS) and the handover rate. It is also shown that the minimum number of station required in Europe to reach 99.9% link availability is 10 to 11. When the zone of research is enlarged the Africa, this number is reduced to 3 to 4.

  8. Monitoring of Power Station Steels Using Electromagnetic Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Karimian, Noushin

    2014-01-01

    With the world’s aging power generation network, especially in Europe and the United States, life-extension of steel plant components is increasingly a critical issue, as components are exposed to high temperatures and pressures during their lifetime, potentially resulting in carbide coarsening, making them prone to creep cavitation, possibly leading to component failure. Therefore, in order to evaluate the likelihood of component failure, non-destructive testing and evaluation procedures mus...

  9. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  10. Improving energy performance power station of ship with integrated electric propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the method of calculating the power plant fuel consumption on the basis of diesel-generating installation (DGI with variable speed for ships with integrated electric propulsion. Application DGI with variable speed allows saving fuel and therefore reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere. In the paper calculated the fuel efficiency of unified power station on the basis of a variable speed DGI power of 1000 kW.

  11. Analysis of electromagnetic interference from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Peter W.; Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Hurysz, B.; Luo, Z.; Denny, Hugh W.; Millard, David P.; Herkert, R.; Wang, R.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to analyze the potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) originating from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom. The approach consists of four steps: (1) developing analytical tools (models and computer programs); (2) conducting parameterization (what if?) studies; (3) predicting the global space station EMI environment; and (4) providing a basis for modification of EMI standards.

  12. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  13. Satellite observations of large power plants and megacities from GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tom; Maksyutov, Shamil; Boesch, Hartmut; Butz, Andre; Ganshin, Alexander; Guerlet, Sandrine; Parker, Robert; O'Dell, Chris; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2013-04-01

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major source of CO2 to the global carbon cycle over decadal time scales and international efforts to curb those missions are required for mitigating climate change. Although emissions from nations are estimated and reported to help monitor their compliance of emission reductions, we still lack an objective method to monitor emissions directly. Future carbon-observing space missions are thus expected to provide an independent tool for directly measuring emissions. We proposed and have implemented satellite observations specifically over intense large point sources (LPS), including large fossil-fueled power plants and megacities, worldwide (N > 300) using the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing SATelllite (GOSAT). Our target LPS sites have been occasionally included in the observation schedule of GOSAT and the measurements are made using the target observation mode. This proposal was officially accepted by the GOSAT project office and we have attempted to use these data to detect signatures of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. We have submitted our locations of interest on a monthly basis two month prior to observation. We calculated the X_CO2 concentration enhancement due to the LPS emissions. We analyzed GOSAT X_CO2 retrievals from four research groups (five products total): the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (both the NIES standard Level 2 and NIES-PPDF products), the NASA Atmospheric CO2 from Space (ACOS) team (ACOS Level 2 product), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)/Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany (RemoTeC), and the University of Leicester, UK (Full-Physics CO2 retrieval dataset). Although we obtained fewer retrieved soundings relative to what we requested (probably due to geophysical difficulties in the retrievals), we did obtain statistically significant enhancements at some LPS sites where weather condition were ideal for viewing. We also implemented simulations of enhanced X

  14. The Use of Chaff in Space as a Jamming Device between Ground Stations and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    of Fi•Yu es Figure Page 1. Rasic Orbital Parameters . . . . . . . .... 2. Satellite Orientation for Cases I, II, III, and IV...Moti r on Spin Direction PCe of sot on c.SSO..!Path of notion Case.X AngLe of Tk~t Case-III Cast IV Figure 2. SatelLite Orientation for Cases I, II

  15. Satellite range scheduling with the priority constraint: An improved genetic algorithm using a station ID encoding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite range scheduling with the priority constraint is one of the most important problems in the field of satellite operation. This paper proposes a station coding based genetic algorithm to solve this problem, which adopts a new chromosome encoding method that arranges tasks according to the ground station ID. The new encoding method contributes to reducing the complexity in conflict checking and resolving, and helps to improve the ability to find optimal resolutions. Three different selection operators are designed to match the new encoding strategy, namely random selection, greedy selection, and roulette selection. To demonstrate the benefits of the improved genetic algorithm, a basic genetic algorithm is designed in which two cross operators are presented, a single-point crossover and a multi-point crossover. For the purpose of algorithm test and analysis, a problem-generating program is designed, which can simulate problems by modeling features encountered in real-world problems. Based on the problem generator, computational results and analysis are made and illustrated for the scheduling of multiple ground stations.

  16. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  17. Integrated power and attitude control of a rigid satellite with onboard magnetic bearing suspended rigid flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonkyu

    2003-10-01

    A system of differential equations governing the translational and rotational motion of a system model consisting of a rigid satellite and multiple MB suspended rigid flywheels in general configuration is developed. Flywheel modules are contained in a housing rigidly mounted on the satellite and floated by an active MB suspension system, therefore each flywheel module has six degrees of freedom (DOF) as well as the satellite module. Equations of motion for the satellite and flywheels are naturally coupled and the satellite rotational motion and translational motion are coupled. A nonlinear state feedback tracking control law, which is globally asymptotically stable, is developed following a Lyapunov stability theory for integrated power and attitude control using the MB suspended flywheels. The stability, robustness, and tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the present control law with respect to initial attitude error, system modeling error, an imbalance disturbance, is demonstrated by case studies. The satellite departure motion equation derived from the definition of the angular velocity error and the system dynamics equations is presented. Application study of existing power tracking algorithm with this control law shows perfect power tracking for both power charging from and power delivery to the satellite operations and the power tracking can be performed simultaneously with and independent of the attitude control function.

  18. Maximizing photovoltaic power generation of a space-dart configured satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Young; Cutler, James W.; Mancewicz, Joe; Ridley, Aaron J.

    2015-06-01

    Many small satellites are power constrained due to their minimal solar panel area and the eclipse environment of low-Earth orbit. As with larger satellites, these small satellites, including CubeSats, use deployable power arrays to increase power production. This presents a design opportunity to develop various objective functions related to energy management and methods for optimizing these functions over a satellite design. A novel power generation model was created, and a simulation system was developed to evaluate various objective functions describing energy management for complex satellite designs. The model uses a spacecraft-body-fixed spherical coordinate system to analyze the complex geometry of a satellite's self-induced shadowing with computation provided by the Open Graphics Library. As an example design problem, a CubeSat configured as a space-dart with four deployable panels is optimized. Due to the fast computation speed of the solution, an exhaustive search over the design space is used to find the solar panel deployment angles which maximize total power generation. Simulation results are presented for a variety of orbit scenarios. The method is extendable to a variety of complex satellite geometries and power generation systems.

  19. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  20. Computer-integrated quality management system for power stations. Computer-integriertes Qualitaetsmanagementsystem fuer Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, K.H.; Scheurer, K.; Meinhardt, H. (Siemens AG, Offenbach (Germany). Abt. Qualitaetssicherung)

    1993-03-01

    Conventional CAQ systems, which were developed for monitoring mass production, are not very suitable for quality assurance in the construction and operation of plant and power stations. Long life products have to be monitored in plant and power station construction, which were manufactured in small batches for individually. So that the quality of these products can be monitored and can be assured economically and reliably by preventive maintenance measures, it is necessary to combine the plant documentation, repeated tests and repair or replacement measures in a 'computer-integrated quality management system'. For large complex plants, such as power stations, an operation guidance system was developed which includes all important plant information and makes it available in a user-friendly way to the concern's management. The article introduces this system. (orig.).

  1. Macro mechanical parameters' size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya project's underground power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-hua; ZHOU Chuang-bing; ZHOU Huo-ming; SHENG Qian; LENG Xian-lun

    2005-01-01

    Scale effect is one of the important aspects in the macro mechanical parameters' research of rock mass, from a new point of view, by means of lab and field rock mechanics test, establishment of E~Vp relation, classification of engineering rock mass, numerical simulation test and back analysis based on surrounding rock's displacement monitoring results of Shuibuya Project's underground power station, rock mass deformation module's size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undegroud power station was studied. It's shown that rock mass deformation module's scale effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undeground power station is obvious, the rock mass deformation module to tranquilization is 20% of intact rock's. Finally the relation between rock mass deformation modules and the scale of research was established.

  2. Small proton exchange membrane fuel cell power station by using bio-hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志祥; 毛宗强; 王诚; 任南琪

    2006-01-01

    In fermentative organic waste water treatment process, there was hydrogen as a by-product. After some purification,there was about 50% ~ 70% hydrogen in the bio-gas, which could be utilized for electricity generation with fuel cell. Half a year ago, joint experiments between biological hydrogen production in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power station in Tsinghua University were conducted for electricity generation with bio-hydrogen from the pilot plant in HIT. The results proved the feasibility of the bio-hydrogen as a by-product utilization with PEMFC power station and revealed some problems of fuel cell power station for this application.

  3. Design of Three Phase Solar-Based 4.5kw Ac Power Inverter Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.J.C. Onuegbu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The design model of a 4.50Kilowatt, 3-phase, 50 hertz solar-based power generating station was examined by the paper. The power station is a dual source input generating station using 8 series connected 100A, 12V batteries per phase as backup, the solar panels being the main frame. An inverter of 12Volt direct current input voltage was incorporated to supply an output of 3-phase, 220Volts and 50 hertz alternating current. A charging circuit was installed to monitor charging level and to preserve the accumulator’s life span. The paper also looked into the solar-based power station component design model. The batteries therein are back-up and the system will ensure 24-hours reliable power supply. The setup has a normally closed switching relay ready to pickup the auxiliary battery supply within a few milliseconds after the solar source voltage drops below a stipulated level. The three phase a.c. voltage was achieved using standby on-line circuit with cascaded 741-based flip-flop at the base of the transistor drivers of the 3-phase power transformer. This model circuit reduced the load on each phase winding and facilitated reliable and uninterruptible power supply. The delta-wyeconnected transformer will guarantee proper phase shift of 120 degrees that will emulate alternating current voltage similar to the conventional generator voltage.

  4. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  5. Control strategy for multi-pump emulsion power station in coal mine face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-ying; WEI Jin-hong

    2011-01-01

    Shearer and hydraulic support are matching equipments.To increase the operating speed of the shearer,the following speed of hydraulic support must be increased.This means increasing the volume of flow from emulsion power station.Analyzing the operating characteristics of hydraulic supports,the number of simultaneously operating supports is obtained by means of pressure parameter and time history at a certain time,which is a theory base for development of control system to multi-pump emulsion power station.

  6. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY OF STEAM TURBINE POWER STATIONS BY INTEN-SIFICATION OF HEAT TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Kelbaliev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem concerning improvement of operational efficiency of thermal power stations by intensification of heat transfer in various elements of equipment is of current concern in power engineering. The paper contains a large body of experimental data and some proposals are given how to apply them for operating equipment at thermal power stations.

  8. 75 FR 14634 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... part 73, for certain uninterruptible power supply requirements. The proposed action, an extension of... COMMISSION Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3; Environmental... Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3 (MPS1, MPS2, and MPS3, respectively), located in New London...

  9. Validation of three satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation using measurements performed at 42 stations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claire; Wey, Etienne; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-06-01

    The SoDa website (www.soda-pro.com) is populated with numerous solar-related Web services. Among them, three satellite-derived irradiation databases can be manually or automatically accessed to retrieve radiation values within the geographical coverage of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite: the two most advanced versions of the HelioClim-3 database (versions 4 and 5, respectively HC3v4 and HC3v5), and the CAMS radiation service. So far, these databases have been validated against measurements of several stations in Europe and North Africa only. As the quality of such databases depends on the geographical regions and the climates, this paper extends this validation campaign and proposes an extensive comparison on Brazil and global irradiation received on a horizontal surface. Eleven stations from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research (INPE) network offer 1 min observations, and thirty-one stations from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) network offer hourly observations. The satellite-derived estimates have been compared to the corresponding observations on hourly, daily and monthly basis. The bias relative to the mean of the measurements for HC3v5 is mostly comprised between 1 and 3 %, and that for HC3v4 between 2 and 5 %. These are very satisfactory results and they demonstrate that HC3v5, and to a lesser extent HC3v4, may be used in studies of long-term changes in SSI in Brazil. The situation is not so good with CAMS radiation service for which the relative bias is mostly comprised between 5 and 10 %. For hourly irradiation, the relative RMSE ranges from 15 to 33 %. The correlation coefficient is very large for all stations and the three databases, with an average of 0.96. The three databases reproduce well the hour from hour changes in SSI. The errors show a tendency to increase with the viewing angle of the MSG satellite. They are greater in tropical areas where the relative humidity in the atmosphere is important. It is concluded

  10. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  11. The behaviour of coal blends in power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.; Horne, P.A.; McGhee, B.F.; Gibson, J.R. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd., Renfrew (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The milling characteristics of coal blends were studied to provide quantitative information which allows the calculation of the Hardgrove Index (HGI) values of coal blends from those of the constituent coals; to provide data on the power requirement to produce a given mill output fineness, and abrasion rates of mill components when milling coal blends, relative to the behaviour of the constituent coals; to investigate the combustion behaviour of coal blends in pulverized fuel-fired systems by carrying out testwork in a semi-industrial combustion test facility, and to assess the deposition characteristics and the potential for utilization of the ashes produced by the combustion of coal blends. It was found that both the HGI and the Abrasion Index values of coals are additive properties. There were linear correlations between the slope of the Rosin-Rammler plot of the Mini-mill product size distribution and both the blend compositions and the HGI values of the coals and coal blends. Investigations showed that the fusion behaviour of the coal ash blends is rather complex, and that the characteristic ash fusion temperature are not additive in a simple way. A number of correlations were found between the ash fusion temperatures of the coals and coal ash blends. 1 ref., 45 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  12. Synchronized Position and Hold Reorient Experimental Satellites - International Space Station (SPHERES-ISS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL) propose an innovative research program entitled SPHERES-ISS that uses their satellite...

  13. Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bürgi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP, is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot. Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor  for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels.

  14. Time averaged transmitter power and exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Alfred; Scanferla, Damiano; Lehmann, Hugo

    2014-08-07

    Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels.

  15. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  16. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellites to a lunar rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  17. Optimization of Power Allocation for Multiusers in Multi-Spot-Beam Satellite Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-spot-beam satellite communication systems have played a key role in global seamless communication. However, satellite power resources are scarce and expensive, due to the limitations of satellite platform. Therefore, this paper proposes optimizing the power allocation of each user in order to improve the power utilization efficiency. Initially the capacity allocated to each user is calculated according to the satellite link budget equations, which can be achieved in the practical satellite communication systems. The problem of power allocation is then formulated as a convex optimization, taking account of a trade-off between the maximization of the total system capacity and the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Finally, an iterative algorithm based on the duality theory is proposed to obtain the optimal solution to the optimization. Compared with the traditional uniform resource allocation or proportional resource allocation algorithms, the proposed optimal power allocation algorithm improves the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Moreover, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is linear with both the numbers of the spot beams and users. As a result, the proposed power allocation algorithm is easy to be implemented in practice.

  18. Diversion at small hydro-electric power stations; Forbislipping ved smaa vannkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, Knut E.; Elstad, Ivar K.

    2008-07-01

    At a shut down caused by, for instance, a power shortage at a power station, the electric aggregate will stop and there will be a quick change in the flow of water downstream of the power station. This situation gives undesirable environmental effects, especially with regards to fish. The fish must have the opportunity to withdraw to deep pools, to avoid running aground. The goal of this report is to present good ideas to design diversion stations that reduce the environmental effects to an acceptable level, which is especially important in anadromous waterways, simultaneously not costing too much. The demand for diversion should be clarified with the authorities as soon as possible. By taking into account the power stations dimensions and foundation needs early on in the planning phase, the cost will be minimized. As a rule NVE currently demand that a diversion installation must have a capacity of 50 % of the turbines full flow of water. This is to avoid large changes in the flow of water downstream of the power station. In addition to the demand on the maximum capacity of the diversion installation, there should also be posed a demand that the calculation of the rate of flow should be kept within 50 % of the total rate of flow before the shut down. This is possible to achieve with the help of software control without the operational drawbacks caused by slow regulation being too great. Calculations carried out show that also with loading operation after shut down should have a relatively slow rate of flow. It is recommended that the short term rate of flow increase should be no more than 50 % of the rate of flow before the shut down or the stationary rate of flow before the turbines are started. To ensure the diversion with loading operation at small power stations it is recommended to use standard valves as much as possible, possibly with an energy dissipater that often can be manufactured locally. The installation should be arranged in such a way that the

  19. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  20. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    the operation of each component in the system. As a result, the charging station could supply the reactive power support to the utility grid without compromising the charging algorithm and preserve the battery’s lifetime. Finally, the real-time simulation results based on dSPACE1006 verifies the proposed......Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...

  1. Magnetic sensing for microstructural assessment of power station steels: Magnetic Barkhausen noise and minor loop measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, JWa; Karimian, N a; Yin, W a; Liu, J. B.; Davis, CLb; Peyton, AJa

    2013-01-01

    There are currently no techniques available to monitor the microstructural condition of power station steel components in-service (at elevated temperatures). Electromagnetic (EM) inspection methods have the potential to provide a solution to this problem. Tests have been carried out on power generation steel (P9 and T22) samples with different microstructural states using major and minor B-H loop measurements and correlations established between EM properties and material properties such as V...

  2. New fossil-fired power stations in Europe. Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, Wolfgang A. [Evonik Energy Services, Essen (Germany); Pasini, Sauro [Enel Engineering and Innovation Research, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    The security of electricity supply in Europe can only be assured by a well-balanced energy mix. To ensure the increasing amount of stochastic renewable sources like e.g. wind and solar power, economically competitive coal- and gas-fired power stations are needed. Nevertheless, currently more and more projects are stopped and postponed. In that context questions like: What is the background? What is the current situation? What should be? What are the causes? What is needed? are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Study of mercury in by-products from a Dutch co-combustion power station

    OpenAIRE

    Rallo, Manuela; López Antón, María Antonia; Meij, Ruud; Perry, Ron; Maroto Valer, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Fly ashes and gypsum are one of the main wastes produced in coal-fired power stations which may be sent to landfills for their disposal. In this work, leaching and speciation of mercury in fly ashes and gypsum from a modern co-combustion power plant equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit in the Netherlands were studied. The mercury leachable contents were checked against different regulations, including Dutch, German and the Council Directive 2003/33/EC. The speciation ...

  4. Test on the 30kW Vibrating Wave-power Station Accepted in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To meet the demand of island residents on the electric power for their daily lives, a 30kW vibrating wavepower station, designed and built by the Oceanic Technology Research Institute of China National Bureau of Ocean, is presently conducted with test in Jimo city of Shangdong province, and accepted by China National Bureau of Ocean and China's Academy of Science.

  5. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License... M.S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute). The licensee's request for an exemption is...

  6. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of  power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.  

  7. MODELING OF WIND LOADS ACTING ON THE WIND POWER STATION CONSTRUCTION OF THE COMBINED TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhtoyarova E. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the solution of questions about the intensity of wind loads acting on the wind power station of the combined type in relation to the conditions of the Rostov region on the basis of the structural dynamic simulation

  8. Fatigue Life Prediction of Mooring Chains for a Floating Tidal Current Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengmei Jing; Liang Zhang; Zhong Yang

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of clean and renewable energy,tidal current energy is becoming increasingly popular all over the world with the shortage of energy and environmental problems becoming more and more severe.A floating tidal current power station is a typical type of tidal current power transformers which can sustain the loads of wind,waves,and current,and even the extreme situation of a typhoon.Therefore,the mooring system must be reliable enough to keep the station operating normally and to survive in extreme situations.The power station examined in this paper was installed at a depth of 40 m.A 44 mm-diameter R4-RQ4 chain was chosen,with a 2 147 kN minimum break strength and 50 kN pretension.Common studless link chain was used in this paper.Based on the Miner fatigue cumulative damage rule,S-N curves of chains,and MOSES software,a highly reliable mooring system was designed and analyzed.The calculation results show that the mooring system designed is reliable throughout a 10-year period.It can completely meet the design requirements of American Petroleum institution (API).Therefore,the presented research is significant for advancing the design of this kind of power station.

  9. The NASA-Lewis terrestrial photovoltaics program. [solar cell power system for weather station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and technology efforts on solar cells and arrays having relevance to terrestrial uses are outline. These include raising cell efficiency, developing the FEP-covered module concept, and exploring low cost cell concepts. Solar cell-battery power systems for remote weather stations have been built to demonstrate the capabilities of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

  10. 77 FR 59679 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    .... (DNC), Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS) and Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company (MMWE) (collectively ``the licensees'' or ``DNC, Inc., et al.'') are the co-holders of the Renewed... Power Station, Unit 3 (MPS3). CVPS is a non-operating owner of a 1.7303% interest in MPS3. DNC is...

  11. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... fossil fuel generation, renewable energy sources, demand-side measures such as energy conservation, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

  12. Technological scheme for the waste-free treatment of thermal power station ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyurnikova, V.I.; Krasnikova, N.A.; Panin, A.S.; Konovalenko, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Flotation is used to process fly ash. In an example given, an ash containing 9% carbon is treated with an apolar collecting agent which gives a product with a calorific value of 4,000 kcal/kg, suitable for combustion in a power station. The ash content of the refuse is 98.6%.

  13. Model Predictive Control of Offshore Power Stations With Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Chan, Richard; Li, Xiangan;

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of waste heat recovery units on oil and gas offshore platforms demands advances in both design methods and control systems. Model-based control algorithms can play an important role in the operation of offshore power stations. A novel regulator based on a linear model predictive...

  14. [Risk of electromagnetic fields in electric power stations and substations of a petrochemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, A; Fabri, G; Romeo, A

    2003-01-01

    Authors evaluate electromagnetic field exposure in the low-frequency range (5-30,000 Hz) in electric power stations and substations of petroleum processing plant. According to the measured values and the reference exposure limits considered, they conclude that operators should be exposed without adverse effects.

  15. Analysis of the Use of Wind Energy to Supplement the Power Needs at McMurdo Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.; Robichaud, R.; McLain, K.

    2005-05-01

    This poster summarizes the analysis of the inclusion of wind-driven power generation technology into the existing diesel power plants at two U.S. Antarctic research stations, McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the analysis. Available data were obtained on the wind resources, power plant conditions, load, and component cost. We then used NREL's Hybrid2 power system modeling software to analyze the potential and cost of using wind turbine generators at the two aforementioned facilities.

  16. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  17. Earth rotation, station coordinates and orbit determination from satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masaaki

    The Project MERIT, a special program of international colaboration to Monitor Earth Rotation and Intercompare the Techniques of observation and analysis, has come to an end with great success. Its major objective was to evaluate the ultimate potential of space techniques such as VLBI and satellite laser ranging, in contrast with the other conventional techniques, in the determination of rotational dynamics of the earth. The National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) has officially participated in the project as an associate analysis center for satellite laser technique for the period of the MERIT Main Campaign (September 1983-October 1984). In this paper, the NAL analysis center results are presented.

  18. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S B; Rachelson, W; Sterling, R; Frey, H U; Harris, S E; McBride, S; Rosenberg, T J; Detrick, D; Doolittle, J L; Engebretson, M; Inan, U; Labelle, J W; Lanzerotti, L J; Weatherwax, A T

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  19. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Rachelson, W.; Sterling, R.; Frey, H. U.; Harris, S. E.; McBride, S.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D.; Doolittle, J. L.; Engebretson, M.; Inan, U.; Labelle, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  20. Spectrum management considerations of adaptive power control in satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitz, P.; Sullivan, T.

    1983-01-01

    Adaptive power control concepts for the compensation of rain attenuation are considered for uplinks and downlinks. The performance of example power-controlled and fixed-EIRP uplinks is compared in terms of C/Ns and C/Is. Provisional conclusions are drawn with regard to the efficacy of uplink and downlink power control orbit/spectrum utilization efficiency.

  1. Installing the earth station of Ka-band satellite frequency in Malaysia: conceptual framework for site decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Reba, M. N. M.; Jaw, S. W.; Arsyad, A.; Ibrahim, M. A. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper developed a conceptual framework in determining the suitable location in installing the earth station for Ka-band satellite communication in Malaysia. This current evolution of high throughput satellites experienced major challenge due to Malaysian climate. Because Ka-band frequency is highly attenuated by the rainfall; it is an enormous challenge to define the most appropriate site for the static communication. Site diversity, a measure to anticipate this conflict by choosing less attenuated region and geographically change the transmission strategy on season basis require accurate spatio-temporal information on the geographical, environmental and hydro-climatology at local scale. Prior to that request, this study developed a conceptual framework to cater the needs. By using the digital spatial data, acquired from site measurement and remote sensing, the proposed framework applied a multiple criteria analysis to perform the tasks of site selection. With the advancement of high resolution remotely sensed data, site determination can be conducted as in Malaysia; accommodating a new, fast, and effective satellite communication. The output of this study is one of the pioneer contributions to create a high tech-society.

  2. STUDY ON POWER SPARE COEFFICIENT OF ELECTRICAL MOTOR IN LARGE PUMP STATION BASED ON RELIABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Baoyun; Huang Jiyan; Yuan Shouqi

    2004-01-01

    Characters of head of low head pump station and the pump shaft power are analyzed. Influence of each single factor on pump shaft power is expressed as change of specific shaft power (non-dimensional) and the probability density function is determined. Influences of multiple factors on pump shaft power are analyzed. Method of calculating none over-loaded probability of motor by integration by successive reductions is put forward and then relation between power spare coefficient and none over-loaded reliability of electric motor is established. Influences of all factors on pump shaft power being considered completely; power spare coefficients of motor are calculated in three kinds of heads (changing and unchanging), two kinds of dirty-out conditions. Electrical motor power spare coefficients should be chosen as 1.20~1.44, 1.11~1.19, 1.09~1.14 respectively when pump heads are 4, 7, 9.5 m. The results mean much to reasonable choose of electrical motors in large pump stations, increasing reliability of pump units and saving equipment investment.

  3. Implicit attitudes toward nuclear power and mobile phone base stations: support for the affect heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2006-08-01

    The implicit association test (IAT) measures automatic associations. In the present research, the IAT was adapted to measure implicit attitudes toward technological hazards. In Study 1, implicit and explicit attitudes toward nuclear power were examined. Implicit measures (i.e., the IAT) revealed negative attitudes toward nuclear power that were not detected by explicit measures (i.e., a questionnaire). In Study 2, implicit attitudes toward EMF (electro-magnetic field) hazards were examined. Results showed that cell phone base stations and power lines are judged to be similarly risky and, further, that base stations are more closely related to risk concepts than home appliances are. No differences between experts and lay people were observed. Results of the present studies are in line with the affect heuristic proposed by Slovic and colleagues. Affect seems to be an important factor in risk perception.

  4. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  5. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  6. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  7. Project risk control of underground engineering geological disaster in pumped-storage power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shaoji

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the construction of the pumped-storage power station (PSPS). In the excava- tion of underground power house, the principle of excavation in thin layer and support in time with real time monitoring are adopted. The excavation blasting parameters are adjusted timely. Through these, the excavation quality can be guaranteed, the surrounding rock can be prevented from being damaged and the deformation of power house side wall can be controlled. Five security defense lines have been adopted to solve anti-seepage and drainage in the major underground projects.

  8. Project risk control of underground engineering geological disaster in pumped-storage power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shaoji

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the construction of the pumped-storage power station (PSPS). In the excava-tion of underground power house,the principle of excavation in thin layer and support in time with real time monitoring are adopted. The excavation blasting parameters are adjusted timely. Through these,the excavation quality can be guaranteed,the surrounding rock can be prevented from being damaged and the deformation of power house side wall can be controlled. Five security defense lines have been adopted to solve anti-seepage and drainage in the major underground projects.

  9. MHD-steam thermal power plant electrical stations with zero stack emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghi, C.A.; Botti, M.; Ribani, P.L. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    In the present work a system study of a combined cycle MHD-steam thermal power plant electrical station with zero stack emission through recirculation of CO{sub 2}, is presented. The design of the MHD generator of the topper is done by means of a quasi-one-dimensional optimisation model. The thermodynamic of the combustion gas, typical of this cycle, is considered. The technology of the components is conventional. An overall efficiency larger than 41% for power plants with electrical power inputs above 600 MWe, are obtained.

  10. The European fossil-fuelled power station database used in the SEI CASM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, P. [comp.] [Stockholm Environment Inst. at York (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    The database contains details of power stations in Europe that burn fossil-fuels. All countries are covered from Ireland to the European region of Russia as far as the Urals. The following data are given for each station: Location (country and EMEP square), capacity (net MW{sub e} and boiler size), year of commissioning, and fuels burnt. A listing of the database is included in the report. The database is primarily used for estimation of emissions and abatement costs of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the SEI acid rain model CASM. 24 refs, tabs

  11. Proceedings of scientific-technical seminar: materials investigation for power stations and power grid; Seminarium naukowo-techniczne: Badania materialowe na potrzeby elektrowni i sieci elektroenergetycznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power stations as well as power grid. The diagnostic methods are also discussed. (author).

  12. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  13. 47 CFR 73.6012 - Protection of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of Class A TV, low power TV and TV... of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations. An application to change the facilities of an existing Class A TV station will not be accepted if it fails to protect other authorized Class A TV,...

  14. 76 FR 23846 - Virginia Electric Power Company, LLC, North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... licensee described elements of their fire protection program that provide their justification that the... source is effectively eliminated. In addition, guidance in the ``Station Lubrication Manual'' outlines... Lubrication Manual is procedurally controlled and requires authorization to be changed. With the exception...

  15. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Convergence of the Uncertainty Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Mattie, Patrick D.; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the convergence of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) probabilistic results of offsite consequences for the uncertainty analysis of the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The consequence metrics evaluated are individual latent-cancer fatality (LCF) risk and individual early fatality risk. Consequence results are presented as conditional risk (i.e., assuming the accident occurs, risk per event) to individuals of the public as a result of the accident. In order to verify convergence for this uncertainty analysis, as recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, a ‘high’ source term from the original population of Monte Carlo runs has been selected to be used for: (1) a study of the distribution of consequence results stemming solely from epistemic uncertainty in the MACCS2 parameters (i.e., separating the effect from the source term uncertainty), and (2) a comparison between Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) in order to validate the original results obtained with LHS. Three replicates (each using a different random seed) of size 1,000 each using LHS and another set of three replicates of size 1,000 using SRS are analyzed. The results show that the LCF risk results are well converged with either LHS or SRS sampling. The early fatality risk results are less well converged at radial distances beyond 2 miles, and this is expected due to the sparse data (predominance of “zero” results).

  16. Provision of Continuity in Power Supply of Wind Power Stations by Improvement of Methods for Control of Oil Transformer Serviceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Rolik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to reduction of time for restoration of a wind power station (WPS by development of a method and control means according to informative parameter. A high-voltage oil transformer has been selected as a control WPS object.  The paper shows that the most informative parameter determining continuity in WPS power supply is an over-heating temperature of oil transformer elements. A method and means for control of WPS oil transformer serviceability are proposed in the paper.

  17. Numerical analysis of transient pressure variation in the condenser of a nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinjun; Zhou, Zijie; Song, Zhao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Lu, Qiankui; Li, Jiafu [Dong Fang Turbine Co., Ltd, Deyang (China)

    2016-02-15

    To research the characteristics of the transient variation of pressure in a nuclear power station condenser under accident condition, a mathematical model was established which simulated the cycling cooling water, heat transfer and pressure in the condenser. The calculation program of transient variation characteristics was established in Fortran language. The pump's parameter, cooling line's organization, check valve's feature and the parameter of siphonic water-collecting well are involved in the cooling water flow's mathematical model. The initial conditions of control volume are determined by the steady state of the condenser. The transient characteristics of a 1000 MW nuclear power station's condenser and cooling water system were examined. The results show that at the condition of plant-power suspension of pump, the cooling water flow rate decreases rapidly and refluxes, then fluctuates to 0. The variation of heat transfer coefficient in the condenser has three stages: at start it decreases sharply, then increases and decreases, and keeps constant in the end. Under three conditions (design, water and summer), the condenser pressure goes up in fluctuation. The time intervals between condenser's pressure signals under three conditions are about 26.4 s, which can fulfill the requirement for safe operation of nuclear power station.

  18. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  19. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  20. Operation and maintenance of thermal power stations best practices and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    This book illustrates operation and maintenance practices/guidelines for economic generation and managing health of a thermal power generator beyond its regulatory life. The book provides knowledge for professionals managing power station operations, through its unique approach to chemical analysis of water, steam, oil etc. to identify malfunctioning/defects in equipment/systems much before the physical manifestation of the problem. The book also contains a detailed procedure for conducting performance evaluation tests on different equipment, and for analyzing test results for predicting maintenance requirements, which has lent a new dimension to power systems operation and maintenance practices. A number of real life case studies also enrich the book. This book will prove particularly useful to power systems operations professionals in the developing economies, and also to researchers and students involved in studying power systems operations and control. .

  1. Research on Application Performance of Vehicle-mounted Station of Satellite Mobile Communication%卫星移动通信车载站应用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋

    2012-01-01

    在对各类卫星移动通信系统性能分析比较的基础上,从系统造价和可实现程度的角度考虑,同步静止轨道(GEO)系统更适合于区域覆盖卫星移动通信系统,卫星移动通信车载站(简称动中通)是实现地面卫星移动通信系统的关键设备。给出了动中通系统设计中卫星转发器带宽占用率和功率占用率的计算,对动中通站型能力和天线口径的选取进行了分析和讨论,并结合相关计算给出了动中通站型和天线选取的建议。%Based on the system performance comparison among some kinds of satellite mobile communication systems and the consideration of the cost and the extent of realization,the GEO system is more propitious to regional satellite mobile communication system. Vehicle-mounted station of satellite mobile communication is the key device to realize land mobile satellite communication system. The calculation methods of occupancy rates of bandwidth and power of satellite transponder in mobile communication system design are described in this paper. How to choose the size of antenna and the type of the station is analyzed and discussed. Some suggestions are given for choosing antenna and type of the station.

  2. Solar power satellite rectenna design study: Directional receiving elements and parallel-series combining analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rectenna conversion efficiencies (RF to dc) approximating 85 percent were demonstrated on a small scale, clearly indicating the feasibility and potential of efficiency of microwave power to dc. The overall cost estimates of the solar power satellite indicate that the baseline rectenna subsystem will be between 25 to 40 percent of the system cost. The directional receiving elements and element extensions were studied, along with power combining evaluation and evaluation extensions.

  3. Statistical Design Model (SDM) of power supply and communication subsystem's Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshams, Mehran; Zabihian, Ehsan; Zabihian, Ahmadreza

    In this paper, based on the fact that in designing the energy providing and communication subsystems for satellites, most approaches and relations are empirical and statistical, and also, considering the aerospace sciences and its relation with other engineering fields such as electrical engineering to be young, these are no analytic or one hundred percent proven empirical relations in many fields. Therefore, we consider the statistical design of this subsystem. The presented approach in this paper is entirely innovative and all parts of the energy providing and communication subsystems for the satellite are specified. In codifying this approach, the data of 602 satellites and some software programs such as SPSS have been used. In this approach, after proposing the design procedure, the total needed power for the satellite, the mass of the energy providing and communication subsystems , communication subsystem needed power, working band, type of antenna, number of transponders the material of solar array and finally the placement of these arrays on the satellite are designed. All these parts are designed based on the mission of the satellite and its weight class. This procedure increases the performance rate, avoids wasting energy, and reduces the costs. Keywords: database, Statistical model, the design procedure, power supply subsystem, communication subsystem

  4. A technique for measurement of earth station antenna G/T by radio stars and Applications Technology Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to accurately measure the G/T of a small aperture antenna using geostationary satellites and the well established radio star method. A large aperture antenna having the capability of accurately measuring its G/T by using a radio star of known power density is used to obtain an accurate G/T to use as a reference. The CNR of both the large and small aperture antennas are then measured using an Applications Technology Satellite (ATS). After normalizing the two C/N ratios to the large antenna system noise temperature the G/T or the gain G of the small aperture antenna can then be determined.

  5. Narrow multibeam satellite ground station antenna employing a linear array with a geosynchronous arc coverage of 60 deg. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, N.; Gans, M. J.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of using an appropriately squinted linear scan in narrow multibeam satellite ground station antennas employing phased arrays is demonstrated. This linear scan has the potential of reducing the complexity of a narrow-beam planar array to that of a linear array. Calculations for such antennas placed at cities throughout the U.S. show that the peak beam pointing error in covering the 70 deg W to 130 deg W geosynchronous equatorial arc (GEA) is under 5/1000th of a degree. Communication at a 300 MBd rate in the 12/14 GHz band can be made feasible, for a grating lobe-free scan and 0.5 deg beamwidth antenna, by using a relatively simple time equalization.

  6. Role of Indian remote sensing imaging satellites for the Antarctic monitoring and mapping: a case study around Indian Antarctic research stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprasad, P.; Mehra, Raghav; Chawla, Saket; Rajak, D. Ram; Oza, Sandip R.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic research station's existence largely depend on the supply of fuel, food and other commodities through Antarctic Scientific Expedition using ship voyage. Safer Ship Navigation demands high resolution satellite monitoring of the ice conditions which varies from 30 km to 200 km from the Antarctic coast of Research stations. During the last couple of years Indian Satellites play a major role in safer ship navigation in sea ice regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Specifically Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctica (ISEA) through National Centre for Antarctic and Oceanic Research (NCAOR) is one of the beneficiaries for safer ship navigation using information derived from Indian Satellite data. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (SAC-ISRO) is providing Sea Ice Advisories for the safer optimum entry and exit for the expedition ship at two of the Research stations Bharati and Maitri. Two of the Indian Satellites namely Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) and ResourceSAT-2 (RS-2) are the two major workhorses of ISRO for monitoring and mapping of the Antarctic terrain. The present study demonstrate the utilisation potential of these satellite images for various Polar Science Applications. Mosaic of the Antarctic Terrain was generated from RISAT-1 CRS data. The preliminary results of the mosaic from CRS- circular polarisation data is presented. Demonstration of the study is extended for other applications such as change detection studies, safer ship navigation and extreme events of Antarctica. The use of multi resolution multi sensor data is also shown in the study.

  7. Thermal-hydraulic tests of a recirculation cooling installation for the Rostov nuclear power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunov, B. F.; Balashov, V. A.; Il'in, V. A.; Krayushnikov, V. V.; Lychakov, V. D.; Meshalkin, V. V.; Ustinov, A. N.; Shcheglov, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Results obtained from thermal-hydraulic tests of the recirculation cooling installation used as part of the air cooling system under the containments of the Rostov nuclear power station Units 3 and 4 are presented. The operating modes of the installation during normal operation (air cooling on the surface of finned tubes), under the conditions of anticipated operational occurrences (air cooling and steam condensation from a steam-air mixture), and during an accident (condensation of pure steam) are considered. Agreement is obtained between the results of tests and calculations carried out according to the recommendations given in the relevant regulatory documents. A procedure of carrying out thermal calculation for the case of steam condensation from a steam-air mixture on the surface of fins is proposed. The possibility of efficient use of the recirculation cooling installation in the system for reducing emergency pressure under the containment of a nuclear power station is demonstrated.

  8. Solar-assisted MED treatment of Eskom power station waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Rogers, David E. C.; Gericke, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    The comparative benefits of multi-effect distillation (MED) used in conjunction with Nano Filtration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) are determined for waste water minimization for inland coal fired power stations for Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge (ZLED). A sequence of technologies is proposed to achieve maximal water recovery and brine concentration: NF - physico-chemical treatment - MED - EFC. The possibility of extending the concentration of RO reject arising from minewater treatment at the Lethabo power station with MED alone is evaluated with mineral formation modelling using the thermochemical modelling software Phreeq-C. It is shown that pretreatment is essential to extend the amount of water that can be recovered, and this can be beneficially supported by NF.

  9. Magnetic sensing for microstructural assessment of power station steels: Differential permeability and magnetic hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, N.; Wilson, J. W.; Yin, W.; Liu, J.; Davis, C. L.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Failure of power station steel components can have severe economic impacts and also present significant risks to life and the environment. Currently components are inspected during costly shut-downs as no in-situ technique exists to monitor changes in microstructure of in-service steel components. Electromagnetic inspection has the potential to provide information on microstructure changes in power station steels in-situ. In this paper, tests have been carried out on pipe and tube samples in different microstructural conditions, using a lab-based closed magnetic circuit and impedance measurement systems. EM properties have been identified with correlations to material properties, which can quantify degradation in-situ and at elevated temperatures.

  10. Cooling tower restoration in the joint nuclear power station Neckar 1; Kuehlturmsanierung im Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Braeuning, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Dekker, G. [Marley Kuehlturm GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Bereich Vertrieb neuer Kuhlturm-Anlagen

    1996-11-01

    Since the starting operation of the Power Station GKN I (Joint Nuclear Power Station Neckar I) in the year 1976, the cell cooler of the plant was, except for those cases in which continuous-flow cooling was possible, continually in operation. Aim of the restoration, after an operational time of 17 years, is a further constructional and thermal service life of about 15 to 20 years. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit der Inbetriebnahme des Kraftwerkes GKN I im Jahr 1976 war der Zellenkuehler der Anlage bis auf die Faelle, in denen Durchlaufkuehlung moeglich war, ununterbrochen in Betrieb. Ziel der Sanierung nach ueber 17jaehriger Betriebszeit ist eine weitere bauliche und thermische Nutzungsdauer von etwa 15 bis 20 Jahren. (orig.)

  11. Combined Base Station Association and Power Control in Multi-channel Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandramani; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    A combined base station association and power control problem is studied for the uplink of multichannel multicell cellular networks, in which each channel is used by exactly one cell (i.e., base station). A distributed association and power update algorithm is proposed and shown to converge to a Nash equilibrium of a noncooperative game. We consider network models with discrete mobiles (yielding an atomic congestion game), as well as a continuum of mobiles (yielding a population game). We find that the equilibria need not be Pareto efficient, nor need they be system optimal. To address the lack of system optimality, we propose pricing mechanisms. It is shown that these mechanisms can be implemented in a distributed fashion.

  12. Functions and concept of the process information system for a power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, W. [E.ON Energie AG, Neue Technologien, Muenchen (Germany). Regenerative Energieumwandlung

    2001-07-01

    Methods of archiving, evaluation and compression in connection with measured values of the process information system is a link between control system and office application. The applications and tasks, functions and concept of the process information system of a power station will be explained. Practical examples of the introduction of the process information system for a power station of E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, real applications in the field of process optimization, process analysis and reporting will demonstrate the system. (orig.) [German] Durch Archivierung, Auswertung und Komprimierung von Messwerten schafft das Prozessinformationssystem ein Bindeglied zwischen Leittechnik auf der einen und Office-Anwendungen auf der anderen Seite, Ausgehend von Anwendungen und Aufgaben werden Funktionen und Konzept fuer das Prozessinformationssystem in einem Kraftwerk dargestellt. Anhand von praktischen Beispielen aus der Einfuehrung eines Prozessinformationssystems in einem Kraftwerk der E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH werden konkrete Anwendungen aus dem Bereich von Prozessoptimierung, Prozessanalyse und Berichtswesen mit einem Prozessinformationssystem erlaeutert. (orig.)

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Marey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR and the thermal-infrared (TIR radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT are examined for the 12 year period from 2002–2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System aircraft CO profiles (April 2009–December 2011 are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO

  16. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  17. 280 burners reduce NOx emissions and improve boiler performance at Nanticoke power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burpee, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Baehner, J. [Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Describes work undertaken at the Nanticoke coal-fired power station (Canada), to convert the existing burners to low NO{sub x} burners to meet NO{sub x} reduction requirements and improve boiler performance. The burners on four units have already been modified and conversion work is been carried out on three other units. 280 modified coal burners are expected to be in operation by the end of 1999. 17 figs.

  18. Augmentation of coal handling plant for Nasik Thermal Power Station, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakkar, M.C.; Bandhu, K.K.; Vyas, M.R.

    1989-08-01

    The augmentation of the coal handling plant at Nasik Thermal Power Station, India, was necessary, because the volume of coal to be handled increased due to the poor coal quality. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board therefore decided to install an additional conveying system consisting of a rotary-type wagon tippler (car dumper), a three-stage crushing plant, stacking and reclaiming equipment, and a motorized tripper bunkering system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Toess weir with small power station Pfungen; Toesswehr mit Kleinkraftwerk Pfungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerri, R.W. [Amt fuer Gewaesserschutz und Wasserbau, Abt. Gewaesserkorrektionen, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Near Pfungen on the River Toess the Canton of Zurich replaced a dilapidated weir and utilises the available falling gradient with a small power station. Besides the production of renewable energy the assistance of a fish ladder has been made available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei Pfungen an der Toess ersetzte der Kanton Zuerich ein baufaelliges Wehr und nutzt das vorhandene Gefaelle mit einem Kleinkraftwerk. Neben der Erzeugung von erneuerbarer Energie kann nun mit Hilfe einer Treppe auch der Fischaufstieg gewaehrleistet werden. (orig.)

  20. [The evaluation of hazardous cinder wastes in Ulan Ude thermal power stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenkova, R V; Dik, E P; Soboleva, A N; Lutsenko, L A

    2000-01-01

    Considering possibility of waste materials use in building materials production, the authors evaluated toxicity of ash and clinker waste of electric power stations in Ulan-Ude city. The ash dust and its tincture in water, when injected even in maximal amounts, induced no intoxication symptoms and death in experimental animals, therefore bear no toxicity. Using toxicity indexes to compare ash and clinker waste dust with nontoxic dust proved the studied waste to be nontoxic and acceptable for use in building industry.

  1. [Vegetation distribution in coal cinder yard of Wuhu thermal power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dengyi

    2002-12-01

    There are 30 species of natural colonized plants in the coal cinder yard of Wuhu thermal power station, and they are subordinate to 14 families and 29 genera. The main families are Compositae (7 species), Gramineae (6 species) and Leguminesae, among which, 18 species are annual plant, 9 species are perennial plant, and 2 species are woody plants. The chief factors limiting the vegetation distribution are extreme infertility and high concentration of heavy metals.

  2. Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, N., E-mail: Noushin.Karimian@Manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Wilson, J.W.; Peyton, A.J.; Yin, W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Liu, J.; Davis, C.L. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and after service exposure. In order to obtain the magnetic properties the B–H curves of these samples were measured. Cylindrical air-cored and printed circuit board (PCB) coil integrated sensors were used to measure the incremental permeability. Analytical and numerical methods (Finite Elements Methods) were employed to calculate the sensor response of these samples. The electromagnetic properties of the different steels were inferred by fitting the finite element models to the measured results. In addition, sensitivity and error analysis were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the method. - Highlights: • We analysed the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels. • The B–H curves, differential and incremental permeability were measured. • We established correlations between EM properties and microstructure changes. • This technique will be used to develop a tool for in-situ inspection of steels.

  3. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  4. Life is Short: The Impact of Power States on Base Station Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Chiaraviglio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of power state transitions on the lifetime of base stations (BSs in mobile networks. In particular, we propose a model to estimate the lifetime decrease/increase as a consequence of the application of power state changes. The model takes into account both hardware (HW parameters, which depend on the materials used to build the device, and power state parameters, that instead depend on how and when power state transitions take place. More in depth, we consider the impact of different power states when a BS is active, and one sleep mode state when a BS is powered off. When a BS reduces the power consumption, its lifetime tends to increase. However, when a BS changes the power state, its lifetime tends to be decreased. Thus, there is a tradeoff between these two effects. Our results, obtained over universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS and long term evolution (LTE case studies, indicate the need of a careful management of the power state transitions in order to not deteriorate the BS lifetime, and consequently to not increase the associated reparation/replacement costs.

  5. Whistler-triggered VLF noise bursts observed on the DE-1 satellite and simultaneously at Antarctic ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. J.; Carpenter, D. L.; Inan, U. S.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of whistler-triggered very low-frequency noise bursts on the ground at Anarctic stations, Halley and Siple, and on the high-altitude satellite DE-1 are reported. Results of a case study from June 25, 1982 in which the satellite data were recorded near 25 deg south magnetic latitude and the L = 4.7 magnetic shell, are presented. Analysis indicates that the chorus bursts that are triggered in whistler ducts travel downwards in the ducts to low altitudes in the ionosphere, and that propagation to DE-1 is by upward reflection into a nonducted mode. A means of estimating the propagation characteristics of the wave bursts is provided by comparisons of nonducted signals from the Siple transmitter and discrete periodic emissions. The ducted-nonducted mode conversion process is a mechanism for the large-scale spreading into the magnetosphere of coherent whistler-mode wave energy which is generated, amplified, or triggered in small localized ducts. The DE-1 data show that a strong interaction exists between whistler-triggered noise bursts and prevailing hiss levels.

  6. Feasibility Study of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In China, the power sector is currently the largest carbon emitter and the transportation sector is the fastest-growing carbon emitter. This paper proposes a model of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles to mitigate problems encountered in China’s renewable energy utilization processes and to cope with the increasing power demand by electric vehicles for the near future. This study applies the proposed model to Shenzhen City to verify its technical and economic feasibility. Modeling results showed that the total net present value of a photovoltaic power charging station that meets the daily electricity demand of 4500 kWh is $3,579,236 and that the cost of energy of the combined energy system is $0.098/kWh. In addition, the photovoltaic powered electric vehicle model has pollutant reduction potentials of 99.8%, 99.7% and 100% for carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, respectively, compared with a traditional gasoline-fueled car. Sensitivity analysis results indicated that interest rate has a relatively strong influence on COE (Cost of Energy. An increase in the interest rate from 0% to 6% increases COE from $0.027/kWh to $0.097/kWh. This analysis also suggests that carbon pricing promotes renewable energy only when the price of carbon is above $20/t.

  7. Computerized training program usage at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzic, D.H.; Reed, W.H.; Lawton, R.K.; Fluehr, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The increased US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) interest in the nuclear power industry training programs resulted in the Omaha Public Power District staff at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station investigating the potential for computerizing their recently accredited training records, student training requirements, and the process of determining student certification status. Additional areas that were desirable were a computerized question data bank with random test generation, maintaining history of question usage, and tracking of the job task analysis process and course objectives. SCI Software's online personnel training information management system (OPTIM) was selected, subsequent to a bid evaluation, to provide these features while operating on the existing corporate IBM mainframe.

  8. Development of low head Kaplan turbine for power station rehabilitation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. M.; Ohtake, N.; Kurosawa, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Nishi, H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the latest Kaplan turbine rehabilitation project for Funagira Power Station in Japan completed by J-POWER Group in collaboration with Toshiba Corporation. Area of rehabilitation was restricted to guide vane and runner. The main goal of the rehabilitation project was to expand the operating range of the existing turbine in terms of discharge and power with high operational stability, low noise as well as high cavitation performance. Computational Fluids Dynamics and model test were used to optimize the shape of guide vane and runner in development stage. Finally, field tests and runner inspection were carried out to confirm the performance of the new turbine. It was found that the new turbine has excellent performance in efficiency, power output, operational stability compared with existing turbine. Moreover, no sign of cavitation on the runner blade surface was observed after 5078 hours of operation near 100% load.

  9. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Robinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.

  10. Stability of large DC power systems using switching converters, with application to the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, B.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As space direct current (dc) power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When designing a large dc system using power converters of this type, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. In the design of the electric power system (EPS) of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractor team led by Boeing Defense & Space Group has placed a great deal of emphasis on designing for system and load stability. To achieve this goal, the team has expended considerable effort deriving a dear concept on defining system stability in both a general sense and specifically with respect to the space station. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability, such as high power, complex sources and undefined loads. To complicate these issues, source and load components have been designed in parallel by three major subcontractors (Boeing, Rocketdyne, and McDonnell Douglas) with interfaces to both sources and loads being designed in different countries (Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe, etc.). These issues, coupled with the program goal of limiting costs, have proven a significant challenge to the program. As a result, the program has derived an impedance specification approach for system stability. This approach is based on the significant relationship between source and load impedances and the effect of this relationship on system stability. This approach is limited in its applicability by the theoretical and practical limits on component designs as presented by each system segment. As a result, the overall approach to system stability implemented by the ISS program consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and hardware testing. Following this approach, the ISS program plans to begin

  11. Simulations of thermal-hydraulic processes in heat exchangers- station of the cogeneration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studovic, M.; Stevanovic, V.; Ilic, M.; Nedeljkovic, S. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Belgrade (Croatia)

    1995-12-31

    Design of the long district heating system to Belgrade (base load 580 MJ/s) from Thermal Power Station `Nikola Tesla A`, 30 km southwest from the present gas/oil burning boilers in New Belgrade, is being conducted. The mathematical model and computer code named TRP are developed for the prediction of the design basis parameters of heat exchangers station, as well as for selection of protection devices and formulation of operating procedures. Numerical simulations of heat exchangers station are performed for various transient conditions: up-set and abnormal. Physical model of multi-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger in the station represented is by unique steam volume, and with space discretised nodes both for water volume and tube walls. Heat transfer regimes on steam and water side, as well as hydraulic calculation were performed in accordance with TEMA standards for transient conditions on both sides, and for each node on water side. Mathematical model is based on balance equations: mass and energy for lumped parameters on steam side, and energy balances for tube walls and water in each node. Water mass balance is taken as boundary/initial condition or as specified control function. The physical model is proposed for (s) heat exchangers in the station and (n) water and wall volumes. Therefore, the mathematical model consists of 2ns+2, non-linear differential equations, including equations of state for water, steam and tube material, and constitutive equations for heat transfer on steam and water side, solved by the Runge-Kutt method. Five scenarios of heat exchangers station behavior have been simulated with the TRP code and obtained results are presented. (author)

  12. Automatic phase control in solar power satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.

    1978-01-01

    Various approaches to the problem of generating, maintaining and distributing a coherent, reference phase signal over a large area are suggested, mathematically modeled and analyzed with respect to their ability to minimize: phase build-up, beam diffusion and beam steering phase jitter, cable length, and maximize power transfer efficiency. In addition, phase control configurations are suggested which alleviate the need for layout symmetry.

  13. Global manifestations of a substorm onset observed by a multi-satellite and ground station network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With a favorable constellation of spacecraft and ground stations, a study is made on the global manifestations of a substorm onset. The onset occurred simultaneously and conjugately in both hemispheres, confirmed by observations of the auroral breakup from IMAGE FUV-WIC and a sudden intensification of a westward electrojet from ground-based magnetometers. Concurrently with the onset, field-aligned and Hall currents in the auroral ionosphere are observed by CHAMP, which are consistent with the signature of a Harang discontinuity. Immediately after the onset a magnetic field dipolarization is clearly observed by Double Star TC-1, located near the central magnetotail and subsequently, by the Cluster quartet. The observations can be explained by a dawnward propagation of the substorm current wedge at a speed of about 300 km/s.

  14. Analysis of the Use of Wind Energy to Supplement the Power Needs at McMurdo Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Robichaud, R.; McLain, K.

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes an analysis of the inclusion of wind-driven power generation technology into the existing diesel power plants at two U.S. Antarctic research stations, McMurdo and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Staff at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the analysis. Raytheon Polar Services, which currently holds the private sector support contract for the two research stations, was a major contributor to this report. To conduct the analysis, available data were obtained on the wind resources, power plant conditions, load, and component cost. Whenever possible, we validated the information. We then used NREL's Hybrid2 power system modeling software to analyze the potential and cost of using wind turbine generators at the two aforementioned facilities. Unfortunately, the power systems and energy allocations at McMurdo and South Pole Station are being redeveloped, so it is not possible to validate future fuel use. This report is an initial assessment of the potential use of wind energy and should be followed by further, more detailed analysis if this option is to be considered further.

  15. The potential impact of new power system technology on the design of a manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.; Schwartz, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Larger, more complex spacecraft of the future such as a manned Space Station will require electric power systems of 100 kW and more, orders of magnitude greater than the present state of the art. Power systems at this level will have a significant impact on the spacecraft design. Historically, long-lived spacecraft have relied on silicon solar cell arrays, a nickel-cadmium storage battery and operation at 28 V dc. These technologies lead to large array areas and heavy batteries for a Space Station application. This, in turn, presents orbit altitude maintenance, attitude control, energy management and launch weight and volume constraints. Size (area) and weight of such a power system can be reduced if new higher efficiency conversion and lighter weight storage technologies are used. Several promising technology options including concentrator solar photovoltaic arrays, solar thermal dynamic and ultimately nuclear dynamic systems to reduce area are discussed. Also, higher energy storage systems such as nickel-hydrogen and the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) and higher voltage power distribution which add system flexibility, simplicity and reduce weight are examined. Emphasis placed on the attributes and development status of emerging technologies that are sufficiently developed so that they could be available for flight use in the early to mid 1990's.

  16. Time-transfer experiments between satellite laser ranging ground stations via one-way laser ranging to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Skillman, D. R.; Mcgarry, J.; Hoffman, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has long been used to measure the distance from a ground station to an Earth-orbiting satellite in order to determine the spacecraft position in orbit, and to conduct other geodetic measurements such as plate motions. This technique can also be used to transfer time between the station and satellite, and between remote SLR sites, as recently demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, where two-way and one-way measurements were obtained at the same time. Here we report a new technique to transfer time between distant SLR stations via simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft at lunar distance. The major objectives are to establish accurate ground station times and to improve LRO orbit determination via these measurements. The results of these simultaneous LR measurements are used to compare the SLR station times or transfer time from one to the other using times-of-flight estimated from conventional radio frequency tracking of LRO. The accuracy of the time transfer depends only on the difference of the times-of-flight from each ground station to the spacecraft, and is expected to be at sub-nano second level. The technique has been validated by both a ground-based experiment and an experiment that utilized LRO. Here we present the results to show that sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy are achievable. Both experiments were carried out between the primary LRO-LR station, The Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station, and its nearby station, Mobile Laser System (MOBLAS-7), both at Greenbelt, Maryland. The laser transmit time from both stations were recorded by the same event timer referenced to a Hydrogen maser. The results have been compared to data from a common All

  17. Comparison and evaluation of nuclear power plant options for geosynchronous power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of eleven types of nuclear fission reactors in combination with five potential energy conversion systems for use in geosynchronous power plants is evaluated. Gas turbine, potassium Rankine liquid metal MHD, and thermionic energy conversion systems are considered. The existing technology of reactors in near-term, intermediate-term, and long-term classes is discussed, together with modifications for use in large-scale power production in space. Unless the temperature is high enough for MHD, reactors which heat gases are generally more suitable for use with gas turbines. Those which heat liquid metals will be more useful for potassium Rankine or liquid metal MHD conversion systems.

  18. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  19. Program for the thermal design and simulation of the operation of a steam condenser for thermal and nuclear power stations and its application to the condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Bartual, R.; Pallares Huici, E.

    A program is being developed for an IBM-PC or AT computer based on a calculation system which synthesises the heat transfer process which takes place in the steam condensors at conventional thermal power stations. The program incorporates a useful tool capable of representing characteristic operating curves for a given condensor. Describes its application to the steam condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Laser power beaming to extend lives of GSO NiCd satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    It is proposed that a ground-based laser can beam power to commercial communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit and reduce battery depth-of-discharge during eclipses. Two laser system designs are presented which have the capability of reducing battery discharge by 100%. Both utilize a steerable beam director, with a mirror diameter of 4 meters in one case and 8 meters in the other. Both also use an adaptive optics unit within the beam train to provide real-time corrections for wavefront distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. The required system power output is in the range of 100 to 200 kW for a transmitted wavelength just under 900 nm. Laser power beaming can nearly double the remaining lifetime of a satellite that uses NiCd batteries. However, by the time such lasers become available, nearly all NiCd satellites will be replaced by NiH{sub 2} satellites, which stand to benefit much less from power beaming.

  1. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: atmospheric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.; Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.L.

    1980-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a preliminary, three-year program to investigate the impacts of the construction and operation of a satellite power system, of unprecedented scale. The Department of Energy's program, titled The Concept Development and Evaluation Program, focused its investigations on a Reference System description that calls for the use of either silicon (Si) or gallium aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) photovoltaic cells on 60 satellites to be constructed in GEO over a 30-yr period. Rectennas would be constructed on the ground to receive microwave energy from the satellites. Each satellite-rectenna pair is designed to produce 5 GW of power on an essentially continuous basis for use as a baseload power source for an electric power distribution system. The environmental assessment part of the program was divided into five interdependent task areas. The present document constitutes the final technical report on one of the five task areas, the Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects, and as such presents an in-depth summary of work performed during the assessment program. The issues associated with SPS activities in the troposphere are examined. These include tropospheric weather modification related to rectenna operations and rocket launches, and air quality impacts related to rocketlaunch ground clouds. Then progressing upward through the various levels of the atmosphere, the principal middle and upper atmospheric effects associated with rocket effluents are analyzed. Finally, all of the potential SPS atmospheric effects are summarized.

  2. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  3. Research on H2 speed governor for diesel engine of marine power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Man-lei

    2007-01-01

    The frequency stability of a marine power system is determined by the dynamic characteristic of the diesel engine speed regulation system in a marine power station. In order to reduce the effect of load disturbances and improve the dynamic precision of a diesel engine speed governor, a controller was designed for a diesel engine speed regulation system using H2 control theory. This transforms the specifications of the system into a standard H2 control problem. Firstly, the mathematical model of a diesel engine speed regulation system using an H2 speed governor is presented. To counter external disturbances and model uncertainty, the design of an H2 speed governor rests on the problem of mixed sensitivity. Computer simulation verified that the H2 speed governor improves the dynamic precision of a system and the ability to adapt to load disturbances, thus enhancing the frequency stability of marine power systems.

  4. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra, M. K.; Hardy, G. S.; Hashimoto, P. S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1987-03-01

    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  5. In-orbit assembly mission for the Space Solar Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, ZhengAi; Hou, Xinbin; Zhang, Xinghua; Zhou, Lu; Guo, Jifeng; Song, Chunlin

    2016-12-01

    The Space Solar Power Station (SSPS) is a large spacecraft that utilizes solar power in space to supply power to an electric grid on Earth. A large symmetrical integrated concept has been proposed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). Considering its large scale, the SSPS requires a modular design and unitized general interfaces that would be assembled in orbit. Facilities system supporting assembly procedures, which include a Reusable Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, orbital transfer and space robots, is introduced. An integrated assembly scheme utilizing space robots to realize this platform SSPS concept is presented. This paper tried to give a preliminary discussion about the minimized time and energy cost of the assembly mission under best sequence and route This optimized assembly mission planning allows the SSPS to be built in orbit rapidly, effectively and reliably.

  6. K-band high power latching switch. [communication satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, M. J.; Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A 19 GHz waveguide latching switch with a bandwidth of 1400 MHz and an exceptionally low insertion loss of 0.25 dB was demonstrated. The RF and driver ferrites are separate structures and can be optimized individually. This analysis for each structure is separately detailed. Basically, the RF section features a dual turnstile junction. The circulator consists of a dielectric tube which contains two ferrite rods, and a dielectric spacer separating the ferrite parts along the center of symmetry of the waveguide to form two turnstiles. This subassembly is indexed and locked in the center of symmetry of a uniform junction of three waveguides by the metallic transformers installed in the top and bottom walls of the housing. The switching junction and its actuating circuitry met all RF performance objectives and all shock and vibration requirements with no physical damage or performance degradation. It exceeds thermal requirements by operating over a 100 C temperature range (-44 C to +56 C) and has a high power handling capability allowing up to 100 W of CW input power.

  7. Geostatistical improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information using satellite land surface and weather stations data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; Vianello, Rubens Leite; Sediyama, Gilberto C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo Silva; de Sá Junior, Arionaldo

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to use the simple cokriging methodology to characterize the spatial variability of Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration methods based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) global evapotranspiration products and high-resolution surfaces of WordClim temperature and precipitation data. The climatic element data referred to 39 National Institute of Meteorology climatic stations located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and surrounding states. The use of geostatistics and simple cokriging technique enabled the characterization of the spatial variability of the evapotranspiration providing uncertainty information on the spatial prediction pattern. Evapotranspiration and precipitation surfaces were implemented for the climatic classification in Minas Gerais. Multivariate geostatistical determined improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information. The regions in the south of Minas Gerais derived from the moisture index estimated with the MODIS evapotranspiration (2000-2010), presented divergence of humid conditions when compared to the moisture index derived from the simple kriged and cokriged evapotranspiration (1961-1990), indicating climate change in this region. There was stronger pattern of crossed covariance between evapotranspiration and precipitation rather than temperature, indicating that trends in precipitation could be one of the main external drivers of the evapotranspiration in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  8. Year Round Operation of Autonomous, Low Power Geophysical Stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; White, S.; Bonnett, B.; Parker, T.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Year round operation of autonomous, low power geophysical stations in Antarctica presents both technical and logistical challenges. Prior to 2005, few if any autonomous seismic or GPS stations operated continuously throughout the austral winter. There are two basic environmental challenges in Antarctica beyond the logistical challenge: the margins with relatively mild temperatures but extreme winds and the Polar Plateau with extreme temperatures but relatively little wind. Large caches of lead-acid batteries can operate stations on the Antarctic margins where temperatures are relatively high, but are logistically expensive and will not survive the extreme temperatures of the Polar Plateau. Primary lithium thionyl chloride batteries have been proven to be successful and economical for use in the extreme plateau environment. These technical and logistical challenges were the focus of an IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration to design power and communications for a < 5W system capable of continuous operation without intervention for two years. This collaboration has resulted in the successful operation of close to 100 GPS and seismic stations on several IPY projects with better than 80% data return. Our systems were designed to challenging logistical constrains for increased efficiency in polar operations. These year-round systems can now be deployed in a single twin otter flight. The IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration has resulted in deployable systems backed by facilities with proven track records of longevity of technical field support. Our expertise and sustained engineering has resulted in a robust community product. We have significantly lowered the barriers of entry to scientists who desire year-round autonomous data collection in the Polar regions. A transparent development process with broad community support and input has resulted in a new generation of GPS and seismic systems fielded on several major IPY projects. The challenge now is how to keep the development

  9. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Published in 1992, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, County of Lexington.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  10. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 13. For Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during June at the intermediate photovoltaic project at Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  11. 78 FR 11904 - Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for license transfer; opportunity to...

  12. 75 FR 7628 - Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a... determination that the amendment request involves no significant hazards consideration. Under the...

  13. Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.

    2016-01-01

    A set of deep charging tests has been carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. The samples, which included solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, were placed in passive and active (powered) circuit configurations and exposed to electron radiation. The energy of the electron radiation was chosen to deeply penetrate insulating (dielectric) materials on each sample. Each circuit configuration was monitored to determine if potentially damaging electrostatic discharge events (arcs) were developed on the coupon as a result of deep charging. The motivation for the test, along with charging levels, experimental setup, sample details, and results will be discussed.

  14. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.

  15. Methane Emissions from Permafrost Regions using Low-Power Eddy Covariance Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G.; Sturtevant, C.; Schreiber, P.; Peltola, O.; Zulueta, R.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Vesala, T.; McDermitt, D.; Oechel, W.

    2012-04-01

    result, spatial coverage of eddy covariance methane flux measurements remains limited. Remote permafrost wetlands of Arctic tundra, northern boreal peatlands of Canada and Siberia, and other highly methanogenic ecosystems have few eddy covariance methane measurement stations. Those existing are often located near grid power sources and roads rather than in the middle of the methane-producing ecosystem, while those that are placed appropriately may require extraordinary efforts to build and maintain them, with large investments into man-power and infrastructure. Alternatively, open-path approach allows methane flux measurements at ambient pressure without the need for a pump. As a result, the measurements can be done with very low-power (e.g. 5-10 Watts), light (5 .2 kg) instruments permitting solar- and wind- powered remote deployments in hard-to-reach sites from permanent, portable or mobile stations, and cost-effective additions of a methane measurement to the present array of CO2 and H2O measurements. The low-power operation and light weight of open-path eddy covariance stations is important for a number of ecosystems (rice fields, landfills, wetlands, cattle yards), but it is especially important for permafrost regions where grid power and access roads are generally not available, and the logistics of running the experiments are particularly expensive. Emerging research on methane flux measurements using low-power stations equipped with LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer (LI-COR Biosciences) are presented from several permafrost ecosystems with contrasting setups, and weather conditions. Principles of operation, station characteristics and requirements are also discussed.

  16. Reliability measurement for mixed mode failures of 33/11 kilovolt electric power distribution stations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M Alwan

    Full Text Available The reliability of the electrical distribution system is a contemporary research field due to diverse applications of electricity in everyday life and diverse industries. However a few research papers exist in literature. This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the reliability of 33/11 Kilovolt high-power stations based on average time between failures. The objective of this paper is to find the optimal fit for the failure data via time between failures. We determine the parameter estimation for all components of the station. We also estimate the reliability value of each component and the reliability value of the system as a whole. The best fitting distribution for the time between failures is a three parameter Dagum distribution with a scale parameter [Formula: see text] and shape parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Our analysis reveals that the reliability value decreased by 38.2% in each 30 days. We believe that the current paper is the first to address this issue and its analysis. Thus, the results obtained in this research reflect its originality. We also suggest the practicality of using these results for power systems for both the maintenance of power systems models and preventive maintenance models.

  17. Morbidity Profile of Employees Working in a Thermal Power Station Parali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U G Kawalkar; V A Kakrani; A S Nagaonkar; V L Vedpathak; P L Dahire; P G Kogade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health is multi factorial. An individual’s biological makeup influences health through interaction with social and physical environments as well as behavior. In Thermal power station different groups of employees are exposed to different working conditions and environmental factors at their work place; so an attempt has been made to conduct a study on the morbid conditions in employees of Thermal power station. Material and Method: Cross- sectional descriptive study was done. Total 400 employees were studied. History taking included personal and socio-demographic details occupational history, presenting complaints, past history, family history and history of accidents. Interview was followed by thorough clinical examination. Result: Majority of employees worked in Coal Handling Plant 90(22.5%. Respiratory system morbidities were maximum i.e. chronic bronchitis in 53 (13.25% study subjects. Digestive system morbidities were observed in the form of acid peptic disease in 39 (9.75% employees. Morbidities of circulatory system were hypertension was diagnosed in 55 (13.75% study subjects. Under musculoskeletal system, common morbidities present were back pain i.e. in 22 (5.50%, followed by arthritis in 19 (4.75%. Respiratory morbidity viz. chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma was most common morbidity. Conclusion: For employee working in a power plant, it is highly advised that they must have regular health checkups.

  18. Alphabus Solar Array- Versatile and Powerful Solar Arrays for Tomorrow's Commercial Telecom Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, T.; Oxynos, C.; Greff, P.; Gerlach, L.

    2008-09-01

    After the successful series of Eurostar 3000 and Spacebus 4000 satellites and due to the demand of satellite operators for even larger and more powerful satellites, ESA decided to co-fund the development of a new satellite platform which covers the market segment beyond the upper limits of both satellite families.The new satellite bus family Alphabus is developed in the frame of ARTES 8 project by a joint project team of ASTRIUM and TAS, whereas the solar array is developed by ASTRIUM GmbH.The main approaches in this design phase for the Alphabus solar array were to find a standardized and scaleable design to production and to use qualification heritage from former projects, especially Eurostar 3000, as far as possible. The main challenges for the solar array design and test philosophy were the usage of lateral deployment and related sequential deployment and the bus voltage of 102,5V and related ESD precautions.This paper provides an overview of the different configurations, their main design features and performance parameters. In addition it summarizes the development and verification approach and shows the actual qualification status.

  19. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  20. Semi-quantitative characterisation of ambient ultrafine aerosols resulting from emissions of coal fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, J T; Bridgman, H A; Buhre, B J P; Gupta, R P; Nelson, P F; Wall, T F

    2008-02-25

    Emissions from coal fired power stations are known to be a significant anthropogenic source of fine atmospheric particles, both through direct primary emissions and secondary formation of sulfate and nitrate from emissions of gaseous precursors. However, there is relatively little information available in the literature regarding the contribution emissions make to the ambient aerosol, particularly in the ultrafine size range. In this study, the contribution of emissions to particles smaller than 0.3 mum in the ambient aerosol was examined at a sampling site 7 km from two large Australian coal fired power stations equipped with fabric filters. A novel approach was employed using conditional sampling based on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) as an indicator species, and a relatively new sampler, the TSI Nanometer Aerosol Sampler. Samples were collected on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids and examined using a combination of TEM imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis for qualitative chemical analysis. The ultrafine aerosol in low SO(2) conditions was dominated by diesel soot from vehicle emissions, while significant quantities of particles, which were unstable under the electron beam, were observed in the high SO(2) samples. The behaviour of these particles was consistent with literature accounts of sulfate and nitrate species, believed to have been derived from precursor emissions from the power stations. A significant carbon peak was noted in the residues from the evaporated particles, suggesting that some secondary organic aerosol formation may also have been catalysed by these acid seed particles. No primary particulate material was observed in the minus 0.3 mum fraction. The results of this study indicate the contribution of species more commonly associated with gas to particle conversion may be more significant than expected, even close to source.

  1. Tropospheric ozone variability during the East Asian summer monsoon as observed by satellite (IASI), aircraft (MOZAIC) and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Sarah; Boynard, Anne; Hao, Nan; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Barret, Brice; Ghude, Sachin D.; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project, as well as observations from ground-based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years 2008-2013 of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon seen by a decrease in the tropospheric 0-6 km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. The year-to-year variability is found to be mainly dependent on meteorology. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric 0-6 km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project for the EASM of 2008-2013 are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (12 %) between the 0-6 km O3 column derived from IASI and aircraft data. IASI captures very well the inter-annual variation of tropospheric O3 observed by the aircraft data over the studied domain. Analysis of vertical profiles of the aircraft data shows a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at 10-20° N than elsewhere. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with a decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  2. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power_plants, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-09-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  5. Radioactivity level of the ambient environment of Anren bone-coal power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity level of the ambient environment of Anren Bonc-coalPower Station (BCPS) was investigated systematically. The γ radiation dose ratelevel in the environment, the content of 238U and 226Ra in the ambient soil and thefarmland in the direction of downwind, the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40Kand 222Rn, as well as α potential energy in air, and the concentrations of natural Uand Th in effluent are all higher than the corresponding values of the reference site.The additional annual effective dose equivalent to the residents living in the housesmade of bone-coal cinder brick is 2.7mSv.

  6. PID Controller Parameters Tuning Based-on Satisfaction for Superheated Steam Temperature of Power Station Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxian Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proposed the PID controller parameters tuning method based-on New Luus-Jaakola (NLJ algorithm and satisfaction idea. According to the different requirements of each performance index, designed the satisfaction function with fuzzy constraint attributes, and then determined the comprehensive satisfaction function for PID tuning by NLJ algorithm. Provided the steps of PID controller parameters tuning based on the NLJ algorithm and satisfaction, and applied this tuning method to the cascade control system of superheated steam temperature for Power Station Boiler. Finally the simulation and experiment results have shown the proposed method has good dynamic and static control performances for this complicated superheated steam temperature control system.

  7. Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

  8. TOF SIMS Study on PAHs in Individual Particle from a Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁汉东; 于春海; 周强; 李艳芳

    2001-01-01

    The individual particles collected from a power station were analyzed by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). The result indicates the presence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) as well as the oxygenated one. They might be derived from the incomplete combustion of coals. SIMS has proved to be a rapid method for the qualitative analysis of PAHs and OPAHs absorbed on the aerosol particles. New perspectives for better understanding the SIMS spectra obtained from complex mixture such as environmental samples have been opened.

  9. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  10. Vapor Online Monitor Model of Vapor Power Station Based on UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We presents a vapor online monitor system model of vapor power station developed by visual tool rational rose2000. Use cases such as on line instrument (onlineinstr), control, query, report, real database (realdb) and alarm are generated according to the system requirements. Use case view and class view of the system are formed at the same time. As for all the UML models of the system, this paper focuses the discussion on the class view, the component diagram of the control class and the sequence diagram of the query class. Corresponding C++ codes are produced and finally transferred into the spot running software.

  11. Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) effects on optical and radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, G.M.; Ekstrom, P.A. (eds.)

    1980-04-01

    The impacts of the SPS on astronomy were concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit causing the satellites to appear as individual stationary radio sources; finally, the fixed location of the geostationary satellite orbits would result in fixed regions of the sky being unusable for observations. (GHT)

  12. Study of variations of radiofrequency power density from mobile phone base stations with distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinmode, B O; Farai, I P

    2013-10-01

    The variations of radiofrequency (RF) radiation power density with distance around some mobile phone base stations (BTSs), in ten randomly selected locations in Ibadan, western Nigeria, were studied. Measurements were made with a calibrated hand-held spectrum analyser. The maximum Global System of Mobile (GSM) communication 1800 signal power density was 323.91 µW m(-2) at 250 m radius of a BTS and that of GSM 900 was 1119.00 µW m(-2) at 200 m radius of another BTS. The estimated total maximum power density was 2972.00 µW m(-2) at 50 m radius of a different BTS. This study shows that the maximum carrier signal power density and the total maximum power density from a BTS may be observed averagely at 200 and 50 m of its radius, respectively. The result of this study demonstrates that exposure of people to RF radiation from phone BTSs in Ibadan city is far less than the recommended limits by International scientific bodies.

  13. Modeling of interior noise levels in large combustion turbine power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedeen, R.A. [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Loud, R.L. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted to predict noise emissions from power generating stations. In particular, the SoundPLAN4 ray-tracing program originally designed for exterior environmental noise propagation analysis, was used to predict the sound levels coming from inside combustion turbines and combined-cycle power plants. Although exterior sound levels are of interest due to their propagation into nearby communities, interior sound levels are important because of their influence on occupational noise exposure. Most regulations are concerned with an 85 dBA, 8 hour exposure. Therefore, plant designers, operators, and owners must be able to predict and control the areas in their plants where these regulations must be considered. In this study, the Raynoise 5 program was also used to analyze sound propagation. The ray-trace model considered the known sound power levels of the major pieces of equipment and was able to predict the sound distribution through the turbine hall with acceptable accuracy. The models used in this study were suitable for both compliance evaluation and noise target optimization of the individual power train components. It was concluded that the location and arrangement of the power train, off-base skids, and stand-alone equipment can be altered to control the sound level in desired areas of the plant. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Concept for a Lunar Transfer Vehicle for Small Satellite Delivery to the Moon from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John; Alkalai, Leon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has developed as a very capable center for scientific research in Lower Earth Orbit. An additional potential of the ISS that has not thus far been exploited, is the use of this orbiting plat-form for the assembly and launching of vehicles that could be sent to more distant destinations. This paper reports the results of a recent study that looked at an architecture and conceptual flight system design for a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) that could be delivered to the ISS in segments, assembled, loaded with payload and launched from the ISS with the objective of delivering multiple small and micro satellites to lunar orbit. The design of the LTV was optimized for low cost and high payload capability, as well as ease of assembly. The resulting design would use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to carry a total payload mass of 250 kg from the ISS to a 100 km lunar orbit. A preliminary concept of operations was developed considering currently available delivery options and ISS capabili-ties that should prove flexible enough to accommodate a variety of payloads and missions. This paper will present an overview of the study, including key trades, mission and flight system design, and notional operational concept.

  15. Optimization Study of Shaft Tubular Turbine in a Bidirectional Tidal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft tubular turbine is a form of tidal power station which can provide bidirectional power. Efficiency is an important turbine performance indicator. To study the influence of runner design parameters on efficiency, a complete 3D flow-channel model of a shaft tubular turbine was developed, which contains the turbine runner, guide vanes, and flow passage and was integrated with hybrid grids calculated by steady-state calculation methods. Three aspects of the core component (turbine runner were optimized by numerical simulation. All the results were then verified by experiments. It was shown that curved-edge blades are much better than straight-edge blades; the optimal blade twist angle is 7°, and the optimal distance between the runner and the blades is 0.75–1.25 times the diameter of the runner. Moreover, the numerical simulation results matched the experimental data very well, which also verified the correctness of the optimal results.

  16. Reliability Analysis of a 3-Machine Power Station Using State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WasiuAkande Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of high-integrity fault-tolerant systems, the ability to account for repairs of partially failed (but still operational systems become increasingly important. This paper presents a systemic method of determining the reliability of a 3-machine electric power station, taking into consideration the failure rates and repair rates of the individual component (machine that make up the system. A state-space transition process for a 3-machine with 23 states was developed and consequently, steady state equations were generated based on Markov mathematical modeling of the power station. Important reliability components were deduced from this analysis. This research simulation was achieved with codes written in Excel® -VBA programming environment. System reliability using state space approach proofs to be a viable and efficient technique of reliability prediction as it is able to predict the state of the system under consideration. For the purpose of neatness and easy entry of data, Graphic User Interface (GUI was designed.

  17. The EURISOL Multi Megawatt Target Station, a liquid metal target for a High Power spallation source.

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Blumenfeld, L; Milenkovich, R; Wagner, W; Thomsen, K; Dementjevs, S; Platacis, E; Kravalis, K; Zik, A

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2013.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This presentation summarises the work carried out for the Multi Megawatt target station of the EURISOL Design Study with particular attention to the coupled neutronic of the liquid converter and the overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutr...

  18. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Tomer, S.; Levin, T.; Lehr, H. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel). Dept. of Plant Science

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. The following parameters of lichen vitality were examined: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F{sub v}/F{sub m}, (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F{sub v}/F{sub m} ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  19. Pressure-dependent fragilities for piping components: Pilot study on Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, D.A.; Nakaki, D.K.; Hadidi-Tamjed, H. (ABB Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA)); Kipp, T.R. (EQE, Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The capacities of four, low-pressure fluid systems to withstand pressures and temperatures above the design levels were established for the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The results will be used in evaluating the probability of plant damage from Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accidents (ISLOCA) as part of the probabilistic risk assessment of the Davis-Besse nuclear power station undertaken by EG G Idaho, Inc. Included in this evaluation are the tanks, heat exchangers, filters, pumps, valves, and flanged connections for each system. The probabilities of failure, as a function of internal pressure, are evaluated as well as the variabilities associated with them. Leak rates or leak areas are estimated for the controlling modes of failure. The pressure capacities for the pipes and vessels are evaluated using limit-state analyses for the various failure modes considered. The capacities are dependent on several factors, including the material properties, modeling assumptions, and the postulated failure criteria. The failure modes for gasketed-flange connections, valves, and pumps do not lend themselves to evaluation by conventional structural mechanics techniques and evaluation must rely primarily on the results from ongoing gasket research test programs and available vendor information and test data. 21 refs., 7 figs., 52 tabs.

  20. A modernized high-pressure heater protection system for nuclear and thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyatkin, F. A.; Trifonov, N. N.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Tren'kin, V. B.; Koltunov, V. A.; Borovkov, A. I.; Klyavin, O. I.

    2013-09-01

    Experience gained from operation of high-pressure heaters and their protection systems serving to exclude ingress of water into the turbine is analyzed. A formula for determining the time for which the high-pressure heater shell steam space is filled when a rupture of tubes in it occurs is analyzed, and conclusions regarding the high-pressure heater design most advisable from this point of view are drawn. A typical structure of protection from increase of water level in the shell of high-pressure heaters used in domestically produced turbines for thermal and nuclear power stations is described, and examples illustrating this structure are given. Shortcomings of components used in the existing protection systems that may lead to an accident at the power station are considered. A modernized protection system intended to exclude the above-mentioned shortcomings was developed at the NPO Central Boiler-Turbine Institute and ZioMAR Engineering Company, and the design solutions used in this system are described. A mathematical model of the protection system's main elements (the admission and check valves) has been developed with participation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and a numerical investigation of these elements is carried out. The design version of surge tanks developed by specialists of the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute for excluding false operation of the high-pressure heater protection system is proposed.

  1. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  2. Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, N.; Wilson, J. W.; Peyton, A. J.; Yin, W.; Liu, J.; Davis, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and after service exposure. In order to obtain the magnetic properties the B-H curves of these samples were measured. Cylindrical air-cored and printed circuit board (PCB) coil integrated sensors were used to measure the incremental permeability. Analytical and numerical methods (Finite Elements Methods) were employed to calculate the sensor response of these samples. The electromagnetic properties of the different steels were inferred by fitting the finite element models to the measured results. In addition, sensitivity and error analysis were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the method.

  3. Personnel exposure control system with auto thermoluminescence dosimeter in Shimane Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Hideo; Ochi, Susumu (Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    In the past, film badges and pocket dosimeters were put on the persons who entered a controlled area in a nuclear power station to measure the external radiation exposure. For these, read out error or mistake, delay in taking out the result, trouble for monitoring many persons, etc. were problems. To solve these problems, the auto thermoluminescence dosimeter (ATLD) system has been introduced in Shimane Nuclear Power Station in place of pocket dosimeters since the second half of fiscal 1978. The outline of the system and the composition and software of the TLD automatic readout system are described. For the control of access to controlled areas, workers are forced to pass the check point where watchmen check everyone's ID card, and subjected to the check-up with the TLD automatic readout device. The checking items in the case of entering the areas are: (1) confirmation of licensee, (2) confirmation of the term of validity for the medical examination on ionizing radiation, (3) checking for exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (4) confirmation of time limit to stay in controlled areas, and (5) TLD element annealing condition. The checking items in the case of leaving the areas are: (1) checking for identifying the TLD element that the personnel has brought in, (2) exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (3) time for which the personnel stayed in controlled areas.

  4. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. (Disciplines of Paediatrics, University of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia))

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  5. Optimization of Joint Power and Bandwidth Allocation in Multi-Spot-Beam Satellite Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spot-beam technique has been widely applied in modern satellite communication systems. However, the satellite power and bandwidth resources in a multi-spot-beam satellite communication system are scarce and expensive; it is urgent to utilize the resources efficiently. To this end, dynamically allocating the power and bandwidth is an available way. This paper initially formulates the problem of resource joint allocation as a convex optimization problem, taking into account a compromise between the maximum total system capacity and the fairness among the spot beams. A joint bandwidth and power allocation iterative algorithm based on duality theory is then proposed to obtain the optimal solution of this optimization problem. Compared with the existing separate bandwidth or power optimal allocation algorithms, it is shown that the joint allocation algorithm improves both the total system capacity and the fairness among spot beams. Moreover, it is easy to be implemented in practice, as the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is linear with the number of spot beams.

  6. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  7. Solar power satellites (SPS) and international law. The system of international law governing science and technology projects for energy source development in outer space (Solar power satellites, lunar power systems, Helium-3 project); Solar Power Satellites und Voelkerrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Aspekte von Grossprojekten zur Energiegewinnung aus Weltraumressourcen (Solar Power Satellites, Lunar Power Systems, Helium-3-Projekt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.

    2000-07-01

    In addition to the utilization of renewable energy sources on earth, particular interest has been directed since the late 1960s to the exploitation of the energy of the sun via solar power satellites (SPS), and of other energy sources in outer space. The dissertation on hand presents a comprehensive survey and commented analysis, together with an exhaustive bibliography, of the available relevant international laws and treaties and regulatory framework that have been developed by the international legal community since the beginning of the R and D activities and now form the legal system governing the peaceful uses of solar power plants and other energy sources in outer space. The specific legal provisions and their application in the context of existing international laws and treaties are discussed in great depth. (CB) [German] Neben der Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen auf der Erde ist seit Ende der sechziger Jahre die Errichtung und Nutzung von Solarenergiesatelliten (SPS) von besonderem Interesse. Die Doktorarbeit legt eine umfangreiche, ausfuehrlich erlaeuterte Dokumentation vor ueber die Entwicklung und den derzeitigen Stand von internationalem Recht und Vertraegen, die spezifisch fuer die F und E-Aktivitaeten und die Anwendung der SPS und anderer Energiequellen im Weltraum erforderlich und entwickelt wurden, sowie auch deren Einbettung in und Zusammenwirken mit bestehendem Voelkerrecht und internationalen Vereinbarungen. (CB)

  8. Development of a power electronics unit for the Space Station plasma contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-02-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  9. Maximizing power saving with state transition overhead for multiple mobile subscriber stations in WiMAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LI; Sung-kwon PARK

    2016-01-01

    In the IEEE 802.16e/m standard, three power saving classes (PSCs) are defined to save the energy of a mobile sub-scriber station (MSS). However, how to set the parameters of PSCs to maximize the power saving and guarantee the quality of service is not specified in the standard. Thus, many algorithms were proposed to set the PSCs in IEEE 802.16 networks. However, most of the proposed algorithms consider only the power saving for a single MSS. In the algorithms designed for multiple MSSs, the sleep state, which is set for activation of state transition overhead power, is not considered. The PSC setting for real-time connections in multiple MSSs with consideration of the state transition overhead is studied. The problem is non-deterministic polynomial time hard (NP-hard), and a suboptimal algorithm for the problem is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate that the energy saving of the proposed algorithm is higher than that of state-of-the-art algorithms and approaches the optimum limit.

  10. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  11. The micro power station of Verbois; Ouvrage Micro-centrale de Verbois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quercia, P.; Martinez, J.-L. [Services industriels de Geneve, Service de l' electricite, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The policy of the public utilities of the City of Geneva includes the promotion of renewable energy and the conservation of the environment. The erection of the most important hydroelectric power plant in the canton of Geneva at Verbois, on the Rhone River dates back to the years 1938 to 1944. Several retrofits have been made since then, the last dating from 1996 to 1998. In 2000, due to ecological considerations, a fish ladder was added, resulting in a loss of generated power equivalent to a water flow of 2 m{sup 3}/s at a height of 18.35 meters. In order to compensate for this energy loss, a micro hydropower station with a maximum output power of 316 kW was added. It is fitted with a Francis turbine with horizontal axis and fixed opening; the rotation speed is 605 rpm. A reduced power output could be traced back to the deposition of solids on the grids upstream of the water supply duct. The necessary modifications are discussed.

  12. Feasibility study of a solar power satellite system configured by formation flying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Noboru; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Mitsushige [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Inst. of Space Technology and Aeronautics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a new concept of a solar power satellite system configured by formation flying. In this concept, the solar power satellite system consists of sunlight reflectors and an energy generator-transmitter. The energy generator- transmitter is on a common GEO, and the reflectors are placed on the north and south by using solar pressure to raise their orbits from GEO. Therefore, the orbits of the reflectors and that of the energy generator-transmitter make three parallel GEOs. The feasibility of the concept and its requirements are also discussed, focusing on the orbital and attitude mechanics of the reflector. Because the tilt angle of the sunlight changes with the turning of the seasons, it is sometimes necessary to raise the orbit by thrusters especially around the solstice. For attitude dynamics, spin stabilization and thruster control are discussed as the attitude control strategies against the gravity gradient torque, which acts as a persistent periodic disturbance. (Author)

  13. Electric Power Supply of Meat Processing Enterprise through Utilization Heat of Compressor Station Secondary Energy Sources in Main Gasline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a structure of power consumption by a meat processing enterprise with indication of specific power consumption norms in accordance with product nomenclature. Schemes for supply of the enterprise with heat and cold through utilization of compressor station secondary energy sources in main gasline have been presented in the paper.

  14. Models for the transient stability of conventional power generating stations connected to low inertia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifakis, Marios; Coffey, William T.; Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Titov, Sergei V.

    2017-06-01

    An ever-increasing requirement to integrate greater amounts of electrical energy from renewable sources especially from wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations exists and recent experience in the island of Ireland demonstrates that this requirement influences the behaviour of conventional generating stations. One observation is the change in the electrical power output of synchronous generators following a transient disturbance especially their oscillatory behaviour accompanied by similar oscillatory behaviour of the grid frequency, both becoming more pronounced with reducing grid inertia. This behaviour cannot be reproduced with existing mathematical models indicating that an understanding of the behaviour of synchronous generators, subjected to various disturbances especially in a system with low inertia requires a new modelling technique. Thus two models of a generating station based on a double pendulum described by a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations and suitable for analysis of its stability corresponding to infinite or finite grid inertia are presented. Formal analytic solutions of the equations of motion are given and compared with numerical solutions. In particular the new finite grid model will allow one to identify limitations to the operational range of the synchronous generators used in conventional power generation and also to identify limits, such as the allowable Rate of Change of Frequency which is currently set to ± 0.5 Hz/s and is a major factor in describing the volatility of a grid as well as identifying requirements to the total inertia necessary, which is currently provided by conventional power generators only, thus allowing one to maximise the usage of grid connected non-synchronous generators, e.g., wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations.

  15. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric power stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes de Gortari, J.; Vidal Santo, A.; Mendez Lavielle, F.; Bautista Godinez, O. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia, de acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  16. Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations Using Magnetometer Data from the CHAMP Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite and Ground-Based Stations: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Sutcliffe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We review research on geomagnetic pulsations carried out using magnetic field measurements from the CHAMP low-Earth-orbit (LEO satellite and ground-based stations in South Africa and Hungary. The high quality magnetic field measurements from CHAMP made it possible to extract and clearly resolve Pi2 and Pc3 pulsations in LEO satellite data. Our analyses for nighttime Pi2 pulsations are indicative of a cavity mode resonance. However, observations of daytime Pi2 pulsation events identified in ground station data show no convincing evidence of their occurrence in CHAMP data. We also studied low-latitude Pc3 pulsations and found that different types of field line resonant structure occur, namely discrete frequencies driven by a narrow band source and L-dependent frequencies driven by a broad band source.

  17. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 7: SPS program plan and economic analysis, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Three appendixes in support of Volume 7 are contained in this document. The three appendixes are: (1) Satellite Power System Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary; (2) SPS cost Estimating Relationships; and (3) Financial and Operational Concept. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are: Executive Summary; SPS Systems Requirements; SPS Concept Evolution; SPS Point Design Definition; Transportation and Operations Analysis; and SPS Technology Requirements and Verification.

  18. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  19. Power Allocation Algorithm for IDMA-based Multi-Beam Satellite Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is one of the most dominant impairment factors that degrade the performance of satellite communications at Ka band and above. In order to solve the technical bottlenecks in the existing Ka-band satellite communication schemes, the authors has introduced the emerging Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA technology into multi-beam satellite communication systems, and consequently, a novel power allocation algorithm is proposed for the emerging and promising system in this paper. The main goal of the proposed scheme is to provide sufficient transmission quality to as many mobiles as possible, even for the users suffering heavy rain attenuation. Analysis and simulation results show that compared to the traditional power allocation schemes, the proposed scheme can guarantee high power efficiency even in heavy rain attenuation conditions, illustrating the high efficiency of the Chip-by-Chip (CBC Multi-user Detection (MUD technique in IDMA. Furthermore, in virtue of the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR evolution technique, the proposed scheme can make accurate estimation of available resource on considering the effect of MUD, leading to low outage probability.

  20. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES WITH FLY–ASH OF PRYDNIPROVSK THERMAL POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Netesa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of conformities to law of influence of expense of components of easy concretes, which turn out on the basis of local afterproducts of industry, on their basic properties under conditions of enhanceable efficiency of the use of cement. Methodology. Experimental studies on optimization of structures and properties of concrete were carried out with use of mathematical planning experiments methods. All experiments were carried out on orthogonal design with three variables. Cement, water and additives PLKP-2 consumption were taken as varied factors. Findings. Vast experimental studies on determination of rational compositions of concrete mixtures were conducted with the use as fillers of granulated slag from iron and steel plant named after Petrovskiy and Dnepr sand, as binding agent Krivoy Rog portland-cement II/B-Ш-400, as filler fly-ash of Pridneprovsk Thermal Power Station. Efficiency coefficient of cement use was adopted as basic criterion of concrete composition rationality, it is determined on the relation of the attained durability per unit weight of used cement. For greater efficiency coefficient of cement use regularity of rational grain composition of components previously obtained was adopted, it is provided at a ratio of a large fraction consumption to medium and small 52:23:25, and their sizes are approximately 100:10:1. Experimental studies with use of mathematical planning experiments method were carried out. By results of their processing isofields were constructed according to the strength and effectiveness of the use of cement ratio of the studied factors. Originality. By strength comparative tests of hardened concrete with various local secondary resources, modified with complex plasticizer PLKP-2 additive, it was found that lightweight concrete with the density of 1700…1800 kg/m3 and concrete compressive strength from 5 to 20 MPa on the basis of granulated slag from the iron and steel plant named after

  1. McIDAS-V: A powerful visualization and data analysis tool for geostationary environmental satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtor, T. H.; Rink, T.; Straka, W.; Feltz, J.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) has been at the forefront in developing data analysis and visualization tools for environmental satellite and other geophysical data. The fifth generation of the Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS-V) is a java-based, open-source, freely available system for researchers and algorithm developers that is being adapted and expanded for use with advanced geostationary environmental satellite observations. A key attribute of analysis and visualization systems is access to and display of a large variety of geophysical data. Providing these capabilities for numerous data types provides users with powerful tools for merging information, comparison of products and evaluation. McIDAS-V provides unique capabilities that support creative techniques for developing and evaluating algorithms, visualizing data and products in 4 dimensions, and validating results. For geostationary applications, McIDAS-V provides visualization and analysis support for GOES, MSG, MTSAT and FY2 data. NOAA is supporting the McIDAS-V development program for ABI imagery and products for the GOES-R/S series, which will bring an advanced multi-spectral imager into geostationary orbit. Used together, the geostationary environmental satellites provide the user community with detailed global coverage with rapid update cycles. This poster and demonstration will provide an overview of McIDAS-V with demonstrations of the data acquisition, visualization and analysis tools to support the international geostationary environmental satellite programs. It will also present results from several research projects involving current and future environmental satellites, demonstrating how the McIDAS-V software can be used to acquire satellite and ancillary data, create multi--spectral products using both scripting and interactive data manipulation tools, and evaluate output through on-board validation techniques.;

  2. Low-cost approach for a software-defined radio based ground station receiver for CCSDS standard compliant S-band satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, M. A.; Butt, B. M.; Klinkner, S.

    2016-10-01

    A major concern of a university satellite mission is to download the payload and the telemetry data from a satellite. While the ground station antennas are in general easy and with limited afford to procure, the receiving unit is most certainly not. The flexible and low-cost software-defined radio (SDR) transceiver "BladeRF" is used to receive the QPSK modulated and CCSDS compliant coded data of a satellite in the HAM radio S-band. The control software is based on the Open Source program GNU Radio, which also is used to perform CCSDS post processing of the binary bit stream. The test results show a good performance of the receiving system.

  3. Evaluation of Wind Power Resources in Yanhu Wind Power Station%新疆盐湖风电场风能资源评估分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽洁

    2014-01-01

    Yanhu wind power station is a new planned project for wind power development .An evaluation of the wind power resources in Yanhu wind power station is carried out .Based on measured data from anemometer tower #2794-1a, the annual wind power parameter , wind direction frequency , distribution of wind power density direction , wind speed frequency , wind power frequency , turbulence intensity and wind shear index are analyzed .Results show that the wind power density of Yanhu wind power station is about grade four .The main wind direction is consistent with the wind power density direction .The wind power frequency is also mainly distributed in intermediate wind speed interval .It shows that the wind power resources in Yanhu wind power station is abundant and profitable for development .%盐湖风电场是规划建设的新风电场,为了更好地利用其风能资源,对盐湖风电场的风能资源进行了评估分析。依据测风塔2794号1 a的测风数据,主要分析了年风能参数、风向频率和风能密度方向分布、风速频率及风能频率、湍流强度以及风切变指数。结果表明:盐湖风电场风功率密度达到4级;主风向与风能密度分布主方向一致;风能频率主要分布在中等风速段;盐湖风电场的风能资源丰富,具有很好的开发价值。

  4. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  5. The Opportunity Analyses of Using Thermosyphons in Cooling Systems of Power Transformers on Thermal Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurpeiis Аtlant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity analyses of using the thermosyphons as the main elements in the systems of thermal regime supplying has been conducted under the conditions of their usage in power transformers on thermal stations. Mathematical modeling of jointly proceeding processes of conduction, forced convection and phase transitions (evaporation and condensation of coolant in the thermosyphon of rectangular cross section has been carried out. The problem of conjugated conductive-convective heat transfer was formulated in dimensionless variables “vorticity/stream function/temperature” and solved by finite difference method. The effect of the heat flux density supplied to the bottom cover of the thermosyphon from a transformer tank on the temperature drop in the steam channel was shown based on the analysis of numerical simulation results (temperature fields and velocities of steam. The parameters of energy-saturated equipment of thermal stations were found to be controlled by an intensification of heat removal from the top cover surface of the thermosyphon.

  6. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  7. The International Remote Monitoring Project -- First results of the Argentina nuclear power station field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, A.; Pizarro, L.; Perez, A. [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schoeneman, J.L.; Dupree, S.A.; Martinez, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maxey, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of the International Remote Monitoring Project field trials, during the month of March, 1995 a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. This system monitors the status of four typical Candu spent fuel dry storage silos. The monitoring equipment for each silo consists of analog temperature and gamma radiation sensors and digital motion and electronic fiber-optic seals connected to a wireless Authenticate Item Monitoring System (AIMS). All sensor data are authenticated and transmitted via RF link to Receiver Processor Units (RPU) coupled to Remote Monitoring System equipment located in a nearby IAEA/ENREN inspector office. One of these RPUs is connected to Remote Monitoring equipment capable of information transmission (via commercial telephone links) to Data Review Stations (DRS) at ENREN laboratories in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The other RPU is used for on-site data storage and analysis. It is anticipated that this information will soon be transmitted to a DRS at the ABACC facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During these trials site data will be collected and analyzed periodically from Buenos Aires, Albuquerque, and Rio de Janeiro. Installation detail and data analysis will be presented in this paper.

  8. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  9. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous, Saleh Al-Battat, Sandro Abdel Hafith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-TafilaJordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168 $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053 $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  10. CMB power spectra from cosmic strings: predictions for the Planck satellite and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bevis, Neil; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We present a significant improvement over our previous calculations of the cosmic string contribution to cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra, with particular focus on sub-WMAP angular scales. These smaller scales are relevant for the now-operational Planck satellite and additional sub-orbital CMB projects that have even finer resolutions. We employ larger Abelian Higgs string simulations than before and we additionally model and extrapolate the statistical measures from our simulations to smaller length scales. We then use an efficient means of including the extrapolations into our Einstein-Boltzmann calculations in order to yield accurate results over the multipole range 2 3000 in the case of the temperature power spectrum, which then allows cautious extrapolation to even smaller scales. We find that a string contribution to the temperature power spectrum making up 10% of power at l=10 would be larger than the Silk-damped primary adiabatic contribution for l > 3500. Astrophysical contributions s...

  11. Systems definition space-based power conversion systems. [for satellite power transmission to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on Earth are discussed and include: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; and (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Systems (1) and (2) would utilize a microwave beam system to transmit their output to Earth. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  12. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  13. Analysis and evaluation of "noise" of occupational hazards in pumped storage power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Yang, Hongjian; Zhang, Huafei; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the influence of "noise" of occupational hazards on the physical health of workers, the noise intensity of a working area of a hydropower station in China was evaluated comprehensively. Under the condition of power generation, noise detection is conducted on the main patrol area of the operator, and the noise samples in different regions are analyzed and processed by the single factor analysis of variance. The results show that the noise intensity of different working areas is significantly different, in which the overall noise level of the turbine layer is the highest and beyond the national standard, the protection measures need to be strengthened and the noise intensity of the rest area is normal

  14. Construction of a cooling water inlet system with settling basin of Derna power plant station (Libya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmann, R.; Heimburg, A.M. von; Sinner, H.

    1985-03-01

    Construction of a cooling water intake system with settling basin. The extension of the power station at Derna, in Libya, necessitated the construction of a new cooling water intake system including screening facilities and a settling basin. Construction based on extensive prefabrication (precast concrete) was chosen. The precast reinforced units, ranging up to about 4000 t in weight, were towed on barges to the site of erection. At Derna these units were temporarily stored on the sea bed for several months, during which they were exposed to winter storms and rough sea. The major precast portion of the settling basin was constructed direct on the barge. On arrival at the site, the barge was sunk, allowing the precast unit, which was designed with sufficient buoyancy, to be floated off. The open unprotected coast required special arrangements for the protection of personnel, structures and equipment.

  15. Characterization of Fly Ash Generated from Matla Power Station in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fly ash was obtained from Matla power station and the physicochemical properties investigated. The fly ash was characterized by x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Surface area, particle size, ash and carbon contents, pH, and point of zero charge were also measured. The results showed that the fly ash is alkaline and consists mainly of mullite (Al6Si2O13 and quartz (SiO2. Highly toxic metals As, Sb, Cd, Cr, and Pb as well as metals that are essential to health in trace amounts were also present. The storage and disposal of coal fly ash can thus lead to the release of leached metals into soils, surface and ground waters, find way into the ecological systems and then cause harmful effect to man and its environments.

  16. A contribution to the problems of utilizing coal combustion wastes from the EVO Vojany power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benková

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the procedures mineral processing technologies are presented. By their application, individual valuable components are of gained from the solid waste of black coalfired in a power station. The flotation product of unburned coal rests is characterized by 85 – 86 % loss ignition. The magnetic product (usually is it a new mineral formation of magnetite includes 47 – 49 % Fe. The fly ash which is free of the unburned coal rests and magnetite iron includes only 1.02 – 1.34 % loss ignition and 5.38 – 4.71 % Fe. The products from the can be usable in several industrial areas (building industry, metallurgy, etc.

  17. Combustion Quality Estimation in Power Station Boilers using Median Threshold Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sujatha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of combustion quality in power station boilers is of great importance in the present scenario as it plays an important role in controlling the air pollution. The harmful gases like NOx and CO from the chimney causes air pollution. The amount of NOx and CO concentration in flue gas can be maintained within admissible limits by analyzing the flame colour. The colour of the flame is affected by combustion quality. When complete combustion takes place the amount these gases at the exit are within tolerance. Hence if the quality of combustion was estimated from the flame using image processing technique, it is possible to minimize the air pollution. This new strategy developed uses median threshold for feature reduction and various clustering algorithms to estimate the quality of combustion.

  18. Mast material test program (MAMATEP). [for Solar Array Assembly of Space Station Photovoltaic Power Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    The MAMATEP program, which is aimed at verifying the need for and evaluating the performance of various protection techniques for the solar array assembly mast of the Space Station photovoltaic power module, is discussed. Coated and uncoated mast material samples have been environmentally tested and evaluated, before and after testing, in terms of mass and bending modulus. The protective coatings include CV-1144 silicone, a Ni/Al/InSn eutectic, and an open-weave Al braid. Long-term plasma asher results from unprotected samples indicate that, even though fiberglass-epoxy samples degrade, a protection technique may not be necessary to ensure structural integrity. A protection technique, however, may be desirable to limit or contain the amount of debris generated by the degradation of the fiberglass-epoxy.

  19. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  20. Evaluation of activated nuclides for Fugen Nuclear Power Station's decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiratori, Yoshitake; Kawagoe, Shinji; Matsui, Yuji; Higashiura, Norikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga Head Office, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan); Iwasaki, Seiji [Nuclear Energy System Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The density and amount of radioactive nuclides in equipment or concrete including the reactor core need to be evaluated for the decommissioning of the Fugen Nuclear Power Station. To prepare for decommissioning, measurement and evaluation of the neutron flux density have been executed mainly during the reactor operation, because neutron flux density is measured under that condition. Activation evaluation is mainly executed by the calculation method, and the results are checked by the sampling measurements. All of the equipments is divided into three parts, inner core part, shielding part, outer shielding part. The neutron flux distribution of two former parts can be evaluated by calculation, but the last part cannot; it is evaluated by measuring the activation foil for many points. These evaluation methods are checked by a small number of sampling measurements. (author)

  1. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-07-21

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors.

  2. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations.

  3. Evaluation end-of-life power generation of a satellite solar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taherbaneh, Mohsen, E-mail: taherbaneh@aut.ac.i [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15916-34311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafooifard, H.; Rezaie, A.H. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15916-34311 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi, K. [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We present detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission. {yields} All sources of losses and degradation of the solar panels are fully taken into account. {yields} We introduce a comprehensive novel approach to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. {yields} We use a simple model to calculate the operating temperature range of the solar panels. {yields} We also calculate Mission End-of-Life electrone fluence using SPENVIS. -- Abstract: Knowing the power generated by of solar arrays in a space missions shall satisfy mission requirements; prediction of the power generated by a solar array used in a space mission is very important and necessary. In this research, a detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission is presented. All sources of losses and degradation of solar panels are fully taken into account. This research emphasizes on investigation, analysis and verification of a manufactured solar assembly for a satellite before launch. Solar panels' generated power should be estimated at the end of the mission. For this purpose, radiation values and temperature operating range are specified for the mission. Panels' temperature operating rate is determined through considering a simple model and different spins for the satellite. Mission end-of-life 1 MeV equivalent dose is calculated by SPENVIS suite software. Finally, a comprehensive novel approach is introduced to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. This approach can be implemented in MATLAB environment to obtain output power characteristics of the solar panels for each specific mission. The results are in full accordance with the mission requirements either in beginning-of-life or end-of-life. Therefore, the power prediction of the designed solar array for the mentioned satellite completely satisfies its

  4. Photocatalytic treatment of IGCC power station effluents in a UV-pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Sánchez-Romero, R

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this work is to improve the quality of water effluents coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study has been made using an homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/Fe(II)/H(2)O(2)) in a pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was determined from the analysis of the following parameters: cyanides, formates and TOC content. In the first stage, a factorial experimental design allowed to determine the influence of operation variables (initial concentration of H(2)O(2) and Fe(II), pH and temperature) on the degradation kinetics. pH was always kept in a value >9.5 during cyanides destruction to avoid gaseous HCN formation and lowered later to enhance formates degradation. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). Under the optimum conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=1700 ppm, [Fe(II)]=2 ppm, pH 2 after cyanides destruction, and T=30 degrees C), it is possible to degrade 100% of cyanides in 15 min and 76% of formates in 120 min. The use of an homogeneous process with UV light can offer an economical and practical alternative to heterogeneous photocatalysis for the destruction of environmental pollutants present in thermoelectric power stations effluents, since it can treat very high flowrates using a lower H(2)O(2) concentration. Furthermore, it does not require additional operations to recover the solid catalyst and regenerate it due to deactivation as occurs in heterogeneous catalysis.

  5. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-03-22

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the /sup 137/Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984.

  6. Realisation and instrumentation of high current power station for superconducting cables testing; Realisation et instrumentation d'une station fort courant pour le test de cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaud, S

    2000-05-01

    This report deals with the designing of a high current station able to test electric properties of superconductors. This test station will be used for testing the superconducting wires of large hadron collider detectors in CERN. The high current test station will have to generate high intensity continuous current in a magnetic field of 0 to 5 tesla and in temperature conditions of 4.2 K. The length of wire samples submitted to the uniform magnetic field is 300 mm and the installation is fitted with equipment able to measure the magnetic field perpendicular to either faces of the wire. The peculiarity of this station is to use a superconducting transformer in order to generate the high current. The first part of this work recalls important notions concerning superconductivity. The second part presents the high current station by describing the superconducting transformer and the sample-holder. We have studied the designing of a transformer able to yield a secondary current whose intensity reaches 100 kA, such intensity generates powerful electromagnetic forces (566 kN/m) in case of defect, so the sample-holder has to be carefully design to bear them. The third part presents the cryogenic component of the station, the instrumentation of the sample-holder and the method used to measure secondary currents. In the last part we present the performance of a prototype transformer, this prototype is able to deliver a 22 kA secondary current for a 160 A primary current, the uncertainty on the measured value of the secondary current is about 3%.

  7. Retrieval of fire radiative power and biomass combustion using the Korean geostationary meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. S.; Lee, Y. W.

    2013-10-01

    Global warming induced by greenhouse gases is increasing wildfire frequencies and scale. Since wildfire again releases greenhouse gases(GHGs) into the air, the vicious cycle is repeated. Satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for detecting wildfire. However, estimating the GHGs emission from wildfire has not been challenged yet. Wildfires are estimated to be responsible for, on average, around 30% of global total CO emissions, 10% of methane emissions, 38% of tropospheric ozone, and over 86% of black carbon. So we need to quantify the emitted gases by biomass combustions, which can be measured by the FRP (fire radiative power) derived from the spectral characteristics of satellite sensors. This paper described the algorithm for retrieval of FRP using COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite), the Korean geostationary meteorological satellite. The FRP of wildfire is retrieved by single waveband methods suitable to COMS channels. The retrieval of FRP is dependent on the emissivity of each bandwidth. So, we used MODIS NDVI through a spatio-temporal calibration for the emissivity calculations. We made sure that the FRP in wildfire pixel is much higher than its spatially and temporally neighboring pixels. For future work, we should quantify the relationships between FRP and the biomass combustion according to fuel types.

  8. Secondary electrical design of station service power supply system for Lunzua Power Station in Zambia%赞比亚Lunzua水电站厂用电系统二次设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁艳艳; 黄卫平

    2015-01-01

    介绍了赞比亚Lunzua水电站厂用电系统二次设计思路,针对国外工程的特殊要求,将建筑电气常用的自动转换开关的自动化功能应用于水电站厂用电的自动化设计中,并研究了一套自动转换开关和柴油机自动投退相配合的厂用电自动化方案,实现了母线电源的自动切换和恢复,柴油发电机的自动启动、投入和停止。工程投运后,运行正常。%An introduction was made on the secondary electrical design ideas of station service power supply system of Lunzua Power Station in Zambia. In view of the special requirements of overseas projects, automatic transfer switch frequently used in architectural electric system was adopted in the station service power supply system of power station. Cooperation between automatic transfer switch and diesel generator under automatic on/off control permits automatic transfer and recovery of bus power, automatic start, operating or shutdown of diesel generator.The project has been operating normally since it was put into operation.

  9. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station Unit Number 1. Annual report, January--December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report satisfies the requirements of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-91MC27363, novated as of March 5, 1992, to provide an annual update report on the year`s activities associated with Tampa Electric Company`s 250 MW IGCC demonstration project for the year 1993. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Approximately 50% of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 900 F and passed through a moving bed of zinc-based sorbent which removes sulfur containing compounds from the syngas. The remaining portion of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 400 F for conventional acid gas removal. Sulfur-bearing compounds from both cleanup systems are sent to a conventional sulfuric acid plant to produce a marketable, high-purity sulfuric acid by-product. The cleaned medium-BTU syngas from these processes is routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the combustion section of the combustion turbine. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam at three pressure levels for use throughout the integrated process. A highly modular, microprocessor-based distributed control system (DCS) is being developed to provide continuous and sequential control for most of the equipment on PPS-1.

  10. The assessment of external photon dose rate in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. An intercomparison of different monitoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Lauterbach, U.

    1993-01-01

    to a nuclear power station. The responses of each of these detectors to the natural radiation and to the radiation from the power station are given. Estimations by three of the dose rate instruments of the air kerma from all the radiation components are intercompared with the results from three different types...... of thermoluminescence dosemeter. The results clearly demonstrate that accurate estimations of doses in the environment arising from a nuclear facility can only be obtained if the responses of the detectors used to the different radiation components at that location are accurately evaluated. By correcting the measured...

  11. Space Station Power Generation in Support of the Beta Gimbal Anomaly Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Propp, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex spacecraft ever assembled and operated in orbit. The first U.S. photovoltaic (PV) module, containing two solar arrays, was launched, installed, and activated in early December 2000. After the first week of continuously rotating the U.S. solar arrays, engineering personnel in the ISS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) observed higher than expected electrical currents on the drive motor in one of the Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGA), the mechanism used to maneuver a U.S. solar array. The magnitude of the motor currents continued to increase over time on both BGA's, creating concerns about the ability of the gimbals to continue pointing the solar arrays towards the sun, a function critical for continued assembly of the ISS. A number of engineering disciplines convened in May 2001 to address this on-orbit hardware anomaly. This paper reviews the ISS electrical power system (EPS) analyses performed to develop viable operational workarounds that would minimize BGA use while maintaining sufficient solar array power to continue assembly of the ISS. Additionally, EPS analyses performed in support of on-orbit BGA troubleshooting exercises is reviewed. EPS capability analyses were performed using SPACE, a computer code developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the ISS program office.

  12. Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William; Britt, Daniel; Elges, Michael; Myers, Chris

    1994-05-01

    This report provides an overview of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed system and describes recent enhancements to that system. Four tasks made up the original contract: (1) common module power management and distribution system automation plan definition; (2) definition of hardware and software elements of automation; (3) design, implementation and delivery of the hardware and software making up the SSM/PMAD system; and (4) definition and development of the host breadboard computer environment. Additions and/or enhancements to the SSM/PMAD test bed that have occurred since July 1990 are reported. These include: (1) rehosting the MAESTRO scheduler; (2) reorganization of the automation software internals; (3) a more robust communications package; (4) the activity editor to the MAESTRO scheduler; (5) rehosting the LPLMS to execute under KNOMAD; implementation of intermediate levels of autonomy; (6) completion of the KNOMAD knowledge management facility; (7) significant improvement of the user interface; (8) soft and incipient fault handling design; (9) intermediate levels of autonomy, and (10) switch maintenance.

  13. CFD Ventilation Study for the Human Powered Centrifuge at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The Human Powered Centrifuge (HPC) is a hyper gravity facility that will be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS) to enable crew exercises under the artificial gravity conditions. The HPC equipment includes a bicycle for long-term exercises of a crewmember that provides power for rotation of HPC at a speed of 30 rpm. The crewmember exercising vigorously on the centrifuge generates the amount of carbon dioxide of several times higher than a crewmember in ordinary conditions. The goal of the study is to analyze the airflow and carbon dioxide distribution within Pressurized Multipurpose Module (PMM) cabin. The 3D computational model included PMM cabin. The full unsteady formulation was used for airflow and CO2 transport modeling with the so-called sliding mesh concept is considered in the rotating reference frame while the rest of the cabin volume is considered in the stationary reference frame. The localized effects of carbon dioxide dispersion are examined. Strong influence of the rotating HPC equipment on the CO2 distribution is detected and discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Lyse wind power station 1992-1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, S.E. [comp.] [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The main aim of the project was to test and evaluate a new wind power technique, partly through detailed measurements of the NWP 400 and partly through comparisons with the Danish standard unit. At the same time, it was a demand that the two units of the Power Station could be run as a production plant once the evaluation was complete. The overall conclusion from operation, and from the various measurements and studies carried out, is that the new technique functions as intended and that the calculations and estimates made in connection with design work were largely correct. The evaluation confirms that the unit can meet expected production levels, that it can cope with different operation situations and that it can be expected to meet the demands set for loads and safety with regard to fatigue. The evaluation has also shown that the calculation tools used to design the unit and calculate the production capacity have given correct results and good estimates. Certain sub-systems did not, however, function as intended and modifications were required. Additional modifications may be required in a series production of NWP 400. In its present form the unit has difficulties at high wind speeds due to large teeter movements. According to calculations, it should be possible to further reduce these teeter movements and thus increase the availability. The comparison between the units shows that both of the units have largely achieved the expected production capacity. 83 figs, 17 tabs

  15. Medium Powered Sound Broadcasting Station ZS-82 (“The Decorator” as a Weapon of Propagandists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey A. Romanchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers tactical and technical characteristics of a Russian army’s propaganda weapon – the medium powered sound broadcasting station ZS-82 (“The Decorator” on a base of open sources. The sources used for the compilation of this article were various open source data, such as official news websites, forums, educational and scientific literature. Despite some thematic diversity, this topic is presented quite limitedly in the open access. We used general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis methods, concretization and generalization in solving research problems. The use of these techniques allowed us to create a complete picture of combat use of this technology in local conflicts at the end of XX – beginning of XXI centuries. In conclusion, it is indicated that the Russian army arsenal possesses an effective means of advocacy – the medium powered ZS-82 “The Decorator”. Despite its limited combat use, practice showed that this equipment can be used for conducting negotiations (agitation, as well for performing disinformation activities.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Ventilation Study for the Human Powered Centrifuge at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.

    2012-01-01

    The Human Powered Centrifuge (HPC) is a facility that is planned to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS) to enable crew exercises under the artificial gravity conditions. The HPC equipment includes a "bicycle" for long-term exercises of a crewmember that provides power for rotation of HPC at a speed of 30 rpm. The crewmember exercising vigorously on the centrifuge generates the amount of carbon dioxide of about two times higher than a crewmember in ordinary conditions. The goal of the study is to analyze the airflow and carbon dioxide distribution within Pressurized Multipurpose Module (PMM) cabin when HPC is operating. A full unsteady formulation is used for airflow and CO2 transport CFD-based modeling with the so-called sliding mesh concept when the HPC equipment with the adjacent Bay 4 cabin volume is considered in the rotating reference frame while the rest of the cabin volume is considered in the stationary reference frame. The rotating part of the computational domain includes also a human body model. Localized effects of carbon dioxide dispersion are examined. Strong influence of the rotating HPC equipment on the CO2 distribution detected is discussed.

  17. Micro space power system using MEMS fuel cell for nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkwang; Kim, Taegyu

    2014-08-01

    A micro space power system using micro fuel cell was developed for nano-satellites. The power system was fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell was selected in consideration of space environment. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was selected as a hydrogen source while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was selected as an oxygen source. The power system consists of a micro fuel cell, micro-reactor, micro-pump, and fuel cartridges. The micro fuel cell was fabricated on a light-weight and corrosion-resistant glass plates. The micro-reactor was used to generate hydrogen from NaBH4 alkaline solution via a catalytic hydrolysis reaction. All components such as micro-pump, fuel cartridges, and auxiliary battery were integrated for a complete power system. The storability of NaBH4 solution was evaluated at -25 °C and the performance of the micro power system was measured at various operating conditions. The power output of micro power system reasonably followed up the given electric load conditions.

  18. Gallium Nitride -based Microwave Power Varactors for Wireless Base Station Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei

    With the development of wireless communication systems, the demand for providing tunability in the wireless communication circuits becomes more and more intense. Among the technologies, semiconductor varactor is the critical component that is capable of implementing tunable and adaptive characteristics, particularly for the frond-end components of the wireless communication systems. For base station applications, high voltage handling capability, typically of 100 V or greater, high quality factor (Q), typically of above 100 at operation frequency, and high linearity, OIP3 > 65 dBm, are required. This work will mainly discuss in detail the design, fabrication and characterization to achieve the high-voltage high-Q and high-linearity microwave power varactors for wireless base station applications. Some preliminary varactor applications in the test tunable circuits will be demonstrated too. In this dissertation, we first introduce the physics of the semiconductor varactors and the motivation for choosing GaN as the candidate material for this microwave power varactor. Then we elucidate the critical design considerations for achieving high breakdown voltage, high quality factor and high linearity. The novel Schottky barrier engineered design using a thin InGaN surface layer on top of GaN to enhance the breakdown voltage of GaN-based Schottky diodes is therefore introduced. We then show the theoretical and experimental studies on the suppression mechanisms for electron tunneling in the InGaN/GaN Schottky barriers. The detailed material characterization for the InGaN/GaN material system and its application for the enhancement-mode HEMTs are also presented. Next, we discuss the initial device fabrication procedure and the improving methods based on the initial DC and RF measurement results. Thereafter, we report the detailed characterizations of the fabricated devices including the high-voltage I-V and C-V, S-parameters for 1-port and 2-port devices, linearity and

  19. Forecasting New Hampshire Power Outages through the Analysis of Weather Station Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, Ross T.

    Eversource Energy, formerly Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), has worked closely with Plymouth State University (PSU) in the past, and present, to better predict weather-related power outage events and maximize the efficiency with which Eversource responds to them. This research paired weather data from thirteen stations throughout New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts with Eversource Trouble Report and Unsatisfactory Performance of Equipment Report (TRUPER) data in an effort to quantify weather situations that lead to power outages. The ultimate goal involved developing a predictive model that uses weather data to forecast the magnitude of power outages. The study focused on the Eversource Western/Central service territory and utilized data from 2006-2010. The first four years, 2006-2009, were analyzed using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) statistical analysis. The results of this CART analysis trained a predictive model, while the fifth year, 2010, served as the testing set for the predictive model. To conduct the statistical analysis, a database was created pairing TRUPER reports with the closest available hourly weather observations. The database included nine weather variables matched with three variables from the TRUPER data: 1) customers, 2) customer minutes, and 3) outage duration. While the entire Eversource service territory saw 91,286 TRUPERs from 2006-2010, the Western/Central service territory, the focus of this study, accounted for 29,430. Before conducting the CART analysis, correlations between single weather variables and TRUPER data were calculated and, in general, proved xi weak. In addition to analyzing the complete four-year training data set, many portions/variations of the data set were analyzed. The analyses included a yearly analysis, time lag analysis, cold/warm-season analysis, and a single-station analysis. Although individual years and smaller data sets showed moderately higher correlations between weather and outage

  20. IPONS - A New Concept for Integrated Power and Data Distribution Onboard Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, O.; Gotsmann, M.; Dostert, K.; Gollor, M.

    2007-08-01

    IPONS ( Information & PO wer Net works in Spacecrafts) is an initiative launched by Astrium Satellites to investigate the classical idea of "Power Line Communications" (PLC) technology for development of advanced electrical S/C architectures with combined Power Networks & Data Links. A gross saving of up to 50% of harness mass in addition to significant savings in engineering costs and time is envisaged. An assessment of PLC transmission techniques has been performed targeting Medium Data Rates > 1MBit/s. As a result the use of typical Twisted Pair Power Harness with special terminations for impedance control is proposed. Thus simple modulation schemes for data transmission can be used avoiding complex signal processors in favour of simple and inexpensive FPGA or ASIC solutions.

  1. Fundamental assumptions for development of small water power stations and resulting indications for standarization of their generating sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1983-01-01

    According to the criterion of simple technical construction and no regular personnel, the concept of Small Water Power Stations (SWPS) covers power stations with output capacity less than 5 MW. It follows that for economical reasons these plants should: make use of so far existing dams with total head greater than or equal to 3 m, and have simple technical solutions (1 generating set with high rotating speed and no high voltage switchboard). It is assumed that SWPS will consist mostly of flow power plants capable to operate in their own network. It is suggested that 950 SWPS with Kaplan turbines in concrete chambers or vertical and horizontal pipe turbines (H greater than or equal to 20 m) and 70 power stations with Francis turbines (H > 20 m) should be put in operation by 2000. Some results of a review, carried out recently in Poland, of structures suitable for installing small water power stations are presented. Also, some of the most important foreign companies manufacturing water turbines of small capacity are specified.

  2. A novel concentrator with zero-index metamaterial for space solar power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Chu, Xue-mei; Fan, Jian-yu; Jin, Qi-bao; Duan, Zhu-zhu

    2017-03-01

    Space solar power station (SSPS) is a comprehensive system that continuously collects solar energy in space and transmits it to ground with a wireless power transmission (WPT) system. These systems have great potential to provide large-scale energy. To increase the efficiency and reduce the weight and cost of the photovoltaic (PV) components, a huge light-weighted concentrator was introduced in the latest SSPS concepts, such as integrated symmetrical concentrator (ISC) and arbitrarily large phased array (ALPHA). However, for typical SSPS running in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), the sunlight direction varies with time, leading to a great challenge for concentrator design. In ISC, the two-dimensional mast is used to realize sun-tracking. However, a multi-thousand-ton structure is difficult to control precisely in space. For this reason, ALPHA comprises a large number of individually pointed thin-film reflectors to intercept sunlight, mounted on the non-moving structure. However, the real-time adjustment of the thousands of reflectors is still an open problem. Furthermore, the uniformity of the time of the power generation (UTPG) is another factor evaluating the system. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel concentrator based on zero-index metamaterial (ZIM) called Thin-film Energy Terminator (SSPS-TENT). This will aid the control of the massive reflectors while avoiding the rotation of the overall system, the control of the massive reflectors and the influence of the obliquity of the ecliptic. Also, an optimization design method is proposed to increase its solar energy collecting efficiency (ECE) and flux distribution (FD). The ray-tracing simulation results show that the ECE is more than 96% of the day. In terms of the FD, the uniformity varies from 0.3057 to 0.5748. Compared with ALPHA, the UTPG is more stable.

  3. Report of examination of the ruptured pipe at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    In order to investigate root cause of the pipe rupture, which took place at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company on November 7, 2001, a task force was established within the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and initiated a detailed investigation of the ruptured pipe. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was asked from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in response to the request from NISA to cooperate as an independent neutral organization with NISA and perform an examination of the ruptured pipe independently from Chubu Electric Power Company. JAERI accepted the request by considering the fact that JAERI is an integrated research institution for nuclear research and development, a prime research institution for nuclear safety research, a research institution with experience of root-cause investigation of various nuclear incidents and accidents of domestic as well as overseas, and a research institution provided with advanced examination facilities necessary for examination of the ruptured pipe. The JAERI examination group was formed at the Tokai Research Establishment and conducted detailed and thorough examination of the pieces taken from the ruptured pipe primarily in the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) with the use of tools such as scanning electron microscopes and other equipments. Purpose of examination was to provide technical information in order to identify causes of the pipe rupture through examination of the pieces taken from the ruptured region of the pipe. The following findings and conclusion were made as the result of the present examination. (1) Wall thickness of the pipe was significantly reduced in the ruptured region. (2) Dimple pattern resulting from ductile fracture by shearing was observed in the fracture surfaces of nearly all of the pieces and no indication of fatigue crack growth was found. (3) Microstructure showed a typical carbon

  4. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  5. 卫星便携站天线自动对星系统的设计与实现%Design and implement of satellite auto-aiming system on antenna of satellite portable station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明; 王星全; 郑振华; 杨华

    2012-01-01

    In the porcess of narrow-beam portable station antenna aiming the satellite, there are three problems: finding the satellite difficulty, aiming the satellite long-time and low-precision. In this article, an auto-aim instrument on equipment is designed and implemented. This instrument based on PIC singlechip can implement rapid, automatic and precise aiming the satellite by collecting and porcessing the data from GPS and sensors and signal strength module, controling stepping motors to adjust the azimuth and elevation of portable station antenna. Using this system, we can reduce the time, improve the precision in aiming the satellite and prove the efficiency of communication markedly.%针对卫星便携站窄波束天线找星难度大、对星耗时多、对星精度差的问题,设计并实现了一个附加在实装设备上的自动对星工具,以PIC单片机为核心,通过采集和处理GPS数据、方位俯仰传感器数据和卫星信号强度数据,控制高精度步进电机自动调整便携站天线方位角和俯仰角,从而实现快速、自动、精确对星.通过使用高精度步进电机代替传统手工操作,能够明显缩短对星时间、提高对星精度,且体积较小、安装拆卸容易、携带方便,显著提高了通信效能.

  6. Initial assessment: electromagnetic compatibility aspects of proposed SPS Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    An analysis of major concerns with regard to the effects on radio and electronic systems by the proposed Microwave Power Transmission System for transmitting power from a satellite solar power station to earth is presented. (LCL)

  7. Social acceptability of Satellite Power Systems (SPS): the near-term outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klineberg, S L

    1980-05-01

    It is important, at this early stage in the concept development and evaluation of Satellite Power Systems, to explore aspects of contemporary social change that may be expected to complicate the process of achieving the necessary support of the American public for this new technological venture. Current public attitudes make it appear unlikely that a consensus will evolve during the 1980s favoring costly efforts to develop vast new supplies of conventional energy. Opinion polls reveal a pervasive worry over inflation, a broadening of aspirations to encompass quality-of-life concerns, a growing distrust of central governments, large corporations, big science and technology, and a continuing commitment to environmental protection - all of which suggests a social environment that is likely to resist the development of a major new high-technology energy system such as the SPS. Opposition to satellite power will focus on the high front-end development costs, on environmental and technical uncertainties, and on a generalized distrust of large bureaucracies and esoteric technologies. The SPS concept is also likely to be viewed with skepticism by those with vested interests in the long-run uses of coal, shale, fission, fusion, or on-site solar technologies. The growing commitment to energy conservation and the spreading deployment of dispersed renewable-energy systems strongly suggest that the unmet US demand for centrally generated electricity is unlikely to grow sufficiently over the next twenty years to convince a reluctant public of the need for so large an investment of scarce resources in the SPS program. Satellite Power Systems will have a problem in the area of public acceptability.

  8. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the results of Pleiades satellite stereo images using dynamic programming and Graph-Cut algorithms, consequently comparing satellites' imaging sensors and Depth-estimation Algorithms. Our results show that Graph-Cut Algorithm performs better than dynamic programming (DP) in terms of accuracy and speed.

  9. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Bai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation models of interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations are specifically described in the paper. The virtual power plant applies an optimal dispatch strategy to earn the maximal expected profit under some fluctuating parameters, including market price, retail price and load demand. The presented model is a nonlinear mixed-integer programming with inter-temporal constraints and is solved by the fruit fly algorithm.

  10. Program assessment report, statement of findings. Satellite power systems concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    What is known, uncertain, and unknown about the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is stated. The important technical, environmental, and cost goal questions that must be answered prior to making a commitment to the SPS concept are discussed. Although significant technological, environmental and economic questions remain to be answered, the preliminary investigations undertaken in the CDEP do provide a basis for a policy decision on further commitment. Also, areas of research and experimentation required to acquire the knowledge by which a series of informed, time-phased decisions may be made concerning the possibility of the SPS concept playing a major role in the United States' energy future are suggested.

  11. Space debris proximity analysis in powered and orbital phases during satellite launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyankar; Sharma, R. K.; Adimurthy, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the space debris proximity analysis in powered and orbital phase at the time of a satellite launch. The details of the SPADEPRO analysis package, developed for this purpose, are presented. It consists of modules which provide the functions related to ephemeris generation and reconstruction of primary object (launch vehicle or its payload upon insertion), determination of close approaches with resident space objects, computation of the state vector variance of the primary and the secondary objects to represent the knowledge uncertainty, and computation of the collision risk given the variance. This has been successfully applied during the recent launches of the Indian Space Research Organization.

  12. Ground based observations of Pc3-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation power at Antarctic McMurdo station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maclennan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The two horizontal geomagnetic components and, measured by a fluxgate magnetometer at Antarctic McMurdo station (corrected geomagnetic coordinates 80.0° S, 327.5° E, are analyzed for the period May-June 1994; the spectral powers are calculated and integrated over three frequency intervals corresponding to the nominal ranges. The time dependence of those integrated powers and their correlations with northern auroral indices and solar wind speed are considered. The observations are compared with previous results reported from Terra Nova Bay station (located near McMurdo at the same corrected geomagnetic latitude during Antarctic summer intervals. The differences found between the two stations are discussed in terms of the seasonal dependence of geomagnetic field line configurations in the near cusp region.

  13. Measurement of the Magnetic Properties of P9 and T22 Steel Taken from Service in Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, JWa; Karimian, N a; Liu, J. B.; Yin, W a; Davis, CLb; Peyton, AJa

    2014-01-01

    With the UK's aging power generation network, life-extension of steel plant components is a critical issue. However, in order to evaluate the likelihood of component failure, techniques must be developed to properly assess the level of degradation in power station steels. Electromagnetic inspection has the potential to quantify the level of degradation through in-situ measurements at elevated temperatures. This paper reports the results of tests carried out on thermally treated P9 and T22 ste...

  14. Assessing the relationship between leadership styles, coping and employee attitudes at a power station / Mthunzi Freedom Lushozi

    OpenAIRE

    Lushozi, Mthunzi Freedom

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the state of leadership characteristics and the impact these variables have on employee self-esteem and employee work-related outcomes in a South African power utility in particular power station environment. The inquiry was conducted in a natural working environment of an organisation where respondents are situated/ located (i.e. a field study). A stratified convenience sampling approach was used to carry out the study using a structured questionnaire develo...

  15. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. Main report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWe.

  16. Building of Analytic Model for ST-35-90/10 Turbine Energy Characteristic at the Vitebsk Thermal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Popova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a methodology of building an analytical model for an ST-35-90/10 extraction turbine with two regulated extractions at the Vitebsk Thermal Power Station. This methodology makes it possible to decrease the time for mode calculation. The obtained characteristic can be used for solution of optimization problems.

  17. Addressing Obsolescence in Operating Power Stations by Implementation of Safety Related Digital Upgrades Paper for Spanish Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, R.

    2014-07-01

    Obsolescence of Instrumentation and Controls is a major problem facing operating Nuclear Power Stations globally. AREVA is the only supplier that has supported the successful licensing, engineering, procurement, installation and commissioning of a full-scope digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Protection System in the United States. (Author)

  18. 78 FR 79017 - Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical... shut down facility and responsibility for its decommissioning was transferred to ZionSolutions (ZS), a subsidiary of EnergySolutions. ZS was established solely for the purpose of acquiring and decommissioning...

  19. On the building of Momoyama hydraulic power station on Kiso river. Kisogawa Momoyama suiryoku hatsudensho no kenchiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, T. (Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    This paper investigates Momoyama hydraulic power station built on the middle reaches of the Kiso River in Uematsu-cho, Kiso-gun, Nagano Prefecture in Japan, in 1923 by relating to the feature of the building of the hydraulic power station and the architect, Shiro Sato. The hydraulic power station originally was a functional and industrial building which puts a priority on the efficiency of business economy, at the same time it was often required to present a beautiful appearance. The building of Momoyama hydraulic power station was founded on the crane girder structure covered with reinforced concrete(RC) walls. A Hat roof of RC slab was applied to the roof of the building. It was generally designed in Neo-Gothic style. More specifically, however, the wall surface was designed in church style and the upper part was like a castle in the middle ages. Therefore the total design was eclectic. The outer surfaces of the building were remained to be bare concrete as cast. Such a multiple building symbolizes the situation of Japanes architecture in the 1920s. 4 figs.

  20. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for... this Demand for Information, the following information, in writing, and under oath or affirmation: 1...