WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite orbit simulator

  1. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits LPVEx dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  2. Application of Unscented Kalman Filter in Satellite Orbit Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dongming; CAI Zhiwu

    2006-01-01

    A new estimate method is proposed, which takes advantage of the unscented transform method, thus the true mean and covariance are approximated more accurately. The new method can be applied to non-linear systems without the linearization process necessary for the EKF, and it does not demand a Gaussian distribution of noise and what's more, its ease of implementation and more accurate estimation features enables it to demonstrate its good performance in the experiment of satellite orbit simulation. Numerical experiments show that the application of the unscented Kalman filter is more effective than the EKF.

  3. The Eccentric Satellites Problem: Comparing Milky Way Satellite Orbital Properties to Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Umran; Pryor, Carlton; Applebaum, Elaad; Brooks, Alyson

    2018-01-01

    We compare the orbital properties of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way to those of satellites found in simulated Milky Way-like systems as a means of testing cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. The particular problem that we are investigating is a discrepancy in the distribution of orbital eccentricities. Previous studies of Milky Way-mass systems analyzed in a semi-analytic ΛCDM cosmological model have found that the satellites tend to have significantly larger fractions of their kinetic energy invested in radial motion with respect to their central galaxy than do the real-world Milky Way satellites. We analyze several high-resolution ("zoom-in") hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-mass galaxies and their associated satellite systems to investigate why previous works found Milky Way-like systems to be rare. We find a possible relationship between a quiescent galactic assembly history and a distribution of satellite kinematics resembling that of the Milky Way. This project has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation grant PHY-1560077.

  4. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits C3VP dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits MC3E dataset is available in the Orbital database , which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits TWP-ICE dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  8. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  9. Integrated orbit and attitude hardware-in-the-loop simulations for autonomous satellite formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han-Earl; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Sung-Woo; Park, Chandeok

    2013-12-01

    Development and experiment of an integrated orbit and attitude hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator for autonomous satellite formation flying are presented. The integrated simulator system consists of an orbit HIL simulator for orbit determination and control, and an attitude HIL simulator for attitude determination and control. The integrated simulator involves four processes (orbit determination, orbit control, attitude determination, and attitude control), which interact with each other in the same way as actual flight processes do. Orbit determination is conducted by a relative navigation algorithm using double-difference GPS measurements based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Orbit control is performed by a state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) technique that is utilized as a nonlinear controller for the formation control problem. Attitude is determined from an attitude heading reference system (AHRS) sensor, and a proportional-derivative (PD) feedback controller is used to control the attitude HIL simulator using three momentum wheel assemblies. Integrated orbit and attitude simulations are performed for a formation reconfiguration scenario. By performing the four processes adequately, the desired formation reconfiguration from a baseline of 500-1000 m was achieved with meter-level position error and millimeter-level relative position navigation. This HIL simulation demonstrates the performance of the integrated HIL simulator and the feasibility of the applied algorithms in a real-time environment. Furthermore, the integrated HIL simulator system developed in the current study can be used as a ground-based testing environment to reproduce possible actual satellite formation operations.

  10. TEST BED FOR THE SIMULATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gallina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a test bed designed to simulate magnetic environment experienced by a spacecraft on low Earth orbit. It consists of a spherical air bearing located inside a Helmholtz cage. The spherical air bearing is used for simulating microgravity conditions of orbiting bodies while the Helmholtz cage generates a controllable magnetic field resembling the one surrounding a satellite during its motion. Dedicated computer software is used to initially calculate the magnetic field on an established orbit. The magnetic field data is then translated into current values and transmitted to programmable power supplies energizing the cage. The magnetic field within the cage is finally measured by a test article mounted on the air bearing. The paper provides a description of the test bed and the test article design. An experimental test proves the good performance of the entire system.

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  14. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  15. A standard library for modeling satellite orbits on a microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Kenneth L.

    1988-03-01

    Introductory students of astrodynamics and the space environment are required to have a fundamental understanding of the kinematic behavior of satellite orbits. This thesis develops a standard library that contains the basic formulas for modeling earth orbiting satellites. This library is used as a basis for implementing a satellite motion simulator that can be used to demonstrate orbital phenomena in the classroom. Surveyed are the equations of orbital elements, coordinate systems and analytic formulas, which are made into a standard method for modeling earth orbiting satellites. The standard library is written in the C programming language and is designed to be highly portable between a variety of computer environments. The simulation draws heavily on the standards established by the library to produce a graphics-based orbit simulation program written for the Apple Macintosh computer. The simulation demonstrates the utility of the standard library functions but, because of its extensive use of the Macintosh user interface, is not portable to other operating systems.

  16. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  17. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  18. Orbit determination for ISRO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ch. Sreehari; Sinha, S. K.

    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been successful in using the in-house developed orbit determination and prediction software for satellite missions of Bhaskara, Rohini and APPLE. Considering the requirements of satellite missions, software packages are developed, tested and their accuracies are assessed. Orbit determination packages developed are SOIP, for low earth orbits of Bhaskara and Rohini missions, ORIGIN and ODPM, for orbits related to all phases of geo-stationary missions and SEGNIP, for drift and geo-stationary orbits. Software is tested and qualified using tracking data of SIGNE-3, D5-B, OTS, SYMPHONIE satellites with the help of software available with CNES, ESA and DFVLR. The results match well with those available from these agencies. These packages have supported orbit determination successfully throughout the mission life for all ISRO satellite missions. Member-Secretary

  19. History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    meeting of the Satellite Division of ION, Palm Springs, CA., 12–15 Sep 1995. Hughey, Raymond H., Jr., “ History of Mathematics and Computing Technology ...TR-17/229 HISTORY OF SATELLITE ORBIT DETERMINATION AT NSWCDD BY EVERETT R. SWIFT WARFARE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND INTEGRATION...AND SUBTITLE History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  20. Orbits of massive satellite galaxies - II. Bayesian estimates of the Milky Way and Andromeda masses using high-precision astrometry and cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ekta; Besla, Gurtina; Mandel, Kaisey

    2017-07-01

    In the era of high-precision astrometry, space observatories like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Gaia are providing unprecedented 6D phase-space information of satellite galaxies. Such measurements can shed light on the structure and assembly history of the Local Group, but improved statistical methods are needed to use them efficiently. Here we illustrate such a method using analogues of the Local Group's two most massive satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Triangulum (M33), from the Illustris dark-matter-only cosmological simulation. We use a Bayesian inference scheme combining measurements of positions, velocities and specific orbital angular momenta (j) of the LMC/M33 with importance sampling of their simulated analogues to compute posterior estimates of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda's (M31) halo masses. We conclude that the resulting host halo mass is more susceptible to bias when using measurements of the current position and velocity of satellites, especially when satellites are at short-lived phases of their orbits (I.e. at pericentre). Instead, the j value of a satellite is well conserved over time and provides a more reliable constraint on host mass. The inferred virial mass of the MW (M31) using j of the LMC (M33) is {{M}}_{vir, MW} = 1.02^{+0.77}_{-0.55} × 10^{12} M⊙ ({{M}}_{vir, M31} = 1.37^{+1.39}_{-0.75} × 10^{12} M⊙). Choosing simulated analogues whose j values are consistent with the conventional picture of a previous (<3 Gyr ago), close encounter (<100 kpc) of M33 about M31 results in a very low virial mass for M31 (˜1012 M⊙). This supports the new scenario put forth in Patel, Besla & Sohn, wherein M33 is on its first passage about M31 or on a long-period orbit. We conclude that this Bayesian inference scheme, utilizing satellite j, is a promising method to reduce the current factor of 2 spread in the mass range of the MW and M31. This method is easily adaptable to include additional satellites as new 6D

  1. Orbits of the inner satellites of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, Marina; Showalter, Mark R.; Jacobson, Robert Arthur; French, Robert S.; de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack

    2018-04-01

    We report on the numerically integrated orbits of seven inner satellites of Neptune, including S/2004 N1, the last moon of Neptune to be discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The dataset includes Voyager imaging data as well as the HST and Earth-based astrometric data. The observations span time period from 1989 to 2016. Our orbital model accounts for the equatorial bulge of Neptune, perturbations from the Sun and the planets, and perturbations from Triton. The initial orbital integration assumed that the satellites are massless, but the residuals improved significantly as the masses adjusted toward values that implied that the density of the satellites is in the realm of 1 g/cm3. We will discuss how the integrated orbits compare to the precessing ellipses fits, mean orbital elements, current orbital uncertainties, and the need for future observations.

  2. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humi, Mayer

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  3. Servicing communication satellites in geostationary orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Paul K.; Price, Kent M.

    1990-01-01

    The econmic benefits of a LEO space station are quantified by identifying alternative operating scenarios utilizing the space station's transportation facilities and assembly and repair facilities. Particular consideration is given to the analysis of the impact of on-orbit assembly and servicing on a typical communications satellite is analyzed. The results of this study show that on-orbit servicing can increase the internal rate of return by as much as 30 percent.

  4. Regional positioning using a low Earth orbit satellite constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtark, Tomer; Gurfil, Pini

    2018-02-01

    Global and regional satellite navigation systems are constellations orbiting the Earth and transmitting radio signals for determining position and velocity of users around the globe. The state-of-the-art navigation satellite systems are located in medium Earth orbits and geosynchronous Earth orbits and are characterized by high launching, building and maintenance costs. For applications that require only regional coverage, the continuous and global coverage that existing systems provide may be unnecessary. Thus, a nano-satellites-based regional navigation satellite system in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with significantly reduced launching, building and maintenance costs, can be considered. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing a LEO constellation optimization and design method, using genetic algorithms and gradient-based optimization. The preliminary results of this study include 268 LEO constellations, aimed at regional navigation in an approximately 1000 km × 1000 km area centered at the geographic coordinates [30, 30] degrees. The constellations performance is examined using simulations, and the figures of merit include total coverage time, revisit time, and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) percentiles. The GDOP is a quantity that determines the positioning solution accuracy and solely depends on the spatial geometry of the satellites. Whereas the optimization method takes into account only the Earth's second zonal harmonic coefficient, the simulations include the Earth's gravitational field with zonal and tesseral harmonics up to degree 10 and order 10, Solar radiation pressure, drag, and the lunisolar gravitational perturbation.

  5. Orbital resonances of Taiwan's FORMOSAT-2 remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Fa; Hwang, Cheinway

    2018-06-01

    Unlike a typical remote sensing satellite that has a global coverage and non-integral orbital revolutions per day, Taiwan's FORMOSAT-2 (FS-2) satellite has a non-global coverage due to the mission requirements of one-day repeat cycle and daily visit around Taiwan. These orbital characteristics result in an integer number of revolutions a day and orbital resonances caused by certain components of the Earth's gravity field. Orbital flight data indicated amplified variations in the amplitudes of FS-2's Keplerian elements. We use twelve years of orbital observations and maneuver data to analyze the cause of the resonances and explain the differences between the simulated (at the pre-launch stage) and real orbits of FS-2. The differences are quantified using orbital perturbation theories that describe secular and long-period orbital evolutions caused by resonances. The resonance-induced orbital rising rate of FS-2 reaches +1.425 m/day, due to the combined (modeled) effect of resonances and atmospheric drags (the relative modeling errors remote sensing mission similar to FS-2, especially in the early mission design and planning phase.

  6. Research on orbit prediction for solar-based calibration proper satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Qi, Wenwen; Xu, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Utilizing the mathematical model of the orbit mechanics, the orbit prediction is to forecast the space target's orbit information of a certain time based on the orbit of the initial moment. The proper satellite radiometric calibration and calibration orbit prediction process are introduced briefly. On the basis of the research of the calibration space position design method and the radiative transfer model, an orbit prediction method for proper satellite radiometric calibration is proposed to select the appropriate calibration arc for the remote sensor and to predict the orbit information of the proper satellite and the remote sensor. By analyzing the orbit constraint of the proper satellite calibration, the GF-1solar synchronous orbit is chose as the proper satellite orbit in order to simulate the calibration visible durance for different satellites to be calibrated. The results of simulation and analysis provide the basis for the improvement of the radiometric calibration accuracy of the satellite remote sensor, which lays the foundation for the high precision and high frequency radiometric calibration.

  7. Analysis of orbit determination from Earth-based tracking for relay satellites in a perturbed areostationary orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, P.; Pablos, B.; Barderas, G.

    2017-07-01

    Areostationary satellites are considered a high interest group of satellites to satisfy the telecommunications needs of the foreseen missions to Mars. An areostationary satellite, in an areoequatorial circular orbit with a period of 1 Martian sidereal day, would orbit Mars remaining at a fixed location over the Martian surface, analogous to a geostationary satellite around the Earth. This work addresses an analysis of the perturbed orbital motion of an areostationary satellite as well as a preliminary analysis of the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy based on Earth tracking observations. First, the models for the perturbations due to the Mars gravitational field, the gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, and solar radiation pressure are described. Then, the observability from Earth including possible occultations by Mars of an areostationary satellite in a perturbed areosynchronous motion is analyzed. The results show that continuous Earth-based tracking is achievable using observations from the three NASA Deep Space Network Complexes in Madrid, Goldstone and Canberra in an occultation-free scenario. Finally, an analysis of the orbit determination accuracy is addressed considering several scenarios including discontinuous tracking schedules for different epochs and different areoestationary satellites. Simulations also allow to quantify the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy for various tracking series durations and observed orbit arc-lengths.

  8. Improving BeiDou precise orbit determination using observations of onboard MEO satellite receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Haibo; Li, Bofeng; Ge, Maorong; Shen, Yunzhong; Schuh, Harald

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the precise orbit determination (POD) of the regional Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been a hot spot because of its special constellation consisting of five geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites and five inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites besides four medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites since the end of 2012. GEO and IGSO satellites play an important role in regional BDS applications. However, this brings a great challenge to the POD, especially for the GEO satellites due to their geostationary orbiting. Though a number of studies have been carried out to improve the POD performance of GEO satellites, the result is still much worse than that of IGSO and MEO, particularly in the along-track direction. The major reason is that the geostationary characteristic of a GEO satellite results in a bad geometry with respect to the ground tracking network. In order to improve the tracking geometry of the GEO satellites, a possible strategy is to mount global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers on MEO satellites to collect the signals from GEO/IGSO GNSS satellites so as that these observations can be used to improve GEO/IGSO POD. We extended our POD software package to simulate all the related observations and to assimilate the MEO-onboard GNSS observations in orbit determination. Based on GPS and BDS constellations, simulated studies are undertaken for various tracking scenarios. The impact of the onboard GNSS observations is investigated carefully and presented in detail. The results show that MEO-onboard observations can significantly improve the orbit precision of GEO satellites from metres to decimetres, especially in the along-track direction. The POD results of IGSO satellites also benefit from the MEO-onboard data and the precision can be improved by more than 50% in 3D direction.

  9. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0, and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable linear

  10. NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) Radiometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series offers the advantage of daily global coverage, by making nearly polar orbits 14 times per day...

  11. ORBITAL DEPENDENCE OF GALAXY PROPERTIES IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2010-01-01

    We study the dependence of satellite galaxy properties on the distance to the host galaxy and the orbital motion (prograde and retrograde orbits) using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. From SDSS Data Release 7, we find 3515 isolated satellite systems of galaxies at z -1 . It is found that the radial distribution of early-type satellites in prograde orbit is strongly concentrated toward the host while that of retrograde ones shows much less concentration. We also find the orbital speed of late-type satellites in prograde orbit increases as the projected distance to the host (R) decreases while the speed decreases for those in retrograde orbit. At R less than 0.1 times the host virial radius (R vir,host ), the orbital speed decreases in both prograde and retrograde orbit cases. Prograde satellites are on average fainter than retrograde satellites for both early and late morphological types. The u - r color becomes redder as R decreases for both prograde and retrograde orbit late-type satellites. The differences between prograde and retrograde orbit satellite galaxies may be attributed to their different origin or the different strength of physical processes that they have experienced through hydrodynamic interactions with their host galaxies.

  12. Calculation of precision satellite orbits with nonsingular elements /VOP formulation/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. E.; Cefola, P. J.; Long, A. C.; Nimitz, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    Review of some results obtained in an effort to develop efficient, high-precision trajectory computation processes for artificial satellites by optimum selection of the form of the equations of motion of the satellite and the numerical integration method. In particular, the matching of a Gaussian variation-of-parameter (VOP) formulation is considered which is expressed in terms of equinoctial orbital elements and partially decouples the motion of the orbital frame from motion within the orbital frame. The performance of the resulting orbit generators is then compared with the popular classical Cowell/Gauss-Jackson formulation/integrator pair for two distinctly different orbit types - namely, the orbit of the ATS satellite at near-geosynchronous conditions and the near-circular orbit of the GEOS-C satellite at 1000 km.

  13. Satellite Orbital Precessions Caused by the Octupolar Mass Moment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I consider a satellite moving around a non-spherical body of mass M and equatorial radius R, and calculate its orbital precessions caused by the body's octupolar mass moment J4. I consider only the effects averaged over one orbital period T of the satellite. I give exact for- mulas, not restricted to any special values ...

  14. Analysis of the influence of orbital disturbances applied to an artificial lunar satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, L D; Rocco, E M; De Moraes, R V

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of the orbital disturbance forces in the trajectory of lunar satellites. The following gravitational and non-gravitational orbital disturbances are considered: the non-homogeneity of the lunar gravitational field; the gravitational attraction due to the third body, considering the Earth and the Sun; the lunar albedo; the solar radiation pressure. Numerical models were developed and implemented in an orbital trajectory simulator aiming to understand the dynamics of the orbital motion of an artificial satellite in lunar orbit when considering the simultaneous effect of all disturbances. Different orbits were simulated in order to characterize the major and the minor influence of each disturbing force as function of the inclination and the right ascension of the ascending node. This study can be very useful in the space mission analysis and in the selection of orbits less affected by environmental disturbances. (paper)

  15. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) simulator development for advanced satellite designs and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The simulation development associated with the network models of both the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures is documented. The ISIS Network Model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communications satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete event simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters, and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  16. Utilization of the NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites (NOS3) for V&V of STF-1’s Semiautonomous On-Orbit Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Grubb, Matthew; Lucas, John; Morris, Justin; Zemerick, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites (NOS3) is a suite of software tools that significantly aids the SmallSat community with software development, integration and test (I&T), mission operations/training, verification and validation (V&V), and software systems check-out. NOS3 has been utilized extensively for NASA’s Simulation-to-Flight 1 (STF-1) cubesat mission with respect to V&V of its semiautonomous science operations. NOS3 provides a software development environment, a mult...

  17. Effects of DeOrbitSail as applied to Lifetime predictions of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afful, Andoh; Opperman, Ben; Steyn, Herman

    2016-07-01

    Orbit lifetime prediction is an important component of satellite mission design and post-launch space operations. Throughout its lifetime in space, a spacecraft is exposed to risk of collision with orbital debris or operational satellites. This risk is especially high within the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region where the highest density of space debris is accumulated. This paper investigates orbital decay of some LEO micro-satellites and accelerating orbit decay by using a deorbitsail. The Semi-Analytical Liu Theory (SALT) and the Satellite Toolkit was employed to determine the mean elements and expressions for the time rates of change. Test cases of observed decayed satellites (Iridium-85 and Starshine-1) are used to evaluate the predicted theory. Results for the test cases indicated that the theory fitted observational data well within acceptable limits. Orbit decay progress of the SUNSAT micro-satellite was analysed using relevant orbital parameters derived from historic Two Line Element (TLE) sets and comparing with decay and lifetime prediction models. This paper also explored the deorbit date and time for a 1U CubeSat (ZACUBE-01). The use of solar sails as devices to speed up the deorbiting of LEO satellites is considered. In a drag sail mode, the deorbitsail technique significantly increases the effective cross-sectional area of a satellite, subsequently increasing atmospheric drag and accelerating orbit decay. The concept proposed in this study introduced a very useful technique of orbit decay as well as deorbiting of spacecraft.

  18. Orbital evolution and origin of the Martian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, A.M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The orbital evolution of the Martian satellites is considered from a dynamical point of view. Celestial mechanics relevant to the calculation of satellite orbital evolution is introduced and the physical parameters to be incorporated in the modeling of tidal dissipation are discussed. Results of extrapolating the satellite orbits backward and forward in time are presented and compared with those of other published work. Collision probability calculations and results for the Martian satellite system are presented and discussed. The implications of these calculations for the origin scenarios of the satellites are assessed. It is concluded that Deimos in its present form could not have been captured, for if it had been, it would have collided with Phobos at some point. An accretion model is therefore preferred over capture, although such a model consistent with the likely carbonaceous chondritic composition of the satellites has yet to be established. 91 references

  19. Magnus Effect on a Spinning Satellite in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjatan, Sahadeo; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Yew, Alvin Garwai

    2016-01-01

    A spinning body in a flow field generates an aerodynamic lift or Magnus effect that displaces the body in a direction normal to the freestream flow. Earth orbiting satellites with substantial body rotation in appreciable atmospheric densities may generate a Magnus force to perturb orbital dynamics. We investigate the feasibility of using this effect for spacecraft at a perigee of 80km using the Systems Tool Kit (STK). Results show that for a satellite of reasonable properties, the Magnus effect doubles the amount of time in orbit. Orbital decay was greatly mitigated for satellites spinning at 10000 and 15000RPM. This study demonstrates that the Magnus effect has the potential to sustain a spacecraft's orbit at a low perigee altitude and could also serve as an orbital maneuver capability.

  20. Relativity mission with two counter-orbiting polar satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Patten, R.A.; Everitt, C.W.F.

    1975-01-01

    In 1918, J. Lense and H. Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. An experiment to measure this effect with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit is described. For a 2 1 / 2 year experiment, the measurement accuracy should approach 1 percent. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken at points of passing near the poles. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in the polar ranging data. (auth)

  1. Simulating cosmic radiation absorption and secondary particle production of solar panel layers of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite with GEANT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiǧitoǧlu, Merve; Veske, Doǧa; Nilüfer Öztürk, Zeynep; Bilge Demirköz, Melahat

    2016-07-01

    All devices which operate in space are exposed to cosmic rays during their operation. The resulting radiation may cause fatal damages in the solid structure of devices and the amount of absorbed radiation dose and secondary particle production for each component should be calculated carefully before the production. Solar panels are semiconductor solid state devices and are very sensitive to radiation. Even a short term power cut-off may yield a total failure of the satellite. Even little doses of radiation can change the characteristics of solar cells. This deviation can be caused by rarer high energetic particles as well as the total ionizing dose from the abundant low energy particles. In this study, solar panels planned for a specific LEO satellite, IMECE, are analyzed layer by layer. The Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) database and GEANT4 simulation software are used to simulate the layers of the panels. The results obtained from the simulation will be taken in account to determine the amount of radiation protection and resistance needed for the panels or to revise the design of the panels.

  2. Scripting Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Paget, Jim; Coggi, John; Stodden, David

    2008-01-01

    This add-on module to the SOAP software can perform changes to simulation objects based on the occurrence of specific conditions. This allows the software to encompass simulation response of scheduled or physical events. Users can manipulate objects in the simulation environment under programmatic control. Inputs to the scripting module are Actions, Conditions, and the Script. Actions are arbitrary modifications to constructs such as Platform Objects (i.e. satellites), Sensor Objects (representing instruments or communication links), or Analysis Objects (user-defined logical or numeric variables). Examples of actions include changes to a satellite orbit ( v), changing a sensor-pointing direction, and the manipulation of a numerical expression. Conditions represent the circumstances under which Actions are performed and can be couched in If-Then-Else logic, like performing v at specific times or adding to the spacecraft power only when it is being illuminated by the Sun. The SOAP script represents the entire set of conditions being considered over a specific time interval. The output of the scripting module is a series of events, which are changes to objects at specific times. As the SOAP simulation clock runs forward, the scheduled events are performed. If the user sets the clock back in time, the events within that interval are automatically undone. This script offers an interface for defining scripts where the user does not have to remember the vocabulary of various keywords. Actions can be captured by employing the same user interface that is used to define the objects themselves. Conditions can be set to invoke Actions by selecting them from pull-down lists. Users define the script by selecting from the pool of defined conditions. Many space systems have to react to arbitrary events that can occur from scheduling or from the environment. For example, an instrument may cease to draw power when the area that it is tasked to observe is not in view. The contingency

  3. Handbook of satellite orbits from Kepler to GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Capderou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years after Sputnik, artificial satellites have become indispensable monitors in many areas, such as economics, meteorology, telecommunications, navigation and remote sensing. The specific orbits are important for the proper functioning of the satellites. This book discusses the great variety of satellite orbits, both in shape (circular to highly elliptical) and properties (geostationary, Sun-synchronous, etc.). This volume starts with an introduction into geodesy. This is followed by a presentation of the fundamental equations of mechanics to explain and demonstrate the properties for all types of orbits. Numerous examples are included, obtained through IXION software developed by the author. The book also includes an exposition of the historical background that is necessary to help the reader understand the main stages of scientific thought from Kepler to GPS. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and students working in the field of satellite technology. Engineers, geographers and all those...

  4. SPICE Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggi, John; Carnright, Robert; Hildebrand, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A SPICE module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) precisely represents complex motion and maneuvers in an interactive, 3D animated environment with support for user-defined quantitative outputs. (SPICE stands for Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, and Events). This module enables the SOAP software to exploit NASA mission ephemeris represented in the JPL Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE formats. Ephemeris types supported include position, velocity, and orientation for spacecraft and planetary bodies including the Sun, planets, natural satellites, comets, and asteroids. Entire missions can now be imported into SOAP for 3D visualization, playback, and analysis. The SOAP analysis and display features can now leverage detailed mission files to offer the analyst both a numerically correct and aesthetically pleasing combination of results that can be varied to study many hypothetical scenarios. The software provides a modeling and simulation environment that can encompass a broad variety of problems using orbital prediction. For example, ground coverage analysis, communications analysis, power and thermal analysis, and 3D visualization that provide the user with insight into complex geometric relations are included. The SOAP SPICE module allows distributed science and engineering teams to share common mission models of known pedigree, which greatly reduces duplication of effort and the potential for error. The use of the software spans all phases of the space system lifecycle, from the study of future concepts to operations and anomaly analysis. It allows SOAP software to correctly position and orient all of the principal bodies of the Solar System within a single simulation session along with multiple spacecraft trajectories and the orientation of mission payloads. In addition to the 3D visualization, the user can define numeric variables and x-y plots to quantitatively assess metrics of interest.

  5. GNSS satellite transmit power and its impact on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Thoelert, Steffen; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    Antenna thrust is a small acceleration acting on Global Navigation Satellite System satellites caused by the transmission of radio navigation signals. Knowledge about the transmit power and the mass of the satellites is required for the computation of this effect. The actual transmit power can be obtained from measurements with a high-gain antenna and knowledge about the properties of the transmit and receive antennas as well as losses along the propagation path. Transmit power measurements for different types of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou-2 satellites were taken with a 30-m dish antenna of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) located at its ground station in Weilheim. For GPS, total L-band transmit power levels of 50-240 W were obtained, 20-135 W for GLONASS, 95-265 W for Galileo, and 130-185 W for BeiDou-2. The transmit power differs usually only slightly for individual spacecraft within one satellite block. An exception are the GLONASS-M satellites where six subgroups with different transmit power levels could be identified. Considering the antenna thrust in precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites decreases the orbital radius by 1-27 mm depending on the transmit power, the satellite mass, and the orbital period.

  6. Multi-GNSS orbit determination using satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Grzegorz; Sośnica, Krzysztof; Zajdel, Radosław

    2018-04-01

    Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and NavIC are emerging global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) and regional navigation satellite systems all of which are equipped with laser retroreflector arrays for range measurements. This paper summarizes the GNSS-intensive tracking campaigns conducted by the International Laser Ranging Service and provides results from multi-GNSS orbit determination using solely SLR observations. We consider the whole constellation of GLONASS, all active Galileo, four BeiDou satellites: 1 MEO, 3 IGSO, and one QZSS. We analyze the influence of the number of SLR observations on the quality of the 3-day multi-GNSS orbit solution. About 60 SLR observations are needed for obtaining MEO orbits of sufficient quality with the root mean square (RMS) of 3 cm for the radial component when compared to microwave-based orbits. From the analysis of a minimum number of tracking stations, when considering the 3-day arcs, 5 SLR stations do not provide a sufficient geometry of observations. The solution obtained using ten stations is characterized with RMS of 4, 9, and 18 cm in the radial, along-track, and cross-track direction, respectively, for MEO satellites. We also investigate the impact of the length of orbital arc on the quality of SLR-derived orbits. Hence, 5- and 7-day arcs constitute the best solution, whereas 3-day arcs are of inferior quality due to an insufficient number of SLR observations and 9-day arcs deteriorate the along-track component. The median RMS from the comparison between 7-day orbital arcs determined using SLR data with microwave-based orbits assumes values in the range of 3-4, 11-16, and 15-27 cm in radial, along-track, and cross-track, respectively, for MEO satellites. BeiDou IGSO and QZSS are characterized by RMS values higher by a factor of 8 and 24, respectively, than MEO orbits.

  7. Precise Orbit Determination of GPS Satellites Using Phase Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Kook Jee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of user position by GPS is heavily dependent upon the accuracy of satellite position which is usually transmitted to GPS users in radio signals. The real-time satellite position information directly obtained from broadcast ephimerides has the accuracy of 3 x 10 meters which is very unsatisfactory to measure 100km baseline to the accuracy of less than a few mili-meters. There are globally at present seven orbit analysis centers capable of generating precise GPS ephimerides and their orbit quality is of the order of about 10cm. Therefore, precise orbit model and phase processing technique were reviewed and consequently precise GPS ephimerides were produced after processing the phase observables of 28 global GPS stations for 1 day. Initial 6 orbit parameters and 2 solar radiation coefficients were estimated using batch least square algorithm and the final results were compared with the orbit of IGS, the International GPS Service for Geodynamics.

  8. Cultures in orbit: Satellite technologies, global media and local practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lisa Ann

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, satellite technologies have had a profound impact upon cultures around the world. "Cultures in Orbit" examines these seemingly disembodied, distant relay machines in relation to situated social and cultural processes on earth. Drawing upon a range of materials including NASA and UNESCO documents, international satellite television broadcasts, satellite 'development' projects, documentary and science fiction films, remote sensing images, broadcast news footage, World Wide Web sites, and popular press articles I delineate and analyze a series of satellite mediascapes. "Cultures in Orbit" analyzes uses of satellites for live television relay, surveillance, archaeology and astronomy. The project examines such satellite media as the first live global satellite television program Our World, Elvis' Aloha from Hawaii concert, Aboriginal Australian satellite programs, and Star TV's Asian music videos. In addition, the project explores reconnaissance images of mass graves in Bosnia, archaeological satellite maps of Cleopatra's underwater palace in Egypt, and Hubble Space Telescope images. These case studies are linked by a theoretical discussion of the satellite's involvement in shifting definitions of time, space, vision, knowledge and history. The satellite fosters an aesthetic of global realism predicated on instantaneous transnational connections. It reorders linear chronologies by revealing traces of the ancient past on the earth's surface and by searching in deep space for the "edge of time." On earth, the satellite is used to modernize and develop "primitive" societies. Satellites have produced new electronic spaces of international exchange, but they also generate strategic maps that advance Western political and cultural hegemony. By technologizing human vision, the satellite also extends the epistemologies of the visible, the historical and the real. It allows us to see artifacts and activities on earth from new vantage points

  9. Thermally induced vibrations of smart solar panel in a low-orbit satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, E.; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Azadi, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a smart flexible satellite moving in a circular orbit with two flexible panels are studied. The panels have been modeled as clamped-free-free-free rectangular plates with attached piezoelectric actuators. It is assumed that the satellite has a pitch angle rotation maneuver. Rapid temperature changes at day-night transitions in orbit generate time dependent bending moments. Satellite maneuver and temperature varying induce vibrations in the appendages. So, to simulate the system, heat radiation effects on the appendages have been considered. The nonlinear equations of motion and the heat transfer equations are coupled and solved simultaneously. So, the governing equations of motion are nonlinear and very complicated ones. Finally, the whole system is simulated and the effects of the heat radiation, radius of the orbit, piezoelectric voltages, and piezoelectric locations on the response of the system are studied.

  10. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  11. FROM ORDER TO CHAOS IN EARTH SATELLITE ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gkolias, Ioannis; Gachet, Fabien [Department of Mathematics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Daquin, Jérôme [IMCCE/Observatoire de Paris, Université Lille1, F-59000 Lille (France); Rosengren, Aaron J., E-mail: gkolias@mat.uniroma2.it [IFAC-CNR, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    We consider Earth satellite orbits in the range of semimajor axes where the perturbing effects of Earth’s oblateness and lunisolar gravity are of comparable order. This range covers the medium-Earth orbits (MEO) of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and the geosynchronous orbits (GEO) of the communication satellites. We recall a secular and quadrupolar model, based on the Milankovitch vector formulation of perturbation theory, which governs the long-term orbital evolution subject to the predominant gravitational interactions. We study the global dynamics of this two-and-a-half degrees-of-freedom Hamiltonian system by means of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI), used in a statistical sense. Specifically, we characterize the degree of chaoticity of the action space using angle-averaged normalized FLI maps, thereby overcoming the angle dependencies of the conventional stability maps. Emphasis is placed upon the phase-space structures near secular resonances, which are of primary importance to the space debris community. We confirm and quantify the transition from order to chaos in MEO, stemming from the critical inclinations and find that highly inclined GEO orbits are particularly unstable. Despite their reputed normality, Earth satellite orbits can possess an extraordinarily rich spectrum of dynamical behaviors and, from a mathematical perspective, have all the complications that make them very interesting candidates for testing the modern tools of chaos theory.

  12. Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F.

    2003-07-01

    The irregular moons of the Jovian planets are a puzzling part of the solar system inventory. Unlike regular satellites, the irregular moons revolve around planets at large distances in tilted and eccentric orbits. Their origin, which is intimately linked with the origin of the planets themselves, is yet to be explained. Here we report a study of the orbital and collisional evolution of the irregular satellites from times after their formation to the present epoch. The purpose of this study is to find out the features of the observed irregular moons that can be attributed to this evolution and separate them from signatures of the formation process. We numerically integrated ~60,000 test satellite orbits to map orbital locations that are stable on long time intervals. We found that the orbits highly inclined to the ecliptic are unstable due to the effect of the Kozai resonance, which radially stretches them so that satellites either escape from the Hill sphere, collide with massive inner moons, or impact the parent planet. We also found that prograde satellite orbits with large semimajor axes are unstable due to the effect of the evection resonance, which locks the orbit's apocenter to the apparent motion of the Sun around the parent planet. In such a resonance, the effect of solar tides on a resonant moon accumulates at each apocenter passage of the moon, which causes a radially outward drift of its orbital apocenter; once close to the Hill sphere, the moon escapes. By contrast, retrograde moons with large orbital semimajor axes are long-lived. We have developed an analytic model of the distant satellite orbits and used it to explain the results of our numerical experiments. In particular, we analytically studied the effect of the Kozai resonance. We numerically integrated the orbits of the 50 irregular moons (known by 2002 August 16) for 108 yr. All orbits were stable on this time interval and did not show any macroscopic variations that would indicate

  13. Numerical orbit generators of artificial earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugar, H. K.; Dasilva, W. C. C.

    1984-04-01

    A numerical orbit integrator containing updatings and improvements relative to the previous ones that are being utilized by the Departmento de Mecanica Espacial e Controle (DMC), of INPE, besides incorporating newer modellings resulting from the skill acquired along the time is presented. Flexibility and modularity were taken into account in order to allow future extensions and modifications. Characteristics of numerical accuracy, processing quickness, memory saving as well as utilization aspects were also considered. User's handbook, whole program listing and qualitative analysis of accuracy, processing time and orbit perturbation effects were included as well.

  14. The Impact of New Trends in Satellite Launches on Orbital Debris Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; Stupl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    their desired orbits beyond the restrictions of the launch vehicle used. These near future orbital injection technologies are also covered in the developed scenario. Using the above-mentioned background information, this study aims to examine how the orbital debris environment will be affected from the new dynamics of the emerging space markets. We developed a simulation tool that is capable of propagating the objects in a given deployment scenario with variable-sized time-steps as small as one second. Over the course of the run, the software also detects collisions; additional debris objects are then created according to the NASA breakup model and are fed back into the simulation framework. Examining the simulation results, the total number of particles to accumulate in different orbits can be monitored and the number of conjunctions can be tracked to assess the collision risks. The simulation makes it possible to follow the short- and long-term effects of a particular satellite or constellation on the space environment. Likewise, the effects of changes in the debris environment on a particular satellite or constellation can be evaluated. It is authors hope that the results of this paper and further utilization of the developed simulation tool will assist in the investigation of more accurate deorbiting metrics to replace the generic 25-year disposal guidelines, as well as to guide future launches toward more sustainable and safe orbits.

  15. Smaller Satellite Operations Near Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    of that study when a purely mathematical approach is not possible or too cumbersome to emphasize a point clearly. I will approach 7 the...components that are specifically designed to be utilized in CubeSats. Pumpkin Incorporated and Clyde Space are leading developers of COTS equipment...year mission life. From a purely hypothetical approach, assume the high interest targets were operating over Asia, with a number of satellites

  16. Attractive manifold-based adaptive solar attitude control of satellites in elliptic orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keum W.; Singh, Sahjendra N.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a novel noncertainty-equivalent adaptive (NCEA) control system for the pitch attitude control of satellites in elliptic orbits using solar radiation pressure (SRP). The satellite is equipped with two identical solar flaps to produce control moments. The adaptive law is based on the attractive manifold design using filtered signals for synthesis, which is a modification of the immersion and invariance (I&I) method. The control system has a modular controller-estimator structure and has separate tunable gains. A special feature of this NCEA law is that the trajectories of the satellite converge to a manifold in an extended state space, and the adaptive law recovers the performance of a deterministic controller. This recovery of performance cannot be obtained with certainty-equivalent adaptive (CEA) laws. Simulation results are presented which show that the NCEA law accomplishes precise attitude control of the satellite in an elliptic orbit, despite large parameter uncertainties.

  17. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  18. Evolution of the Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit of Communications Satellite, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available For a geostationary satellite north-south station keeping maneuver must control the inclination elements. The effects on the orbit plane of maneuvers and natural perturbations may be represented by a plane plot of Wc versus Ws, since these inclination elements represent the projection of the unit orbit normal onto the equatorial plane. The evolution of the semi-major axis and the inclination elements are obtained.

  19. Solar radio proxies for improved satellite orbit prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Philippe; Hecker, Louis; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Fèvre, Clémence Le; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-12-01

    Specification and forecasting of solar drivers to thermosphere density models is critical for satellite orbit prediction and debris avoidance. Satellite operators routinely forecast orbits up to 30 days into the future. This requires forecasts of the drivers to these orbit prediction models such as the solar Extreme-UV (EUV) flux and geomagnetic activity. Most density models use the 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 index) as a proxy for solar EUV. However, daily measurements at other centimetric wavelengths have also been performed by the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (Japan) since the 1950's, thereby offering prospects for improving orbit modeling. Here we present a pre-operational service at the Collecte Localisation Satellites company that collects these different observations in one single homogeneous dataset and provides a 30 days forecast on a daily basis. Interpolation and preprocessing algorithms were developed to fill in missing data and remove anomalous values. We compared various empirical time series prediction techniques and selected a multi-wavelength non-recursive analogue neural network. The prediction of the 30 cm flux, and to a lesser extent that of the 10.7 cm flux, performs better than NOAA's present prediction of the 10.7 cm flux, especially during periods of high solar activity. In addition, we find that the DTM-2013 density model (Drag Temperature Model) performs better with (past and predicted) values of the 30 cm radio flux than with the 10.7 flux.

  20. Satellite Orbit Under Influence of a Drag - Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, M. M.; Šegan, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    The report studies some changes in orbital elements of the artificial satellites of Earth under influence of atmospheric drag. In order to develop possibilities of applying the results in many future cases, an analytical interpretation of the orbital element perturbations is given via useful, but very long expressions. The development is based on the TD88 air density model, recently upgraded with some additional terms. Some expressions and formulae were developed by the computer algebra system Mathematica and tested in some hypothetical cases. The results have good agreement with iterative (numerical) approach.

  1. Influence of tides in viscoelastic bodies of planet and satellite on the satellite's orbital motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, N. V.

    2018-06-01

    The problem of influence of tidal friction in both planetary and satellite bodies upon satellite's orbital motion is considered. Using the differential equations in satellite's rectangular planetocentric coordinates, the differential equations describing the changes in semimajor axis and eccentricity are derived. The equations in rectangular coordinates were taken from earlier works on the problem. The calcultations carried out for a number of test examples prove that the averaged solutions of equations in coordinates and precise solutions of averaged equations in the Keplerian elements are identical. For the problem of tides raised on planet's body, it was found that, if satellite's mean motion n is equal to 11/18 Ω, where Ω is the planet's angular rotation rate, the orbital eccentricity does not change. This conclusion is in agreement with the results of other authors. It was also found that there is essential discrepancy between the equations in the elements obtained in this paper and analogous equations published by earlier researchers.

  2. The Impact of New Trends in Satellite Launches on the Orbital Debris Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacalioglu, Arif Goektug; Stupl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to examine the impact of new trends in satellite launch activities on the orbital debris environment and collision risk. As a foundation for the study, we developed a deployment scenario for satellites and associated rocket bodies based on publicly announced future missions. The upcoming orbital injection technologies, such as the new launch vehicles dedicated for small spacecraft and propulsive interstages, are also considered in this scenario. We then used a simulation tool developed in-house to propagate the objects within this scenario using variable-sized time-steps as small as one second to detect conjunctions between objects. The simulation makes it possible to follow the short- and long-term effects of a particular satellite or constellation in the space environment. Likewise, the effects of changes in the debris environment on a particular satellite or constellation can be evaluated. It is our hope that the results of this paper and further utilization of the developed simulation tool will assist in the investigation of more accurate deorbiting metrics to replace the generic 25-year disposal guidelines, as well as to guide future launches toward more sustainable and safe orbits.

  3. Dynamic and reduced-dynamic precise orbit determination of satellites in low earth orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swatschina, P.

    2009-01-01

    The precise positioning of satellites in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) has become a key technology for advanced space missions. Dedicated satellite missions, such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE, that aim to map the Earths gravity field and its variation over time with unprecedented accuracy, initiated the demand for highly precise orbit solutions of LEO satellites. Furthermore, a wide range of additional science opportunities opens up with the capability to generate accurate LEO orbits. For all considered satellite missions, the primary measurement system for navigation is a spaceborne GPS receiver. The goal of this thesis is to establish and implement methods for Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of LEO satellites using GPS. Striving for highest precision using yet efficient orbit generation strategies, the attained orbit solutions are aimed to be competitive with the most advanced solutions of other institutions. Dynamic and reduced-dynamic orbit models provide the basic concepts of this work. These orbit models are subsequently adjusted to the highly accurate GPS measurements. The GPS measurements are introduced at the zero difference level in the ionosphere free linear combination. Appropriate procedures for GPS data screening and editing are established to detect erroneous data and to employ measurements of good quality only. For the dynamic orbit model a sophisticated force model, especially designed for LEO satellites, has been developed. In order to overcome the limitations that are induced by the deficiencies of the purely dynamical model, two different types of empirical parameters are introduced into the force model. These reduced-dynamic orbit models allow for the generation of much longer orbital arcs while preserving the spacecraft dynamics to the most possible extent. The two methods for reduced-dynamic orbit modeling are instantaneous velocity changes (pulses) or piecewise constant accelerations. For both techniques highly efficient modeling algorithms are

  4. Variational and symplectic integrators for satellite relative orbit propagation including drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Leonel; Gurfil, Pini

    2018-04-01

    Orbit propagation algorithms for satellite relative motion relying on Runge-Kutta integrators are non-symplectic—a situation that leads to incorrect global behavior and degraded accuracy. Thus, attempts have been made to apply symplectic methods to integrate satellite relative motion. However, so far all these symplectic propagation schemes have not taken into account the effect of atmospheric drag. In this paper, drag-generalized symplectic and variational algorithms for satellite relative orbit propagation are developed in different reference frames, and numerical simulations with and without the effect of atmospheric drag are presented. It is also shown that high-order versions of the newly-developed variational and symplectic propagators are more accurate and are significantly faster than Runge-Kutta-based integrators, even in the presence of atmospheric drag.

  5. Orbit Determination of GPS and Koreasat 2 Satellite Using Angle-Only Data and Requirements for Optical Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Kyoung Lee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauss method for the initial orbit determination was tested using angle-only data obtained by orbit propagation using TLE and SGP4/SDP4 orbit propagation model. As the analysis of this simulation, a feasible time span between observation time of satellite resulting the minimum error to the true orbit was found. Initial orbit determination is performed using observational data of GPS 26 and Koreasat 2 from 0.6m telescope of KAO(Korea Astronomy Observatory and precise orbit determination is also performed using simulated data. The result of precise orbit determination shows that the accuracy of resulting orbit is related to the accuracy of the observations and the number of data.

  6. Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J

    2014-10-14

    A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

  7. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.

    2002-01-01

    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...... to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning.......8-0.9) is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electro-jet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring...

  8. Long-Term Prediction of Satellite Orbit Using Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Cheol Yoon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term prediction algorithm of geostationary orbit was developed using the analytical method. The perturbation force models include geopotential upto fifth order and degree and luni-solar gravitation, and solar radiation pressure. All of the perturbation effects were analyzed by secular variations, short-period variations, and long-period variations for equinoctial elements such as the semi-major axis, eccentricity vector, inclination vector, and mean longitude of the satellite. Result of the analytical orbit propagator was compared with that of the cowell orbit propagator for the KOREASAT. The comparison indicated that the analytical solution could predict the semi-major axis with an accuarcy of better than ~35meters over a period of 3 month.

  9. Accretion of satellites on to central galaxies in clusters: merger mass ratios and orbital parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Giocoli, Carlo; Despali, Giulia

    2018-05-01

    We study the statistical properties of mergers between central and satellite galaxies in galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0 identify dark-matter haloes, we construct halo merger trees for different values of the overdensity Δc. While the virial overdensity definition allows us to probe the accretion of satellites at the cluster virial radius rvir, higher overdensities probe satellite mergers in the central region of the cluster, down to ≈0.06rvir, which can be considered a proxy for the accretion of satellite galaxies on to central galaxies. We find that the characteristic merger mass ratio increases for increasing values of Δc: more than 60 per cent of the mass accreted by central galaxies since z ≈ 1 comes from major mergers. The orbits of satellites accreting on to central galaxies tend to be more tangential and more bound than orbits of haloes accreting at the virial radius. The obtained distributions of merger mass ratios and orbital parameters are useful to model the evolution of the high-mass end of the galaxy scaling relations without resorting to hydrodynamic cosmological simulations.

  10. Validation of double Langmuir probe in-orbit performance onboard a nano-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejumola, Taiwo Raphael; Zarate Segura, Guillermo Wenceslao; Kim, Sangkyun; Khan, Arifur; Cho, Mengu

    2018-03-01

    Many plasma measurement systems have been proposed and used onboard different satellites to characterize space plasma. Most of these systems employed the technique of Langmuir probes either using the single or double probes methods. Recent growth of lean satellites has positioned it on advantage to be used for space science missions using Langmuir probes because of its simplicity and convenience. However, single Langmuir probes are not appropriate to be used on lean satellites because of their limited conducting area which leads to spacecraft charging and drift of the instrument's electrical ground during measurement. Double Langmuir probes technique can overcome this limitation, as a measurement reference in relation to the spacecraft is not required. A double Langmuir probe measurement system was designed and developed at Kyushu Institute of Technology for HORYU-IV satellite, which is a 10 kg, 30 cm cubic class lean satellite launched into Low Earth Orbit on 17th February 2016. This paper presents the on-orbit performance and validation of the double Langmuir probe measurement using actual on-orbit measured data and computer simulations.

  11. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghangho Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS. Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state.

  12. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon

    2015-01-01

    A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state. PMID:25835299

  13. Satellite laser ranging to low Earth orbiters: orbit and network validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel; Montenbruck, Oliver; Hackel, Stefan; Sośnica, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to low Earth orbiters (LEOs) provides optical distance measurements with mm-to-cm-level precision. SLR residuals, i.e., differences between measured and modeled ranges, serve as a common figure of merit for the quality assessment of orbits derived by radiometric tracking techniques. We discuss relevant processing standards for the modeling of SLR observations and highlight the importance of line-of-sight-dependent range corrections for the various types of laser retroreflector arrays. A 1-3 cm consistency of SLR observations and GPS-based precise orbits is demonstrated for a wide range of past and present LEO missions supported by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). A parameter estimation approach is presented to investigate systematic orbit errors and it is shown that SLR validation of LEO satellites is not only able to detect radial but also along-track and cross-track offsets. SLR residual statistics clearly depend on the employed precise orbit determination technique (kinematic vs. reduced-dynamic, float vs. fixed ambiguities) but also reveal pronounced differences in the ILRS station performance. Using the residual-based parameter estimation approach, corrections to ILRS station coordinates, range biases, and timing offsets are derived. As a result, root-mean-square residuals of 5-10 mm have been achieved over a 1-year data arc in 2016 using observations from a subset of high-performance stations and ambiguity-fixed orbits of four LEO missions. As a final contribution, we demonstrate that SLR can not only validate single-satellite orbit solutions but also precise baseline solutions of formation flying missions such as GRACE, TanDEM-X, and Swarm.

  14. A high-orbit collimating infrared earth simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoyu; Jiang Huilin; Fang Yang; Yu Huadong; Xu Xiping; Wang, Lingyun; Liu Xuli; Huang Lan; Yue Shixin; Peng Hui

    2007-01-01

    The earth simulator is the most important testing equipment ground-based for the infrared earth sensor, and it is also a key component in the satellite controlling system. for three orbit heights 18000Km, 35786Km and 42000Km, in this paper we adopt a project of collimation and replaceable earth diaphragm and develop a high orbit collimation earth simulator. This simulator can afford three angles 15.19 0 , 17.46 0 and 30.42 0 , resulting simulating the earth on the ground which can be seen in out space by the satellite. In this paper we introduce the components, integer structure, and the earth's field angles testing method of the earth simulator in detail. Germanium collimation lens is the most important component in the earth simulator. According to the optical configuration parameter of Germanium collimation lens, we find the location and size of the earth diaphragm and the hot earth by theoretical analyses and optics calculation, which offer foundation of design in the study of the earth simulator. The earth angle is the index to scale the precision of earth simulator. We test the three angles by experiment and the results indicate that three angles errors are all less than ±0.05 0

  15. Environmental Satellites: Polar-orbiting Satellite Acquisition Faces Delays; Decisions Needed on Whether and How to Ensure Climate Data Continuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is a triagency acquisition managed by the Department of Commerce s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  16. Environmental Satellites. Polar-orbiting Satellite Acquisition Faces Delays; Decisions Needed on Whether and How to Ensure Climate Data Continuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is a triagency acquisition managed by the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  17. Solar radio proxies for improved satellite orbit prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specification and forecasting of solar drivers to thermosphere density models is critical for satellite orbit prediction and debris avoidance. Satellite operators routinely forecast orbits up to 30 days into the future. This requires forecasts of the drivers to these orbit prediction models such as the solar Extreme-UV (EUV flux and geomagnetic activity. Most density models use the 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 index as a proxy for solar EUV. However, daily measurements at other centimetric wavelengths have also been performed by the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (Japan since the 1950's, thereby offering prospects for improving orbit modeling. Here we present a pre-operational service at the Collecte Localisation Satellites company that collects these different observations in one single homogeneous dataset and provides a 30 days forecast on a daily basis. Interpolation and preprocessing algorithms were developed to fill in missing data and remove anomalous values. We compared various empirical time series prediction techniques and selected a multi-wavelength non-recursive analogue neural network. The prediction of the 30 cm flux, and to a lesser extent that of the 10.7 cm flux, performs better than NOAA's present prediction of the 10.7 cm flux, especially during periods of high solar activity. In addition, we find that the DTM-2013 density model (Drag Temperature Model performs better with (past and predicted values of the 30 cm radio flux than with the 10.7 flux.

  18. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  19. Pseudo Last Useful Instant Queuing Strategy for Handovers in Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kiamouche; M. Benslama

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative strategy of queuing handover called Pseudo Last Useful Instant PLUI scheme for Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Systems LEO MSSs. The PLUI scheme uses the same approach as the Last Useful Instant LUI scheme previously proposed in literature, with less complex implementation. Simulation tests were carried out using Dynamic Channel Allocation DCA in order to evaluate the performance of this scheme and also an analytical approach has been p...

  20. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.

    2002-12-01

    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  1. Handover aspects for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) CDMA Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.; Beach, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of handoff in a land mobile satellite (LMS) system between adjacent satellites in a low earth orbit (LEO) constellation. In particular, emphasis is placed on the application of soft handoff in a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) LMS system. Soft handoff is explained in terms of terrestrial macroscopic diversity, in which signals transmitted via several independent fading paths are combined to enhance the link quality. This concept is then reconsidered in the context of a LEO LMS system. A two-state Markov channel model is used to simulate the effects of shadowing on the communications path from the mobile to each satellite during handoff. The results of the channel simulation form a platform for discussion regarding soft handoff, highlighting the potential merits of the scheme when applied in a LEO LMS environment.

  2. Orbit Determination of the SELENE Satellites Using Multi-Satellite Data Types and Evaluation of SELENE Gravity Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.

  3. Analysis of Errors in a Special Perturbations Satellite Orbit Propagator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckerman, M.; Jones, J.P.

    1999-02-01

    We performed an analysis of error densities for the Special Perturbations orbit propagator using data for 29 satellites in orbits of interest to Space Shuttle and International Space Station collision avoidance. We find that the along-track errors predominate. These errors increase monotonically over each 36-hour prediction interval. The predicted positions in the along-track direction progressively either leap ahead of or lag behind the actual positions. Unlike the along-track errors the radial and cross-track errors oscillate about their nearly zero mean values. As the number of observations per fit interval decline the along-track prediction errors, and amplitudes of the radial and cross-track errors, increase.

  4. A simple orbit-attitude coupled modelling method for large solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingjun; Wang, Bo; Deng, Zichen; Ouyang, Huajiang; Wei, Yi

    2018-04-01

    A simple modelling method is proposed to study the orbit-attitude coupled dynamics of large solar power satellites based on natural coordinate formulation. The generalized coordinates are composed of Cartesian coordinates of two points and Cartesian components of two unitary vectors instead of Euler angles and angular velocities, which is the reason for its simplicity. Firstly, in order to develop natural coordinate formulation to take gravitational force and gravity gradient torque of a rigid body into account, Taylor series expansion is adopted to approximate the gravitational potential energy. The equations of motion are constructed through constrained Hamilton's equations. Then, an energy- and constraint-conserving algorithm is presented to solve the differential-algebraic equations. Finally, the proposed method is applied to simulate the orbit-attitude coupled dynamics and control of a large solar power satellite considering gravity gradient torque and solar radiation pressure. This method is also applicable to dynamic modelling of other rigid multibody aerospace systems.

  5. Stability of orbits around planetary satellites considering a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit: Applications to Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    Europa and Ganymede are two of the four Jupiter’s moons which compose the Galilean satellite. These ones are planetary satellites of greater interest at the present moment among the scientific community. There are some missions being planned to visit them and and the Jovian system. One of them is the cooperation between NASA and ESA for the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). In this mission are planned the insertion of the spacecrafts JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Europa and Ganymede’s orbit. Thus, there is a great necessity for having a better comprehension of the dynamics of the orbits around this planetary satellite. This comprehension is essential for the success of this type of mission. In this context, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around these planetary satellites. An emphasis is given in polar orbits. These orbits can be useful in the planning of aerospace activities to be conducted around this planetary satellite, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of an artificial satellite around Europa and Ganymede under the influence of the third-body perturbation (the gravitational attraction of Jupiter) and the polygenic perturbations. These last ones occur due to forces such as the non-uniform distribution of mass (J2 and J3) of the main (central) body. A simplified dynamic model for polygenic perturbations is used. A new model for the third-body disturbance is presented considering it in an elliptical orbit. The Lagrange planetary equations, which compose a system of nonlinear differential equations, are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite around Ganymede. The equations showed here are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in inclination and eccentricity.

  6. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moretto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly in the auroral electrojets. First, we examine the results during a recent geomagnetic storm. The currents derived from two satellites at different altitudes are in very good agreement, which verifies good stability of the method. Further, a very high degree of correlation (correlation coefficients of 0.8–0.9 is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electrojet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring. A specific advantage of the satellite observations over the ground-based magnetic measurements is their coverage of the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the Northern. We utilize this in an investigation of the ionospheric currents observed in both polar regions during a period of unusually steady interplanetary magnetic field with a large negative Y-component. A pronounced asymmetry is found between the currents in the two hemispheres, which indicates real inter-hemispheric differences beyond the mirror-asymmetry between hemispheres that earlier studies have revealed. The method is also applied to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning of the magnetosphere (history of the interplanetary magnetic field is seen to play an important role, and in the winther hemisphere, it seems to be harder to

  7. Initial results of centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation BDS satellites with inter-satellite link measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chengpan; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Liu, Li; Pan, Junyang; Chen, Liucheng; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Lingfeng; Hu, Guangming; Li, Xiaojie; He, Feng; Chang, Zhiqiao

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous orbit determination is the ability of navigation satellites to estimate the orbit parameters on-board using inter-satellite link (ISL) measurements. This study mainly focuses on data processing of the ISL measurements as a new measurement type and its application on the centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation Beidou navigation satellite system satellites for the first time. The ISL measurements are dual one-way measurements that follow a time division multiple access (TDMA) structure. The ranging error of the ISL measurements is less than 0.25 ns. This paper proposes a derivation approach to the satellite clock offsets and the geometric distances from TDMA dual one-way measurements without a loss of accuracy. The derived clock offsets are used for time synchronization, and the derived geometry distances are used for autonomous orbit determination. The clock offsets from the ISL measurements are consistent with the L-band two-way satellite, and time-frequency transfer clock measurements and the detrended residuals vary within 0.5 ns. The centralized autonomous orbit determination is conducted in a batch mode on a ground-capable server for the feasibility study. Constant hardware delays are present in the geometric distances and become the largest source of error in the autonomous orbit determination. Therefore, the hardware delays are estimated simultaneously with the satellite orbits. To avoid uncertainties in the constellation orientation, a ground anchor station that "observes" the satellites with on-board ISL payloads is introduced into the orbit determination. The root-mean-square values of orbit determination residuals are within 10.0 cm, and the standard deviation of the estimated ISL hardware delays is within 0.2 ns. The accuracy of the autonomous orbits is evaluated by analysis of overlap comparison and the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals and is compared with the accuracy of the L-band orbits. The results indicate

  8. Multi-Satellite Orbit Determination Using Interferometric Observables with RF Localization Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Jeroen L.

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) specifically same-beam interferometry (SBI), and dual-satellite geolocation are two fields of research not previously connected. This is due to the different application of each field, SBI is used for relative interplanetary navigation of two satellites while dual-satellite geolocation is used to locate the source of a radio frequency (RF) signal. In this dissertation however, we leverage both fields to create a novel method for multi-satellite orbit determination (OD) using time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) measurements. The measurements are double differenced between the satellites and the stations, in so doing, many of the common errors are canceled which can significantly improve measurement precision. Provided with this novel OD technique, the observability is first analyzed to determine the benefits and limitations of this method. In all but a few scenarios the measurements successfully reduce the covariance when examining the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Reduced observability is encountered with geostationary satellites as their motion with respect to the stations is limited, especially when only one baseline is used. However, when using satellite pairs with greater relative motion with respect to the stations, even satellites that are close to, but not exactly in a geostationary orbit can be estimated accurately. We find that in a strong majority of cases the OD technique provides lower uncertainties and solutions far more accurate than using conventional OD observables such as range and range-rate while also not being affected by common errors and biases. We specifically examine GEO-GEO, GEO-MEO, and GEO-LEO dual-satellite estimation cases. The work is further extended by developing a relative navigation scenario where the chief satellite is assumed to have perfect knowledge, or some small amount of uncertainty considered but not estimated, while estimating the deputy

  9. Optical Tracking Data Validation and Orbit Estimation for Sparse Observations of Satellites by the OWL-Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2018-06-07

    An Optical Wide-field patroL-Network (OWL-Net) has been developed for maintaining Korean low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites' orbital ephemeris. The OWL-Net consists of five optical tracking stations. Brightness signals of reflected sunlight of the targets were detected by a charged coupled device (CCD). A chopper system was adopted for fast astrometric data sampling, maximum 50 Hz, within a short observation time. The astrometric accuracy of the optical observation data was validated with precise orbital ephemeris such as Consolidated Prediction File (CPF) data and precise orbit determination result with onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the target satellite. In the optical observation simulation of the OWL-Net for 2017, an average observation span for a single arc of 11 LEO observation targets was about 5 min, while an average optical observation separation time was 5 h. We estimated the position and velocity with an atmospheric drag coefficient of LEO observation targets using a sequential-batch orbit estimation technique after multi-arc batch orbit estimation. Post-fit residuals for the multi-arc batch orbit estimation and sequential-batch orbit estimation were analyzed for the optical measurements and reference orbit (CPF and GPS data). The post-fit residuals with reference show few tens-of-meters errors for in-track direction for multi-arc batch and sequential-batch orbit estimation results.

  10. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

    1991-01-01

    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  11. Summary of ACCSIM and ORBIT Benchmarking Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    AIBA, M

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a benchmarking study of ORBIT and ACCSIM which are accelerator tracking codes having routines to evaluate space charge effects. The study is motivated by the need of predicting/understanding beam behaviour in the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in which direct space charge is expected to be the dominant performance limitation. Historically at CERN, ACCSIM has been employed for space charge simulation studies. A benchmark study using ORBIT has been started to confirm the results from ACCSIM and to profit from the advantages of ORBIT such as the capability of parallel processing. We observed a fair agreement in emittance evolution in the horizontal plane but not in the vertical one. This may be partly due to the fact that the algorithm to compute the space charge field is different between the two codes.

  12. The orbits of satellites of (22) Kalliope and (317) Roxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Reynolds, Odell; Buckman, Miles; Eickhoff, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Between October 2016 and February 2017 we imaged asteroid (22) Kalliope (10.3RC) a=243+/-6 km; P=11.5265+/-0.0204 d; T0=2457725.137+/-0.050; Pole[RA;Dec]=[ 96.2;-68.3]; e=0Roxane S/1 (PC) a=245+/-6 km; P=11.5858+/-0.0203 d; T0=2457721.631+/-0.051; Pole[RA;Dec]=[275.7;+68.8]; e= 0Roxane S/1 (RE) a=251+/-8 km; P=11.4927+/-0.0215 d; T0=2457717.730+/-0.126; Pole[RA;Dec]=[ 95.3; -67.8]; e=0.178+/-0.061ω=124+/-4Roxane S/1 (PE) a=249+/-7 km; P=11.5594+/-0.0190 d; T0=2457717.603+/-0.162; Pole[RADec]=[276.6+69.2]e=0.133+/-0.038ω= 230+/-5Roxane’s moon’s orbital pole is less than 4 degrees from the Ecliptic pole or Roxane’s orbital pole, but more than 22 degrees from Roxane’s rotational pole. Perhaps this indicates that the moon was captured from the Ecliptic plane rather than spun into Roxanne’s equatorial plane.The Starfire Optical Range’s 3.5 m telescope is the smallest ground based telescope used to derive orbits of asteroid satellites. Kalliope and Roxane follow our study of (87) Sylvia and its Romulus (Drummond, Reynolds, and Buckman (2016), Icarus 276, 107-115).

  13. A Simple Time Domain Collocation Method to Precisely Search for the Periodic Orbits of Satellite Relative Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokui Yue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical approach for obtaining periodic orbits of satellite relative motion is proposed, based on using the time domain collocation (TDC method to search for the periodic solutions of an exact J2 nonlinear relative model. The initial conditions for periodic relative orbits of the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C-W equations or Tschauner-Hempel (T-H equations can be refined with this approach to generate nearly bounded orbits. With these orbits, a method based on the least-squares principle is then proposed to generate projected closed orbit (PCO, which is a reference for the relative motion control. Numerical simulations reveal that the presented TDC searching scheme is effective and simple, and the projected closed orbit is very fuel saving.

  14. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H.

    The tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO) is responsible for managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current military and civilian operational polar-orbiting ``weather'' satellites. The Northrop Grumman Space Technology - Raytheon team was competitively selected in 2002 as the Acquisition and Operations contractor team to develop, integrate, deploy, and operate NPOESS satellites to meet the tri-agency user requirements for NPOESS over the 10-year (2009-2018) operational life of the program. Beginning in 2009, NPOESS spacecraft will be launched into three orbital planes to provide significantly improved operational capabilities and benefits to satisfy critical civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving operational ``weather'' satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land, and the space environment. In recent years, the operational weather forecasting and climate science communities have levied more rigorous requirements on space-based observations of the Earth's system that have significantly increased demands on performance of the instruments, spacecraft, and ground systems required to deliver NPOESS data, products, and information to end users. The ``end-to-end'' system consists of: the spacecraft; instruments and sensors on the spacecraft; launch support capabilities; the command, control, communications, and data routing infrastructure; and data processing hardware and software. NPOESS will observe significantly more phenomena simultaneously from space than its operational predecessors. NPOESS is expected to deliver large volumes of more accurate measurements at higher spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal resolution at much higher data

  15. A study of artificial satellite resonance orbits due to lunisolar perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.

    1978-01-01

    A study of artificial satellite resonance orbits due to lunisolar perturbations is given. Particular emphasis is placed on the following aspects: the classification of resonance orbits according to their commensurability condition; the form of the commensurability condition when expressed in terms of the orbital elements of a satellite; the predominant resonant terms for each commensurability condition; and criteria which determine the existence or non-existence of a particular commensurability condition. (author)

  16. On-orbit real-time magnetometer bias determination for micro-satellites without attitude information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the disadvantages such as complex calculation, low accuracy of estimation, and being non real time in present methods, a new real-time algorithm is developed for on-orbit magnetometer bias determination of micro-satellites without attitude knowledge in this paper. This method uses the differential value approach. It avoids the impact of quartic nature and uses the iterative method to satisfy real-time applications. Simulation results indicate that the new real-time algorithm is more accurate compared with other methods, which are also tested by an experiment system using real noise data. With the new real-time algorithm, a magnetometer calibration can be taken on-orbit and will reduce the demand for computing power effectively.

  17. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  18. Application of Vision Metrology to In-Orbit Measurement of Large Reflector Onboard Communication Satellite for Next Generation Mobile Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, M.; Orikasa, T.; Satoh, M.; Miura, A.; Tsuji, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Fujino, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite for next generation mobile satellite communication service with small personal terminal requires onboard antenna with very large aperture reflector larger than twenty meters diameter because small personal terminal with lower power consumption in ground base requires the large onboard reflector with high antenna gain. But, large deployable antenna will deform in orbit because the antenna is not a solid dish but the flexible structure with fine cable and mesh supported by truss. Deformation of reflector shape deteriorate the antenna performance and quality and stability of communication service. However, in case of digital beam forming antenna with phased array can modify the antenna beam performance due to adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation phase. If we can measure the reflector shape precisely in orbit, beam pattern and antenna performance can be compensated with the updated excitation amplitude and excitation phase parameters optimized for the reflector shape measured every moment. Softbank Corporation and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has started the project "R&D on dynamic beam control technique for next generation mobile communication satellite" as a contracted research project sponsored by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan. In this topic, one of the problem in vision metrology application is a strong constraints on geometry for camera arrangement on satellite bus with very limited space. On satellite in orbit, we cannot take many images from many different directions as ordinary vision metrology measurement and the available area for camera positioning is quite limited. Feasibility of vision metrology application and general methodology to apply to future mobile satellite communication satellite is to be found. Our approach is as follows: 1) Development of prototyping simulator to evaluate the expected precision for network design in zero order and first order 2) Trial

  19. Optical Tracking Data Validation and Orbit Estimation for Sparse Observations of Satellites by the OWL-Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Wide-field patroL-Network (OWL-Net has been developed for maintaining Korean low Earth orbit (LEO satellites’ orbital ephemeris. The OWL-Net consists of five optical tracking stations. Brightness signals of reflected sunlight of the targets were detected by a charged coupled device (CCD. A chopper system was adopted for fast astrometric data sampling, maximum 50 Hz, within a short observation time. The astrometric accuracy of the optical observation data was validated with precise orbital ephemeris such as Consolidated Prediction File (CPF data and precise orbit determination result with onboard Global Positioning System (GPS data from the target satellite. In the optical observation simulation of the OWL-Net for 2017, an average observation span for a single arc of 11 LEO observation targets was about 5 min, while an average optical observation separation time was 5 h. We estimated the position and velocity with an atmospheric drag coefficient of LEO observation targets using a sequential-batch orbit estimation technique after multi-arc batch orbit estimation. Post-fit residuals for the multi-arc batch orbit estimation and sequential-batch orbit estimation were analyzed for the optical measurements and reference orbit (CPF and GPS data. The post-fit residuals with reference show few tens-of-meters errors for in-track direction for multi-arc batch and sequential-batch orbit estimation results.

  20. Joint Polar Satellite System: the United States New Generation Civilian Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the Nation's advanced series of polar-orbiting environmental satellites. JPSS represents significant technological and scientific advancements in observations used for severe weather prediction and environmental monitoring. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) is providing state-of-the art atmospheric, oceanographic, and environmental data, as the first of the JPSS satellites while the second in the series, J-1, is scheduled to launch in October 2017. The JPSS baseline consists of a suite of four instruments: an advanced microwave and infrared sounders which are critical for weather forecasting; a leading-edge visible and infrared imager critical to data sparse areas such as Alaska and needed for environmental assessments such as snow/ice cover, droughts, volcanic ash, forest fires and surface temperature; and an ozone sensor primarily used for global monitoring of ozone and input to weather and climate models. The same suite of instruments that are on JPSS-1 will be on JPSS-2, 3 and 4. The JPSS-2 instruments are well into their assembly and test phases and are scheduled to be completed in 2018. The JPSS-2 spacecraft critical design review (CDR) is scheduled for 2Q 2018 with the launch in 2021. The sensors for the JPSS-3 and 4 spacecraft have been approved to enter into their acquisition phases. JPSS partnership with the US National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) continues to provide a strong foundation for the program's success. JPSS also continues to maintain its important international relationships with European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). JPSS works closely with its user community through the Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program to identify opportunities to maximize the operational application of current JPSS capabilities. The PGRR Program also helps identify and evaluate the use of JPSS

  1. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Multibeam Antenna On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) was launched in September 1993. ACTS introduced several new technologies, including a multibeam antenna (MBA) operating at extremely short wavelengths never before used in communications. This antenna, which has both fixed and rapidly reconfigurable high-energy spot beams (150 miles in diameter), serves users equipped with small antenna terminals. Extensive structural and thermal analyses have been performed for simulating the ACTS MBA on-orbit performance. The results show that the reflector surfaces (mainly the front subreflector), antenna support assembly, and metallic surfaces on the spacecraft body will be distorted because of the thermal effects of varying solar heating, which degrade the ACTS MBA performance. Since ACTS was launched, a number of evaluations have been performed to assess MBA performance in the space environment. For example, the on-orbit performance measurements found systematic environmental disturbances to the MBA beam pointing. These disturbances were found to be imposed by the attitude control system, antenna and spacecraft mechanical alignments, and on-orbit thermal effects. As a result, the MBA may not always exactly cover the intended service area. In addition, the on-orbit measurements showed that antenna pointing accuracy is the performance parameter most sensitive to thermal distortions on the front subreflector surface and antenna support assemblies. Several compensation approaches were tested and evaluated to restore on-orbit pointing stability. A combination of autotrack (75 percent of the time) and Earth sensor control (25 percent of the time) was found to be the best way to compensate for antenna pointing error during orbit. This approach greatly minimizes the effects of thermal distortions on antenna beam pointing.

  2. Quantum simulator for spin-orbital magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation we focus on many-body phenomena on a quantum level. In particular fermionic quantum gases in a temperature regime approaching absolute zero. Ultracold quantum gases have proven to be a versatile framework for Theorists and Experimentalists to probe many-body quantum mechanics. They also serve to quantum simulate solid state problems in a clean and controllable environment. The use of optical lattices include the advantage of tuning the required lattice structure nearly at will and lack the experimental shortcomings compared to the solid state, like the presence of lattice dislocations. The relevant lattice parameters can be easily tuned without changing the setup. In recent years many goals within theory and experiments of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices were achieved. This emphasizes the significance of ongoing research with ultracold quantum gases on optical lattices. We present two aspects of modern theory of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. On the one hand, we implement orbital physics in a setup of optical lattices and on the other, we find elusive Majorana fermions in a setup with ultracold fermionic gases. Both aspects are well-known in solid state systems, but did not make the step towards ultracold quantum gases so far. We propose and investigate setups to quantum simulate these challenges in the framework of optical lattices. The first part of this work concerns the implementation of orbital physics in optical lattices. The orbital structure of atoms reveals novel phenomena in solid state systems. This raises the interest in creating optical lattice systems exhibiting analog behavior, as dictated by the orbitals in the solid state. We derive the microscopic Hamiltonian for a p-orbital system and investigate it in detail. For this Hamiltonian we perform a mean-field treatment and discover novel phase transitions including a possible tricritical point. In the analysis of the strong coupling regime we find an

  3. On the choice of orbits for an altimetric satellite to study ocean circulation and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Michael E.; Stewart, Robert H.; Farless, David L.; Cartwright, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The choice of an orbit for satellite altimetric studies of the ocean's circulation and tides requires an understanding of the orbital characteristics that influence the accuracy of the satellite's measurements of sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of the measurements. The orbital characteristics that influence accurate calculations of the satellite's position as a function of time are examined, and the pattern of ground tracks laid down on the ocean's surface as a function of the satellite's altitude and inclination is studied. The results are used to examine the aliases in the measurements of surface geostrophic currents and tides. Finally, these considerations are used to specify possible orbits that may be useful for the upcoming Topex/Poseidon mission.

  4. Orbit Determination from Tracking Data of Artificial Satellite Using the Method of Differential Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Byoung-Sun Lee; Jung-Hyun Jo; Sang-Young Park; Kyu-Hong Choi; Chun-Hwey Kim

    1988-01-01

    The differential correction process determining osculating orbital elements as correct as possible at a given instant of time from tracking data of artificial satellite was accomplished. Preliminary orbital elements were used as an initial value of the differential correction procedure and iterated until the residual of real observation(O) and computed observation(C) was minimized. Tracking satellite was NOAA-9 or TIROS-N series. Two types of tracking data were prediction data precomputed fro...

  5. Assessing the Impact of Earth Radiation Pressure Acceleration on Low-Earth Orbit Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielberg, Kristin; Forootan, Ehsan; Lück, Christina; Kusche, Jürgen; Börger, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The orbits of satellites are influenced by several external forces. The main non-gravitational forces besides thermospheric drag, acting on the surface of satellites, are accelerations due to the Earth and Solar Radiation Pres- sure (SRP and ERP, respectively). The sun radiates visible and infrared light reaching the satellite directly, which causes the SRP. Earth also emits and reflects the sunlight back into space, where it acts on satellites. This is known as ERP acceleration. The influence of ERP increases with decreasing distance to the Earth, and for low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites ERP must be taken into account in orbit and gravity computations. Estimating acceler- ations requires knowledge about energy emitted from the Earth, which can be derived from satellite remote sensing data, and also by considering the shape and surface material of a satellite. In this sensitivity study, we assess ERP accelerations based on different input albedo and emission fields and their modelling for the satellite missions Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). As input fields, monthly 1°x1° products of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant En- ergy System (CERES), L3 are considered. Albedo and emission models are generated as latitude-dependent, as well as in terms of spherical harmonics. The impact of different albedo and emission models as well as the macro model and the altitude of satellites on ERP accelerations will be discussed.

  6. Forecasting the impact of an 1859-caliber superstorm on geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellites: Transponder resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenwald, Sten F.; Green, James L.

    2007-06-01

    We calculate the economic impact on the existing geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellite population of an 1859-caliber superstorm event were it to occur between 2008 and 2018 during the next solar activity cycle. From a detailed model for transponder capacity and leasing, we have investigated the total revenue loss over the entire solar cycle, as a function of superstorm onset year and intensity. Our Monte Carlo simulations of 1000 possible superstorms, of varying intensity and onset year, suggest that the minimum revenue loss could be of the order of 30 billion. The losses would be larger than this if more that 20 satellites are disabled, if future launch rates do not keep up with the expected rate of retirements, or if the number of spare transponders falls below ˜30%. Consequently, revenue losses can be significantly reduced below 30 billion if the current satellite population undergoes net growth beyond 300 units during Solar Cycle 24 and a larger margin of unused transponders is maintained.

  7. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-03-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better.

  8. ORBITS AND MASSES OF THE SATELLITES OF THE DWARF PLANET HAUMEA (2003 EL61)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozzine, D.; Brown, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using precise relative astrometry from the Hubble Space Telescope and the W. M. Keck Telescope, we have determined the orbits and masses of the two dynamically interacting satellites of the dwarf planet (136108) Haumea, formerly 2003 EL61. The orbital parameters of Hi'iaka, the outer, brighter satellite, match well the previously derived orbit. On timescales longer than a few weeks, no Keplerian orbit is sufficient to describe the motion of the inner, fainter satellite Namaka. Using a fully interacting three-point-mass model, we have recovered the orbital parameters of both orbits and the mass of Haumea and Hi'iaka; Namaka's mass is marginally detected. The data are not sufficient to uniquely determine the gravitational quadrupole of the nonspherical primary (described by J 2 ). The nearly coplanar nature of the satellites, as well as an inferred density similar to water ice, strengthen the hypothesis that Haumea experienced a giant collision billions of years ago. The excited eccentricities and mutual inclination point to an intriguing tidal history of significant semimajor axis evolution through satellite mean-motion resonances. The orbital solution indicates that Namaka and Haumea are currently undergoing mutual events and that the mutual event season will last for next several years.

  9. Reconstructing the orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor using satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard

    2013-01-01

    The large number of objects in a range of orbits around the Sun means that some will inevitably intersect the Earth, becoming a meteor. These objects are commonly comet fragments or asteroids. To determine the type of a particular meteor requires knowledge of its trajectory and orbital path...... that is typically estimated by using ground-based observations such as images or radar measurements. A lack of data can, however, make this difficult and create large uncertainties in the reconstructed orbit. Here I show a new method for estimating a meteor's trajectory, and hence allowing computation of the orbit...

  10. Space Debris Attitude Simulation - IOTA (In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, R.; Schildknecht, T.; Lips, T.; Fritsche, B.; Silha, J.; Krag, H.

    Today, there is little knowledge on the attitude state of decommissioned intact objects in Earth orbit. Observational means have advanced in the past years, but are still limited with respect to an accurate estimate of motion vector orientations and magnitude. Especially for the preparation of Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions as planned by ESA's Clean Space initiative or contingency scenarios for ESA spacecraft like ENVISAT, such knowledge is needed. The In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis tool (IOTA) is a prototype software, currently in development within the framework of ESA's “Debris Attitude Motion Measurements and Modelling” project (ESA Contract No. 40000112447), which is led by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The project goal is to achieve a good understanding of the attitude evolution and the considerable internal and external effects which occur. To characterize the attitude state of selected targets in LEO and GTO, multiple observation methods are combined. Optical observations are carried out by AIUB, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is performed by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IWF) and radar measurements and signal level determination are provided by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR). Developed by Hyperschall Technologie Göttingen GmbH (HTG), IOTA will be a highly modular software tool to perform short- (days), medium- (months) and long-term (years) propagation of the orbit and attitude motion (six degrees-of-freedom) of spacecraft in Earth orbit. The simulation takes into account all relevant acting forces and torques, including aerodynamic drag, solar radiation pressure, gravitational influences of Earth, Sun and Moon, eddy current damping, impulse and momentum transfer from space debris or micro meteoroid impact, as well as the optional definition of particular spacecraft specific influences like tank sloshing, reaction wheel behaviour

  11. Optical Orbit Determination of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite Effected by Baseline Distances between Various Ground-based Tracking Stations Ⅱ: COMS Case with Analysis of Actual Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Son

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the orbit of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS, a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO satellite, through data from actual optical observations using telescopes at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI, Optical Wide field Patrol (OWL at KASI, and the Chungbuk National University Observatory (CNUO from August 1, 2014, to January 13, 2015. The astrometric data of the satellite were extracted from the World Coordinate System (WCS in the obtained images, and geometrically distorted errors were corrected. To handle the optically observed data, corrections were made for the observation time, light-travel time delay, shutter speed delay, and aberration. For final product, the sequential filter within the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK was used for orbit estimation based on the results of optical observation. In addition, a comparative analysis was conducted between the precise orbit from the ephemeris of the COMS maintained by the satellite operator and the results of orbit estimation using optical observation. The orbits estimated in simulation agree with those estimated with actual optical observation data. The error in the results using optical observation data decreased with increasing number of observatories. Our results are useful for optimizing observation data for orbit estimation.

  12. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  13. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  14. Development of a hardware-in-loop attitude control simulator for a CubeSat satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsawat, Wittawat; Sangpet, Teerawat; Kuntanapreeda, Suwat

    2018-01-01

    Attitude control is an important part in satellite on-orbit operation. It greatly affects the performance of satellites. Testing of an attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) is very challenging since it might require attitude dynamics and space environment in the orbit. This paper develops a low-cost hardware-in-loop (HIL) simulator for testing an ADCS of a CubeSat satellite. The simulator consists of a numerical simulation part, a hardware part, and a HIL interface hardware unit. The numerical simulation part includes orbital dynamics, attitude dynamics and Earth’s magnetic field. The hardware part is the real ADCS board of the satellite. The simulation part outputs satellite’s angular velocity and geomagnetic field information to the HIL interface hardware. Then, based on this information, the HIL interface hardware generates I2C signals mimicking the signals of the on-board rate-gyros and magnetometers and consequently outputs the signals to the ADCS board. The ADCS board reads the rate-gyro and magnetometer signals, calculates control signals, and drives the attitude actuators which are three magnetic torquers (MTQs). The responses of the MTQs sensed by a separated magnetometer are feedback to the numerical simulation part completing the HIL simulation loop. Experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the simulator.

  15. Satellite orbits perturbed by direct solar radiation pressure: general expansion of the disturbing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.

    1977-01-01

    An expression is derived for the solar radiation pressure disturbing function on an Earth satellite orbit which takes into account the variation of the solar radiation flux with distance from the Sun's centre and the absorption of radiation by the satellite. This expression is then expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the satellite and solar orbits using Kaula's method (Astr. J.; 67:300 (1962)). The Kaula inclination functions are replaced by an equivalent set of modified Allan (Proc. R. Soc. A.; 288:60 (1965)) inclination functions. The resulting expression reduces to the form commonly used in solar radiation pressure perturbation studies (e.g. Aksnes, Cel. Mech.; 13:89 (1976)), when certain terms are neglected. If, as happens quite often in practice, a satellite's orbit is in near-resonance with certain of these neglected terms, these near-resonant terms can cause changes in the satellite's orbital elements comparable to those produced by the largest term in Aksnes's expression. A new expression for the solar radiation pressure disturbing function expansion is suggested for use in future studies of satellite orbits perturbed by solar radiation pressure. (author)

  16. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes exist.in order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  17. Satellite interference analysis and simulation using personal computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Anil

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the complete analysis and formulas necessary to quantify the interference experienced by a generic satellite communications receiving station due to an interfering satellite. Both satellites, the desired as well as the interfering satellite, are considered to be in elliptical orbits. Formulas are developed for the satellite look angles and the satellite transmit angles generally related to the land mask of the receiving station site for both satellites. Formulas for considering Doppler effect due to the satellite motion as well as the Earth's rotation are developed. The effect of the interfering-satellite signal modulation and the Doppler effect on the power received are considered. The statistical formulation of the interference effect is presented in the form of a histogram of the interference to the desired signal power ratio. Finally, a computer program suitable for microcomputers such as IBM AT is provided with the flowchart, a sample run, results of the run, and the program code.

  18. Constellations of Next Generation Gravity Missions: Simulations regarding optimal orbits and mitigation of aliasing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, M.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.; Purkhauser, A.

    2017-12-01

    The CHAMP and GRACE missions have demonstrated the tremendous potential for observing mass changes in the Earth system from space. In order to fulfil future user needs a monitoring of mass distribution and mass transport with higher spatial and temporal resolution is required. This can be achieved by a Bender-type Next Generation Gravity Mission (NGGM) consisting of a constellation of satellite pairs flying in (near-)polar and inclined orbits, respectively. For these satellite pairs the observation concept of the GRACE Follow-on mission with a laser-based low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (ll-SST) system and more precise accelerometers and state-of-the-art star trackers is adopted. By choosing optimal orbit constellations for these satellite pairs high frequency mass variations will be observable and temporal aliasing errors from under-sampling will not be the limiting factor anymore. As part of the European Space Agency (ESA) study "ADDCON" (ADDitional CONstellation and Scientific Analysis Studies of the Next Generation Gravity Mission) a variety of mission design parameters for such constellations are investigated by full numerical simulations. These simulations aim at investigating the impact of several orbit design choices and at the mitigation of aliasing errors in the gravity field retrieval by co-parametrization for various constellations of Bender-type NGGMs. Choices for orbit design parameters such as altitude profiles during mission lifetime, length of retrieval period, value of sub-cycles and choice of prograde versus retrograde orbits are investigated as well. Results of these simulations are presented and optimal constellations for NGGM's are identified. Finally, a short outlook towards new geophysical applications like a near real time service for hydrology is given.

  19. POGO satellite orbit corrections: an opportunity to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmann, Reto; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We present an attempt to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) satellite missions in the late 1960s. Inaccurate satellite positions are believed to be a major source of errors for using the magnetic observations for field...... modelling. To improve the data, we use aniterative approach consisting of two main parts: one is a main field modelling process to obtain the radial fieldgradient to perturb the orbits and the other is the state-of-the-art GPS orbit modelling software BERNESE to calculatenew physical orbits. We report....... With this approach, weeliminate the orbit discontinuities at midnight but only tiny quality improvements could be achieved forgeomagnetically quiet data. We believe that improvements to the data are probably still possible, but it would require the original tracking observations to be found....

  20. Application of Semi-analytical Satellite Theory orbit propagator to orbit determination for space object catalog maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Srinivas J.; Cefola, Paul J.; Montenbruck, Oliver; Fiedler, Hauke

    2016-05-01

    Catalog maintenance for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) demands an accurate and computationally lean orbit propagation and orbit determination technique to cope with the ever increasing number of observed space objects. As an alternative to established numerical and analytical methods, we investigate the accuracy and computational load of the Draper Semi-analytical Satellite Theory (DSST). The standalone version of the DSST was enhanced with additional perturbation models to improve its recovery of short periodic motion. The accuracy of DSST is, for the first time, compared to a numerical propagator with fidelity force models for a comprehensive grid of low, medium, and high altitude orbits with varying eccentricity and different inclinations. Furthermore, the run-time of both propagators is compared as a function of propagation arc, output step size and gravity field order to assess its performance for a full range of relevant use cases. For use in orbit determination, a robust performance of DSST is demonstrated even in the case of sparse observations, which is most sensitive to mismodeled short periodic perturbations. Overall, DSST is shown to exhibit adequate accuracy at favorable computational speed for the full set of orbits that need to be considered in space surveillance. Along with the inherent benefits of a semi-analytical orbit representation, DSST provides an attractive alternative to the more common numerical orbit propagation techniques.

  1. Orbit computation of the TELECOM-2D satellite with a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, Florent; Coulot, David; Vienne, Alain; Decosta, Romain; Richard, Pascal; Lasri, Mohammed Amjad

    2014-07-01

    In order to test a preliminary orbit determination method, we fit an orbit of the geostationary satellite TELECOM-2D, as if we did not know any a priori information on its trajectory. The method is based on a genetic algorithm coupled to an analytical propagator of the trajectory, that is used over a couple of days, and that uses a whole set of altazimutal data that are acquired by the tracking network made up of the two TAROT telescopes. The adjusted orbit is then compared to a numerical reference. The method is described, and the results are analyzed, as a step towards an operational method of preliminary orbit determination for uncatalogued objects.

  2. Method and associated apparatus for capturing, servicing, and de-orbiting earth satellites using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepollina, Frank J. (Inventor); Burns, Richard D. (Inventor); Holz, Jill M. (Inventor); Corbo, James E. (Inventor); Jedhrich, Nicholas M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    This invention is a method and supporting apparatus for autonomously capturing, servicing and de-orbiting a free-flying spacecraft, such as a satellite, using robotics. The capture of the spacecraft includes the steps of optically seeking and ranging the satellite using LIDAR; and matching tumble rates, rendezvousing and berthing with the satellite. Servicing of the spacecraft may be done using supervised autonomy, which is allowing a robot to execute a sequence of instructions without intervention from a remote human-occupied location. These instructions may be packaged at the remote station in a script and uplinked to the robot for execution upon remote command giving authority to proceed. Alternately, the instructions may be generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI) logic onboard the robot. In either case, the remote operator maintains the ability to abort an instruction or script at any time, as well as the ability to intervene using manual override to teleoperate the robot.In one embodiment, a vehicle used for carrying out the method of this invention comprises an ejection module, which includes the robot, and a de-orbit module. Once servicing is completed by the robot, the ejection module separates from the de-orbit module, leaving the de-orbit module attached to the satellite for de-orbiting the same at a future time. Upon separation, the ejection module can either de-orbit itself or rendezvous with another satellite for servicing. The ability to de-orbit a spacecraft further allows the opportunity to direct the landing of the spent satellite in a safe location away from population centers, such as the ocean.

  3. Low-Thrust Out-of-Plane Orbital Station-Keeping Maneuvers for Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of out of plane orbital maneuvers for station keeping of satellites. The main idea is to consider that a satellite is in an orbit around the Earth and that it has its orbit is disturbed by one or more forces. Then, it is necessary to perform a small amplitude orbital correction to return the satellite to its original orbit, to keep it performing its mission. A low thrust propulsion is used to complete this task. It is important to search for solutions that minimize the fuel consumption to increase the lifetime of the satellite. To solve this problem a hybrid optimal control approach is used. The accuracy of the satisfaction of the constraints is considered, in order to try to decrease the fuel expenditure by taking advantage of this freedom. This type of problem presents numerical difficulties and it is necessary to adjust parameters, as well as details of the algorithm, to get convergence. In this versions of the algorithm that works well for planar maneuvers are usually not adequate for the out of plane orbital corrections. In order to illustrate the method, some numerical results are presented.

  4. Orbital simulation life tests of nickel hydrogen batteries with additional non-eclipse cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. J.; Donley, S. W.; Verrier, D. C.

    Nickel-hydrogen battery technology has established itself as the system of choice to provide energy storage on board Earth orbiting satellites. In addition to providing electrical power for the satellite during the periods the satellite's solar arrays are eclipsed by the Earth, applications are evolving (such as ion propulsion) where the battery is required to supplement the power supplied to the spacecraft by the solar panels in order to meet the peak power demands. In this paper, the results of a four-year accelerated life test programme, equivalent to more than 20 years in orbit, are reported. Additional non-eclipse cycles were added to both the eclipse and solstice seasons of each simulated spacecraft year. The results show that the additional discharges do not significantly effect the rates of performance degradation of the batteries.

  5. On the lunar node resonance of the orbital plane evolution of the Earth's satellite orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effects of lunar node resonance on the circular medium Earth orbits (MEO). The dynamical model is established in classical Hamiltonian systems with the application of Lie transform to remove the non-resonant terms. Resonant condition, stability and phase structures are studied. The lunar node resonance occurs when the secular changing rates of the orbital node (with respect to the equator) and the lunar node (with respect to the ecliptic) form a simple integer ratio. The resonant conditions are satisfied for both inclined and equatorial orbits. The orbital plane would have long period (with typical timescales of several centuries) fluctuation due to the resonance.

  6. Gravity model development for precise orbit computations for satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James G.; Lerch, Francis, J.; Smith, David E.; Klosko, Steven M.; Pavlis, Erricos

    1986-01-01

    Two preliminary gravity models developed as a first step in reaching the TOPEX/Poseidon modeling goals are discussed. They were obtained by NASA-Goddard from an analysis of exclusively satellite tracking observations. With the new Preliminary Gravity Solution-T2 model, an improved global estimate of the field is achieved with an improved description of the geoid.

  7. The Use of Resonant Orbits in Satellite Geodesy: A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Gooding, R. H.; Wagner, C. A.; Kostelecký, J.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 43-72 ISSN 0169-3298 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98056 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : satellite geodesy * Earth's gravitational field * geopotential Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.112, year: 2013

  8. Application of KAM Theorem to Earth Orbiting Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    P m n are the associated Legendre Polynomials, and r, δ and λ are the radius, geocentric latitude and east longitude of the of the satellite...Laskar shows that the cost -to-benefit drops off after windows of order 3-5 [11]. Higher order functions also result in wider peaks, which leads to

  9. Failure analysis of satellite subsystems to define suitable de-orbit devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Chiara; Peroni, Moreno; Kingston, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Space missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are severely affected by the build-up of orbital debris. A key practice, to be compliant with IADC (Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee) mitigation guidelines, is the removal of space systems that interfere with the LEO region not later than 25 years after the End of Mission. It is important to note that the current guidelines are not generally legally binding, even if different Space Agencies are now looking at the compliance for their missions. If the guidelines will change in law, it will be mandatory to have a postmission disposal strategy for all satellites, including micro and smaller classes. A potential increased number of these satellites is confirmed by different projections, in particular in the commercial sector. Micro and smaller spacecraft are, in general, not provided with propulsion capabilities to achieve a controlled re-entry, so they need different de-orbit disposal methods. When considering the utility of different debris mitigation methods, it is useful to understand which spacecraft subsystems are most likely to fail and how this may affect the operation of a de-orbit system. This also helps the consideration of which components are the most relevant or should be redundant depending on the satellite mass class. This work is based on a sample of LEO and MEO satellites launched between January 2000 and December 2014 with mass lower than 1000 kg. Failure analysis of satellite subsystems is performed by means of the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; the parametric fits are conducted with Weibull distributions. The study is carried out by using the satellite database SpaceTrak™ which provides anomalies, failures, and trends information for spacecraft subsystems and launch vehicles. The database identifies five states for each satellite subsystem: three degraded states, one fully operational state, and one failed state (complete failure). The results obtained can guide the identification of the

  10. Simulation and Analysis of Autonomous Time Synchronization Based on Asynchronism Two-way Inter-satellite Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L.; Yang, X. H.; Sun, B. Q.; Qin, W. J.; Kong, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of the inter-satellite link is one of the key techniques in the autonomous operation of satellite navigation system. Based on the asynchronism inter-satellite two-way measurement mode in GPS constellation, the reduction formula of the inter-satellite time synchronization is built in this paper. Moreover, the corrective method of main systematic errors is proposed. Inter-satellite two-way time synchronization is simulated on the basis of IGS (International GNSS Service) precise ephemeris. The impacts of the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range, the initial orbit, and the main systematic errors on satellite time synchronization are analyzed. Furthermore, the broadcast clock error of each satellite is calculated by the ``centralized'' inter-satellite autonomous time synchronization. Simulation results show that the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range and the initial orbit have little impact on the satellite clock errors, and thus they needn't be taken into account. The errors caused by the relativistic effect and the asymmetry of path travel have large impact on the satellite clock errors. These should be corrected with theoretical formula. Compared with the IGS precise clock error, the root mean square of the broadcast clock error of each satellite is about 0.4 ns.

  11. The effect of lunarlike satellites on the orbital infrared light curves of Earth-analog planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Gaidos, Eric; Williams, Darren M

    2009-04-01

    We have investigated the influence of lunarlike satellites on the infrared orbital light curves of Earth-analog extrasolar planets. Such light curves will be obtained by NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA's Darwin missions as a consequence of repeat observations to confirm the companion status of a putative planet and determine its orbit. We used an energy balance model to calculate disk-averaged infrared (bolometric) fluxes from planet-satellite systems over a full orbital period (one year). The satellites are assumed to lack an atmosphere, have a low thermal inertia like that of the Moon, and span a range of plausible radii. The planets are assumed to have thermal and orbital properties that mimic those of Earth, while their obliquities and orbital longitudes of inferior conjunction remain free parameters. Even if the gross thermal properties of the planet can be independently constrained (e.g., via spectroscopy or visible-wavelength detection of specular glint from a surface ocean), only the largest (approximately Mars-sized) lunarlike satellites can be detected by light curve data from a TPF-like instrument (i.e., one that achieves a photometric signal-to-noise ratio of 10 to 20 at infrared wavelengths). Nondetection of a lunarlike satellite can obfuscate the interpretation of a given system's infrared light curve so that it may resemble a single planet with high obliquity, different orbital longitude of vernal equinox relative to inferior conjunction, and in some cases drastically different thermal characteristics. If the thermal properties of the planet are not independently established, then the presence of a lunarlike satellite cannot be inferred from infrared data, which would thus demonstrate that photometric light curves alone can only be used for preliminary study, and the addition of spectroscopic data will be necessary.

  12. The ITU and managing satellite orbital and spectrum resources in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Audrey L

    2014-01-01

    Access to satellite orbits and spectrum is managed by the ITU, a United Nations body that strives to extend the benefits of new technologies to the world, while ensuring equitable access to these resources. This book explores how the ITU approaches these dual missions in light of the increasing saturation of the geostationary orbit by a vibrant global satellite industry and the rising interests of developing countries in accessing these limited resources. These issues were the subject of debate at the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference. This book describes and assesses various regulatory approaches undertaken to manage the increasing requests for access to space and especially access to spectrum and orbital locations in the geosynchronous or “The Clarke” orbit.

  13. The Orbital Dynamics of Synchronous Satellites: Irregular Motions in the 2 : 1 Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Cordeiro Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The orbital dynamics of synchronous satellites is studied. The 2 : 1 resonance is considered; in other words, the satellite completes two revolutions while the Earth completes one. In the development of the geopotential, the zonal harmonics J20 and J40 and the tesseral harmonics J22 and J42 are considered. The order of the dynamical system is reduced through successive Mathieu transformations, and the final system is solved by numerical integration. The Lyapunov exponents are used as tool to analyze the chaotic orbits.

  14. Improvement in the radial accuracy of altimeter-satellite orbits due to the geopotential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.; Wagner, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 91, 1-4 (2008), s. 106-120 ISSN 0012-8252 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003407; GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : orbits of Earth artificial satellites * gravity field of the Earth * radial orbit error Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.558, year: 2008

  15. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Design and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, F.

    2008-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system - the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD and will provide continuity for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). This poster will provide an overview of the NPOESS architecture, which includes four segments. The space segment includes satellites in two orbits that carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the Earth, atmosphere, and near-Earth space environment. The NPOESS design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPOESS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government as well as to remote terminal users. The Launch Support Segment completes the four segments that make up NPOESS that will enhance the connectivity between research and operations and provide critical operational and scientific environmental measurements to military, civil, and scientific users until 2026.

  16. An orbit determination algorithm for small satellites based on the magnitude of the earth magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorski, P.; Gallina, A.; Rachucki, J.; Moczala, B.; Zietek, S.; Uhl, T.

    2018-06-01

    Autonomous attitude determination systems based on simple measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field and the Sun direction are commonly used in very small satellites. However, those systems always require knowledge of the satellite position. This information can be either propagated from orbital elements periodically uplinked from the ground station or measured onboard by dedicated global positioning system (GPS) receiver. The former solution sacrifices satellite autonomy while the latter requires additional sensors which may represent a significant part of mass, volume, and power budget in case of pico- or nanosatellites. Hence, it is thought that a system for onboard satellite position determination without resorting to GPS receivers would be useful. In this paper, a novel algorithm for determining the satellite orbit semimajor-axis is presented. The methods exploit only the magnitude of the Earth magnetic field recorded onboard by magnetometers. This represents the first step toward an extended algorithm that can determine all orbital elements of the satellite. The method is validated by numerical analysis and real magnetic field measurements.

  17. Optimal Rendezvous and Docking Simulator for Elliptical Orbits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop and implement a simulation of spacecraft rendezvous and docking guidance, navigation, and control in elliptical orbit. The foundation of...

  18. Diagnosing low earth orbit satellite anomalies using NOAA-15 electron data associated with geomagnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nizam; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Djamaluddin, Thomas; Usui, Hideyuki; Miyake, Yohei

    2018-05-01

    A satellite placed in space is constantly affected by the space environment, resulting in various impacts from temporary faults to permanent failures depending on factors such as satellite orbit, solar and geomagnetic activities, satellite local time, and satellite construction material. Anomaly events commonly occur during periods of high geomagnetic activity that also trigger plasma variation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. In this study, we diagnosed anomalies in LEO satellites using electron data from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-15 satellite. In addition, we analyzed the fluctuation of electron flux in association with geomagnetic disturbances 3 days before and after the anomaly day. We selected 20 LEO anomaly cases registered in the Satellite News Digest database for the years 2000-2008. Satellite local time, an important parameter for anomaly diagnosis, was determined using propagated two-line element data in the SGP4 simplified general perturbation model to calculate the longitude of the ascending node of the satellite through the position and velocity vectors. The results showed that the majority of LEO satellite anomalies are linked to low-energy electron fluxes of 30-100 keV and magnetic perturbations that had a higher correlation coefficient ( 90%) on the day of the anomaly. The mean local time calculation for the anomaly day with respect to the nighttime migration of energetic electrons revealed that the majority of anomalies (65%) occurred on the night side of Earth during the dusk-to-dawn sector of magnetic local time.

  19. Accelerated simulation of near-Earth-orbit polymer degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Eric

    1992-01-01

    There is a need to simulate the near-Earth-orbit environmental conditions, and it is useful to be able to monitor the changes in physical properties of spacecraft materials. Two different methods for simulating the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray near-Earth-orbit flux are presented. Also, methods for monitoring the changes in optical ultraviolet transmission and mass loss are presented. The results of exposures to VUV photons and charged particles on these materials are discussed.

  20. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Reference Information Center shall send a copy of this Report and... ground, ESAAs shall not be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5[deg] measured from the plane..., in the plane of the geostationary satellite orbit (GSO) as it appears at the particular earth station...

  1. A novel emergency system for low earth orbit satellites using Galileo GNSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, E.K.A.; Helderweirt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites have a limited direct contact time with the stations of their ground segment. This fundamentally constraints a timeliness reaction of the mission control center in case of emergency situations onboard the LEO spacecraft. To enable such a rapid reaction to emergency

  2. Study on networking issues of medium earth orbit satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Noriyuki; Shinonaga, Hideyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Two networking issues of communications systems with medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites, namely network architectures and location determination and registration methods for hand-held terminals, are investigated in this paper. For network architecture, five candidate architectures are considered and evaluated in terms of signaling traffic. For location determination and registration, two methods are discussed and evaluated.

  3. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations... the Federal Register of March 8, 2013. The document proposed rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft...

  4. Two satellite study of substorm expansion near geosynchronous orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Holter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During several time intervals in 1979–1980 the satellites GEOS-2 and SCATHA were situated relatively close on the nightside of the Earth at geosynchronous distances. Several substorm events were identified during these periods. The event considered in this paper was recorded on 22 May 1979, when the satellites were separated by less than 30min in local time around 21:00 LT. The observed 45 to 60 s delay of magnetic signatures observed at the two s/c indicates a westward expansion of ~7.7°/min. At the two s/c, the magnetic signatures are, in particular for the azimuthal magnetic field components, quite different. At GEOS-2, being close to the magnetic equator, the dominant feature is a dipolarization with a weak field-aligned current signature corresponding to a symmetric current which cancels at the equator. On SCATHA, however, being close to the current sheet boundary, the azimuthal magnetic field indicates a strong field-aligned Birkeland current structure. On both s/c the first indication of an approaching substorm was an increase in the high energy ion flux followed by a reduction in the flux intensity of energetic electrons and a further tailward stretching of the magnetic field, starting ~2min before the onset of the magnetic field dipolarization. The tailward stretching, the observed variations of the magnetic field components, and the subsequent dipolarization are interpreted in terms of an azimuthally tilted field-aligned current system passing the s/c on the tailward side from east to west. The westward expansion and dipolarization observed at the two s/c are consistent with the propagation of a Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. The increased radial ion flux corresponds to the ExB-drift due to the substorm associated electric field.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms; plasma waves and instabilities; current systems

  5. Orbit Determination from Tracking Data of Artificial Satellite Using the Method of Differential Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Sun Lee

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The differential correction process determining osculating orbital elements as correct as possible at a given instant of time from tracking data of artificial satellite was accomplished. Preliminary orbital elements were used as an initial value of the differential correction procedure and iterated until the residual of real observation(O and computed observation(C was minimized. Tracking satellite was NOAA-9 or TIROS-N series. Two types of tracking data were prediction data precomputed from mean orbital elements of TBUS and real data obtained from tracking 1.707GHz HRPT signal of NOAA-9 using 5 meter auto-track antenna in Radio Research Laboratory. According to tracking data either Gauss method or Herrick-Gibbs method was applied to preliminary orbit determination. In the differential correction stage we used both of the Escobal(1975's analytical method and numerical ones are nearly consistent. And the differentially corrected orbit converged to the same value in spite of the differences between preliminary orbits of each time span.

  6. 47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  7. The Effects of Using Solar Radiation Pressure to Alleviate Fuel Requirements for Orbit Changing and Maintenance of the DSCS II F-13 Satellite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paris, Jody A

    2006-01-01

    Orbit disposal and maintenance of aging satellites has become a significant concern over the past few years, as the increasing number of orbiting objects threatens to limit the launching of future satellites...

  8. Review of a relativity and geodesy mission with counter-orbiting polar satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Patten, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new test of general relativity, capable of measuring the Lense-Thirring precession on a satellite orbit was proposed in 1974. We have recently realized that the remarkable geophysical output of this experiment can be enriched by allowing the point of encounter between the two satellites to progress from the poles to the equator during the course of the mission. There is reason to believe that by performing the experiment in this mode, all tesseral harmonics up to about 60th order could be separated and determined to accuracies up to three orders of magnitude better than current knowledge, and still obtain a 1% Lense-Thirring measurement. (orig.) [de

  9. Precise orbit determination for quad-constellation satellites at Wuhan University: strategy, result validation, and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-02-01

    This contribution summarizes the strategy used by Wuhan University (WHU) to determine precise orbit and clock products for Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). In particular, the satellite attitude, phase center corrections, solar radiation pressure model developed and used for BDS satellites are addressed. In addition, this contribution analyzes the orbit and clock quality of the quad-constellation products from MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) for a common time period of 1 year (2014). With IGS final GPS and GLONASS products as the reference, Multi-GNSS products of WHU (indicated by WUM) show the best agreement among these products from all MGEX ACs in both accuracy and stability. 3D Day Boundary Discontinuities (DBDs) range from 8 to 27 cm for Galileo-IOV satellites among all ACs' products, whereas WUM ones are the largest (about 26.2 cm). Among three types of BDS satellites, MEOs show the smallest DBDs from 10 to 27 cm, whereas the DBDs for all ACs products are at decimeter to meter level for GEOs and one to three decimeter for IGSOs, respectively. As to the satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation for Galileo-IOV satellites, the accuracy evaluated by SLR residuals is at the one decimeter level with the well-known systematic bias of about -5 cm for all ACs. For BDS satellites, the accuracy could reach decimeter level, one decimeter level, and centimeter level for GEOs, IGSOs, and MEOs, respectively. However, there is a noticeable bias in GEO SLR residuals. In addition, systematic errors dependent on orbit angle related to mismodeled solar radiation pressure (SRP) are present for BDS GEOs and IGSOs. The results of Multi-GNSS combined kinematic PPP demonstrate that the best accuracy of position and fastest convergence speed have been achieved using WUM products, particularly in the Up direction. Furthermore, the accuracy of static BDS only PPP degrades when the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites switches to orbit-normal orientation

  10. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  11. Phase Error Modeling and Its Impact on Precise Orbit Determination of GRACE Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Tu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limiting factors for the precise orbit determination (POD of low-earth orbit (LEO satellite using dual-frequency GPS are nowadays mainly encountered with the in-flight phase error modeling. The phase error is modeled as a systematic and a random component each depending on the direction of GPS signal reception. The systematic part and standard deviation of random part in phase error model are, respectively, estimated by bin-wise mean and standard deviation values of phase postfit residuals computed by orbit determination. By removing the systematic component and adjusting the weight of phase observation data according to standard deviation of random component, the orbit can be further improved by POD approach. The GRACE data of 1–31 January 2006 are processed, and three types of orbit solutions, POD without phase error model correction, POD with mean value correction of phase error model, and POD with phase error model correction, are obtained. The three-dimensional (3D orbit improvements derived from phase error model correction are 0.0153 m for GRACE A and 0.0131 m for GRACE B, and the 3D influences arisen from random part of phase error model are 0.0068 m and 0.0075 m for GRACE A and GRACE B, respectively. Thus the random part of phase error model cannot be neglected for POD. It is also demonstrated by phase postfit residual analysis, orbit comparison with JPL precise science orbit, and orbit validation with KBR data that the results derived from POD with phase error model correction are better than another two types of orbit solutions generated in this paper.

  12. Mars Relays Satellite Orbit Design Considerations for Global Support of Robotic Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Cesarone, Robert; Cook, Richard; Knocke, Phillip; McOmber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses orbit design considerations for Mars relay satellite (MRS)support of globally distributed robotic surface missions. The orbit results reported in this paper are derived from studies of MRS support for two types of Mars robotic surface missions: 1) the mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission, which in its current definition would deploy a global network of up to 16 small landers, and 2)a Small Mars Sample Return (SMSR) mission, which included four globally distributed landers, each with a return stage and one or two rovers, and up to four additional sets of lander/rover elements in an extended mission phase.

  13. Orbital motion in strongly perturbed environments applications to asteroid, comet and planetary satellite orbiters

    CERN Document Server

    Scheeres, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The proposed book will provide a detailed, technical introduction to the analysis of orbital motion in strongly perturbed environments, focusing on motion about small Solar System bodies, such as comets and asteroids. The author shows why such small bodies are of interest and why they can be used as a motivation for the general analysis of orbital mechanics. He shows how it is possible to model the small body environment, including specialised cases such as those of binary asteroids, comets and ‘rubble piles’, and how the fundamental equations of motion are derived. The properties of the various solutions to the equations of motion are described and the methods of analysis and their application are discussed. Both ballistic motion and powered motion on and about small bodies are considered and case studies for different small body missions are presented. The author concludes his comprehensive treatment with a discussion of the mechanics of multi-body small body systems and a review of advanced topics and ...

  14. Improved Orbit Determination and Forecasts with an Assimilative Tool for Atmospheric Density and Satellite Drag Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, G.; Pilinski, M.; Sutton, E. K.; Codrescu, M.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Matsuo, T.; Fedrizzi, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.; Thayer, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Much as aircraft are affected by the prevailing winds and weather conditions in which they fly, satellites are affected by the variability in density and motion of the near earth space environment. Drastic changes in the neutral density of the thermosphere, caused by geomagnetic storms or other phenomena, result in perturbations of LEO satellite motions through drag on the satellite surfaces. This can lead to difficulties in locating important satellites, temporarily losing track of satellites, and errors when predicting collisions in space. We describe ongoing work to build a comprehensive nowcast and forecast system for specifying the neutral atmospheric state related to orbital drag conditions. The system outputs include neutral density, winds, temperature, composition, and the satellite drag derived from these parameters. This modeling tool is based on several state-of-the-art coupled models of the thermosphere-ionosphere as well as several empirical models running in real-time and uses assimilative techniques to produce a thermospheric nowcast. This software will also produce 72 hour predictions of the global thermosphere-ionosphere system using the nowcast as the initial condition and using near real-time and predicted space weather data and indices as the inputs. Features of this technique include: • Satellite drag specifications with errors lower than current models • Altitude coverage up to 1000km • Background state representation using both first principles and empirical models • Assimilation of satellite drag and other datatypes • Real time capability • Ability to produce 72-hour forecasts of the atmospheric state In this paper, we will summarize the model design and assimilative architecture, and present preliminary validation results. Validation results will be presented in the context of satellite orbit errors and compared with several leading atmospheric models including the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model, which is currently used

  15. Geographical representation of radial orbit perturbations due to ocean tides: Implications for satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettadpur, Srinivas V.; Eanes, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    In analogy to the geographical representation of the zeroth-order radial orbit perturbations due to the static geopotential, similar relationships have been derived for radial orbit perturbations due to the ocean tides. At each location these perturbations are seen to be coherent with the tide height variations. The study of this singularity is of obvious importance to the estimation of ocean tides from satellite altimeter data. We derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of altimeter derived ocean tide models to the ocean tide force model induced errors in the orbits of the altimeter satellite. In particular, we focus on characterizing and quantifying the nonresonant tidal orbit perturbations, which cannot be adjusted into the empirical accelerations or radial perturbation adjustments commonly used during orbit determination and in altimeter data processing. As an illustration of the utility of this technique, we study the differences between a TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived ocean tide model and the Cartwright and Ray 1991 Geosat model. This analysis shows that nearly 60% of the variance of this difference for M(sub 2) can be explained by the Geosat radial orbit eror due to the omission of coefficients from the GEM-T2 background ocean tide model. For O(sub 1), K(sub 1), S(sub 2), and K(sub 2) the orbital effects account for approximately 10 to 40% of the variances of these differences. The utility of this technique to assessment of the ocean tide induced errors in the TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived tide models is also discussed.

  16. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...... gravity field, Earth magnetic field and eclipse. The structure and facilities within the toolbox are described and exemplified using a student satellite case (AAUSAT-II). The validity of developed models is confirmed by comparing the simulation results with the realistic data obtained from the Danish...

  17. First Attempt of Orbit Determination of SLR Satellites and Space Debris Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, F.; Coulot, D.; Descosta, R.; Fernier, A.; Richard, P.

    2013-08-01

    We present an orbit determination method based on genetic algorithms. Contrary to usual estimation methods mainly based on least-squares methods, these algorithms do not require any a priori knowledge of the initial state vector to be estimated. These algorithms can be applied when a new satellite is launched or for uncatalogued objects that appear in images obtained from robotic telescopes such as the TAROT ones. We show in this paper preliminary results obtained from an SLR satellite, for which tracking data acquired by the ILRS network enable to build accurate orbital arcs at a few centimeter level, which can be used as a reference orbit ; in this case, the basic observations are made up of time series of ranges, obtained from various tracking stations. We show as well the results obtained from the observations acquired by the two TAROT telescopes on the Telecom-2D satellite operated by CNES ; in that case, the observations are made up of time series of azimuths and elevations, seen from the two TAROT telescopes. The method is carried out in several steps: (i) an analytical propagation of the equations of motion, (ii) an estimation kernel based on genetic algorithms, which follows the usual steps of such approaches: initialization and evolution of a selected population, so as to determine the best parameters. Each parameter to be estimated, namely each initial keplerian element, has to be searched among an interval that is preliminary chosen. The algorithm is supposed to converge towards an optimum over a reasonable computational time.

  18. Effect of Electrodynamic Forces on the Attitude Stabilization of a Satellite in Ecliptic orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia

    This work is based on the previous paper of the author [1]. The present paper is devoted to the investigation of the attitude dynamics of an ecliptic satellite moving in the magnetic field of the Earth. Eelectrodynamic forces result from the motion of a charged satelite relative to the magnetic field of the Earth. The torque due to electrodynamic effect of the Lorentz forces on the attitude stabilization of the satellite is studied with the detailed model of the Earth's magnetic field. A method for estimating the stable and unstable regions of the equilibrium positions based on Euler's equation is also discussed. The results show that Lorentz forces can affect the stablization of the satellite, in particular for highly eccentric orbits and also for large satellte. [1] Abdel-Aziz, Y. A. Attitude Stabilization of a Rigid Spacecraft in the Geomagnetic Field. AdSpR 40, 18-24, 2007.

  19. Reducing orbital eccentricity in binary black hole simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Harald P; Brown, Duncan A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Lindblom, Lee; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Binary black hole simulations starting from quasi-circular (i.e., zero radial velocity) initial data have orbits with small but nonzero orbital eccentricities. In this paper, the quasi-equilibrium initial-data method is extended to allow nonzero radial velocities to be specified in binary black hole initial data. New low-eccentricity initial data are obtained by adjusting the orbital frequency and radial velocities to minimize the orbital eccentricity, and the resulting (∼5 orbit) evolutions are compared with those of quasi-circular initial data. Evolutions of the quasi-circular data clearly show eccentric orbits, with eccentricity that decays over time. The precise decay rate depends on the definition of eccentricity; if defined in terms of variations in the orbital frequency, the decay rate agrees well with the prediction of Peters (1964 Phys. Rev. 136 1224-32). The gravitational waveforms, which contain ∼8 cycles in the dominant l = m = 2 mode, are largely unaffected by the eccentricity of the quasi-circular initial data. The overlap between the dominant mode in the quasi-circular evolution and the same mode in the low-eccentricity evolution is about 0.99

  20. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2008-01-01

    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  1. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government...

  2. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group... simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users..., and email address) to [email protected]us.af.mil and have your security personnel submit your VAR...

  3. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  4. Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT) I: An On-orbit Centrifuge Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightholder, Jack; Thoesen, Andrew; Adamson, Eric; Jakubowski, Jeremy; Nallapu, Ravi; Smallwood, Sarah; Raura, Laksh; Klesh, Andrew; Asphaug, Erik; Thangavelautham, Jekan

    2017-04-01

    Exploration of asteroids, comets and small moons (small bodies) can answer fundamental questions relating to the formation of the solar system, the availability of resources, and the nature of impact hazards. Near-earth asteroids and the small moons of Mars are potential targets of human exploration. But as illustrated by recent missions, small body surface exploration remains challenging, expensive, and fraught with risk. Despite their small size, they are among the most extreme planetary environments, with low and irregular gravity, loosely bound regolith, extreme temperature variation, and the presence of electrically charged dust. Here we describe the Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT-I), an on-orbit, 3U CubeSat centrifuge using a sandwich-sized bed of crushed meteorite fragments to replicate asteroid surface conditions. Demonstration of this CubeSat will provide a low-cost pathway to physical asteroid model validation, shed light on the origin and geophysics of asteroids, and constrain the design of future landers, rovers, resource extractors, and human missions. AOSAT-I will conduct scientific experiments within its payload chamber while operating in two distinct modes: (1) as a nonrotating microgravity laboratory to investigate primary accretion, and (2) as a rotating centrifuge producing artificial milligravity to simulate surface conditions on asteroids, comets and small moons. AOSAT-I takes advantage of low-cost, off-the-shelf components, modular design, and the rapid assembly and instrumentation of the CubeSat standard, to answer fundamental questions in planetary science and reduce cost and risk of future exploration.

  5. Impact of ITRS 2014 realizations on altimeter satellite precise orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Beckley, Brian D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Pavlis, Despina E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates orbit accuracy and systematic error for altimeter satellite precise orbit determination on TOPEX, Jason-1, Jason-2 and Jason-3 by comparing the use of four SLR/DORIS station complements from the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) 2014 realizations with those based on ITRF2008. The new Terrestrial Reference Frame 2014 (TRF2014) station complements include ITRS realizations from the Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) ITRF2014, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) JTRF2014, the Deutsche Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) DTRF2014, and the DORIS extension to ITRF2014 for Precise Orbit Determination, DPOD2014. The largest source of error stems from ITRF2008 station position extrapolation past the 2009 solution end time. The TRF2014 SLR/DORIS complement impact on the ITRF2008 orbit is only 1-2 mm RMS radial difference between 1992-2009, and increases after 2009, up to 5 mm RMS radial difference in 2016. Residual analysis shows that station position extrapolation error past the solution span becomes evident even after two years, and will contribute to about 3-4 mm radial orbit error after seven years. Crossover data show the DTRF2014 orbits are the most accurate for the TOPEX and Jason-2 test periods, and the JTRF2014 orbits for the Jason-1 period. However for the 2016 Jason-3 test period only the DPOD2014-based orbits show a strong and statistically significant margin of improvement. The positive results with DTRF2014 suggest the new approach to correct station positions or normal equations for non-tidal loading before combination is beneficial. We did not find any compelling POD advantage in using non-linear over linear station velocity models in our SLR & DORIS orbit tests on the Jason satellites. The JTRF2014 proof-of-concept ITRS realization demonstrates the need for improved SLR+DORIS orbit centering when compared to the Ries (2013) CM annual model. Orbit centering error is seen as an annual

  6. Seth Nicholson's First Satellite Discovery: Jupiter IX and His Orbit for It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2006-12-01

    Seth B. Nicholson was a graduate astronomy student at the University of California in Berkeley when he discovered his first satellite in 1914. He was later to discover three more, after he had joined the Mount Wilson Observatory staff following his PhD in 1915. Nicholson had begun his thesis on the problem of computing an improved orbit for J VIII, which had been discovered by Melotte in England in 1908, a distant irregular satellite like J VI and J VII. Nicholson was taking photographic plates to measure the position of J VIII in the summer of 1914 with the Crossley 36-inch reflector of Lick Observatory. He was a teaching assistant at Berkeley that summer, but would go up to Mount Hamilton to observe on weekends in the dark of the moon, traveling by rail, stage (an automobile on a regular schedule between San Jose and the observatory) and interurban trolley car, and sleeping in a shed near the Crossley dome. He first saw J IX as a much fainter object with the same motion as J VIII on a plate he took in late July 1914, and realized it must be another satellite of the giant planet. Nicholson obtained his first orbit of J IX, which had by then become his new thesis topic, in September, and published a paper on it in early 1915. Its orbit, like that of J VIII, was retrograde and irregular, but it was considerably fainter. Nicholson, a loyal student of Armin O. Leuschner, the head of the Berkeley Astronomy Division, used his teacher's "short method" (or analytic method) to calculate the orbit.

  7. SeaTrack: Ground station orbit prediction and planning software for sea-viewing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kenneth S.; Gregg, Watson W.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1993-01-01

    An orbit prediction software package (Sea Track) was designed to assist High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations in the acquisition of direct broadcast data from sea-viewing spacecraft. Such spacecraft will be common in the near future, with the launch of the Sea viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) in 1994, along with the continued Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series on NOAA platforms. The Brouwer-Lyddane model was chosen for orbit prediction because it meets the needs of HRPT tracking accuracies, provided orbital elements can be obtained frequently (up to within 1 week). Sea Track requires elements from the U.S. Space Command (NORAD Two-Line Elements) for the satellite's initial position. Updated Two-Line Elements are routinely available from many electronic sources (some are listed in the Appendix). Sea Track is a menu-driven program that allows users to alter input and output formats. The propagation period is entered by a start date and end date with times in either Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or local time. Antenna pointing information is provided in tabular form and includes azimuth/elevation pointing angles, sub-satellite longitude/latitude, acquisition of signal (AOS), loss of signal (LOS), pass orbit number, and other pertinent pointing information. One version of Sea Track (non-graphical) allows operation under DOS (for IBM-compatible personal computers) and UNIX (for Sun and Silicon Graphics workstations). A second, graphical, version displays orbit tracks, and azimuth-elevation for IBM-compatible PC's, but requires a VGA card and Microsoft FORTRAN.

  8. Preliminary Products of Precise Orbit Determination Using Satellite Laser Ranging Observations for ILRS AAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present preliminary results of precise orbit determination (POD using satellite laser ranging (SLR observations for International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS Associate Analysis Center (AAC. Using SLR normal point observations of LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, ETALON-1, and ETALON-2, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software are utilized for POD. Weekly-based orbit determination strategy is applied to process SLR observations and the post-fit residuals check, and external orbit comparison are performed for orbit accuracy assessment. The root mean square (RMS value of differences between observations and computations after final iteration of estimation process is used for post-fit residuals check. The result of ILRS consolidated prediction format (CPF is used for external orbit comparison. Additionally, we performed the precision analysis of each ILRS station by post-fit residuals. The post-fit residuals results show that the precisions of the orbits of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 0.9 and 1.3 cm, and those of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 2.5 and 1.9 cm, respectively. The orbit assessment results by ILRS CPF show that the radial accuracies of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 4.0 cm and 5.3 cm, and the radial accuracies of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 30.7 cm and 7.2 cm. These results of station precision analysis confirm that the result of this study is reasonable to have implications as preliminary results for administrating ILRS AAC.

  9. Paving the Way for Small Satellite Access to Orbit: Cyclops' Deployment of SpinSat, the Largest Satellite Ever Deployed from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Matthew P.; Newswander, Daniel R.; Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, successfully deployed the largest satellite ever (SpinSat) from the ISS on November 28, 2014. Cyclops, a collaboration between the NASA ISS Program, NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering, and Department of Defense Space Test Program (DoD STP) communities, is a dedicated 10-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. This paper will showcase the successful deployment of SpinSat from the ISS. It will also outline the concept of operations, interfaces, requirements, and processes for satellites to utilize the Cyclops satellite deployment system.

  10. Attitude Control and Orbital Dynamics Challenges of Removing the First 3-Axis Stabilized Tracking and Data Relay Satellite from the Geosynchronous ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Charles A.; Hofman, Henry; Williams, Thomas E.; Olney, Dave; Zaleski, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Launched on April 4, 1983 onboard STS 6 (Space Shuttle Challenger), the First Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS 1) was retired above the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) on June 27, 2010 after having provided real-time communications with a variety of low-orbiting spacecraft over a 26-year period. To meet NASA requirements limiting orbital debris 1, a team of experts was assembled to conduct an End-Of-Mission (EOM) procedure to raise the satellite 350 km above the GEO orbit. Following the orbit raising via conventional station change maneuvers, the team was confronted with having to deplete the remaining propellant and passivate all energy storage or generation sources. To accomplish these tasks within the time window, communications (telemetry and control links), electrical power, propulsion, and thermal constraints, a spacecraft originally designed as a three-axis stabilized satellite was turned into a spinner. This paper (a companion paper to Innovative Approach Enabled the Retirement of TDRS 1, paper # 1699, IEEE 2011 Aerospace Conference, March 5-12, 2011 sup 2) focuses on the challenges of maintaining an acceptable spinning dynamics, while repetitively firing thrusters. Also addressed are the effects of thruster firings on the orbit characteristics and how they were mitigated by a careful scheduling of the fuel depletion operations. Periodic thruster firings for spin rate adjustment, nutation damping, and precession of the momentum vector were also required in order to maintain effective communications with the satellite. All operations were thoroughly rehearsed and supported by simulations thus lending a high level of confidence in meeting the NASA EOM goals.

  11. A high-fidelity N-body ephemeris generator for satellites in Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David R.

    1991-10-01

    A program is currently used for mission planning called the Analytic Satellite Ephemeris Program (ASEP), which produces projected data for orbits that remain fairly close to Earth. Lunar and solar perturbations are taken into account in another program called GRAVE. This project is a revision of GRAVE which incorporates more flexible means of input for initial data, provides additional kinds of output information, and makes use of structured programming techniques to make the program more understandable and reliable. The computer program ORBIT was tested against tracking data for the first 313 days of operation of the CRRES satellite. A sample graph is given comparing the semi-major axis calculated by the program with the values supplied by NORAD. When calculated for points at which CRRES passes through the ascending node, the argument of perigee, the right ascension of the ascending node, and the mean anomaly all stay within about a degree of the corresponding values from NORAD; the inclination of the orbital plane is much closer. The program value of the eccentricity is in error by no more than 0.0002.

  12. Ground Track Acquisition and Maintenance Maneuver Modeling for Low-Earth Orbit Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Sun Lee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analytical approach for determining key maneuver parameters associated with the acquisition and maintenance of the ground track for a low-earth orbit. A livearized model relating changes in the drift rate of the ground track directly to changes in the orbital semi-major axis is also developed. The effect of terrestrial atmospheric drag on the semi-major axis is also explored, being quantified through an analytical expression for the decay rate as a function of density. The non-singular Lagrange planetary equations, further simplified for nearly circular orbits, provide the desired relationships between the corrective in-plane impulsive velocity increments and the corresponding effects on the orbit elements. The resulting solution strategy offers excellent insight into the dynamics affecting the timing, magnitude, and frequency of these maneuvers. Simulations are executed for the ground track acquisition and maintenance maneuver as a pre-flight planning and analysis.

  13. Definition of multipath/RFI experiments for orbital testing with a small applications technology satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, J. N.; French, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to define experiments for collection of RFI and multipath data for application to a synchronous relay satellite/low orbiting satellite configuration. A survey of analytical models of the multipath signal was conducted. Data has been gathered concerning the existing RFI and other noise sources in various bands at VHF and UHF. Additionally, designs are presented for equipment to combat the effects of RFI and multipath: an adaptive delta mod voice system, a forward error control coder/decoder, a PN transmission system, and a wideband FM system. The performance of these systems was then evaluated. Techniques are discussed for measuring multipath and RFI. Finally, recommended data collection experiments are presented. An extensive tabulation is included of theoretical predictions of the amount of signal reflected from a rough, spherical earth.

  14. Data manage and communication of lunar orbital X-ray imaging analyzer in CE-1 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinzhou; Wang Huanyu; Zhang Chengmo; Liang Xiaohua; Gao Min; CaoXuelei; Zhang Jiayu; Peng Wenxi; Cui Xingzhu; Xu Yupeng; Zhang Yongjie

    2006-01-01

    We present the software design for data management and communication software designed for the Lunar Orbital X-ray Imaging Analyzer in CE-1 Satellite. The software uses the appropriate format to assemble science data package and appropriate command respond mode, realizes the data transferring tasks through the 1553B bus on time, event though the channel bandwidth is under the limited. Also, the memory distribution and management of LOXIA (remote terminal) that fitted the communication with BC(Bus Controller) was introduced. Furthermore, for the spatial application, the security and reliability of software are emphasized. (authors)

  15. In-Orbit Trend Analysis of Galileo Satellites for Power Sources Degradation Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bard Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The results are in all cases better than the predictions, which is expected due to the usage of conservatives assumptions in the design to cover (for both IOV and FOC worst case scenario for the entire constellation. It should be noted that the FOC GSAT201 and GSAT202 batteries are degrading slightly faster than the 6 others FOC batteries identified GSAT203, GSAT204, GSAT205, GSAT206, GSAT208 and GSAT209, but still below predictions due to their peculiar unexpected orbit reached after launch (higher DoD up to 42% measured due to longer eclipses. These 2 satellites will require specific degradation monitoring.

  16. A Mobile Communications Space Link Between the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Bondyopadhyay, P.; Shaw, Roland

    1994-01-01

    A communications experiment is described as a link between the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Breadboarding for this experiment has led to two items with potential for commercial application: a 1-Watt Ka-band amplifier and a Ka-band, circularly polarized microstrip antenna. Results of the hybrid Ka-band amplifier show gain at 30 dB and a saturated output power of 28.5 dBm. A second version comprised of MMIC amplifiers is discussed. Test results of the microstrip antenna subarray show a gain of approximately 13 dB and excellent circular polarization.

  17. Comparison of precision orbit derived density estimates for CHAMP and GRACE satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattig, Eric Dale

    Current atmospheric density models cannot adequately represent the density variations observed by satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Using an optimal orbit determination process, precision orbit ephemerides (POE) are used as measurement data to generate corrections to density values obtained from existing atmospheric models. Densities obtained using these corrections are then compared to density data derived from the onboard accelerometers of satellites, specifically the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. This comparison takes two forms, cross correlation analysis and root mean square analysis. The densities obtained from the POE method are nearly always superior to the empirical models, both in matching the trends observed by the accelerometer (cross correlation), and the magnitudes of the accelerometer derived density (root mean square). In addition, this method consistently produces better results than those achieved by the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM). For satellites orbiting Earth that pass through Earth's upper atmosphere, drag is the primary source of uncertainty in orbit determination and prediction. Variations in density, which are often not modeled or are inaccurately modeled, cause difficulty in properly calculating the drag acting on a satellite. These density variations are the result of many factors; however, the Sun is the main driver in upper atmospheric density changes. The Sun influences the densities in Earth's atmosphere through solar heating of the atmosphere, as well as through geomagnetic heating resulting from the solar wind. Data are examined for fourteen hour time spans between November 2004 and July 2009 for both the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. This data spans all available levels of solar and geomagnetic activity, which does not include data in the elevated and high solar activity bins due to the nature of the solar cycle. Density solutions are generated from corrections to five different baseline atmospheric models, as well as

  18. Advancements of in-flight mass moment of inertia and structural deflection algorithms for satellite attitude simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jonathan W.

    Experimental satellite attitude simulators have long been used to test and analyze control algorithms in order to drive down risk before implementation on an operational satellite. Ideally, the dynamic response of a terrestrial-based experimental satellite attitude simulator would be similar to that of an on-orbit satellite. Unfortunately, gravitational disturbance torques and poorly characterized moments of inertia introduce uncertainty into the system dynamics leading to questionable attitude control algorithm experimental results. This research consists of three distinct, but related contributions to the field of developing robust satellite attitude simulators. In the first part of this research, existing approaches to estimate mass moments and products of inertia are evaluated followed by a proposition and evaluation of a new approach that increases both the accuracy and precision of these estimates using typical on-board satellite sensors. Next, in order to better simulate the micro-torque environment of space, a new approach to mass balancing satellite attitude simulator is presented, experimentally evaluated, and verified. Finally, in the third area of research, we capitalize on the platform improvements to analyze a control moment gyroscope (CMG) singularity avoidance steering law. Several successful experiments were conducted with the CMG array at near-singular configurations. An evaluation process was implemented to verify that the platform remained near the desired test momentum, showing that the first two components of this research were effective in allowing us to conduct singularity avoidance experiments in a representative space-like test environment.

  19. The impact of the orbital decay of the LAGEOS satellites on the frame-dragging tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The laser-tracked geodetic satellites LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES are currently employed, among other things, to measure the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect in the gravitomagnetic field of the spinning Earth with the hope of providing a more accurate test of such a prediction of the Einstein's theory of gravitation than the existing ones. The secular decay a ˙ of the semimajor axes a of such spacecrafts, recently measured in an independent way to a σȧ ≈ 0.1-0.01 m yr-1 accuracy level, may indirectly impact the proposed relativistic experiment through its connection with the classical orbital precessions induced by the Earth's oblateness J2 . Indeed, the systematic bias due to the current measurement errors σȧ is of the same order of magnitude of, or even larger than, the expected relativistic signal itself; moreover, it grows linearly with the time span T of the analysis. Therefore, the parameter-fitting algorithms must be properly updated in order to suitably cope with such a new source of systematic uncertainty. Otherwise, an improvement of one-two orders of magnitude in measuring the orbital decay of the satellites of the LAGEOS family would be required to reduce this source of systematic uncertainty to a percent fraction of the Lense-Thirring signature.

  20. Low-cost autonomous orbit control about Mars: Initial simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S. D.; Early, L. W.; Potterveld, C. W.; Königsmann, H. J.

    1999-11-01

    Interest in studying the possibility of extraterrestrial life has led to the re-emergence of the Red Planet as a major target of planetary exploration. Currently proposed missions in the post-2000 period are routinely calling for rendezvous with ascent craft, long-term orbiting of, and sample-return from Mars. Such missions would benefit greatly from autonomous orbit control as a means to reduce operations costs and enable contact with Mars ground stations out of view of the Earth. This paper present results from initial simulations of autonomously controlled orbits around Mars, and points out possible uses of the technology and areas of routine Mars operations where such cost-conscious and robust autonomy could prove most effective. These simulations have validated the approach and control philosophies used in the development of this autonomous orbit controller. Future work will refine the controller, accounting for systematic and random errors in the navigation of the spacecraft from the sensor suite, and will produce prototype flight code for inclusion on future missions. A modified version of Microcosm's commercially available High Precision Orbit Propagator (HPOP) was used in the preparation of these results due to its high accuracy and speed of operation. Control laws were developed to allow an autonomously controlled spacecraft to continuously control to a pre-defined orbit about Mars with near-optimal propellant usage. The control laws were implemented as an adjunct to HPOP. The GSFC-produced 50 × 50 field model of the Martian gravitational potential was used in all simulations. The Martian atmospheric drag was modeled using an exponentially decaying atmosphere based on data from the Mars-GRAM NASA Ames model. It is hoped that the simple atmosphere model that was implemented can be significantly improved in the future so as to approach the fidelity of the Mars-GRAM model in its predictions of atmospheric density at orbital altitudes. Such additional work

  1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 1: Orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the recommended orbit for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Land Resources Mission. It was determined that a promising sun synchronous orbit is 366 nautical miles when using an instrument with a 100 nautical mile swath width. The orbit has a 17 day repeat cycle and a 14 nautical mile swath overlap. Payloads were developed for each mission, EOS A through F. For each mission, the lowest cost booster that was capable of lifting the payload to the EOS orbit was selected. The launch vehicles selected for the missions are identified on the basis of tradeoff studies and recommendations. The reliability aspects of the launch vehicles are analyzed.

  2. Use of negotiated rulemaking in developing technical rules for low-Earth orbit mobile satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Leslie A.

    Technical innovations have converged with the exploding market demand for mobile telecommunications to create the impetus for low-earth orbit (LEO) communications satellite systems. The so-called 'Little LEO's' propose use of VHF and UHF spectrum to provide position - location and data messaging services. The so-called 'Big LEO's' propose to utilize the RDSS bands to provide voice and data services. In the United States, several applications were filed with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to construct and operate these mobile satellite systems. To enable the prompt introduction of such new technology services, the FCC is using innovative approaches to process the applications. Traditionally, when the FCC is faced with 'mutually exclusive' applications, e.g. a grant of one would preclude a grant of the others, it uses selection mechanisms such as comparative hearings or lotteries. In the case of the LEO systems, the FCC has sought to avoid these time-consuming approaches by using negotiated rulemakings. The FCC's objective is to enable the multiple applicants and other interested parties to agree on technical and service rules which will enable the grant of all qualified applications. With regard to the VHF/UHF systems, the Advisory Committee submitted a consensus report to the FCC. The process for the systems operating in the bands above 1 GHz involved more parties and more issues but still provided the FCC useful technical information to guide the adoption of rules for the new mobile satellite service.

  3. Optimizing Orbit-Instrument Configuration for Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Satellite Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Adams, James; Baptista, Pedro; Haddad, Ziad; Iguchi, Toshio; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Following the scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spearheaded by a group of NASA and NASDA scientists, their external scientific collaborators, and additional investigators within the European Union's TRMM Research Program (EUROTRMM), there has been substantial progress towards the development of a new internationally organized, global scale, and satellite-based precipitation measuring mission. The highlights of this newly developing mission are a greatly expanded scope of measuring capability and a more diversified set of science objectives. The mission is called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). Notionally, GPM will be a constellation-type mission involving a fleet of nine satellites. In this fleet, one member is referred to as the "core" spacecraft flown in an approximately 70 degree inclined non-sun-synchronous orbit, somewhat similar to TRMM in that it carries both a multi-channel polarized passive microwave radiometer (PMW) and a radar system, but in this case it will be a dual frequency Ku-Ka band radar system enabling explicit measurements of microphysical DSD properties. The remainder of fleet members are eight orbit-synchronized, sun-synchronous "constellation" spacecraft each carrying some type of multi-channel PMW radiometer, enabling no worse than 3-hour diurnal sampling over the entire globe. In this configuration the "core" spacecraft serves as a high quality reference platform for training and calibrating the PMW rain retrieval algorithms used with the "constellation" radiometers. Within NASA, GPM has advanced to the pre-formulation phase which has enabled the initiation of a set of science and technology studies which will help lead to the final mission design some time in the 2003 period. This presentation first provides an overview of the notional GPM program and mission design, including its organizational and programmatic concepts, scientific agenda, expected instrument package, and basic flight

  4. Possible experiment with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites to obtain a new test of Einstein's general theory of relativity and improved measurements in geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Patten, R.A.; Everitt, C.W.F.

    1976-01-01

    In 1918, Lense and Thirring calculated that a moon orbiting a rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. We describe an experiment to measure this effect to 1% with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit. In addition to tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken near the poles. New geophysical information is inherent in the polar data

  5. Simulated Aging of Spacecraft External Materials on Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatipov, S.

    Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MIFI), in cooperation with Air Force Research Laboratory's Satellite Assessment Center (SatAC), the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), has developed a database describing the changes in optical properties of materials used on the external surfaces of spacecraft due to space environmental factors. The database includes data acquired from tests completed under contract with the ISTC and EOARD, as well as from previous Russian materials studies conducted within the last 30 years. The space environmental factors studied are for those found in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Geosynchronous orbits (GEO), including electron irradiation at 50, 100, and 200 keV, proton irradiation at 50, 150, 300, and 500 keV, and ultraviolet irradiation equivalent to 1 sun-year. The material characteristics investigated were solar absorption (aS), spectral reflectance (rl), solar reflectance (rS), emissivity (e), spectral transmission coefficient (Tl), solar transmittance (TS), optical density (D), relative optical density (D/x), Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), and change of appearance and color in the visible wavelengths. The materials tested in the project were thermal control coatings (paints), multilayer insulation (films), and solar cells. The ability to predict changes in optical properties of spacecraft materials is important to increase the fidelity of space observation tools, better understand observation of space objects, and increase the longevity of spacecraft. The end goal of our project is to build semi-empirical mathematical models to predict the long-term effects of space aging as a function of time and orbit.

  6. Simulation and correction of the closed orbit in the cooler synchrotron COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1990-11-01

    In this paper the problem of COSY closed orbit control and its correction is discussed. The results of a simulation of the COSY closed orbit and its correction using different correction methods are given. The interactive computer program ORBIT, created especially for the simulation and correction of the COSY closed orbit, is described. The paper includes as well a survey of the orbit correction methods and related topics. (orig.)

  7. Stratospheric dryness: model simulations and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the extreme dryness of the stratosphere have been debated for decades. A key difficulty has been the lack of comprehensive models which are able to reproduce the observations. Here we examine results from the coupled lower-middle atmosphere chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 together with satellite observations. Our model results match observed temperatures in the tropical lower stratosphere and realistically represent the seasonal and inter-annual variability of water vapor. The model reproduces the very low water vapor mixing ratios (below 2 ppmv periodically observed at the tropical tropopause near 100 hPa, as well as the characteristic tape recorder signal up to about 10 hPa, providing evidence that the dehydration mechanism is well-captured. Our results confirm that the entry of tropospheric air into the tropical stratosphere is forced by large-scale wave dynamics, whereas radiative cooling regionally decelerates upwelling and can even cause downwelling. Thin cirrus forms in the cold air above cumulonimbus clouds, and the associated sedimentation of ice particles between 100 and 200 hPa reduces water mass fluxes by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to air mass fluxes. Transport into the stratosphere is supported by regional net radiative heating, to a large extent in the outer tropics. During summer very deep monsoon convection over Southeast Asia, centered over Tibet, moistens the stratosphere.

  8. Test results and in-orbit operation of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite circumvention circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. C.; Langford, D.

    1984-01-01

    The IRAS circumvention circuit (CC) eliminates the unwanted charged-particle pulses from the IR signal. The operation of the CC along with preflight and in-orbit testing is described. Ground testing of the brassboard circuit using a simulated preamplifier output showed that the CC would perform the circumvention function as designed. When all flight detectors and preamplifiers became available, the CC was tested using a gamma source to simulate charged-particle sources; with the low energy deposited in the detectors (20 keV average) the noise was reduced by up to 5 times with the CC turned on. In-orbit results show that the CC decreases the unwanted charged-particle background noise by up to two orders of magnitude. The difference in the results with the CC on and off is so great that the science team has recommended that no data be taken with the CC off.

  9. M2 ocean tide parameters and the deceleration of the moon's mean longitude from satellite orbit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsentreger, T. L.; Marsh, J. G.; Williamson, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An estimation is made of the principal long-period spherical harmonic parameters in the representation of the M2 ocean tide from the orbital histories of the three satellites 1967-92A, Starlette, and GEOS 3. The data used are primarily the evolution of the orbital inclinations of the satellites in conjunction with the longitude of the ascending node from GEOS 3. Analysis procedure and analytic formulation, as well as ocean tidal parameter estimation and deceleration of the lunar mean longitude are outlined. The credibility of the M2 ocean tide solution is further enhanced by the close accord between the computed value for the deceleration of the lunar mean longitude and other recently reported estimates. It is evident from the results presented that studies of close earth satellite orbits are able to provide important information about the tidal forces acting on the earth.

  10. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS...

  11. Burn severity mapping using simulation modeling and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva C. Karau; Robert E. Keane

    2010-01-01

    Although burn severity maps derived from satellite imagery provide a landscape view of fire impacts, fire effects simulation models can provide spatial fire severity estimates and add a biotic context in which to interpret severity. In this project, we evaluated two methods of mapping burn severity in the context of rapid post-fire assessment for four wildfires in...

  12. ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1999-01-01

    A new computer program ORBIT-3.0 for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons is described. The program works under WINDOWS 95/98/NT and is a full object of oriented applications. It has an interactive interface, enhanced graphical capabilities and on-line printing. The original algorithms DINAM - for closed orbit correction and FTURN - for first turn steering are described as well

  13. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the annual hypoxic zone. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) were used for the salinity flux, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used for solar penetration. Improvements in the model results in comparison with in situ observations occurred when the two types of satellite data were included. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived surface salinity flux, realistic monthly variability in the model salinity fields was observed, but important inter-annual variability wasmissed. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived light attenuation, model bottom water temperatures were too high nearshore due to excessive penetration of solar irradiance. In general, these salinity and temperature errors led to model stratification that was too weak, and the model failed to capture observed spatial and temporal variability in water-column vertical stratification. Inclusion of the satellite data improved temperature and salinity predictions and the vertical stratification was strengthened, which improved prediction of bottom-water dissolved oxygen. The model-predicted area of bottom-water hypoxia on the

  14. Precise orbit determination for BDS3 experimental satellites using iGMAS and MGEX tracking networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhu, Yiting; Huang, Jiande; Wu, Jiaqi; Xiong, Yun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Xin

    2018-04-01

    In this contribution, we focus on the precise orbit determination (POD) for BDS3 experimental satellites with the international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) and Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) tracking networks. The datasets of DOY (day of year) 001-230 in 2017 are analyzed with different processing strategies. By comparing receiver clock biases and receiver B1I-B3I DCBs, it is confirmed that there is no obvious systematic bias between experimental BDS3 and BDS2 in the common B1I and B3I signals, which indicates that experimental BDS3 and BDS2 can be treated as one system when performing combined POD. With iGMAS-only BDS3 stations, the 24-h overlap RMS of BDS3 + BDS2 + GPS combined POD is 24.3, 16.1 and 8.4 cm in along-track, cross-track and radial components, which is better than BDS3-only POD by 80-90% and better than BDS3+BDS2 combined POD by about 10%. With more stations (totally 20 stations from both iGMAS and MGEX) and the proper ambiguity resolution strategy (GEO ambiguities are float and BDS3 ambiguities are fixed), the performance of BDS3 POD can be further improved to 14.6, 7.9 and 3.7 cm, respectively, in along-track, cross-track and radial components, which is comparable to the performance of BDS2 POD. The 230-day SLR validations of C32, C33 and C34 show that the mean differences of - 3.48 , 7.81 and 8.19 cm can be achieved, while the STD is 13.35, 13.46 and 13.11 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the 230-day overlap comparisons reveal that C31 most likely still uses an orbit-normal mode and exhibits similar orbit modeling problems in orbit-normal periods as found in most of the BDS2 satellites.

  15. Simulating the Exoplanet Yield from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Thomas; Pepper, Joshua; Schlieder, Joshua; Quintana, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    In 2018 NASA will launch the MIT-led Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) which has a goal of detecting terrestrial-mass planets orbiting stars bright enough for mass determination via ground-based radial velocity observations. We inferred how many exoplanets the TESS mission will detect, the physical properties of these detected planets, and the properties of the stars that those planets orbit, subject to certain assumptions about the mission performance. To make these predictions we use samples of stars that are drawn from the TESS Input Catalog Candidate Target List. We place zero or more planets in orbit around these stars with physical properties following known exoplanet occurrence rates, and use the TESS noise model to predict the derived properties of the detected exoplanets. We find that it is feasible to detect around 1000 exoplanets, including 250 smaller than 2 earth-radii using the TESS 2-min cadence data. We examined alternative noise models and detection models and find in our pessimistic model that TESS will detect just 500 exoplanets. When potential detections in the full-frame image data are included, the number of detected planets could increase by a factor of 4. Perhaps most excitingly, TESS will find over 2 dozen planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright, nearby cool stars. These planets will make ideal candidates for atmospheric characerization by JWST.

  16. Ionospheric Simulation System for Satellite Observations and Global Assimilative Model Experiments - ISOGAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Stephens, Philip; Iijima, Bryron A.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and imaging the Earth's ionosphere as well as understanding its structures, inhomogeneities, and disturbances is a key part of NASA's Heliophysics Directorate science roadmap. This invention provides a design tool for scientific missions focused on the ionosphere. It is a scientifically important and technologically challenging task to assess the impact of a new observation system quantitatively on our capability of imaging and modeling the ionosphere. This question is often raised whenever a new satellite system is proposed, a new type of data is emerging, or a new modeling technique is developed. The proposed constellation would be part of a new observation system with more low-Earth orbiters tracking more radio occultation signals broadcast by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) than those offered by the current GPS and COSMIC observation system. A simulation system was developed to fulfill this task. The system is composed of a suite of software that combines the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) including first-principles and empirical ionospheric models, a multiple- dipole geomagnetic field model, data assimilation modules, observation simulator, visualization software, and orbit design, simulation, and optimization software.

  17. Building an adaptive agent to monitor and repair the electrical power system of an orbital satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecuci, Gheorghe; Hieb, Michael R.; Dybala, Tomasz

    1995-01-01

    Over several years we have developed a multistrategy apprenticeship learning methodology for building knowledge-based systems. Recently we have developed and applied our methodology to building intelligent agents. This methodology allows a subject matter expert to build an agent in the same way in which the expert would teach a human apprentice. The expert will give the agent specific examples of problems and solutions, explanations of these solutions, or supervise the agent as it solves new problems. During such interactions, the agent learns general rules and concepts, continuously extending and improving its knowledge base. In this paper we present initial results on applying this methodology to build an intelligent adaptive agent for monitoring and repair of the electrical power system of an orbital satellite, stressing the interaction with the expert during apprenticeship learning.

  18. TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet protocol (TCP/IP) interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) provides the means for the software to establish real-time interfaces with other software. Such interfaces can operate between two programs, either on the same computer or on different computers joined by a network. The SOAP TCP/IP module employs a client/server interface where SOAP is the server and other applications can be clients. Real-time interfaces between software offer a number of advantages over embedding all of the common functionality within a single program. One advantage is that they allow each program to divide the computation labor between processors or computers running the separate applications. Secondly, each program can be allowed to provide its own expertise domain with other programs able to use this expertise.

  19. Description of Simulated Small Satellite Operation Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Guarneros Luna, Ali

    2018-01-01

    A set of two BP930 batteries (Identified as PK31 and PK35) were operated continuously for a simulated satellite operation profile completion for single cycle. The battery packs were charged to an initial voltage of around 8.35 V for 100% SOC before the experiment was started. This document explains the structure of the battery data sets. Please cite this paper when using this dataset: Z. Cameron, C. Kulkarni, A. Guarneros, K. Goebel, S. Poll, "A Battery Certification Testbed for Small Satellite Missions", IEEE AUTOTESTCON 2015, Nov 2-5, 2015, National Harbor, MA

  20. Simulation of solar array slewing of Indian remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, P. K.; Goel, P. S.

    The effect of flexible arrays on sun tracking for the IRS satellite is studied. Equations of motion of satellites carrying a rotating flexible appendage are developed following the Newton-Euler approach and utilizing the constrained modes of the appendage. The drive torque, detent torque and friction torque in the SADA are included in the model. Extensive simulations of the slewing motion are carried out. The phenomena of back-stepping, step-missing, step-slipping and the influences of array flexibility in the acquisition mode are observed for certain combinations of parameters.

  1. An algorithm for enhanced formation flying of satellites in low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David C.; Quinn, David A.

    1998-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for innovative technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low-cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation and technology proposed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this paper is to present GSFC's Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center's (GNCC) algorithm for Formation Flying of the low earth orbiting spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium Program (NMP). This system will be implemented as a close-loop flight code onboard the NMP Earth Orbiter-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as operational impacts. Simulation results using this algorithm integrated in an autonomous `fuzzy logic' control system called AutoCon™ are presented.

  2. Climatologies from satellite measurements: the impact of orbital sampling on the standard error of the mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climatologies of atmospheric observations are often produced by binning measurements according to latitude and calculating zonal means. The uncertainty in these climatological means is characterised by the standard error of the mean (SEM. However, the usual estimator of the SEM, i.e., the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size, holds only for uncorrelated randomly sampled measurements. Measurements of the atmospheric state along a satellite orbit cannot always be considered as independent because (a the time-space interval between two nearest observations is often smaller than the typical scale of variations in the atmospheric state, and (b the regular time-space sampling pattern of a satellite instrument strongly deviates from random sampling. We have developed a numerical experiment where global chemical fields from a chemistry climate model are sampled according to real sampling patterns of satellite-borne instruments. As case studies, the model fields are sampled using sampling patterns of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS satellite instruments. Through an iterative subsampling technique, and by incorporating information on the random errors of the MIPAS and ACE-FTS measurements, we produce empirical estimates of the standard error of monthly mean zonal mean model O3 in 5° latitude bins. We find that generally the classic SEM estimator is a conservative estimate of the SEM, i.e., the empirical SEM is often less than or approximately equal to the classic estimate. Exceptions occur only when natural variability is larger than the random measurement error, and specifically in instances where the zonal sampling distribution shows non-uniformity with a similar zonal structure as variations in the sampled field, leading to maximum sensitivity to arbitrary phase shifts between the sample distribution and

  3. Simultaneous Laser Ranging and Communication from an Earth-Based Satellite Laser Ranging Station to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S.; Davidson, Frederic M.; Fong, Wai H.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report a free space laser communication experiment from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit through the on board one-way Laser Ranging (LR) receiver. Pseudo random data and sample image files were transmitted to LRO using a 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) signal format. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to achieve error free data transmission at a moderate coding overhead rate. The signal fading due to the atmosphere effect was measured and the coding gain could be estimated.

  4. Magnetic-field fluctuations from 0 to 26 Hz observed from a polar-orbiting satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The polar orbit of the Viking satellite provides a unique opportunity to obtain observations of magnetic fluctuations at mid-altitudes on the dayside of the magnetosphere and in the polar-cusp region. One type of magnetic-field fluctuation, observed in the dayside magnetosphere, was Pc 1 waves. Pc 1 waves are in the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron mode and are generated by anisotropies in energetic ion distributions. The waves are thought to be generated near the equator and to propagate large distances along magnetic-field lines. Most observations of Pc 1 waves have been obtained near the equator using geosynchronous satellites and on the surface of the earth. The Viking observations provide an opportunity to observe Pc 1 waves at mid-latitudes above the ionosphere and to determine the spectral structure and polarization of the waves. ULF/ELF broadband noise represents a second type of magnetic fluctuation acquired by Viking. This type of magnetic fluctuation was observed at high latitudes near the polar cusp and may be useful in the identification of polar-cusp boundaries. Thirdly, electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves have also been observed in the polar-cusp region. These waves occur only during an unusually high level of magnetic activity and appear to be generated locally

  5. Single Stage To Orbit Minimum Requirements Through Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, E.

    It is widely known that producing a single stage to orbit spacecraft is no easy task. It is also understood that it will be the first steady step towards spacecraft that operate in much the same way as today's airliners. This, in turn is believed to decrease the economical cost of reaching space through more efficient use of a single vehicle and higher launch rates. Space is then open to the common man, either through tourism or as a transportation medium. This paper is yet another study on the physical requirements of a SSTO spacecraft. It will begin with simple assumptions and gradually build up accuracy until reaching the use of a numerical simulation tool, so as to provide the necessary insight into it. The curvature of the Earth, its gravitational field, the exhaust pressure loss and atmospheric drag are a few of the considerations that the simulation takes into account. No attention was give to the actual details of the spacecraft such as propulsion type(s), winged or lifting body (aerodynamics), active or passive cooling (thermodynamics), stability and control. All these subsystems are considered to be included into the construction mass. The drag model is a simple textbook approximation and the propulsion force is given by a hypothetical propellant and engine so as to produce the assumed range of specific impulse. Even the construction mass is supposed to be futuristic so as to reach the lowest specified values. Not only vertical take-off will be simulated but also horizontal launching from altitude (from a towing aircraft, for example). The result of the paper shows the relationship between the construction mass and the specific impulse of a given spacecraft if it is to reach low earth orbit. This paper thus aims at bringing some light to the controversial discussion of how to make these vehicles a reality. The simulation program (Matlab) is available to students.

  6. LauncherOne: Virgin Orbit's Dedicated Launch Vehicle for Small Satellites & Impact to the Space Enterprise Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, M.; Kwong, J.; Pomerantz, W.

    Virgin Orbit is developing a space transportation service to provide an affordable, reliable, and responsive dedicated ride to orbit for smaller payloads. No longer will small satellite users be forced to make a choice between accepting the limitations of flight as a secondary payload, paying dramatically more for a dedicated launch vehicle, or dealing with the added complexity associated with export control requirements and international travel to distant launch sites. Virgin Orbit has made significant progress towards first flight of a new vehicle that will give satellite developers and operators a better option for carrying their small satellites into orbit. This new service is called LauncherOne (See the figure below). LauncherOne is a two stage, air-launched liquid propulsion (LOX/RP) rocket. Air launched from a specially modified 747-400 carrier aircraft (named “Cosmic Girl”), this system is designed to conduct operations from a variety of locations, allowing customers to select various launch azimuths and increasing available orbital launch windows. This provides small satellite customers an affordable, flexible and dedicated option for access to space. In addition to developing the LauncherOne vehicle, Virgin Orbit has worked with US government customers and across the new, emerging commercial sector to refine concepts for resiliency, constellation replenishment and responsive launch elements that can be key enables for the Space Enterprise Vision (SEV). This element of customer interaction is being led by their new subsidiary company, VOX Space. This paper summarizes technical progress made on LauncherOne in the past year and extends the thinking of how commercial space, small satellites and this new emerging market can be brought to bear to enable true space system resiliency.

  7. K-Band Phased Array Developed for Low- Earth-Orbit Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, Godfrey

    1999-01-01

    Future rapid deployment of low- and medium-Earth-orbit satellite constellations that will offer various narrow- to wide-band wireless communications services will require phased-array antennas that feature wide-angle and superagile electronic steering of one or more antenna beams. Antennas, which employ monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), are perfectly suited for this application. Under a cooperative agreement, an MMIC-based, K-band phased-array antenna is being developed with 50/50 cost sharing by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Raytheon Systems Company. The transmitting array, which will operate at 19 gigahertz (GHz), is a state-of-the-art design that features dual, independent, electronically steerable beam operation ( 42 ), a stand-alone thermal management, and a high-density tile architecture. This array can transmit 622 megabits per second (Mbps) in each beam from Earth orbit to small Earth terminals. The weight of the total array package is expected to be less than 8 lb. The tile integration technology (flip chip MMIC tile) chosen for this project represents a major advancement in phased-array engineering and holds much promise for reducing manufacturing costs.

  8. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 1: Orbit/launch vehicle trade-off studies and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the constraints and requirements on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS-A) orbit and launch vehicle analysis is presented. The propulsion system (hydrazine) and the launch vehicle (Delta 2910) selected for EOS-A are examined. The rationale for the selection of the recommended orbital altitude of 418 nautical miles is explained. The original analysis was based on the EOS-A mission with the Thematic Mapper and the High Resolution Pointable Imager. The impact of the revised mission model is analyzed to show how the new mission model affects the previously defined propulsion system, launch vehicle, and orbit. A table is provided to show all aspects of the EOS multiple mission concepts. The subjects considered include the following: (1) mission orbit analysis, (2) spacecraft parametric performance analysis, (3) launch system performance analysis, and (4) orbits/launch vehicle selection.

  9. An analytic algorithm for global coverage of the revisiting orbit and its application to the CFOSAT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Huang, Li

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses a new analytic algorithm for global coverage of the revisiting orbit and its application to the mission revisiting the Earth within long periods of time, such as Chinese-French Oceanic Satellite (abbr., CFOSAT). In the first, it is presented that the traditional design methodology of the revisiting orbit for some imaging satellites only on the single (ascending or descending) pass, and the repeating orbit is employed to perform the global coverage within short periods of time. However, the selection of the repeating orbit is essentially to yield the suboptimum from the rare measure of rational numbers of passes per day, which will lose lots of available revisiting orbits. Thus, an innovative design scheme is proposed to check both rational and irrational passes per day to acquire the relationship between the coverage percentage and the altitude. To improve the traditional imaging only on the single pass, the proposed algorithm is mapping every pass into its ascending and descending nodes on the specified latitude circle, and then is accumulating the projected width on the circle by the field of view of the satellite. The ergodic geometry of coverage percentage produced from the algorithm is affecting the final scheme, such as the optimal one owning the largest percentage, and the balance one possessing the less gradient in its vicinity, and is guiding to heuristic design for the station-keeping control strategies. The application of CFOSAT validates the feasibility of the algorithm.

  10. Satellite hole formation during dewetting: experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Chiara; Jacobs, Karin; Seemann, Ralf; Blossey, Ralf; Becker, Juergen; Gruen, Guenther

    2003-01-01

    The dewetting of thin polymer films on solid substrates has been studied extensively in recent years. These films can decay either by nucleation events or by spinodal dewetting, essentially only depending on the interface potential describing the short- and long-range intermolecular interactions between the interfaces and the initial film thickness. Here, we describe experiments and simulations concerned with the decay of polystyrene thin films. The rupture of the film occurs by the formation of a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') along the liquid rims accumulating at the channel borders. The development of this complex film rupture process, which is neither simply spinodal nor nucleation dewetting, can be mimicked precisely by making use of a novel simulation code based on a rigorous mathematical treatment of the thin film equation and on the knowledge of the effective interface potential of the system. The conditions that determine the appearance and the position of the satellite holes around pre-existing holes are discussed

  11. Satellite hole formation during dewetting: experiment and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    The dewetting of thin polymer films on solid substrates has been studied extensively in recent years. These films can decay either by nucleation events or by spinodal dewetting, essentially only depending on the interface potential describing the short- and long-range intermolecular interactions between the interfaces and the initial film thickness. Here, we describe experiments and simulations concerned with the decay of polystyrene thin films. The rupture of the film occurs by the formation of a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') along the liquid rims accumulating at the channel borders. The development of this complex film rupture process, which is neither simply spinodal nor nucleation dewetting, can be mimicked precisely by making use of a novel simulation code based on a rigorous mathematical treatment of the thin film equation and on the knowledge of the effective interface potential of the system. The conditions that determine the appearance and the position of the satellite holes around ...

  12. The problems of cosmic ray particle simulation for the near-Earth orbital and interplanetary flight conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymmik, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP event flux simulation problems for the near-Earth satellite and manned spacecraft orbits and for the interplanetary mission trajectories are discussed. The models of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP events in the Earth orbit beyond the Earth's magnetosphere are used as a basis. The particle fluxes in the near-Earth orbits should be calculated using the transmission functions. To calculate the functions, the dependences of the cutoff rigidities on the magnetic disturbance level and on magnetic local time have to be known. In the case of space flights towards the Sun and to the boundary of the solar system, particular attention is paid to the changes in the SEP event occurrence frequency and size. The particle flux gradients are applied in this case to galactic cosmic ray fluxes

  13. Plasma flow measurements in a simulated low earth orbit plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.B.; Mccoy, J.E.; Carruth, M.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The employment of large, higher power solar arrays for space operation has been considered, taking into account a utilization of high operating voltages. In connection with the consideration of such arrays, attention must be given to the fact that the ambient environment of space contains a tenuous low energy plasma which can interact with the high voltage array causing power 'leakage' and arcing. An investigation has been conducted with the aim to simulate the behavior of such an array in low-earth-orbit (LEO). During the experiments, local concentrations of the 'leakage' current were observed when the panel was at a high voltage. These concentrations could overload or damage a small area of cells in a large string. It was hypothesized that this effect was produced by electrostatic focusing of the particles by the sheath fields. To verify this experimentally, an end-effect Langmuir probe was employed. The obtained results are discussed

  14. Kinematic Orbit Determination Method Optimization and Test Analysis for BDS Satellites with Short-arc Tracking Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Rui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid orbit recovery is a puzzle for the BDS satellites after orbit maneuvers. Two kinematic orbit determination methods are studied, with two orbit determination models being established. The receiver system error and serious multipath error exist in the BDS system. The co-location method is proposed to estimate and calibrate the receiver system errors. A CNMC (code noise and multipath correction method is introduced to weaken the multipath error. Therefore the data quality is controlled efficiently for the receivers in the short tracking arc. The GEO/IGSO/MEO real data is emploied to carry out tests and validation. Using 10 min short tracking arc, the kinematic precise orbit determination accuracy is about 3.27 m for the GEOs, and 8.19 m for the IGSOs, and 5.9 m for the MEOs. Rapid orbit determination is achieved, which satisfying the orbit requirements from the BDS RDSS services. The kinematic precise orbit determination method also supports the RDSS service walking up to the global world.

  15. Small-Body Extensions for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2008-01-01

    An extension to the SOAP software allows users to work with tri-axial ellipsoid-based representations of planetary bodies, primarily for working with small, natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. SOAP is a widely used tool for the visualization and analysis of space missions. The small body extension provides the same visualization and analysis constructs for use with small bodies. These constructs allow the user to characterize satellite path and instrument cover information for small bodies in both 3D display and numerical output formats. Tri-axial ellipsoids are geometric shapes the diameters of which are different in each of three principal x, y, and z dimensions. This construct provides a better approximation than using spheres or oblate spheroids (ellipsoids comprising two common equatorial diameters as a distinct polar diameter). However, the tri-axial ellipsoid is considerably more difficult to work with from a modeling perspective. In addition, the SOAP small-body extensions allow the user to actually employ a plate model for highly irregular surfaces. Both tri-axial ellipsoids and plate models can be assigned to coordinate frames, thus allowing for the modeling of arbitrary changes to body orientation. A variety of features have been extended to support tri-axial ellipsoids, including the computation and display of the spacecraft sub-orbital point, ground trace, instrument footprints, and swathes. Displays of 3D instrument volumes can be shown interacting with the ellipsoids. Longitude/latitude grids, contour plots, and texture maps can be displayed on the ellipsoids using a variety of projections. The distance along an arbitrary line of sight can be computed between the spacecraft and the ellipsoid, and the coordinates of that intersection can be plotted as a function of time. The small-body extension supports the same visual and analytical constructs that are supported for spheres and oblate spheroids in SOAP making the implementation of the more

  16. Merging Satellite Precipitation Products for Improved Streamflow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, V.; Massari, C.; Barbetta, S.; Camici, S.; Brocca, L.

    2017-12-01

    statistics, as well as bias reduction and correlation coefficient, with the Bayesian approach being superior to other methods. A study case in the Tiber river basin is also presented to discuss the performance of forcing a hydrological model with the merged satellite precipitation product to simulate streamflow time series.

  17. Orbital

    OpenAIRE

    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA

  18. A probabilistic analysis of the implications of instrument failures on ESA's Swarm mission for its individual satellite orbit deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    On launch, one of Swarm's absolute scalar magnetometers (ASMs) failed to function, leaving an asymmetrical arrangement of redundant spares on different spacecrafts. A decision was required concerning the deployment of individual satellites into the low-orbit pair or the higher "lonely" orbit. I analyse the probabilities for successful operation of two of the science components of the Swarm mission in terms of a classical probabilistic failure analysis, with a view to concluding a favourable assignment for the satellite with the single working ASM. I concentrate on the following two science aspects: the east-west gradiometer aspect of the lower pair of satellites and the constellation aspect, which requires a working ASM in each of the two orbital planes. I use the so-called "expert solicitation" probabilities for instrument failure solicited from Mission Advisory Group (MAG) members. My conclusion from the analysis is that it is better to have redundancy of ASMs in the lonely satellite orbit. Although the opposite scenario, having redundancy (and thus four ASMs) in the lower orbit, increases the chance of a working gradiometer late in the mission; it does so at the expense of a likely constellation. Although the results are presented based on actual MAG members' probabilities, the results are rather generic, excepting the case when the probability of individual ASM failure is very small; in this case, any arrangement will ensure a successful mission since there is essentially no failure expected at all. Since the very design of the lower pair is to enable common mode rejection of external signals, it is likely that its work can be successfully achieved during the first 5 years of the mission.

  19. World map of ELF/VLF emissions as observed by a low-orbiting satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, M.

    1990-01-01

    Statistical studies were performed of the intensities of the ELF/VLF emissions observed by the low-orbiting satellite AUREOL-3. Data were obtained from filterbanks and the frequency range of observations extends from a few tens of Hz up to 15 kHz. The most important phenomena observed are ELF hiss and VLF hiss. Electric and magnetic components are used. Thus, representation of the waves intensities in geographical coordinates was made at different frequencies. The relative ability of natural waves (whistler, hiss) and man-made waves, such as powerful VLF transmitters or powerline harmonic radiations (PLHR), to precipitate particles in the slot region, is studied. Using geomagnetical representation, it is shown that ELF hiss is maximum between 06 and 20 Magnetic Local Time and in the invariant latitude range 50 0 -70 0 as usual, but geographic representation indicates that the waves are intensified at the longitudes of VLF transmitters and near the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The SAA plays a dominant role in the localization of the strongest ELF hiss. Weakest intensities are observed to the east of the SAA. As to the VLF hiss, the maximum intensity is related to regions of enhanced thunderstorm activity, and may be influenced by powerline harmonic radiations (PLHR) over USA. Comparisons with past work, experimental as well as theoretical, are made

  20. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  1. Observing system simulations for small satellite formations estimating bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; Weck, Olivier de

    2015-12-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  2. Simulations of VLBI observations of a geodetic satellite providing co-location in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James M.; Beyerle, Georg; Glaser, Susanne; Liu, Li; Männel, Benjamin; Nilsson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2018-02-01

    We performed Monte Carlo simulations of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of Earth-orbiting satellites incorporating co-located space-geodetic instruments in order to study how well the VLBI frame and the spacecraft frame can be tied using such measurements. We simulated observations of spacecraft by VLBI observations, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements using a time-encoded signal in the spacecraft transmission, similar in concept to precise point positioning, and differential VLBI (D-VLBI) observations using angularly nearby quasar calibrators to compare their relative performance. We used the proposed European Geodetic Reference Antenna in Space (E-GRASP) mission as an initial test case for our software. We found that the standard VLBI technique is limited, in part, by the present lack of knowledge of the absolute offset of VLBI time to Coordinated Universal Time at the level of microseconds. TOF measurements are better able to overcome this problem and provide frame ties with uncertainties in translation and scale nearly a factor of three smaller than those yielded from VLBI measurements. If the absolute time offset issue can be resolved by external means, the VLBI results can be significantly improved and can come close to providing 1 mm accuracy in the frame tie parameters. D-VLBI observations with optimum performance assumptions provide roughly a factor of two higher uncertainties for the E-GRASP orbit. We additionally simulated how station and spacecraft position offsets affect the frame tie performance.

  3. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped

  4. Mapping ocean tides with satellites - A computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, I. J.; Kuo, J. T.; Jachens, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    As a preliminary study for the future worldwide direct mapping of the open ocean tide with satellites equipped with precision altimeters we conducted a simulated study using sets of artificially generated altimeter data constructed from a realistic geoid and four pairs of major tides in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Recovery of the original geoid and eight tidal maps is accomplished by a space-time, least squares harmonic analysis scheme. The resultant maps appear fairly satisfactory even when random noises up to + or - 100 cm are added to the altimeter data of sufficient space-time density. The method also produces a refined geoid which is rigorously corrected for the dynamic tides.

  5. Power system design and in orbit performance of Algeria's first micro satellite Alsat-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekhti, Mohammed [Centre National des Techniques Spatiales, BP13, Arzew 31200 (Algeria); Sweeting, M.N. [Centre for Satellite Engineering Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    On the 28th November 2002, Algeria's first enhanced micro satellite was launched into a 686 km low earth orbit onboard a Cosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk. The spacecraft was designed, manufactured and launched as a technology transfer programme between the National Centre of Space Techniques (CNTS) Algeria and Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom in the timescale of 18 months. This paper will describe the design and in orbit performance of the mission power system, stressing the decisions taken in order to meet the mission requirements within the 18 months, concept to launch programme. Most of the design and construction techniques used in the production of the Alsat-1 power system were based on SSTL heritage over the years. It will be shown how off the shelf components either for the generation or storage of the onboard energy can be applied successfully to such missions. (author)

  6. Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for a future Doppler Wind Lidar satellite in Japan:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Okamoto, Kozo

    2017-04-01

    A feasibility study of tropospheric wind measurements by a coherent Doppler lidar aboard a super-low-altitude satellite is being conducted in Japan. We consider a coherent lidar with a laser light source at 2.05 μm whose characteristics correspond to an existing ground-based instrument (power=3.75 W, PRF=30 Hz and pulse width=200 ns). An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) has been implemented based on the Sensitivity Observing System experiment (SOSE) developed at the Japanese Meteorological-Research-Institute using the Japan Meteorological Agency global Numerical Weather Prediction model. The measurement simulator uses wind, aerosol and cloud 3-d global fields from the OSSE speudo-truth and the aerosol model MASINGAR. In this presentation, we will first discuss the measurement performances. Considering measurement horizontal resolutions of 100 km along the orbit track, we found that below 3 km, the median horizontal wind error is between 0.8-1 m/s for a vertical resolution of 0.5 km, and that near 50% of the data are valid measurements. Decreasing the vertical resolution to 1 km allows us to maintain similar performances up to 8 km almost over most latitudes. Above, the performances significantly fall down but a relatively good percentage of valid measurements (20-40%) are still found near the tropics where cirrus clouds frequently occur. The potential of the instrument to improve weather prediction models will be discussed using the OSSE results obtained for both polar and low inclination orbit satellites. The first results show positive improvements of short-term forecasts (Meteor. Soc. Japan, 2016 P. Baron et al., "Feasibility study for future space-borne coherent Doppler wind lidar, Part 2: Measurement simulation algorithms and retrieval error characterization", submitted to J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 2016.

  7. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  8. Land Surface Temperature- Comparing Data from Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn-Platt, E.; Remedios, J. J.; Good, E. J.; Ghent, D.; Saunders, R.

    2012-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a vital parameter in Earth climate science, driving long-wave radiation exchanges that control the surface energy budget and carbon fluxes, which are important factors in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the monitoring of climate change. Satellites offer a convenient way to observe LST consistently and regularly over large areas. A comparison between LST retrieved from a Geostationary Instrument, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), and a Polar Orbiting Instrument, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is presented. Both sensors offer differing benefits. AATSR offers superior precision and spatial resolution with global coverage but given its sun-synchronous platform only observes at two local times, ~10am and ~10pm. SEVIRI provides the high-temporal resolution (every 15 minutes) required for observing diurnal variability of surface temperatures but given its geostationary platform has a poorer resolution, 3km at nadir, which declines at higher latitudes. A number of retrieval methods are applied to the raw satellite data: First order coefficient based algorithms provided on an operational basis by the LandSAF (for SEVIRI) and the University of Leicester (for AATSR); Second order coefficient based algorithms put forward by the University of Valencia; and an optimal estimation method using the 1DVar software provided by the NWP SAF. Optimal estimation is an iterative technique based upon inverse theory, thus is very useful for expanding into data assimilation systems. The retrievals are assessed and compared on both a fine scale using in-situ data from recognised validation sites and on a broad scale using two 100x100 regions such that biases can be better understood. Overall, the importance of LST lies in monitoring daily temperature extremes, e.g. for estimating permafrost thawing depth or risk of crop damage due to frost, hence the ideal dataset would use a combination of observations

  9. Precise orbit determination of the Sentinel-3A altimetry satellite using ambiguity-fixed GPS carrier phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Hackel, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    The Sentinel-3 mission takes routine measurements of sea surface heights and depends crucially on accurate and precise knowledge of the spacecraft. Orbit determination with a targeted uncertainty of less than 2 cm in radial direction is supported through an onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite instrument, and a complementary laser retroreflector for satellite laser ranging. Within this study, the potential of ambiguity fixing for GPS-only precise orbit determination (POD) of the Sentinel-3 spacecraft is assessed. A refined strategy for carrier phase generation out of low-level measurements is employed to cope with half-cycle ambiguities in the tracking of the Sentinel-3 GPS receiver that have so far inhibited ambiguity-fixed POD solutions. Rather than explicitly fixing double-difference phase ambiguities with respect to a network of terrestrial reference stations, a single-receiver ambiguity resolution concept is employed that builds on dedicated GPS orbit, clock, and wide-lane bias products provided by the CNES/CLS (Centre National d'Études Spatiales/Collecte Localisation Satellites) analysis center of the International GNSS Service. Compared to float ambiguity solutions, a notably improved precision can be inferred from laser ranging residuals. These decrease from roughly 9 mm down to 5 mm standard deviation for high-grade stations on average over low and high elevations. Furthermore, the ambiguity-fixed orbits offer a substantially improved cross-track accuracy and help to identify lateral offsets in the GPS antenna or center-of-mass (CoM) location. With respect to altimetry, the improved orbit precision also benefits the global consistency of sea surface measurements. However, modeling of the absolute height continues to rely on proper dynamical models for the spacecraft motion as well as ground calibrations for the relative position of the altimeter reference point and the CoM.

  10. OLFAR, a radio telescope based on nano satellites in moon orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2010-01-01

    It seems very likely that missions with nano-satellites in professional scientific or commercial applications will not be single-satellite missions. Well structured formations or less structured swarms of nano-satellites will be able to perform tasks that cannot be done in the “traditional‿ way. The

  11. Effects of Orbital Lifetime Reduction on the Long-Term Earth Satellite Population as Modeled by EVOLVE 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Opiela, John N.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Theall, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    The latest update of the NASA orbital debris environment model, EVOLVE 4.0, has been used to study the effect of various proposed debris mitigation measures, including the NASA 25-year guideline. EVOLVE 4.0, which includes updates of the NASA breakup, solar activity, and the orbit propagator models, a GEO analysis option, and non-fragmentation debris source models, allows for the statistical modeling and predicted growth of the particle population >1 mm in characteristic length in LEO and GEO orbits. The initial implementation of this &odel has been to study the sensitivity of the overall LEO debris environment to mitigation measures designed to limit the lifetime of intact objects in LEO orbits. The mitigation measures test matrix for this study included several commonly accepted testing schemes, i.e., the variance of the maximum LEO lifetime from 10 to 50 years, the date of the initial implementation of this policy, the shut off of all explosions at some specified date, and the inclusion of disposal orbits. All are timely studies in that all scenarios have been suggested by researchers and satellite operators as options for the removal of debris from LEO orbits.

  12. A Novel Double Cluster and Principal Component Analysis-Based Optimization Method for the Orbit Design of Earth Observation Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The weighted sum and genetic algorithm-based hybrid method (WSGA-based HM, which has been applied to multiobjective orbit optimizations, is negatively influenced by human factors through the artificial choice of the weight coefficients in weighted sum method and the slow convergence of GA. To address these two problems, a cluster and principal component analysis-based optimization method (CPC-based OM is proposed, in which many candidate orbits are gradually randomly generated until the optimal orbit is obtained using a data mining method, that is, cluster analysis based on principal components. Then, the second cluster analysis of the orbital elements is introduced into CPC-based OM to improve the convergence, developing a novel double cluster and principal component analysis-based optimization method (DCPC-based OM. In DCPC-based OM, the cluster analysis based on principal components has the advantage of reducing the human influences, and the cluster analysis based on six orbital elements can reduce the search space to effectively accelerate convergence. The test results from a multiobjective numerical benchmark function and the orbit design results of an Earth observation satellite show that DCPC-based OM converges more efficiently than WSGA-based HM. And DCPC-based OM, to some degree, reduces the influence of human factors presented in WSGA-based HM.

  13. Initial Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeond, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas,Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    The Memory Test Experiment is a space test of a ferroelectric memory device on a low Earth orbit satellite that launched in November 2010. The memory device being tested is a commercial Ramtron Inc. 512K memory device. The circuit was designed into the satellite avionics and is not used to control the satellite. The test consists of writing and reading data with the ferroelectric based memory device. Any errors are detected and are stored on board the satellite. The data is sent to the ground through telemetry once a day. Analysis of the data can determine the kind of error that was found and will lead to a better understanding of the effects of space radiation on memory systems. The test is one of the first flight demonstrations of ferroelectric memory in a near polar orbit which allows testing in a varied radiation environment. The initial data from the test is presented. This paper details the goals and purpose of this experiment as well as the development process. The process for analyzing the data to gain the maximum understanding of the performance of the ferroelectric memory device is detailed.

  14. A satellite simulator for TRMM PR applied to climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangehl, T.; Schroeder, M.; Bodas-Salcedo, A.; Hollmann, R.; Riley Dellaripa, E. M.; Schumacher, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate model simulations have to be compared against observation based datasets in order to assess their skill in representing precipitation characteristics. Here we use a satellite simulator for TRMM PR in order to evaluate simulations performed with MPI-ESM (Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany) performed within the MiKlip project (https://www.fona-miklip.de/, funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany). While classical evaluation methods focus on geophysical parameters such as precipitation amounts, the application of the satellite simulator enables an evaluation in the instrument's parameter space thereby reducing uncertainties on the reference side. The CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) provides a framework for the application of satellite simulators to climate model simulations. The approach requires the introduction of sub-grid cloud and precipitation variability. Radar reflectivities are obtained by applying Mie theory, with the microphysical assumptions being chosen to match the atmosphere component of MPI-ESM (ECHAM6). The results are found to be sensitive to the methods used to distribute the convective precipitation over the sub-grid boxes. Simple parameterization methods are used to introduce sub-grid variability of convective clouds and precipitation. In order to constrain uncertainties a comprehensive comparison with sub-grid scale convective precipitation variability which is deduced from TRMM PR observations is carried out.

  15. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the Small Space-Based Geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellite is to provide a space link to the user mission spacecraft for relaying data through ground networks to user Mission Control Centers. The Small Space Based Satellite (SSBS) will provide services comparable to those of a NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) for the same type of links. The SSBS services will keep the user burden the same or lower than for TDRS and will support the same or higher data rates than those currently supported by TDRS. At present, TDRSS provides links and coverage below GEO; however, SSBS links and coverage capability to above GEO missions are being considered for the future, especially for Human Space Flight Missions (HSF). There is also a rising need for the capability to support high data rate links (exceeding 1 Gbps) for imaging applications. The communication payload on the SSBS will provide S/Ka-band single access links to the mission and a Ku-band link to the ground, with an optical communication payload as an option. To design the communication payload, various link budgets were analyzed and many possible operational scenarios examined. To reduce user burden, using a larger-sized antenna than is currently in use by TDRS was considered. Because of the SSBS design size, it was found that a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket could deliver three SSBSs to GEO. This will greatly reduce the launch costs per satellite. Using electric propulsion was also evaluated versus using chemical propulsion; the power system size and time to orbit for various power systems were also considered. This paper will describe how the SSBS will meet future service requirements, concept of operations, and the design to meet NASA users' needs for below and above GEO missions. These users' needs not only address the observational mission requirements but also possible HSF missions to the year 2030. We will provide the trade-off analysis of the communication payload design in terms of

  16. In situ Orbit Extraction from Live, High Precision Collisionless Simulations of Systems Formed by Cold Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Mendoza, H.; Aguilar, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    We performed high precision, N-body simulations of the cold collapse of initially spherical, collisionless systems using the GYRFALCON code of Dehnen (2000). The collapses produce very prolate spheroidal configurations. After the collapse, the systems are simulated for 85 and 170 half-mass radius dynamical timescales, during which energy conservation is better than 0.005%. We use this period to extract individual particle orbits directly from the simulations. We then use the TAXON code of Carpintero and Aguilar (1998) to classify 1 to 1.5% of the extracted orbits from our final, relaxed configurations: less than 15% are chaotic orbits, 30% are box orbits and 60% are tube orbits (long and short axis). Our goal has been to prove that direct orbit extraction is feasible, and that there is no need to "freeze" the final N-body system configuration to extract a time-independent potential.

  17. Simobiz-Simulation Tool to Study the Impact of Small Satellites in Mobile Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, M.-M.; Kohlenberg, J.; Prathaban, M.

    2008-08-01

    Interest in small satellites is growing fast world- wide. Businesses, governments, universities and other organizations around the world are starting their own small satellite programs. The surveys conducted by the space agencies and universities shows a promising increase in the use of small satellites for commercial applications. More number of operators offers or plans to offer mobile phone services by satellite. With the help of cost effective small satellite, mobile operators can be able to provide the services cheaper. Hence, it is always interesting to study the effect of low cost small satellite over the mobile market. In this article, we present SmartSim (Small Satellites Mobile Market Simulator) - the new module of Simobiz business simulation game, in which we have implemented two operators, a normal satellite operator and a nanosatellite operator, with specific terminals and services. Our main focus in this work is to understand the future market of small satellite in mobile telecommunication network.

  18. NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites: Tools for Software Based Validation and Verification of Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites (NOS3) is a suite of tools to aid in areas such as software development, integration test (IT), mission operations training, verification and validation (VV), and software systems check-out. NOS3 provides a software development environment, a multi-target build system, an operator interface-ground station, dynamics and environment simulations, and software-based hardware models. NOS3 enables the development of flight software (FSW) early in the project life cycle, when access to hardware is typically not available. For small satellites there are extensive lead times on many of the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as limited funding for engineering test units (ETU). Considering the difficulty of providing a hardware test-bed to each developer tester, hardware models are modeled based upon characteristic data or manufacturers data sheets for each individual component. The fidelity of each hardware models is such that FSW executes unaware that physical hardware is not present. This allows binaries to be compiled for both the simulation environment, and the flight computer, without changing the FSW source code. For hardware models that provide data dependent on the environment, such as a GPS receiver or magnetometer, an open-source tool from NASA GSFC (42 Spacecraft Simulation) is used to provide the necessary data. The underlying infrastructure used to transfer messages between FSW and the hardware models can also be used to monitor, intercept, and inject messages, which has proven to be beneficial for VV of larger missions such as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As hardware is procured, drivers can be added to the environment to enable hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing. When strict time synchronization is not vital, any number of combinations of hardware components and software-based models can be tested. The open-source operator interface used in NOS3 is COSMOS from Ball Aerospace. For

  19. A possible experiment with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites to obtain a new test of Einstein's general theory of relativity and improved measurements in geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, R. A.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1976-01-01

    In 1918, Lense and Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. We describe an experiment to measure this effect by means of two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar orbit about the earth. For a 2-1/2 year experiment, the measurement should approach an accuracy of 1%. An independent measurement of the geodetic precession of the orbit plane due to the motion about the sun may also be possible to about 10% accuracy. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler data are taken at points of passing near the poles to yield an accurate measurement of the separation distance between the two satellites. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in this polar ranging data.

  20. 77 FR 23668 - GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group Notice of... inform the public that the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate will be hosting an open GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group (SSWG) meeting for manufacturers of GPS constellation simulators utilized...

  1. On the Accuracy of the Conjugation of High-Orbit Satellites with Small-Scale Regions in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safargaleev, V. V.; Safargaleeva, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    The degree of uncertainty that arises when mapping high-orbit satellites of the Cluster type into the ionosphere using three geomagnetic field models (T89, T98, and T01) has been estimated. Studies have shown that uncertainty is minimal in situations when a satellite in the daytime is above the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere at the distance of no more than 5 R E from the Earth's surface and is projected into the ionosphere of the northern hemisphere. In this case, the dimensions of the uncertainty region are about 50 km, and the arbitrariness of the choice of the model for projecting does not play a decisive role in organizing satellite support based on optical observations when studying such large-scale phenomena as, e.g., WTS, as well as heating experiments at the EISCAT heating facility for the artificial modification of the ionosphere and the generation of artificial fluctuations in the VLF band. In all other cases, the uncertainty in determining the position of the base of the field line on which the satellite is located is large, and additional information is required to correctly compare the satellite with the object in the ionosphere.

  2. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  3. On-Orbit Camera Misalignment Estimation Framework and Its Application to Earth Observation Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwoo Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts for precise alignment of imaging sensors and attitude sensors before launch, the accuracy of pre-launch alignment is limited. The misalignment between attitude frame and camera frame is especially important as it is related to the localization error of the spacecraft, which is one of the essential factors of satellite image quality. In this paper, a framework for camera misalignment estimation is presented with its application to a high-resolution earth-observation satellite—Deimos-2. The framework intends to provide a solution for estimation and correction of the camera misalignment of a spacecraft, covering image acquisition planning to mathematical solution of camera misalignment. Considerations for effective image acquisition planning to obtain reliable results are discussed, followed by a detailed description on a practical method for extracting many GCPs automatically using reference ortho-photos. Patterns of localization errors that commonly occur due to the camera misalignment are also investigated. A mathematical model for camera misalignment estimation is described comprehensively. The results of simulation experiments showing the validity and accuracy of the misalignment estimation model are provided. The proposed framework was applied to Deimos-2. The real-world data and results from Deimos-2 are presented.

  4. Atmospheric influences on infrared-laser signals used for occultation measurements between Low Earth Orbit satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schweitzer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO is a new occultation technique between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites, which applies signals in the short wave infrared spectral range (SWIR within 2 μm to 2.5 μm. It is part of the LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method that enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and altitude levels from microwave signals and profiles of greenhouse gases and further variables such as line-of-sight wind speed from simultaneously measured LIO signals. Due to the novelty of the LMIO method, detailed knowledge of atmospheric influences on LIO signals and of their suitability for accurate trace species retrieval did not yet exist. Here we discuss these influences, assessing effects from refraction, trace species absorption, aerosol extinction and Rayleigh scattering in detail, and addressing clouds, turbulence, wind, scattered solar radiation and terrestrial thermal radiation as well. We show that the influence of refractive defocusing, foreign species absorption, aerosols and turbulence is observable, but can be rendered small to negligible by use of the differential transmission principle with a close frequency spacing of LIO absorption and reference signals within 0.5%. The influences of Rayleigh scattering and terrestrial thermal radiation are found negligible. Cloud-scattered solar radiation can be observable under bright-day conditions, but this influence can be made negligible by a close time spacing (within 5 ms of interleaved laser-pulse and background signals. Cloud extinction loss generally blocks SWIR signals, except very thin or sub-visible cirrus clouds, which can be addressed by retrieving a cloud layering profile and exploiting it in the trace species retrieval. Wind can have a small influence on the trace species absorption, which can be made negligible by using a simultaneously retrieved or a moderately accurate background wind speed profile. We

  5. Solution Method and Precision Analysis of Double-difference Dynamic Precise Orbit Determination of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the high relativity between the transverse element of GEO orbit and double-difference ambiguity, the classical double-difference dynamic method is improved and the method, which is to determine precise BeiDou satellite orbit using carrier phase and pseudo-range smoothed by phase, is proposed. The feasibility of the method is discussed and the influence of the method about ambiguity fixing is analyzed. Considering the characteristic of BeiDou, the method, which is to fix double-difference ambiguity of BeiDou satellites by QIF, is derived. The real data analysis shows that the new method, which can reduce the relativity and assure the precision, is better than the classical double-difference dynamic method. The result of ambiguity fixing is well by QIF, but the ambiguity fixing success rate is not high on the whole. So the precision of BeiDou orbit can't be improved clearly after ambiguity fixing.

  6. Military Applications of High-Altitude Satellite Orbits in a Multi-Body Dynamical Environment Using Numerical Methods and Dynamical Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    around a libration point in the Earth -Moon system are used as unpredictable transfer pathways when traveling from one Earth orbit to another...spacecraft traveling from one Earth orbit to another in a multi- body environment, as well as characterizing the potential motions in the vicinity of...an inspiring account of how using the gravity of the Moon assisted in placing the satellite in a favorable Earth orbit after a rocket malfunction left

  7. Asynchronous Processing of a Constellation of Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Satellites for Fire Detection and Smoke Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Peterson, D. A.; Curtis, C. A.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Prins, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) system converts satellite observations of thermally anomalous pixels into spatially and temporally continuous estimates of smoke release from open biomass burning. This system currently processes data from a constellation of 5 geostationary and 2 polar-orbiting sensors. Additional sensors, including NPP VIIRS and the imager on the Korea COMS-1 geostationary satellite, will soon be added. This constellation experiences schedule changes and outages of various durations, making the set of available scenes for fire detection highly variable on an hourly and daily basis. Adding to the complexity, the latency of the satellite data is variable between and within sensors. FLAMBE shares with many fire detection systems the goal of detecting as many fires as possible as early as possible, but the FLAMBE system must also produce a consistent estimate of smoke production with minimal artifacts from the changing constellation. To achieve this, NRL has developed a system of asynchronous processing and cross-calibration that permits satellite data to be used as it arrives, while preserving the consistency of the smoke emission estimates. This talk describes the asynchronous data ingest methodology, including latency statistics for the constellation. We also provide an overview and show results from the system we have developed to normalize multi-sensor fire detection for consistency.

  8. Mapping the space radiation environment in LEO orbit by the SATRAM Timepix payload on board the Proba-V satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Polansky, Stepan

    2016-07-07

    Detailed spatial- and time-correlated maps of the space radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are produced by the spacecraft payload SATRAM operating in open space on board the Proba-V satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA). Equipped with the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix, the compact radiation monitor payload provides the composition and spectral characterization of the mixed radiation field with quantum-counting and imaging dosimetry sensitivity, energetic charged particle tracking, directionality and energy loss response in wide dynamic range in terms of particle types, dose rates and particle fluxes. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) at the altitude of 820 km the payload samples the space radiation field at LEO covering basically the whole planet. First results of long-period data evaluation in the form of time-and spatially-correlated maps of total dose rate (all particles) are given.

  9. Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is planning on going beyond Low Earth orbit with manned exploration missions. The radiation environment for most Low Earth orbit missions is harsher than at the Earth's surface but much less harsh than deep space. Development of new electronics is needed to meet the requirements of high performance, radiation tolerance, and reliability. The need for both Volatile and Non-volatile memory has been identified. Emerging Non-volatile memory technologies (FRAM, C-RAM,M-RAM, R-RAM, Radiation Tolerant FLASH, SONOS, etc.) need to be investigated for use in Space missions. An opportunity arose to fly a small memory experiment on a high inclination satellite (FASTSAT). An off-the-shelf 512K Ramtron FRAM was chosen to be tested in the experiment.

  10. A MATLAB based Distributed Real-time Simulation of Lander-Orbiter-Earth Communication for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Diptyajit; Angeloski, Aleksandar; Ziah, Haseeb; Buchholz, Hilmar; Landsman, Andre; Gupta, Amitava; Mitra, Tiyasa

    Lunar explorations often involve use of a lunar lander , a rover [1],[2] and an orbiter which rotates around the moon with a fixed radius. The orbiters are usually lunar satellites orbiting along a polar orbit to ensure visibility with respect to the rover and the Earth Station although with varying latency. Communication in such deep space missions is usually done using a specialized protocol like Proximity-1[3]. MATLAB simulation of Proximity-1 have been attempted by some contemporary researchers[4] to simulate all features like transmission control, delay etc. In this paper it is attempted to simulate, in real time, the communication between a tracking station on earth (earth station), a lunar orbiter and a lunar rover using concepts of Distributed Real-time Simulation(DRTS).The objective of the simulation is to simulate, in real-time, the time varying communication delays associated with the communicating elements with a facility to integrate specific simulation modules to study different aspects e.g. response due to a specific control command from the earth station to be executed by the rover. The hardware platform comprises four single board computers operating as stand-alone real time systems (developed by MATLAB xPC target and inter-networked using UDP-IP protocol). A time triggered DRTS approach is adopted. The earth station, the orbiter and the rover are programmed as three standalone real-time processes representing the communicating elements in the system. Communication from one communicating element to another constitutes an event which passes a state message from one element to another, augmenting the state of the latter. These events are handled by an event scheduler which is the fourth real-time process. The event scheduler simulates the delay in space communication taking into consideration the distance between the communicating elements. A unique time synchronization algorithm is developed which takes into account the large latencies in space

  11. On-Orbit Planetary Science Laboratories for Simulating Surface Conditions of Planets and Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.; Schwartz, S.

    2017-02-01

    Our work has identified the use of on-orbit centrifuge science laboratories as a key enabler towards low-cost, fast-track physical simulation of off-world environments for future planetary science missions.

  12. Robustness analysis method for orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Yang, Keying; Qi, Rui; Zhao, Shuge; Li, Yanyan

    2017-08-01

    Satellite orbits require periodical maintenance due to the presence of perturbations. However, random errors caused by inaccurate orbit determination and thrust implementation may lead to failure of the orbit control strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the robustness of the orbit control methods. Feasible strategies which are tolerant to errors of a certain magnitude can be developed to perform reliable orbit control for the satellite. In this paper, first, the orbital dynamic model is formulated by Gauss' form of the planetary equation using the mean orbit elements; the atmospheric drag and the Earth's non-spherical perturbations are taken into consideration in this model. Second, an impulsive control strategy employing the differential correction algorithm is developed to maintain the satellite trajectory parameters in given ranges. Finally, the robustness of the impulsive control method is analyzed through Monte Carlo simulations while taking orbit determination error and thrust error into account.

  13. Long-Term Rotational Dynamics of Defunct Earth-Orbiting Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While extensive research has been conducted to predict the trajectories of defunct high altitude satellites, the attitude dynamics of these objects are not well...

  14. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

  15. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Optical and Microwave Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.; Shaw, Harry

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available.In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

  16. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Microwave and Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available. In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

  17. Contraction of high eccentricity satellite orbits using uniformly regular KS canonical elements with oblate diurnally varying atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Xavier James

    2016-07-01

    Accurate orbit prediction of an artificial satellite under the influence of air drag is one of the most difficult and untraceable problem in orbital dynamics. The orbital decay of these satellites is mainly controlled by the atmospheric drag effects. The effects of the atmosphere are difficult to determine, since the atmospheric density undergoes large fluctuations. The classical Newtonian equations of motion, which is non linear is not suitable for long-term integration. Many transformations have emerged in the literature to stabilize the equations of motion either to reduce the accumulation of local numerical errors or allowing the use of large integration step sizes, or both in the transformed space. One such transformation is known as KS transformation by Kustaanheimo and Stiefel, who regularized the nonlinear Kepler equations of motion and reduced it into linear differential equations of a harmonic oscillator of constant frequency. The method of KS total energy element equations has been found to be a very powerful method for obtaining numerical as well as analytical solution with respect to any type of perturbing forces, as the equations are less sensitive to round off and truncation errors. The uniformly regular KS canonical equations are a particular canonical form of the KS differential equations, where all the ten KS Canonical elements αi and βi are constant for unperturbed motion. These equations permit the uniform formulation of the basic laws of elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic motion. Using these equations, developed analytical solution for short term orbit predictions with respect to Earth's zonal harmonic terms J2, J3, J4. Further, these equations were utilized to include the canonical forces and analytical theories with air drag were developed for low eccentricity orbits (e 0.2) orbits by assuming the atmosphere to be oblate only. In this paper a new non-singular analytical theory is developed for the motion of high eccentricity satellite

  18. Experimental simulation of impact cratering on icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Fink, J. H.; Gault, D. E.; Guest, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cratering processes on icy satellites were simulated in a series of 102 laboratory impact experiments involving a wide range of target materials. For impacts into homogeneous clay slurries with impact energies ranging from five million to ten billion ergs, target yield strengths ranged from 100 to 38 Pa, and apparent viscosities ranged from 8 to 200 Pa s. Bowl-shaped craters, flat-floored craters, central peak craters with high or little relief, and craters with no relief were observed. Crater diameters increased steadily as energies were raised. A similar sequence was seen for experiment in which impact energy was held constant but target viscosity and strength progressively decreases. The experiments suggest that the physical properties of the target media relative to the gravitationally induced stresses determined the final crater morphology. Crater palimpsests could form by prompt collapse of large central peak craters formed in low target strength materials. Ages estimated from crater size-frequency distributions that include these large craters may give values that are too high.

  19. Earth rotation, station coordinates and orbit determination from satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masaaki

    The Project MERIT, a special program of international colaboration to Monitor Earth Rotation and Intercompare the Techniques of observation and analysis, has come to an end with great success. Its major objective was to evaluate the ultimate potential of space techniques such as VLBI and satellite laser ranging, in contrast with the other conventional techniques, in the determination of rotational dynamics of the earth. The National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) has officially participated in the project as an associate analysis center for satellite laser technique for the period of the MERIT Main Campaign (September 1983-October 1984). In this paper, the NAL analysis center results are presented.

  20. Incorporation of star measurements for the determination of orbit and attitude parameters of a geosynchronous satellite: An iterative application of linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.

    1980-01-01

    Currently on NOAA/NESS's VIRGS system at the World Weather Building star images are being ingested on a daily basis. The image coordinates of the star locations are measured and stored. Subsequently, the information is used to determine the attitude, the misalignment angles between the spin axis and the principal axis of the satellite, and the precession rate and direction. This is done for both the 'East' and 'West' operational geosynchronous satellites. This orientation information is then combined with image measurements of earth based landmarks to determine the orbit of each satellite. The method for determining the orbit is simple. For each landmark measurement one determines a nominal position vector for the satellite by extending a ray from the landmark's position towards the satellite and intersecting the ray with a sphere with center coinciding with the Earth's center and with radius equal to the nominal height for a geosynchronous satellite. The apparent motion of the satellite around the Earth's center is then approximated with a Keplerian model. In turn the variations of the satellite's height, as a function of time found by using this model, are used to redetermine the successive satellite positions by again using the Earth based landmark measurements and intersecting rays from these landmarks with the newly determined spheres. This process is performed iteratively until convergence is achieved. Only three iterations are required.

  1. Monitoring volcanic ash cloud top height through simultaneous retrieval of optical data from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zakšek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash cloud-top height (ACTH can be monitored on the global level using satellite remote sensing. Here we propose a photogrammetric method based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary and polar orbiting satellites to overcome some limitations of the existing methods of ACTH retrieval. SEVIRI HRV band and MODIS band 1 are a good choice because of their high resolution. The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously. MODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. The proposed method was tested for the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. The parallax between MODIS and SEVIRI data can reach 30 km, which implies an ACTH of approximately 12 km at the beginning of the eruption. At the end of April eruption an ACTH of 3–4 km is observed. The accuracy of ACTH was estimated to be 0.6 km.

  2. A simulation study of the global orbit feedback system for Pohang light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kukhee; Shim, Kyuyeol; Cho, Moohyun; Namkung, Won; Ko, In Soo; Choi, Jinhyuk

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation of the global orbit feedback system using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method, the error minimization method, and the neural network method. Instead of facing unacceptable correction result raised occasionally in the SVD method, we choose the error minimization method for the global orbit feedback. This method provides minimum orbit errors while avoiding unacceptable corrections, and keeps the orbit within the dynamic aperture of the storage ring. We simulate the Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring using the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) code that generates the orbit distortions for the error minimization method and the learning data set for neural network method. In order to compare the effectiveness of the neural network method with others, a neural network is trained by the learning algorithm using the learning data set. The global response matrix with a minimum error and the trained neural network are used to the global orbit feedback system. The simulation shows that a selection of beam position monitors (BPMs) is very sensitive in the reduction of rms orbit distortions, and the random choice gives better results than any other cases. (author)

  3. Analytical theory for artificial satellites. [nominal orbit expressed by means of Chebyshev polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprit, A.

    1975-01-01

    A theory for generating segmented ephemerides is discussed as a means for fast generation and simple retrieval of nominal orbit data. Over a succession of finite intervals of time, the orbit is represented by a best approximation expressed by Chebyshev polynomials. Storage of coefficients tables for Chebyshev polynomials is seen as a method to reduce data and decrease transmission costs. A general algorithm was constructed and computer programs were designed. The possibility of storing an ephemeris for a few days in the on-board computer, or in microprocessors attached to the data collectors is suggested.

  4. Modeling and simulation of satellite subsystems for end-to-end spacecraft modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schum, William K.; Doolittle, Christina M.; Boyarko, George A.

    2006-05-01

    During the past ten years, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has been simultaneously developing high-fidelity spacecraft payload models as well as a robust distributed simulation environment for modeling spacecraft subsystems. Much of this research has occurred in the Distributed Architecture Simulation Laboratory (DASL). AFRL developers working in the DASL have effectively combined satellite power, attitude pointing, and communication link analysis subsystem models with robust satellite sensor models to create a first-order end-to-end satellite simulation capability. The merging of these two simulation areas has advanced the field of spacecraft simulation, design, and analysis, and enabled more in-depth mission and satellite utility analyses. A core capability of the DASL is the support of a variety of modeling and analysis efforts, ranging from physics and engineering-level modeling to mission and campaign-level analysis. The flexibility and agility of this simulation architecture will be used to support space mission analysis, military utility analysis, and various integrated exercises with other military and space organizations via direct integration, or through DOD standards such as Distributed Interaction Simulation. This paper discusses the results and lessons learned in modeling satellite communication link analysis, power, and attitude control subsystems for an end-to-end satellite simulation. It also discusses how these spacecraft subsystem simulations feed into and support military utility and space mission analyses.

  5. Gravity field models from kinematic orbits of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 412-429 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071; GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field models * kinematic orbits * generalized least squares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  6. Development and control of a three-axis satellite simulator for the bifocal relay mirror initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Chernesky, Vincent S.

    2001-01-01

    The Three Axis Satellite Simulator (TASS) is a 4-foot diameter octagonal platform supported on a spherical air bearing. The platform hosts several satellite subsystems, including rate gyros, reaction wheels, thrusters, sun sensors, and an onboard control computer. This free-floating design allows for realistic emulation of satellite attitude dynamics in a laboratory environment. The bifocal relay mirror spacecraft system is composed of two optically coupled telescopes used to redirect the las...

  7. A syncopated leap-frog algorithm for orbit consistent plasma simulation of materials processing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.W.; Leboeuf, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    The authors present a particle algorithm to extend simulation capabilities for plasma based materials processing reactors. The orbit integrator uses a syncopated leap-frog algorithm in cylindrical coordinates, which maintains second order accuracy, and minimizes computational complexity. Plasma source terms are accumulated orbit consistently directly in the frequency and azimuthal mode domains. Finally they discuss the numerical analysis of this algorithm. Orbit consistency greatly reduces the computational cost for a given level of precision. The computational cost is independent of the degree of time scale separation

  8. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  9. The Qualification of a large electron irradiation facility for telecommunication satellite differential charging simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serene, B. E. H.; Reddy, J.

    1979-01-01

    The definition and procurement program is presented for the set up of a test simulating an electron environment on a model of a communication satellite to study the degradation of the thermal insulation materials during electron bombardment.

  10. 77 FR 25150 - GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: The United States Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Amending GPS Simulator Working group Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: We are requesting to amend the date of the GPS Simulator Working group meeting notice...

  11. Simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Füllekrug; C. Hanuise; M. Parrot

    2010-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz ...

  12. Evaluation of geomagnetic field models using magnetometer measurements for satellite attitude determination system at low earth orbits: Case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilden-Guler, Demet; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, different geomagnetic field models are compared in order to study the errors resulting from the representation of magnetic fields that affect the satellite attitude system. For this purpose, we used magnetometer data from two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft and the geomagnetic models IGRF-12 (Thébault et al., 2015) and T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) models to study the differences between the magnetic field components, strength and the angle between the predicted and observed vector magnetic fields. The comparisons were made during geomagnetically active and quiet days to see the effects of the geomagnetic storms and sub-storms on the predicted and observed magnetic fields and angles. The angles, in turn, are used to estimate the spacecraft attitude and hence, the differences between model and observations as well as between two models become important to determine and reduce the errors associated with the models under different space environment conditions. We show that the models differ from the observations even during the geomagnetically quiet times but the associated errors during the geomagnetically active times increase. We find that the T89 model gives closer predictions to the observations, especially during active times and the errors are smaller compared to the IGRF-12 model. The magnitude of the error in the angle under both environmental conditions was found to be less than 1°. For the first time, the geomagnetic models were used to address the effects of the near Earth space environment on the satellite attitude.

  13. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  14. Real time hardware-in-loop simulation of ESMO satellite attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Finnset

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies attitude control of the ESMO satellite using six reaction thrusters. Bang-bang control with dead-zone and Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM for the modulation of the on-time of the thrusters are treated. Closed loop hardware-in-loop simulations, using themicrocontroller unit (MCU Microchip PIC18F452 for implementation of attitude control and MatLab in a standard PC for simulating satellite dynamics, are carried out. Results for real time simulation are compared with autonomous simulations. The controller gives a satisfactory performance in the real time environment.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The orbits of Jupiter's irregular satellites (Brozovic+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.

    2018-05-01

    The large majority of astrometric observations originate from Earth-based telescopes, although there are a handful of observations of Himalia and Callirrhoe from the New Horizons spacecraft flyby of Jupiter. The modern Hipparcos Catalog (Perryman et al. 1997A&A...323L..49P) based astrometry is reported as positions in the ICRF. We convert the older measurements to the ICRF positions. The references to optical observations up to the year 2000 are documented in Jacobson (2000AJ....120.2679J). We continued to use the Jacobson (2000AJ....120.2679J) observational biases for the early measurements. We have since extended the data set with observations published in the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (MPEC), the International Astronomical Union Circulars (IAUC), the Natural Satellites Data Center (NSDC) database (Arlot & Emelyanov 2009A&A...503..631A), the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station catalog, and the Pulkovo Observatory database. (5 data files).

  16. Coded throughput performance simulations for the time-varying satellite channel. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, LI

    1995-01-01

    The design of a reliable satellite communication link involving the data transfer from a small, low-orbit satellite to a ground station, but through a geostationary satellite, was examined. In such a scenario, the received signal power to noise density ratio increases as the transmitting low-orbit satellite comes into view, and then decreases as it then departs, resulting in a short-duration, time-varying communication link. The optimal values of the small satellite antenna beamwidth, signaling rate, modulation scheme and the theoretical link throughput (in bits per day) have been determined. The goal of this thesis is to choose a practical coding scheme which maximizes the daily link throughput while satisfying a prescribed probability of error requirement. We examine the throughput of both fixed rate and variable rate concatenated forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes for the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and then examine the effect of radio frequency interference (RFI) on the best coding scheme among them. Interleaving is used to mitigate degradation due to RFI. It was found that the variable rate concatenated coding scheme could achieve 74 percent of the theoretical throughput, equivalent to 1.11 Gbits/day based on the cutoff rate R(sub 0). For comparison, 87 percent is achievable for AWGN-only case.

  17. Assessing Sahelian vegetation and stress from seasonal time series of polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard

    that short term variations in anomalies from seasonally detrended time series of indices could carry information on vegetation stress was examined and confirmed. However, it was not found sufficiently robust on pixel level to be implemented for monitoring vegetation water stress on a per-pixel basis...... provide good sensitivity to canopy water content, which can make vegetation stress detection possible. Furthermore, the high frequency observations in the optical spectrum now available from geostationary instruments have the potential for detection of changes in vegetation related surface properties...... on short timescales, which are challenging from polar orbiting instruments. Geostationary NDVI and the NIR and SWIR based Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI) indices are compared with extensive field data from the Dahra site, supplemented by data from the Agoufou and Demokeya sites. The indices...

  18. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXI. A GAS-GIANT PLANET IN A ONE YEAR ORBIT AND THE HABITABILITY OF GAS-GIANT SATELLITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, C. G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Bailey, Jeremy A.; Horner, J.; Butler, R. Paul; Jones, Hugh R. A.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Carter, Brad D.

    2011-01-01

    We have detected the Doppler signature of a gas-giant exoplanet orbiting the star HD 38283, in an eccentric orbit with a period of almost exactly one year (P = 363.2 ± 1.6 d, m sin i = 0.34 ± 0.02 M Jup , e = 0.41 ± 0.16). The detection of a planet with period very close to one year critically relied on year-round observation of this circumpolar star. Discovering a planet in a 1 AU orbit around a G dwarf star has prompted us to look more closely at the question of the habitability of the satellites of such planets. Regular satellites orbit all the giant planets in our solar system, suggesting that their formation is a natural by-product of the planet formation process. There is no reason for exomoon formation not to be similarly likely in exoplanetary systems. Moreover, our current understanding of that formation process does not preclude satellite formation in systems where gas giants undergo migration from their formation locations into the terrestrial planet habitable zone. Indeed, regular satellite formation and Type II migration are both linked to the clearing of a gap in the protoplanetary disk by a planet, and so may be inextricably linked. Migration would also multiply the chances of capturing both irregular satellites and Trojan companions sufficiently massive to be habitable. The habitability of such exomoons and exo-Trojans will critically depend on their mass, whether or not they host a magnetosphere, and (for the exomoon case) their orbital radius around the host exoplanet.

  19. Sensitivities of simulated satellite views of clouds to subgrid-scale overlap and condensate heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, Benjamin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marchand, Roger T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ackerman, Thomas P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Satellite simulators are often used to account for limitations in satellite retrievals of cloud properties in comparisons between models and satellite observations. The purpose of the simulator framework is to enable more robust evaluation of model cloud properties, so that di erences between models and observations can more con dently be attributed to model errors. However, these simulators are subject to uncertainties themselves. A fundamental uncertainty exists in connecting the spatial scales at which cloud properties are retrieved with those at which clouds are simulated in global models. In this study, we create a series of sensitivity tests using 4 km global model output from the Multiscale Modeling Framework to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated satellite retrievals when applied to climate models whose grid spacing is many tens to hundreds of kilometers. In particular, we examine the impact of cloud and precipitation overlap and of condensate spatial variability. We find the simulated retrievals are sensitive to these assumptions. Specifically, using maximum-random overlap with homogeneous cloud and precipitation condensate, which is often used in global climate models, leads to large errors in MISR and ISCCP-simulated cloud cover and in CloudSat-simulated radar reflectivity. To correct for these errors, an improved treatment of unresolved clouds and precipitation is implemented for use with the simulator framework and is shown to substantially reduce the identified errors.

  20. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the ...

  1. In-flight performance analysis of MEMS GPS receiver and its application to precise orbit determination of APOD-A satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Defeng; Liu, Ye; Yi, Bin; Cao, Jianfeng; Li, Xie

    2017-12-01

    An experimental satellite mission termed atmospheric density detection and precise orbit determination (APOD) was developed by China and launched on 20 September 2015. The micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) GPS receiver provides the basis for precise orbit determination (POD) within the range of a few decimetres. The in-flight performance of the MEMS GPS receiver was assessed. The average number of tracked GPS satellites is 10.7. However, only 5.1 GPS satellites are available for dual-frequency navigation because of the loss of many L2 observations at low elevations. The variations in the multipath error for C1 and P2 were estimated, and the maximum multipath error could reach up to 0.8 m. The average code noises are 0.28 m (C1) and 0.69 m (P2). Using the MEMS GPS receiver, the orbit of the APOD nanosatellite (APOD-A) was precisely determined. Two types of orbit solutions are proposed: a dual-frequency solution and a single-frequency solution. The antenna phase center variations (PCVs) and code residual variations (CRVs) were estimated, and the maximum value of the PCVs is 4.0 cm. After correcting the antenna PCVs and CRVs, the final orbit precision for the dual-frequency and single-frequency solutions were 7.71 cm and 12.91 cm, respectively, validated using the satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, which were significantly improved by 3.35 cm and 25.25 cm. The average RMS of the 6-h overlap differences in the dual-frequency solution between two consecutive days in three dimensions (3D) is 4.59 cm. The MEMS GPS receiver is the Chinese indigenous onboard receiver, which was successfully used in the POD of a nanosatellite. This study has important reference value for improving the MEMS GPS receiver and its application in other low Earth orbit (LEO) nanosatellites.

  2. Modelling and prediction of crop losses from NOAA polar-orbiting operational satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weather-related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers, governments, traders, and policy-makers for the purpose of balanced food supply/demands, trade, and distribution of aid to the nations in need. Among weather disasters, drought plays a major role in large-scale crop losses. This paper discusses utility of operational satellite-based vegetation health (VH indices for modelling cereal yield and for early warning of drought-related crop losses. The indices were tested in Saratov oblast (SO, one of the principal grain growing regions of Russia. Correlation and regression analysis were applied to model cereal yield from VH indices during 1982–2001. A strong correlation between mean SO's cereal yield and VH indices were found during the critical period of cereals, which starts two–three weeks before and ends two–three weeks after the heading stage. Several models were constructed where VH indices served as independent variables (predictors. The models were validated independently based on SO cereal yield during 1982–2012. Drought-related cereal yield losses can be predicted three months in advance of harvest and six–eight months in advance of official grain production statistic is released. The error of production losses prediction is 7%–10%. The error of prediction drops to 3%–5% in the years of intensive droughts.

  3. On-orbit servicing system assessment and optimization methods based on lifecycle simulation under mixed aleatory and epistemic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; van Tooren, Michel

    2013-06-01

    To assess the on-orbit servicing (OOS) paradigm and optimize its utilities by taking advantage of its inherent flexibility and responsiveness, the OOS system assessment and optimization methods based on lifecycle simulation under uncertainties are studied. The uncertainty sources considered in this paper include both the aleatory (random launch/OOS operation failure and on-orbit component failure) and the epistemic (the unknown trend of the end-used market price) types. Firstly, the lifecycle simulation under uncertainties is discussed. The chronological flowchart is presented. The cost and benefit models are established, and the uncertainties thereof are modeled. The dynamic programming method to make optimal decision in face of the uncertain events is introduced. Secondly, the method to analyze the propagation effects of the uncertainties on the OOS utilities is studied. With combined probability and evidence theory, a Monte Carlo lifecycle Simulation based Unified Uncertainty Analysis (MCS-UUA) approach is proposed, based on which the OOS utility assessment tool under mixed uncertainties is developed. Thirdly, to further optimize the OOS system under mixed uncertainties, the reliability-based optimization (RBO) method is studied. To alleviate the computational burden of the traditional RBO method which involves nested optimum search and uncertainty analysis, the framework of Sequential Optimization and Mixed Uncertainty Analysis (SOMUA) is employed to integrate MCS-UUA, and the RBO algorithm SOMUA-MCS is developed. Fourthly, a case study on the OOS system for a hypothetical GEO commercial communication satellite is investigated with the proposed assessment tool. Furthermore, the OOS system is optimized with SOMUA-MCS. Lastly, some conclusions are given and future research prospects are highlighted.

  4. VLBI Observations of Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.; La Porta, L.

    2013-08-01

    For a consistent realization of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), a proper tie between the individual global reference systems used in the analysis of space-geodetic observations is a prerequisite. For instance, the link between the terrestrial, the celestial and the dynamic reference system of artificial Earth orbiters may be realized by Very Long O Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of one or several satellites. In the preparation phase for a dedicated satellite mission, one option to realize this is using a geostationary (GEO) satellite emitting a radio signal in X-Band and/or S-Band and, thus, imitating a quasar. In this way, the GEO satellite can be observed by VLBI together with nearby quasars and the GEO orbit can, thus, be determined in a celestial reference frame. If the GEO satellite is, e.g., also equipped with a GNSS-type transmitter, a further tie between GNSS and VLBI may be realized. In this paper, a concept for the generation of a radio signal is shown. Furthermore, simulation studies for estimating the GEO position are presented with a GEO satellite included in the VLBI schedule. VLBI group delay observations are then simulated for the quasars as well as for the GEO satellite. The analysis of the simulated observations shows that constant orbit changes are adequately absorbed by estimated orbit parameters. Furthermore, the post-fit residuals are comparable to those from real VLBI sessions.

  5. Performance simulation of the X-ray spectrometer in Chang'E-1 satellite payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xuelei; Wang Huanyu; Zhang Chengmo; Chen Yong; Yang Jiawei; Wang JInzhou; Liang Xiaohua; Gao Min; Zhang Jiayu; Ma Guofeng

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the performance simulation of the X-ray Spectrometer in Chang'E-1 satellite based on Geant4 system. It is divided in three parts, the efficiency simulation, the energy spectrum response and direction response. It provides the guidance on making the spectrometer. (authors)

  6. Multiple wavelength spectral system simulating background light noise environment in satellite laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Sun, Jianfeng; Hou, Peipei; Xu, Qian; Xi, Yueli; Zhou, Yu; Zhu, Funan; Liu, Liren

    2017-08-01

    Performance of satellite laser communications between GEO and LEO satellites can be influenced by background light noise appeared in the field of view due to sunlight or planets and some comets. Such influences should be studied on the ground testing platform before the space application. In this paper, we introduce a simulator that can simulate the real case of background light noise in space environment during the data talking via laser beam between two lonely satellites. This simulator can not only simulate the effect of multi-wavelength spectrum, but also the effects of adjustable angles of field-of-view, large range of adjustable optical power and adjustable deflection speeds of light noise in space environment. We integrate these functions into a device with small and compact size for easily mobile use. Software control function is also achieved via personal computer to adjust these functions arbitrarily. Keywords:

  7. The stars: an absolute radiometric reference for the on-orbit calibration of PLEIADES-HR satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meygret, Aimé; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Mounier, Flore; Buil, Christian

    2017-09-01

    The accurate on-orbit radiometric calibration of optical sensors has become a challenge for space agencies who gather their effort through international working groups such as CEOS/WGCV or GSICS with the objective to insure the consistency of space measurements and to reach an absolute accuracy compatible with more and more demanding scientific needs. Different targets are traditionally used for calibration depending on the sensor or spacecraft specificities: from on-board calibration systems to ground targets, they all take advantage of our capacity to characterize and model them. But achieving the in-flight stability of a diffuser panel is always a challenge while the calibration over ground targets is often limited by their BDRF characterization and the atmosphere variability. Thanks to their agility, some satellites have the capability to view extra-terrestrial targets such as the moon or stars. The moon is widely used for calibration and its albedo is known through ROLO (RObotic Lunar Observatory) USGS model but with a poor absolute accuracy limiting its use to sensor drift monitoring or cross-calibration. Although the spectral irradiance of some stars is known with a very high accuracy, it was not really shown that they could provide an absolute reference for remote sensors calibration. This paper shows that high resolution optical sensors can be calibrated with a high absolute accuracy using stars. The agile-body PLEIADES 1A satellite is used for this demonstration. The star based calibration principle is described and the results are provided for different stars, each one being acquired several times. These results are compared to the official calibration provided by ground targets and the main error contributors are discussed.

  8. Simulated orbits of heavy planetary ions at Mars for different IMF configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Livi, Roberto; Hara, Takuya; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; McFadden, James; Bougher, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We present simulated detections of O+, O2+ and CO2+ ions at Mars along a virtual orbit in the Mars space environment. Planetary pick-up ions are formed through the direct interaction of the solar wind with the neutral upper atmosphere, causing the newly created ions to be picked up and accelerated by the background convective electric field. Because previous missions such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Express (MEX) have not been able to measure the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components simultaneously with plasma measurements, the response of heavy planetary pick-up ions to changes in the IMF has not been well characterized. Using a steady-state multi-species MHD model to provide the background electric and magnetic fields, the Mars Test Particle (MTP) simulation can trace each of these particles along field lines in near-Mars space and construct virtual ion detections from a spacecraft orbit. Specifically, we will present energy-time spectrograms and velocity space distributions (VSDs) for a selection of orbits during different IMF configurations and solar cycle conditions. These simulated orbits have broader implications for how to measure ion escape. Using individual particle traces, the origin and trajectories of different ion populations can be analyzed in order to assess how and where they contribute to the total atmospheric escape rate, which is a major objective of the upcoming MAVEN mission.

  9. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi's measurement in a low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Asai, Makoto; Hagino, Kouichi; Koi, Tatsumi; Madejski, Greg; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Ohno, Masanori; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Tamotsu; Wright, Dennis H.; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kobayashi, Shogo B.; Kokubun, Motohide; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Limousin, Olivier; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Mimura, Taketo; Miyake, Katsuma; Mori, Kunishiro; Murakami, Hiroaki; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakano, Toshio; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Ohta, Masayuki; Ozaki, Masanobu; Sato, Goro; Sato, Rie; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Terada, Yukikatsu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Shin; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yuasa, Takayuki; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation of isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. The simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.

  10. Protocoles d'accès multiple orientés qualité de service en constellation de satellite à orbite basse

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim , Abbas

    2002-01-01

    Pendant les dernières années, le réseau cellulaire est devenu accessible presque partout. Pour compléter ce réseau cellulaire terrestre, plusieurs systèmes basés sur des satellites à basse orbite (LEO Low Earth Orbit) et moyenne orbite (MEO Medium Earth Orbit) ont été développés pour offrir une couverture globale. Les services multimédias sont largement demandés sur une échelle globale.Notre but est de développer une couche d'accès MAC au canal satellitaire tout en respectant les contraintes ...

  11. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF 4 )

  12. A Lookup-Table-Based Approach to Estimating Surface Solar Irradiance from Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Incoming surface solar irradiance (SSI is essential for calculating Earth’s surface radiation budget and is a key parameter for terrestrial ecological modeling and climate change research. Remote sensing images from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites provide an opportunity for SSI estimation through directly retrieving atmospheric and land-surface parameters. This paper presents a new scheme for estimating SSI from the visible and infrared channels of geostationary meteorological and polar-orbiting satellite data. Aerosol optical thickness and cloud microphysical parameters were retrieved from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES system images by interpolating lookup tables of clear and cloudy skies, respectively. SSI was estimated using pre-calculated offline lookup tables with different atmospheric input data of clear and cloudy skies. The lookup tables were created via the comprehensive radiative transfer model, Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (SBDART, to balance computational efficiency and accuracy. The atmospheric attenuation effects considered in our approach were water vapor absorption and aerosol extinction for clear skies, while cloud parameters were the only atmospheric input for cloudy-sky SSI estimation. The approach was validated using one-year pyranometer measurements from seven stations in the SURFRAD (SURFace RADiation budget network. The results of the comparison for 2012 showed that the estimated SSI agreed with ground measurements with correlation coefficients of 0.94, 0.69, and 0.89 with a bias of 26.4 W/m2, −5.9 W/m2, and 14.9 W/m2 for clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky conditions, respectively. The overall root mean square error (RMSE of instantaneous SSI was 80.0 W/m2 (16.8%, 127.6 W/m2 (55.1%, and 99.5 W/m2 (25.5% for clear-sky, cloudy-sky (overcast sky and partly cloudy sky, and all-sky (clear-sky and cloudy-sky conditions, respectively. A comparison with other state

  13. Simulation of charge transfer and orbital rehybridization in molecular and condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Razvan A.

    The mixing and shifting of electronic orbitals in molecules, or between atoms in bulk systems, is crucially important to the overall structure and physical properties of materials. Understanding and accurately modeling these orbital interactions is of both scientific and industrial relevance. Electronic orbitals can be perturbed in several ways. Doping, adding or removing electrons from systems, can change the bond-order and the physical properties of certain materials. Orbital rehybridization, driven by either thermal or pressure excitation, alters the short-range structure of materials and changes their long-range transport properties. Macroscopically, during bond formation, the shifting of electronic orbitals can be interpreted as a charge transfer phenomenon, as electron density may pile up around, and hence, alter the effective charge of, a given atom in the changing chemical environment. Several levels of theory exist to elucidate the mechanisms behind these orbital interactions. Electronic structure calculations solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation to high chemical accuracy, but are computationally expensive and limited to small system sizes and simulation times. Less fundamental atomistic calculations use simpler parameterized functional expressions called force-fields to model atomic interactions. Atomistic simulations can describe systems and time-scales larger and longer than electronic-structure methods, but at the cost of chemical accuracy. In this thesis, both first-principles and phenomenological methods are addressed in the study of several encompassing problems dealing with charge transfer and orbital rehybridization. Firstly, a new charge-equilibration method is developed that improves upon existing models to allow next-generation force-fields to describe the electrostatics of changing chemical environments. Secondly, electronic structure calculations are used to investigate the doping dependent energy landscapes of several high

  14. Ground Simulation of an Autonomous Satellite Rendezvous and Tracking System Using Dual Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube, Matthew J.; Hyslop, Andrew M.; Carignan, Craig R.; Easley, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop ground system was developed for simulating a robotic servicer spacecraft tracking a target satellite at short range. A relative navigation sensor package "Argon" is mounted on the end-effector of a Fanuc 430 manipulator, which functions as the base platform of the robotic spacecraft servicer. Machine vision algorithms estimate the pose of the target spacecraft, mounted on a Rotopod R-2000 platform, relay the solution to a simulation of the servicer spacecraft running in "Freespace", which performs guidance, navigation and control functions, integrates dynamics, and issues motion commands to a Fanuc platform controller so that it tracks the simulated servicer spacecraft. Results will be reviewed for several satellite motion scenarios at different ranges. Key words: robotics, satellite, servicing, guidance, navigation, tracking, control, docking.

  15. A simultaneous estimation of the mass of Mars and its natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos, from the orbital perturbations on the Mariner 9, Viking 1, and Viking 2 orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Fricke, S. K.; Mccarthy, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The natural satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, caused perturbations on the orbits of the Mariner 9, and the Viking spacecraft that were used to estimate the satellite masses. The Viking spacecraft were specifically targeted to make close flybys (within a few hundred kilometers) of Phobos in February 1977 and of Deimos in October 1977. These close encounters were used to estimate the moon's gravitational constant, GM (the universal constant of gravitation multiplied by the satellite mass). However, the Viking and Mariner 9 spacecraft made numerous flybys of Phobos and Deimos at distances of a few thousand kilometers. The tracking data from these more 'distant' encounters were processed to estimate the masses of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos.

  16. The determination of the orbit of the Japanese satellite Ajisai and the GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 gravity field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Experimental Geodetic Satellite Ajisai was launched on August 12, 1986. In response to the TOPEX-POSEIDON mission requirements, the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch and its associates are producing improved models of the Earth's gravitational field. With the launch of Ajisai, precise laser data is now available which can be used to test many current gravity models. The testing of the various gravity field models show improvements of more than 70 percent in the orbital fits when using GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 relative to results obtained with the earlier GEM-10B model. The GEM-T2 orbital fits are at the 13-cm level (RMS). The results of the tests with the various versions of the GEM-T1 model indicate that the addition of satellite altimetry and surface gravity anomalies as additional data types should improve future gravity field models.

  17. Accounting of fundamental components of the rotation parameters of the Earth in the formation of a high-accuracy orbit of navigation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Yu. G.; Mikhailov, M. V.; Pochukaev, V. N.

    2012-07-01

    An analysis of perturbing factors influencing the motion of a navigation satellite (NS) is carried out, and the degree of influence of each factor on the GLONASS orbit is estimated. It is found that fundamental components of the Earth's rotation parameters (ERP) are one substantial factor commensurable with maximum perturbations. Algorithms for the calculation of orbital perturbations caused by these parameters are given; these algorithms can be implemented in a consumer's equipment. The daily prediction of NS coordinates is performed on the basis of real GLONASS satellite ephemerides transmitted to a consumer, using the developed prediction algorithms taking the ERP into account. The obtained accuracy of the daily prediction of GLONASS ephemerides exceeds by tens of times the accuracy of the daily prediction performed using algorithms recommended in interface control documents.

  18. 多系统GNSS卫星轨道快速积分方法%A Rapid Orbit Integration Algorithm for Multi-GNSS Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范磊; 李敏; 宋伟伟; 施闯; 王成

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and efficient orbit numerical integration algorithm with high accuracy is needed in multi-GNSS rapid precise orbit determination.In order to improve the compute efficiency, an adaptive step-changed Admas integration method and a synchronous integration algoritm for multi-GNSS satellites are developed in this paper.To validate the precision and efficiency of the proposed method, the multi-GNSS precise orbit products calculated by Wuhan University (WHU) and Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) are used for orbit fitting.Results show that, the average 3DRMS of GPS, GLONASS, BDS and Galileo satellites are all below 20mm.Comparing with the traditional step-fixed orbit integraion method applied for each satellite separately, the computational efficiency of the proposed method is improved significantly: without damaging the accuracy, it takes only 0.09s for a single satellite, which is 14 times faster than the traditional method.Besides, further improvement can be achieved when the number of satellites is increased.%快速高效且高精度的轨道数值积分算法是多系统GNSS卫星联合快速精密定轨的重要基础.本文从自适应变换Admas积分步长和多卫星同步积分两方面研究了多系统GNSS卫星轨道快速积分方法.为了验证该方法的精度和效率,利用武汉大学(WHU)与欧洲定轨中心(CODE)发布的事后精密星历进行轨道动力学拟合.试验结果表明:GPS/GLONASS/BDS/Galileo 4个系统卫星平均三维RMS均优于20mm;在不损失传统方法精度的前提下,单颗卫星平均积分与拟合耗时仅需0.09s,较传统逐颗卫星固定步长积分算法提升了14倍,并且随着卫星数的增加,效率提升越明显.

  19. Comparison of precise orbit determination methods of zero-difference kinematic, dynamic and reduced-dynamic of GRACE-A satellite using SHORDE software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhou, Xuhua; Guo, Nannan; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Kexin; Lei, Weiwei

    2017-09-01

    Zero-difference kinematic, dynamic and reduced-dynamic precise orbit determination (POD) are three methods to obtain the precise orbits of Low Earth Orbit satellites (LEOs) by using the on-board GPS observations. Comparing the differences between those methods have great significance to establish the mathematical model and is usefull for us to select a suitable method to determine the orbit of the satellite. Based on the zero-difference GPS carrier-phase measurements, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) has improved the early version of SHORDE and then developed it as an integrated software system, which can perform the POD of LEOs by using the above three methods. In order to introduce the function of the software, we take the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) on-board GPS observations in January 2008 as example, then we compute the corresponding orbits of GRACE by using the SHORDE software. In order to evaluate the accuracy, we compare the orbits with the precise orbits provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The results show that: (1) If we use the dynamic POD method, and the force models are used to represent the non-conservative forces, the average accuracy of the GRACE orbit is 2.40cm, 3.91cm, 2.34cm and 5.17cm in radial (R), along-track (T), cross-track (N) and 3D directions respectively; If we use the accelerometer observation instead of non-conservative perturbation model, the average accuracy of the orbit is 1.82cm, 2.51cm, 3.48cm and 4.68cm in R, T, N and 3D directions respectively. The result shows that if we use accelerometer observation instead of the non-conservative perturbation model, the accuracy of orbit is better. (2) When we use the reduced-dynamic POD method to get the orbits, the average accuracy of the orbit is 0.80cm, 1.36cm, 2.38cm and 2.87cm in R, T, N and 3D directions respectively. This method is carried out by setting up the pseudo-stochastic pulses to absorb the errors of atmospheric drag and other

  20. A semi-physical simulation platform of attitude determination and control system for satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjin Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A semi-physical simulation platform for attitude determination and control system is proposed to verify the attitude estimator and controller on ground. A simulation target, a host PC, many attitude sensors, and actuators compose the simulation platform. The simulation target is composed of a central processing unit board with VxWorks operating system and many input/output boards connected via Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect bus. The executable programs in target are automatically generated from the simulation models in Simulink based on Real-Time Workshop of MATLAB. A three-axes gyroscope, a three-axes magnetometer, a sun sensor, a star tracer, three flywheels, and a Global Positioning System receiver are connected to the simulation target, which formulates the attitude control cycle of a satellite. The simulation models of the attitude determination and control system are described in detail. Finally, the semi-physical simulation platform is used to demonstrate the availability and rationality of the control scheme of a micro-satellite. Comparing the results between the numerical simulation in Simulink and the semi-physical simulation, the semi-physical simulation platform is available and the control scheme successfully achieves three-axes stabilization.

  1. A simulation of the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Ye, Mao; Yan, Jianguo; Hao, Weifeng; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Chang'E-5 mission is the third phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program and will collect and return lunar samples. After sampling, the Orbiter and the ascent vehicle will rendezvous and dock, and both spacecraft will require high precision orbit navigation. In this paper, we present a novel tracking mode-Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking that possibly can be employed during the Chang'E-5 mission. The mathematical formulas for the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode are given and implemented in our newly-designed lunar spacecraft orbit determination and gravity field recovery software, the LUnar Gravity REcovery and Analysis Software/System (LUGREAS). The simulated observables permit analysis of the potential contribution Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking could make to precision orbit determination for the Orbiter. Our results show that the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate has better geometric constraint on the orbit, and is more sensitive than the traditional two-way range rate that only tracks data between the Earth station and lunar Orbiter. After combining the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate data with the traditional two-way range rate data and considering the Lander position error and lunar gravity field error, the accuracy of precision orbit determination for the Orbiter in the simulation was improved significantly, with the biggest improvement being one order of magnitude, and the Lander position could be constrained to sub-meter level. This new tracking mode could provide a reference for the Chang'E-5 mission and have enormous potential for the positioning of future lunar farside Lander due to its relay characteristic.

  2. The simulation of lunar gravity field recovery from D-VLBI of Chang’E-1 and SELENE lunar orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianguo; Ping, Jingsong; Matsumoto, K.; Li, Fei

    2008-07-01

    The lunar gravity field is a foundation to study the lunar interior structure, and to recover the evolution history of the Moon. It is still an open and key topic for lunar science. For above mentioned reasons, it becomes one of the important scientific objectives of recent lunar missions, such as KAGUYA (SELENE) the Japanese lunar mission and Chang’E-1, the Chinese lunar mission. The Chang’E-1 and the SELENE were successfully launched in 2007. It is estimated that these two missions can fly around the Moon longer than 6 months simultaneously. In these two missions, the Chinese new VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) network will be applied for precise orbit determination (POD) by using a differential VLBI (D-VLBI) method during the mission period. The same-beam D-VLBI technique will contribute to recover the lunar gravity field together with other conventional observables, i.e. R&RR (Range and Range Rate) and multi-way Doppler. Taking VLBI tracking conditions into consideration and using the GEODYNII/SOVLE software of GSFC/NASA/USA [Rowlands, D.D., Marshall, J.A., Mccarthy, J., et al. GEODYN II System Description, vols. 1 5. Contractor Report, Hughes STX Corp. Greenbelt, MD, 1997; Ullman, R.E. SOLVE program: mathematical formulation and guide to user input, Hughes/STX Contractor Report, Contract NAS5-31760. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1994], we simulated the lunar gravity field recovering ability with and without D-VLBI between the Chang’E-1 and SELENE main satellite. The cases of overlapped flying and tracking period of 30 days, 60 days and 90 days have been analyzed, respectively. The results show that D-VLBI tracking between two lunar satellites can improve the gravity field recovery remarkably. The results and methods introduced in this paper will benefit the actual missions.

  3. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE GEOMETRIC CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high resolution satellite with the longer focal length and the larger aperture has been widely used in georeferencing of the observed scene in recent years. The consistent end to end model of high resolution remote sensing satellite geometric chain is presented, which consists of the scene, the three line array camera, the platform including attitude and position information, the time system and the processing algorithm. The integrated design of the camera and the star tracker is considered and the simulation method of the geolocation accuracy is put forward by introduce the new index of the angle between the camera and the star tracker. The model is validated by the geolocation accuracy simulation according to the test method of the ZY-3 satellite imagery rigorously. The simulation results show that the geolocation accuracy is within 25m, which is highly consistent with the test results. The geolocation accuracy can be improved about 7 m by the integrated design. The model combined with the simulation method is applicable to the geolocation accuracy estimate before the satellite launching.

  4. Real-time clock and orbit calculation of the GPS satellite constellation based on observation data of RTIGS-station network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, G.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the development of faster communication networks and improving computer technology beside postprocessing techniques real-time applications and services are more and more created and used in the eld of precise positioning and navigation using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) like GPS. Data formats like RTCM (NTRIP) or RTIGS serve in this manner as basic tool to transmit real-time GNSS observation data to a eld of users. To handle this trend to real-time, the International GNSS Service (IGS) or more precisely the Real-Time Working Group (RTWG) of the IGS started to establish a global GNSS station network several years ago. These reference stations (RTIGS stations) transmit their observation data in real-time via the open internet to registerd users to support the development of potential new real-time products and services. One example for such a new real-time application based on the observations of the RTIGS network is the software RTIGU-Control developed within this PHD thesis. RTIGU-Control fulls 2 main tasks. The rst task is the monitoring (integrity) of the predicted IGS orbit and clock products (IGU products) using real-time observations from the station network. The second task deals with calculating more precise satellite and station clock corrections compared to the predicted values of the IGU solutions based on the already very precise IGU orbit solutions. In a rst step RTIGU-Control calculates based on the IGU orbit predictions together with code-smoothed station observations precise values for the satellite and station clock corrections.The code-smoothed observations are additionally corrected for several corrections eecting the GNSS observations (for example the delay of the signal propagation time due to the atmosphere, relativistic eects, etc.). The second calculation step deals with monitoring the IGU predicted orbits using the calculated clock solution in the calculation step before and again the corrected real-time observations

  5. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  6. Estimation of land-atmosphere energy transfer over the Tibetan Plateau by a combination use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Land-atmosphere energy transfer is of great importance in land-atmosphere interactions and atmospheric boundary layer processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The energy fluxes have high temporal variability, especially in their diurnal cycle, which cannot be acquired by polar-orbiting satellites alone because of their low temporal resolution. Therefore, it's of great practical significance to retrieve land surface heat fluxes by a combination use of geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. In this study, a time series of the hourly LST was estimated from thermal infrared data acquired by the Chinese geostationary satellite FengYun 2C (FY-2C) over the TP. The split window algorithm (SWA) was optimized using a regression method based on the observations from the Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet) and Tibetan observation and research platform (TORP), the land surface emissivity (LSE) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the water vapor content from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) project. The 10-day composite hourly LST data were generated via the maximum value composite (MVC) method to reduce the cloud effects. The derived LST was validated by the field observations of CAMP/Tibet and TORP. The results show that the retrieved LST and in situ data have a very good correlation (with root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias (MB), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation coefficient (R) values of 1.99 K, 0.83 K, 1.71 K, and 0.991, respectively). Together with other characteristic parameters derived from polar-orbiting satellites and meteorological forcing data, the energy balance budgets have been retrieved finally. The validation results showed there was a good consistency between estimation results and in-situ measurements over the TP, which prove the robustness of the proposed estimation

  7. Simulation results of the electron-proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Grunau, Jan; Paspirgilis, Rolf; Martin, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Seimetz, Lars; Schuster, Bjoern; Kulemzin, Alexander; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of five instruments in the Energetic Particle Detector suite for Solar Orbiter. It investigates low energy electrons and protons of solar events. EPT covers an energy range from 20400 keV for electrons and 20 keV-7 MeV for protons and distinguishes electrons from protons using a magnet/foil technique with silicon detectors. There will be two EPT units, each with double-barreled telescopes, one looking sunwards/antisunwards and the other north/south. EPT is designed using the GEometry ANd Tracking (GEANT) simulation toolkit developed by CERN for Monte Carlo calculations. Here we present the details of our simulations and the simulation results with respect to energy coverage and the geometrical factor of the EPT instrument. We also look at the far-field of the EPT magnets, which is important for electromagnetic cleanliness considerations.

  8. A digital simulation of message traffic for natural disaster warning communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Various types of weather communications are required to alert industries and the general public about the impending occurrence of tornados, hurricanes, snowstorms, floods, etc. A natural disaster warning satellite system has been proposed for meeting the communications requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Message traffic for a communications satellite was simulated with a digital computer in order to determine the number of communications channels to meet system requirements. Poisson inputs are used for arrivals and an exponential distribution is used for service.

  9. Regional model simulation of the North Atlantic cyclone "Caroline" and comparisons with satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keup-Thiel

    Full Text Available An individual regional model simulation of cyclone "Caroline" has been carried out to study water cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a comparison of the model results with SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager satellite data.

    The vertically integrated water vapor of the REgional MOdel REMO is in good agreement with the SSM/I satellite data. The simulation results for other water budget components like the vertically integrated liquid water content and precipitation compare also reasonably well within the frontal system. However, the high precipitation rate in the cold air outbreak on the backside of the cold front derived from SSM/I satellite data is generally underestimated by REMO. This results in a considerable deficit of the total precipitation amount accumulated for the cyclone "Caroline". While REMO simulates 24.3 108 m3 h-1 for 09:00 UTC, the total areal precipitation from SSM/I satellite data amounts to 54.7 08 m3 h-1.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (precipitation; mesoscale meteorology – Radio science (remote sensing

  10. Regional model simulation of the North Atlantic cyclone "Caroline" and comparisons with satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keup-Thiel

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An individual regional model simulation of cyclone "Caroline" has been carried out to study water cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a comparison of the model results with SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager satellite data. The vertically integrated water vapor of the REgional MOdel REMO is in good agreement with the SSM/I satellite data. The simulation results for other water budget components like the vertically integrated liquid water content and precipitation compare also reasonably well within the frontal system. However, the high precipitation rate in the cold air outbreak on the backside of the cold front derived from SSM/I satellite data is generally underestimated by REMO. This results in a considerable deficit of the total precipitation amount accumulated for the cyclone "Caroline". While REMO simulates 24.3 108 m3 h-1 for 09:00 UTC, the total areal precipitation from SSM/I satellite data amounts to 54.7 08 m3 h-1.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (precipitation; mesoscale meteorology – Radio science (remote sensing

  11. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaiah Chintalapudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  12. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  13. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  14. Simulations of the magnet misalignments, field errors and orbit correction for the SLC north arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, S.; Chao, A.; Jaeger, J.; Shoaee, H.

    1983-11-01

    Given the intensity of linac bunches and their repetition rate the desired luminosity of SLC 1.0 x 10 30 cm -2 sec -1 requires focusing the interaction bunches to a spot size in the micrometer (μm) range. The lattice that achieves this goal is obtained by careful design of both the arcs and the final focus systems. For the micrometer range of the beam spot size both the second order geometric and chromatic aberrations may be completely destructive. The concept of second order achromat proved to be extremely important in this respect and the arcs are built essentially as a sequence of such achromats. Between the end of the linac and the interaction point (IP) there are three special sections in addition to the regular structure: matching section (MS) designed for matching the phase space from the linac to the arcs, reverse bend section (RB) which provides the matching when the sign of the curvature is reversed in the arc and the final focus system (FFS). The second order calculations are done by the program TURTLE. Using the TURTLE histogram in the x-y plane and assuming identical histogram for the south arc, corresponding 'luminosity' L is found. The simulation of the misalignments and error effects have to be done simultaneously with the design and simulation of the orbit correction scheme. Even after the orbit is corrected and the beam can be transmitted through the vacuum chamber, the focusing of the beam to the desired size at the IP remains a serious potential problem. It is found, as will be elaborated later, that even for the best achieved orbit correction, additional corrections of the dispersion function and possibly transfer matrix are needed. This report describes a few of the presently conceived correction schemes and summarizes some results of computer simulations done for the SLC north arc. 8 references, 12 figures, 6 tables

  15. Comparison of TCeMA and TDMA for Inter-Satellite Communications using OPNET Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Regina Rosales; Ramanathan, Ram; Bergamo, Marcos; Wallett, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    A robust data link protocol, enabling unique physical and MAC layer technologies and sub-network level protocols, is needed in order to take advantage of the full potential of using both TDMA and CDMA in a satellite communication network. A novel MAC layer protocol, TDMA with CDMA-encoding multiple access (TCeMA) integrated with null-steered digital beam-forming spatial multiplexing, is investigated to support flexible spacecraft communications. Abstract models of the TCeMA and TDMA processes are developed in OPNFiT and a comparison of the performances of TCeMA and TDMA in a satellite network simulation are made. TCeMA provides the better connectivity and capacity with respect to TDMA for satellite communication traffic.

  16. Simulation of tsunami effects on sea surface salinity using MODIS satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlan, N E F; Genderen, J van; Hashim, M; Marghany, M

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing technology has been recognized as powerful tool for environmental disaster studies. Ocean surface salinity is considered as a major element in the marine environment. In this study, we simulate the 2004 tsunami's impact on a physical ocean parameter using the least square algorithm to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS) from MODIS satellite data. The accuracy of this work has been examined using the root mean of sea surface salinity retrieved from MODIS satellite data. The study shows a comprehensive relationship between the in situ measurements and least square algorithm with high r 2 of 0.95, and RMS of bias value of ±0.9 psu. In conclusion, the least square algorithm can be used to retrieve SSS from MODIS satellite data during a tsunami event

  17. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  18. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., 1 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8523 (Japan); Otani, Minoru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ozaki, Taisuke [Research Center for Simulation Science (RCSS), Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2014-06-28

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF{sub 4})

  19. Blending Satellite Observed, Model Simulated, and in Situ Measured Soil Moisture over Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inter-comparison of different soil moisture (SM products over the Tibetan Plateau (TP reveals the inconsistency among different SM products, when compared to in situ measurement. It highlights the need to constrain the model simulated SM with the in situ measured data climatology. In this study, the in situ soil moisture networks, combined with the classification of climate zones over the TP, were used to produce the in situ measured SM climatology at the plateau scale. The generated TP scale in situ SM climatology was then used to scale the model-simulated SM data, which was subsequently used to scale the SM satellite observations. The climatology-scaled satellite and model-simulated SM were then blended objectively, by applying the triple collocation and least squares method. The final blended SM can replicate the SM dynamics across different climatic zones, from sub-humid regions to semi-arid and arid regions over the TP. This demonstrates the need to constrain the model-simulated SM estimates with the in situ measurements before their further applications in scaling climatology of SM satellite products.

  20. Simulation of Micron-Sized Debris Populations in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Matney, M.; Liou, J.-C.; Hyde, J. L.; Prior, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The update of ORDEM2000, the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, to its new version . ORDEM2010, is nearly complete. As a part of the ORDEM upgrade, this paper addresses the simulation of micro-debris (greater than 10 micron and smaller than 1 mm in size) populations in low Earth orbit. The principal data used in the modeling of the micron-sized debris populations are in-situ hypervelocity impact records, accumulated in post-flight damage surveys on the space-exposed surfaces of returned spacecrafts. The development of the micro-debris model populations follows the general approach to deriving other ORDEM2010-required input populations for various components and types of debris. This paper describes the key elements and major steps in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2010 micro-debris populations. A crucial step is the construction of a degradation/ejecta source model to provide prior information on the micron-sized objects (such as orbital and object-size distributions). Another critical step is to link model populations with data, which is rather involved. It demands detailed information on area-time/directionality for all the space-exposed elements of a shuttle orbiter and damage laws, which relate impact damage with the physical properties of a projectile and impact conditions such as impact angle and velocity. Also needed are model-predicted debris fluxes as a function of object size and impact velocity from all possible directions. In spite of the very limited quantity of the available shuttle impact data, the population-derivation process is satisfactorily stable. Final modeling results obtained from shuttle window and radiator impact data are reasonably convergent and consistent, especially for the debris populations with object-size thresholds at 10 and 100 micron.

  1. A high precision dual feedback discrete control system designed for satellite trajectory simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ximin; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Xu, Nan

    2005-08-01

    Cooperating with the free-space laser communication terminals, the satellite trajectory simulator is used to test the acquisition, pointing, tracking and communicating performances of the terminals. So the satellite trajectory simulator plays an important role in terminal ground test and verification. Using the double-prism, Sun etc in our group designed a satellite trajectory simulator. In this paper, a high precision dual feedback discrete control system designed for the simulator is given and a digital fabrication of the simulator is made correspondingly. In the dual feedback discrete control system, Proportional- Integral controller is used in velocity feedback loop and Proportional- Integral- Derivative controller is used in position feedback loop. In the controller design, simplex method is introduced and an improvement to the method is made. According to the transfer function of the control system in Z domain, the digital fabrication of the simulator is given when it is exposed to mechanism error and moment disturbance. Typically, when the mechanism error is 100urad, the residual standard error of pitching angle, azimuth angle, x-coordinate position and y-coordinate position are 0.49urad, 6.12urad, 4.56urad, 4.09urad respectively. When the moment disturbance is 0.1rad, the residual standard error of pitching angle, azimuth angle, x-coordinate position and y-coordinate position are 0.26urad, 0.22urad, 0.16urad, 0.15urad respectively. The digital fabrication results demonstrate that the dual feedback discrete control system designed for the simulator can achieve the anticipated high precision performance.

  2. VAST PLANES OF SATELLITES IN A HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP: COMPARISON TO ANDROMEDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, N.; Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We search for vast planes of satellites (VPoS) in a high-resolution simulation of the Local Group performed by the CLUES project, which improves significantly the resolution of previous similar studies. We use a simple method for detecting planar configurations of satellites, and validate it on the known plane of M31. We implement a range of prescriptions for modeling the satellite populations, roughly reproducing the variety of recipes used in the literature, and investigate the occurrence and properties of planar structures in these populations. The structure of the simulated satellite systems is strongly non-random and contains planes of satellites, predominantly co-rotating, with, in some cases, sizes comparable to the plane observed in M31 by Ibata et al. However, the latter is slightly richer in satellites, slightly thinner, and has stronger co-rotation, which makes it stand out as overall more exceptional than the simulated planes, when compared to a random population. Although the simulated planes we find are generally dominated by one real structure forming its backbone, they are also partly fortuitous and are thus not kinematically coherent structures as a whole. Provided that the simulated and observed planes of satellites are indeed of the same nature, our results suggest that the VPoS of M31 is not a coherent disk and that one-third to one-half of its satellites must have large proper motions perpendicular to the plane

  3. Impact analysis of satellite rainfall products on flow simulations in the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elgamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia in terms of economic activities and is home to about 77% of the country’s population. The river faces water resources allocation challenges, which require reliable hydrological assessments. However, hydrological analysis and model simulations are hampered by insufficient and uncertain knowledge of the actual rainfall fields. In this research the reliability of groundbased measurements, different satellite products of rainfall and their combinations are tested for their impact on the discharge simulations of the Magdalena River. Two different satellite rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, have been compared and merged with the ground-based measurements and their impact on the Magdalena river flows quantified using the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW distributed hydrological model.

  4. Description and Simulation of a Fast Packet Switch Architecture for Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Jorge A.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been developing the architecture for a multichannel communications signal processing satellite (MCSPS) as part of a flexible, low-cost meshed-VSAT (very small aperture terminal) network. The MCSPS architecture is based on a multifrequency, time-division-multiple-access (MF-TDMA) uplink and a time-division multiplex (TDM) downlink. There are eight uplink MF-TDMA beams, and eight downlink TDM beams, with eight downlink dwells per beam. The information-switching processor, which decodes, stores, and transmits each packet of user data to the appropriate downlink dwell onboard the satellite, has been fully described by using VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated-Circuit) Hardware Description Language (VHDL). This VHDL code, which was developed in-house to simulate the information switching processor, showed that the architecture is both feasible and viable. This paper describes a shared-memory-per-beam architecture, its VHDL implementation, and the simulation efforts.

  5. Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations Using Magnetometer Data from the CHAMP Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite and Ground-Based Stations: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Sutcliffe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We review research on geomagnetic pulsations carried out using magnetic field measurements from the CHAMP low-Earth-orbit (LEO satellite and ground-based stations in South Africa and Hungary. The high quality magnetic field measurements from CHAMP made it possible to extract and clearly resolve Pi2 and Pc3 pulsations in LEO satellite data. Our analyses for nighttime Pi2 pulsations are indicative of a cavity mode resonance. However, observations of daytime Pi2 pulsation events identified in ground station data show no convincing evidence of their occurrence in CHAMP data. We also studied low-latitude Pc3 pulsations and found that different types of field line resonant structure occur, namely discrete frequencies driven by a narrow band source and L-dependent frequencies driven by a broad band source.

  6. Illuminating the star clusters and satellite galaxies with multi-scale baryonic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Moupiya; Zhu, Qirong; Li, Yuexing; Marinacci, Federico; Charlton, Jane; Hernquist, Lars; Knebe, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in computational architecture have made it possible for the first time to investigate some of the fundamental questions around the formation, evolution and assembly of the building blocks of the universe; star clusters and galaxies. In this talk, I will focus on two major questions: What is the origin of the observed universal lognormal mass function in globular clusters? What is the statistical distribution of the properties of satellite planes in a large sample of satellite systems?Observations of globular clusters show that they have universal lognormal mass functions with a characteristic peak at 2X105 MSun, although the origin of this peaked distribution is unclear. We investigate the formation of star clusters in interacting galaxies using baryonic simulations and found that massive clusters preferentially form in extremely high pressure gas clouds which reside in highly shocked regions produced by galaxy interactions. These massive clusters have quasi-lognormal initial mass functions with a peak around ~106MSun which may survive dynamical evolution and slowly evolve into the universal lognormal profiles observed today.The classical Milky Way (MW) satellites are observed to be distributed in a highly-flattened plane, called Disk of Satellites (DoS). However the significance, coherence and origin of DoS is highly debated. To understand this, we first analyze all MW satellites and find that a small sample size can artificially produce a highly anisotropic spatial distribution and a strong clustering of their angular momentum. Comparing a baryonic simulation of a MW-sized galaxy with its N-body counterpart we find that an anisotropic DoS can originate from baryonic processes. Furthermore, we explore the statistical distribution of DoS properties by analyzing 2591 satellite systems in the cosmological hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We find that the DoS becomes more isotropic with increasing sample sizes and most (~90%) satellite

  7. LEOcom: communication system for low earth orbit satellites for voice, data and facsimile; LEOcom - sistema de comunicacao por satelites de orbita terrestre baixa para voz, dados e facsimile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacaglia, G.E.O.; Lamas, W.Q. [Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: giorgio@unitau.br; Ceballos, D.C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, J.J. [Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides a basic description of a Communication System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites that can provide voice, data and facsimile to hundreds of countries located in equatorial land between + and - 20 deg latitude, reaching higher latitudes, depending on the location of the onshore terminal. As a point high, it emphasizes its opportunity to support the control of networks transmission of electricity, in any area, and plants generation, located in remote areas, and support any type of operation in these regions. It is the aim of this work to reactivate a good project for Brazil and the tropical world.

  8. Advances in snow cover distributed modelling via ensemble simulations and assimilation of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, J.; Dumont, M.; Tuzet, F.; Vionnet, V.; Lafaysse, M.; Lecourt, G.; Vernay, M.; Morin, S.; Cosme, E.; Six, D.; Rabatel, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays snowpack models show a good capability in simulating the evolution of snow in mountain areas. However singular deviations of meteorological forcing and shortcomings in the modelling of snow physical processes, when accumulated on time along a snow season, could produce large deviations from real snowpack state. The evaluation of these deviations is usually assessed with on-site observations from automatic weather stations. Nevertheless the location of these stations could strongly influence the results of these evaluations since local topography may have a marked influence on snowpack evolution. Despite the evaluation of snowpack models with automatic weather stations usually reveal good results, there exist a lack of large scale evaluations of simulations results on heterogeneous alpine terrain subjected to local topographic effects.This work firstly presents a complete evaluation of the detailed snowpack model Crocus over an extended mountain area, the Arve upper catchment (western European Alps). This catchment has a wide elevation range with a large area above 2000m a.s.l. and/or glaciated. The evaluation compares results obtained with distributed and semi-distributed simulations (the latter nowadays used on the operational forecasting). Daily observations of the snow covered area from MODIS satellite sensor, seasonal glacier surface mass balance evolution measured in more than 65 locations and the galciers annual equilibrium line altitude from Landsat/Spot/Aster satellites, have been used for model evaluation. Additionally the latest advances in producing ensemble snowpack simulations for assimilating satellite reflectance data over extended areas will be presented. These advances comprises the generation of an ensemble of downscaled high-resolution meteorological forcing from meso-scale meteorological models and the application of a particle filter scheme for assimilating satellite observations. Despite the results are prefatory, they show a good

  9. The fusion of satellite and UAV data: simulation of high spatial resolution band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Siok, Katarzyna; Woroszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Orych, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing techniques used in the precision agriculture and farming that apply imagery data obtained with sensors mounted on UAV platforms became more popular in the last few years due to the availability of low- cost UAV platforms and low- cost sensors. Data obtained from low altitudes with low- cost sensors can be characterised by high spatial and radiometric resolution but quite low spectral resolution, therefore the application of imagery data obtained with such technology is quite limited and can be used only for the basic land cover classification. To enrich the spectral resolution of imagery data acquired with low- cost sensors from low altitudes, the authors proposed the fusion of RGB data obtained with UAV platform with multispectral satellite imagery. The fusion is based on the pansharpening process, that aims to integrate the spatial details of the high-resolution panchromatic image with the spectral information of lower resolution multispectral or hyperspectral imagery to obtain multispectral or hyperspectral images with high spatial resolution. The key of pansharpening is to properly estimate the missing spatial details of multispectral images while preserving their spectral properties. In the research, the authors presented the fusion of RGB images (with high spatial resolution) obtained with sensors mounted on low- cost UAV platforms and multispectral satellite imagery with satellite sensors, i.e. Landsat 8 OLI. To perform the fusion of UAV data with satellite imagery, the simulation of the panchromatic bands from RGB data based on the spectral channels linear combination, was conducted. Next, for simulated bands and multispectral satellite images, the Gram-Schmidt pansharpening method was applied. As a result of the fusion, the authors obtained several multispectral images with very high spatial resolution and then analysed the spatial and spectral accuracies of processed images.

  10. In silico simulations of tunneling barrier measurements for molecular orbital-mediated junctions: A molecular orbital theory approach to scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terryn, Raymond J.; Sriraman, Krishnan; Olson, Joel A., E-mail: jolson@fit.edu; Baum, J. Clayton, E-mail: cbaum@fit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, Florida 32901 (United States); Novak, Mark J. [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph Street, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A new simulator for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is presented based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approximation for the effective tunneling Hamiltonian, which leads to the convolution integral when applied to the tip interaction with the sample. This approach intrinsically includes the structure of the STM tip. Through this mechanical emulation and the tip-inclusive convolution model, dI/dz images for molecular orbitals (which are closely associated with apparent barrier height, ϕ{sub ap}) are reported for the first time. For molecular adsorbates whose experimental topographic images correspond well to isolated-molecule quantum chemistry calculations, the simulator makes accurate predictions, as illustrated by various cases. Distortions in these images due to the tip are shown to be in accord with those observed experimentally and predicted by other ab initio considerations of tip structure. Simulations of the tunneling current dI/dz images are in strong agreement with experiment. The theoretical framework provides a solid foundation which may be applied to LCAO cluster models of adsorbate–substrate systems, and is extendable to emulate several aspects of functional STM operation.

  11. In silico simulations of tunneling barrier measurements for molecular orbital-mediated junctions: A molecular orbital theory approach to scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terryn, Raymond J.; Sriraman, Krishnan; Olson, Joel A.; Baum, J. Clayton; Novak, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    A new simulator for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is presented based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approximation for the effective tunneling Hamiltonian, which leads to the convolution integral when applied to the tip interaction with the sample. This approach intrinsically includes the structure of the STM tip. Through this mechanical emulation and the tip-inclusive convolution model, dI/dz images for molecular orbitals (which are closely associated with apparent barrier height, ϕ_a_p) are reported for the first time. For molecular adsorbates whose experimental topographic images correspond well to isolated-molecule quantum chemistry calculations, the simulator makes accurate predictions, as illustrated by various cases. Distortions in these images due to the tip are shown to be in accord with those observed experimentally and predicted by other ab initio considerations of tip structure. Simulations of the tunneling current dI/dz images are in strong agreement with experiment. The theoretical framework provides a solid foundation which may be applied to LCAO cluster models of adsorbate–substrate systems, and is extendable to emulate several aspects of functional STM operation.

  12. Simulation on change of generic satellite radar cross section via artificially created plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Shen Shou Max; Chuang, Yu-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in antisatellite missile technologies have proven the effectiveness of such attacks, and the vulnerability of satellites in such exercises inspires a new paradigm in RF Stealth techniques suitable for satellites. In this paper we examine the possibility of using artificially created plasma sprays on the surface of the satellite’s main body to alter its radar cross section (RCS). First, we briefly review past research related to RF Stealth using plasma. Next, we discuss the physics between electromagnetic waves and plasma, and the RCS number game in RF Stealth design. A comparison of RCS in a generic satellite and a more complicated model is made to illustrate the effect of the RCS number game, and its meaning for a simulation model. We also run a comparison between finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) codes, and find the RCS results are very close. We then compare the RCS of the generic satellite and the plasma-covered satellite. The incident radar wave is a differentiated Gaussian monopulse, with 3 dB bandwidth between 1.2 GHz and 4 GHz, and we simulate three kinds of plasma density, with a characteristic plasma frequency ω P   =  0.1, 1, and 10 GHz. The electron-neutral collision frequency ν en is set at 0.01 GHz. We found the RCS of plasma-covered satellite is not necessarily smaller than the originally satellite. When ω P is 0.1 GHz, the plasma spray behaves like a dielectric, and there is minor reduction in the RCS. When ω P is 1 GHz, the X–Y cut RCS increases. When ω P is 10 GHz, the plasma behaves more like a metal to the radar wave, and stronger RCS dependency to frequency appears. Therefore, to use plasma as an RCS adjustment tool requires careful fine-tuning of plasma density and shape, in order to achieve the so-called plasma stealth effect. (paper)

  13. Synchrotron emission diagnostic of full-orbit kinetic simulations of runaway electrons in tokamaks plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Gomez, Leopoldo; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2017-10-01

    Developing avoidance or mitigation strategies of runaway electrons (RE) for the safe operation of ITER is imperative. Synchrotron radiation (SR) of RE is routinely used in current tokamak experiments to diagnose RE. We present the results of a newly developed camera diagnostic of SR for full-orbit kinetic simulations of RE in DIII-D-like plasmas that simultaneously includes: full-orbit effects, information of the spectral and angular distribution of SR of each electron, and basic geometric optics of a camera. We observe a strong dependence of the SR measured by the camera on the pitch angle distribution of RE, namely we find that crescent shapes of the SR on the camera pictures relate to RE distributions with small pitch angles, while ellipse shapes relate to distributions of RE with larger pitch angles. A weak dependence of the SR measured by the camera with the RE energy, value of the q-profile at the edge, and the chosen range of wavelengths is found. Furthermore, we observe that oversimplifying the angular distribution of the SR changes the synchrotron spectra and overestimates its amplitude. Research sponsored by the LDRD Program of ORNL, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. DoE.

  14. Attitude Determination with Magnetometers and Accelerometers to Use in Satellite Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Koiti Kuga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude control of artificial satellites is dependent on information provided by its attitude determination process. This paper presents the implementation and tests of a fully self-contained algorithm for the attitude determination using magnetometers and accelerometers, for application on a satellite simulator based on frictionless air bearing tables. However, it is known that magnetometers and accelerometers need to be calibrated so as to allow that measurements are used to their ultimate accuracy. A calibration method is implemented which proves to be essential for improving attitude determination accuracy. For the stepwise real-time attitude determination, it was used the well-known QUEST algorithm which yields quick response with reduced computer resources. The algorithms are tested and qualified with actual data collected on the streets under controlled situations. For such street runaways, the experiment employs a solid-state magnetoresistive magnetometer and an IMU navigation block consisting of triads of accelerometers and gyros, with MEMS technology. A GPS receiver is used to record positional information. The collected measurements are processed through the developed algorithms, and comparisons are made for attitude determination using calibrated and noncalibrated data. The results show that the attitude accuracy reaches the requirements for real-time operation for satellite simulator platforms.

  15. Simulation of seagrass bed mapping by satellite images based on the radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Tatsuyuki; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    Seagrass and seaweed beds play important roles in coastal marine ecosystems. They are food sources and habitats for many marine organisms, and influence the physical, chemical, and biological environment. They are sensitive to human impacts such as reclamation and pollution. Therefore, their management and preservation are necessary for a healthy coastal environment. Satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for mapping and monitoring seagrass beds. The efficiency of seagrass mapping, seagrass bed classification in particular, has been evaluated by mapping accuracy using an error matrix. However, mapping accuracies are influenced by coastal environments such as seawater transparency, bathymetry, and substrate type. Coastal management requires sufficient accuracy and an understanding of mapping limitations for monitoring coastal habitats including seagrass beds. Previous studies are mainly based on case studies in specific regions and seasons. Extensive data are required to generalise assessments of classification accuracy from case studies, which has proven difficult. This study aims to build a simulator based on a radiative transfer model to produce modelled satellite images and assess the visual detectability of seagrass beds under different transparencies and seagrass coverages, as well as to examine mapping limitations and classification accuracy. Our simulations led to the development of a model of water transparency and the mapping of depth limits and indicated the possibility for seagrass density mapping under certain ideal conditions. The results show that modelling satellite images is useful in evaluating the accuracy of classification and that establishing seagrass bed monitoring by remote sensing is a reliable tool.

  16. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    OpenAIRE

    Fullekrug, Martin; Hanuise, C; Parrot, M

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which...

  17. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  18. Physiological responses of astronaut candidates to simulated +Gx orbital emergency re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Xue, Yueying; Wu, Ping; Gu, Zhiming; Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu

    2012-08-01

    We investigated astronaut candidates' physiological and pathological responses to +Gx exposure during simulated emergency return from a running orbit to advance astronaut +Gx tolerance training and medical support in manned spaceflight. There were 13 male astronaut candidates who were exposed to a simulated high +Gx acceleration profile in a spacecraft during an emergency return lasting for 230 s. The peak value was 8.5 G. Subjective feelings and symptoms, cardiovascular and respiratory responses, and changes in urine component before, during, and after +Gx exposure were investigated. Under high +Gx exposure, 15.4% of subjects exhibited arrhythmia. Heart rate (HR) increased significantly and four different types of HR response curves were distinguished. The ratio of QT to RR interval on the electrocardiograms was significantly increased. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) declined with increasing G value and then returned gradually. SaO2 reached a minimum (87.7%) at 3 G during the decline phase of the +Gx curve. Respiratory rate increased significantly with increasing G value, while the amplitude and area of the respiratory waves were significantly reduced. The overshoot appeared immediately after +Gx exposure. A few subjects suffered from slight injuries, including positive urine protein (1/13), positive urinary occult blood (1/13), and a large area of petechiae on the back (1/13). Astronaut candidates have relatively good tolerance to the +Gx profile during a simulation of spacecraft emergent ballistic re-entry. However, a few subjects exhibited adverse physiological responses and slight reversible pathological injuries.

  19. Preparation, analysis, and release of simulated interplanetary grains into low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.R.; Strong, I.B.; Kunkle, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomical observations which reflect the optical and dynamical properties of interstellar and interplanetary grains are the primary means of identifying the shape, size, and the chemistry of extraterrestrial grain materials and is a major subject of this workshop. Except for recent samplings of extraterrestrial particles in near-Earth orbit and in the stratosphere, observations have been the only method of deducing the properties of extraterrestrial particles. Terrestrial laboratory experiments typically seek not to reproduce astrophysical conditions but to illuminate fundamental dust processes and properties which must be extrapolated to interesting astrophysical conditions. In this report, we discuss the formation and optical characterization of simulated interstellar and interplanetary dust with particular emphasis on studying the properties on irregularly shaped particles. We also discuss efforts to develop the techniques to allow dust experiments to be carried out in low-Earth orbit, thus extending the conditions under which dust experiments may be performed. The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Elucidate the optical properties, including scattering and absorption, of simulated interstellar grains including SiC, silicates, and carbon grains produced in the laboratory. (2) Develop the capabilities to release grains and volatile materials into the near-Earth environment and study their dynamics and optical properties. (3) Study the interaction of released materials with the near-Earth environment to elucidate grain behavior in astrophysical environments. Interaction of grains with their environment may, for example, lead to grain alignment or coagulation, which results in observable phenomena such as polarization of lighter or a change of the scattering properties of the grains

  20. Satellite image simulations for model-supervised, dynamic retrieval of crop type and land use intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, H.; Klug, P.; Ruf, T.; Migdall, S.; Schlenz, F.; Hank, T.; Mauser, W.

    2015-04-01

    To support food security, information products about the actual cropping area per crop type, the current status of agricultural production and estimated yields, as well as the sustainability of the agricultural management are necessary. Based on this information, well-targeted land management decisions can be made. Remote sensing is in a unique position to contribute to this task as it is globally available and provides a plethora of information about current crop status. M4Land is a comprehensive system in which a crop growth model (PROMET) and a reflectance model (SLC) are coupled in order to provide these information products by analyzing multi-temporal satellite images. SLC uses modelled surface state parameters from PROMET, such as leaf area index or phenology of different crops to simulate spatially distributed surface reflectance spectra. This is the basis for generating artificial satellite images considering sensor specific configurations (spectral bands, solar and observation geometries). Ensembles of model runs are used to represent different crop types, fertilization status, soil colour and soil moisture. By multi-temporal comparisons of simulated and real satellite images, the land cover/crop type can be classified in a dynamically, model-supervised way and without in-situ training data. The method is demonstrated in an agricultural test-site in Bavaria. Its transferability is studied by analysing PROMET model results for the rest of Germany. Especially the simulated phenological development can be verified on this scale in order to understand whether PROMET is able to adequately simulate spatial, as well as temporal (intra- and inter-season) crop growth conditions, a prerequisite for the model-supervised approach. This sophisticated new technology allows monitoring of management decisions on the field-level using high resolution optical data (presently RapidEye and Landsat). The M4Land analysis system is designed to integrate multi-mission data and is

  1. Using Instrument Simulators and a Satellite Database to Evaluate Microphysical Assumptions in High-Resolution Simulations of Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Chao, Y.; Chau, A. H.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Martin, J. M.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rodriguez, E.; Stiles, B. W.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Improving forecasting of hurricane intensity remains a significant challenge for the research and operational communities. Many factors determine a tropical cyclone’s intensity. Ultimately, though, intensity is dependent on the magnitude and distribution of the latent heating that accompanies the hydrometeor production during the convective process. Hence, the microphysical processes and their representation in hurricane models are of crucial importance for accurately simulating hurricane intensity and evolution. The accurate modeling of the microphysical processes becomes increasingly important when running high-resolution models that should properly reflect the convective processes in the hurricane eyewall. There are many microphysical parameterizations available today. However, evaluating their performance and selecting the most representative ones remains a challenge. Several field campaigns were focused on collecting in situ microphysical observations to help distinguish between different modeling approaches and improve on the most promising ones. However, these point measurements cannot adequately reflect the space and time correlations characteristic of the convective processes. An alternative approach to evaluating microphysical assumptions is to use multi-parameter remote sensing observations of the 3D storm structure and evolution. In doing so, we could compare modeled to retrieved geophysical parameters. The satellite retrievals, however, carry their own uncertainty. To increase the fidelity of the microphysical evaluation results, we can use instrument simulators to produce satellite observables from the model fields and compare to the observed. This presentation will illustrate how instrument simulators can be used to discriminate between different microphysical assumptions. We will compare and contrast the members of high-resolution ensemble WRF model simulations of Hurricane Rita (2005), each member reflecting different microphysical assumptions

  2. Comparison of circular orbit and Fourier power series ephemeris representations for backup use by the upper atmosphere research satellite onboard computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is a three-axis stabilized Earth-pointing spacecraft in a low-Earth orbit. The UARS onboard computer (OBC) uses a Fourier Power Series (FPS) ephemeris representation that includes 42 position and 42 velocity coefficients per axis, with position residuals at 10-minute intervals. New coefficients and 32 hours of residuals are uploaded daily. This study evaluated two backup methods that permit the OBC to compute an approximate spacecraft ephemeris in the event that new ephemeris data cannot be uplinked for several days: (1) extending the use of the FPS coefficients previously uplinked, and (2) switching to a simple circular orbit approximation designed and tested (but not implemented) for LANDSAT-D. The FPS method provides greater accuracy during the backup period and does not require additional ground operational procedures for generating and uplinking an additional ephemeris table. The tradeoff is that the high accuracy of the FPS will be degraded slightly by adopting the longer fit period necessary to obtain backup accuracy for an extended period of time. The results for UARS show that extended use of the FPS is superior to the circular orbit approximation for short-term ephemeris backup.

  3. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  4. Evaluation of decadal hindcasts by application of a satellite simulator for SSM/I & SSMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangehl, T.; Schroeder, M.; Glowienka-Hense, R.; Hense, A.; Bodas-Salcedo, A.; Hollmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    A satellite simulator for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS) is developed and applied to decadal hindcast simulations performed within the MiKlip project (http://fona-miklip.de, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany). The aim is to evaluate the climatological and predictive skill of the hindcasts focusing on water cycle components. Classical evaluation approaches commonly focus on geophysical parameters such as temperature, precipitation or wind speed using observational datasets and reanalysis as reference. The employment of the satellite simulator enables an evaluation in the instrument's parameter and thereby reduces uncertainties on the reference side. The simulators are developed utilizing the CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP, http://cfmip.metoffice.com/COSP.html). On the reference side the SSM/I & SSMIS Fundamental Climate Data Record (FCDR) provided by the CM SAF (DOI: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/FCDR_MWI/V003) is used which constitutes a quality controlled, recalibrated and intercalibrated record of brightness temperatures for the period from 1978 to 2015. Simulated brightness temperatures for selected channels which are sensitive to either water vapor content (22 GHz) or hydrometeor content (85 GHz, vertical minus horizontal polarization) as an indicator for precipitation are used. For lead year 1 analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals potential predictability for large parts of the tropical ocean areas for both water vapor and precipitation related channels. Furthermore, the Conditional Ranked Probability Skill Score (CRPSS) indicates predictive skill for large parts of the tropical/sub-tropical Pacific, parts of the tropical/sub-tropical Atlantic and the equatorial Indian Ocean. For lead years 2-3 ANOVA still indicates potential predictability for equatorial ocean areas. Moreover, CRPSS indicates predictive skill for parts of the tropical

  5. Using Satellite Altimetry to Calibrate the Simulation of Typhoon Seth Storm Surge off Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeters can capture storm surges generated by typhoons and tropical storms, if the satellite flies over at the right time. In this study, we show TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter-observed storm surge features off Southeast China on 10 October 1994 during Typhoon Seth. We then use a three-dimensional, barotropic, finite-volume community ocean model (FVCOM to simulate storm surges. An innovative aspect is that satellite data are used to calibrate the storm surge model to improve model performance, by adjusting model wind forcing fields (the National Center for Environment Prediction (NCEP reanalysis product in reference to the typhoon best-track data. The calibration reduces the along-track root-mean-square (RMS difference between model and altimetric data from 0.15 to 0.10 m. It also reduces the RMS temporal difference from 0.21 to 0.18 m between the model results and independent tide-gauge data at Xiamen. In particular, the calibrated model produces a peak storm surge of 1.01 m at 6:00 10 October 1994 at Xiamen, agreeing with tide-gauge data; while the peak storm surge with the NCEP forcing is 0.71 m only. We further show that the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides contributes to the peak storm surge by 34% and that the storm surge propagates southwestward as a coastally-trapped Kelvin wave.

  6. Viewing marine bacteria, their activity and response to environmental drivers from orbit: satellite remote sensing of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D Jay; Ford, Tim E; Colwell, Rita R; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions.

  7. A fast radiative transfer method for the simulation of visible satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, Leonhard; Frèrebeau, Pascal; Buras-Schnell, Robert; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    A computationally efficient radiative transfer method for the simulation of visible satellite images is presented. The top of atmosphere reflectance is approximated by a function depending on vertically integrated optical depths and effective particle sizes for water and ice clouds, the surface albedo, the sun and satellite zenith angles and the scattering angle. A look-up table (LUT) for this reflectance function is generated by means of the discrete ordinate method (DISORT). For a constant scattering angle the reflectance is a relatively smooth and symmetric function of the two zenith angles, which can be well approximated by the lowest-order terms of a 2D Fourier series. By storing only the lowest Fourier coefficients and adopting a non-equidistant grid for the scattering angle, the LUT is reduced to a size of 21 MB per satellite channel. The computation of the top of atmosphere reflectance requires only the calculation of the cloud parameters from the model state and the evaluation and interpolation of the reflectance function using the compressed LUT and is thus orders of magnitude faster than DISORT. The accuracy of the method is tested by generating synthetic satellite images for the 0.6 μm and 0.8 μm channels of the SEVIRI instrument for operational COSMO-DE model forecasts from the German Weather Service (DWD) and comparing them to DISORT results. For a test period in June the root mean squared absolute reflectance error is about 10-2 and the mean relative reflectance error is less than 2% for both channels. For scattering angles larger than 170 ° the rapid variation of reflectance with the particle size related to the backscatter glory reduces the accuracy and the errors increase by a factor of 3-4. Speed and accuracy of the new method are sufficient for operational data assimilation and high-resolution model verification applications.

  8. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  9. Using multi-disciplinary optimization and numerical simulation on the transiting exoplanet survey satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Gerhard P.; Doyle, Keith B.

    2017-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an instrument consisting of four, wide fieldof- view CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars, and understanding the diversity of planets and planetary systems in our galaxy. Each camera utilizes a seven-element lens assembly with low-power and low-noise CCD electronics. Advanced multivariable optimization and numerical simulation capabilities accommodating arbitrarily complex objective functions have been added to the internally developed Lincoln Laboratory Integrated Modeling and Analysis Software (LLIMAS) and used to assess system performance. Various optical phenomena are accounted for in these analyses including full dn/dT spatial distributions in lenses and charge diffusion in the CCD electronics. These capabilities are utilized to design CCD shims for thermal vacuum chamber testing and flight, and verify comparable performance in both environments across a range of wavelengths, field points and temperature distributions. Additionally, optimizations and simulations are used for model correlation and robustness optimizations.

  10. Integrating Satellite Image Identification and River Routing Simulation into the Groundwater Simulation of Chou-Shui Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Yang, S.; Chen, Y.; Chang, L.; Chiang, C.; Huang, C.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many groundwater simulation models have been developed for Chou-Shui River alluvial fan which is one of the most important groundwater areas in Taiwan. However, the exchange quantity between Chou-Shui River, the major river in this area, and the groundwater system itself is seldom studied. In this study, the exchange is evaluated using a river package (RIV) in the groundwater simulation model, MODFLOW 2000. Several critical parameters and variables used in RIV such as wet area and river level for each cell below the Chou-Shui River are respectively determined by satellite image identification and HEC-RAS simulation. The monthly average of river levels obtained from four stations include Chang-Yun Bridge, Xi-Bin Bridge, Chi-Chiang Bridge and Si-Jou Bridge during 2008 and the river cross-section measured on December 2007 are used in the construction of HEC-RAS model. Four FORMOSAT multispectral satellite images respectively obtained on January 2008, April 2008, July 2008, and November 2008 are used to identify the wet area of Chou-Shui River during different seasons. Integrating the simulation level provided by HEC-RAS and the identification result are used as the assignment of RIV. First, based on the simulation results of HEC-RAS, the water level differences between flooding period and draught period are 1.4 (m) and 2.0 (m) for Xi-Bin Bridge station (downstream) and Chang-Yun Bridge station (upstream) respectively. Second, based on the identified results, the wet areas for four seasons are 24, 24, 40 and 12 (km2) respectively. The variation range of areas in 2008 is huge that the area for winter is just 30% of the area for summer. Third, based on the simulation of MODFLOW 2000 and RIV, the exchange between the river and the groundwater system is 414 million cubic meters which contains 526 for recharge to river and 112 for discharging from river during 2008. The total recharge includes river exchange and recharge from non-river area is 2023 million cubic meters. The

  11. Evaluation of GFDL-AM4 simulations of nitrogen oxides with OMI satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, E.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of NO2 from 2005-2015 of NO2 over key global regions using simulations with a nudged version of the GFDL-AM4 chemistry-climate model and satellite-based observations from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), which observes near-global NO2 column abundances at 1pm local time daily. We gridded TEMIS (Tropospheric Emissions Monitoring Internet Service) OMI data to the model spatial grid using WHIPS 2.0 (Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites version 2.0) and applied the OMI averaging kernel to weight the model's NO2 concentrations vertically. Model-simulated tropospheric NO2 columns reproduce well the OMI spatial patterns (averaging r2=0.81) and seasonal cycles, but underestimate observations in most regions by 16-62%. A notable exception is the overestimate by 5-35% in East Asia. In regions dominated by biomass burning, these emissions tend to control the seasonal cycle of NO2. However, where anthropogenic emissions dominate, the photochemical conversion of NO2 to PAN and nitric acid controls the seasonal cycle, as indicated by NO2/NOy ratios. Future work is required to explain AM4 biases relative to OMI.

  12. Monte-Carlo Orbit/Full Wave Simulation of Fast Alfven Wave (FW) Damping on Resonant Ions in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M.; Chan, V.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Tang, V.; Bonoli, P.; Wright, J.

    2005-01-01

    To simulate the resonant interaction of fast Alfven wave (FW) heating and Coulomb collisions on energetic ions, including finite orbit effects, a Monte-Carlo code ORBIT-RF has been coupled with a 2D full wave code TORIC4. ORBIT-RF solves Hamiltonian guiding center drift equations to follow trajectories of test ions in 2D axisymmetric numerical magnetic equilibrium under Coulomb collisions and ion cyclotron radio frequency quasi-linear heating. Monte-Carlo operators for pitch-angle scattering and drag calculate the changes of test ions in velocity and pitch angle due to Coulomb collisions. A rf-induced random walk model describing fast ion stochastic interaction with FW reproduces quasi-linear diffusion in velocity space. FW fields and its wave numbers from TORIC are passed on to ORBIT-RF to calculate perpendicular rf kicks of resonant ions valid for arbitrary cyclotron harmonics. ORBIT-RF coupled with TORIC using a single dominant toroidal and poloidal wave number has demonstrated consistency of simulations with recent DIII-D FW experimental results for interaction between injected neutral-beam ions and FW, including measured neutron enhancement and enhanced high energy tail. Comparison with C-Mod fundamental heating discharges also yielded reasonable agreement

  13. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Dong S. Ko; Richard W. Gould; Bradley Penta; John C. Lehrter

    2016-01-01

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the annual hypoxic zone. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) were used for the salinity flux, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  14. Boomerang Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  15. Verified solutions for the gravitational attraction to an oblate spheroid: Implications for planet mass and satellite orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.; Criss, Everett M.

    2018-03-01

    Forces external to the oblate spheroid shape, observed from planetary to galactic scales, are demonstrably non-central, which has important ramifications for planetary science. We simplify historic formulae and derive new analytical solutions for the gravitational potential and force outside a constant density oblate. Numerical calculations that sum point mass contributions in a >109 element mesh confirm our equations. We show that contours of constant force and potential about oblate bodies are closely approximated by two confocal families whose foci (f) respectively are (9/10)½ae and (3/5)½ae for a body with f = ae. This leads to useful approximations that address internal density variations. We demonstrate that the force on a general point is not directed towards the oblate's center, nor are forces simply proportional to the inverse square of that distance, despite forces in the equatorial and axial directions pointing towards the center. Our results explain complex dynamics of galactic systems. Because most planets and stars have an aspect ratio >0.9, the spherical approximation is reasonable except for orbits within ∼2 body radii. We show that applying the "generalized" potential, which assumes central forces, yields J2 values half those expected for oblate bodies, and probably underestimates masses of Uranus and Neptune by ∼0.2%. We show that the inner Saturnian moons are subject to non-central forces, which may affect calculations of their orbital precession. Our new series should improve interpretation of flyby data.

  16. Simulation of the Deployment and Orbit Operations of the NPS-SCAT CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    incorporate them into smaller satellites. Therefore, options for launch vehicles are increased and the cost for satellite production and development should... geocentric nadir). The Constraint Offset angle can be used to introduce an additional rotational offset about the Earth-fixed velocity vector. This angle

  17. Impacts of Satellite-Based Snow Albedo Assimilation on Offline and Coupled Land Surface Model Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere is the largest component of the terrestrial cryosphere and plays a major role in the climate system through strong positive feedbacks related to albedo. The snow-albedo feedback is invoked as an important cause for the polar amplification of ongoing and projected climate change, and its parameterization across models is an important source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Here, instead of developing a physical snow albedo scheme, we use a direct insertion approach to assimilate satellite-based surface albedo during the snow season (hereafter as snow albedo assimilation into the land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms and assess the influences of such assimilation on offline and coupled simulations. Our results have shown that snow albedo assimilation in both ORCHIDEE and ORCHIDEE-LMDZ (a general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique improve the simulation accuracy of mean seasonal (October throughout May snow water equivalent over the region north of 40 degrees. The sensitivity of snow water equivalent to snow albedo assimilation is more pronounced in the coupled simulation than the offline simulation since the feedback of albedo on air temperature is allowed in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ. We have also shown that simulations of air temperature at 2 meters in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ due to snow albedo assimilation are significantly improved during the spring in particular over the eastern Siberia region. This is a result of the fact that high amounts of shortwave radiation during the spring can maximize its snow albedo feedback, which is also supported by the finding that the spatial sensitivity of temperature change to albedo change is much larger during the spring than during the autumn and winter. In addition, the radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere induced by snow albedo assimilation during the spring is estimated to be -2.50 W m-2, the

  18. 卫星轨道Kalman滤波稳健估计%obust Kalman Filtering for Satellite Orbit Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文援兰; 王威; 杨元喜

    2001-01-01

    Kalman filtering is affected by the gross error that is inevitable in the observation of satellite. First robust kalman filtering is derived and its robustness is analyzed, then the observations of Lageos is processed. It verifies that robust kalman filtering has the capability to resist the gross error.%卫星观测数据中不可避免地存在着粗差,一般的Kalman滤波易受观测粗差的影响。首先推导Kalman滤波稳健估计公式,并分析了它的稳健性。然后用Kalman滤波稳健估计对Lageos卫星的激光实测资料进行了处理,证明它具有明显的抗粗差的能力和稳健性。

  19. Evolution of almost circular orbits of satellites under the action of noncentral gravitational field of the Earth and lunisolar perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulliev, A. M.

    2011-02-01

    Based on the results of paper [1] by G.V. Mozhaev, joint perturbations produced by nonsphericity of the Earth and by attraction of the Moon and the Sun are investigated using the method of averaging. Arbitrary number of spherical harmonics was taken into account in the force function of the Earth’s gravitational filed, and only the principal term was retained in the perturbing function of the Sun. In the perturbing function of the Moon two parallactic terms were considered in addition to the dominant term. The flight altitude was chosen in such a way that perturbations produced by the Sun and Moon would have the second order of smallness relative to the polar oblateness of the Earth. As a result, the formulas for calculation of satellite coordinates are derived that give a high precision on long time intervals.

  20. Local time dependences of electron flux changes during substorms derived from mulit-satellite observation at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.

    1982-01-01

    Energetic electron (energy higher than 2 MeV) observation by a synchronous satellite chain (which consists of GOES 2, GOES 3, and GMS covering the local time extent of approximately 10 hr) have been used to study the large-scale characteristics of the dynamic behavior in the near-earth magnetosphere for substorms, in which low-latitude positive bay aspects are clearly seen in the ground magnetic data. Simultaneous multi-satellite observations have clearly demonstrated the local time dependence of electron flux changes during substorms and the longitudinal extent of electron flux variations. Before a ground substorm onset the energetic electron flux decreases in a wide longitudinal region of the nighttime and the flux decrease is seen even on the afternoonside. For the flux behavior associated with the onset of the substorm expansion phase, there exists a demarcation line, the LT position of which can be represented as LT = 24.3-1.5 K/sub p/. The flux shows a recovery to a normal level east of the demarcation line, and it shows a decrease west of the demarcation line. The region of the flux decrease during the expansion phase is restricted, and it is observed mainly on the afternoonside. The afternoonside flux decrease has a different characteristic from the nightside flux decrease preceding the expansion phase. The nighside flux decrease-recovery sequence is observed in a wide region of more than 6 hr in the nighttime and the center of this variation exists in the premidnight region. It should be noted that the afternoonside flux decrease is not observed for every substorm and the nightside signature noted that the afternoonside flux sometimes becomes a dominent feature even on the afternoonside

  1. High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  2. Clustering of tethered satellite system simulation data by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Pemmaraju, Surya

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in neuro-fuzzy systems indicate that the concepts of adaptive pattern recognition, when used to identify appropriate control actions corresponding to clusters of patterns representing system states in dynamic nonlinear control systems, may result in innovative designs. A modular, unsupervised neural network architecture, in which fuzzy learning rules have been embedded is used for on-line identification of similar states. The architecture and control rules involved in Adaptive Fuzzy Leader Clustering (AFLC) allow this system to be incorporated in control systems for identification of system states corresponding to specific control actions. We have used this algorithm to cluster the simulation data of Tethered Satellite System (TSS) to estimate the range of delta voltages necessary to maintain the desired length rate of the tether. The AFLC algorithm is capable of on-line estimation of the appropriate control voltages from the corresponding length error and length rate error without a priori knowledge of their membership functions and familarity with the behavior of the Tethered Satellite System.

  3. Improve observation-based ground-level ozone spatial distribution by compositing satellite and surface observations: A simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang; Crawford, James; Cheng, Ye; Li, Jianfeng

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields is challenging because of the sparsity of the surface monitoring network and the difficulty in direct satellite retrievals of surface ozone. We propose an indirect satellite retrieval framework to utilize the information from satellite-measured column densities of tropospheric NO2 and CH2O, which are sensitive to the lower troposphere, to derive surface ozone fields. The method is applicable to upcoming geostationary satellites with high-quality NO2 and CH2O measurements. To prove the concept, we conduct a simulation experiment using a 3-D chemical transport model for July 2011 over the eastern US. The results show that a second order regression using both NO2 and CH2O column densities can be an effective predictor for daily maximum 8-h average ozone. Furthermore, this indirect retrieval approach is shown to be complementary to spatial interpolation of surface observations, especially in regions where the surface sites are sparse. Combining column observations of NO2 and CH2O with surface site measurements leads to an improved representation of surface ozone over simple kriging, increasing the R2 value from 0.53 to 0.64 at a surface site distance of 252 km. The improvements are even more significant with larger surface site distances. The simulation experiment suggests that the indirect satellite retrieval technique can potentially be a useful tool to derive the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields if satellite observation uncertainty is moderate.

  4. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S. Ko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS near the annual hypoxic zone. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM were used for the salinity flux, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS were used for solar penetration. Improvements in the model results in comparison with in situ observations occurred when the two types of satellite data were included. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived surface salinity flux, realistic monthly variability in the model salinity fields was observed, but important inter-annual variability was missed. Without inclusion of the satellite-derived light attenuation, model bottom water temperatures were too high nearshore due to excessive penetration of solar irradiance. In general, these salinity and temperature errors led to model stratification that was too weak, and the model failed to capture observed spatial and temporal variability in water-column vertical stratification. Inclusion of the satellite data improved temperature and salinity predictions and the vertical stratification was strengthened, which improved prediction of bottom-water dissolved oxygen. The model-predicted area of bottom-water hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf, an important management metric, was substantially improved in comparison to observed hypoxic area by including the satellite data.

  5. Particle-in-Cell Simulation Study on the Floating Potential of Spacecraft in the Low Earth Orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Daotan; Yang Shengsheng; Zheng Kuohai; Qin Xiaogang; Li Detian; Liu Qing; Zhao Chengxuan; Du Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand the characteristics of the floating potential of low earth orbit spacecraft, the effects of the electron current collection area, background electron temperature, photocurrent emission, spacecraft wake, and the shape of spacecraft on spacecraft floating potential were studied here by particle-in-cell simulation in the low earth orbit. The simulation results show that the electron current collection area and background electron temperature impact on the floating potential by changing the electron current collection of spacecraft. By increasing the electron current collection area or background electron temperature, the spacecraft will float at a lower electric potential with respect to the surrounding plasma. However, the spacecraft wake affects the floating potential by increasing the ion current collected by spacecraft. The emission of the photocurrent from the spacecraft surface, which compensates for the electrons collected from background plasma, causes the floating potential to increase. The shape of the spacecraft is also an important factor influencing the floating potential. (paper)

  6. Research on the Effectiveness of Different Estimation Algorithm on the Autonomous Orbit Determination of Lagrangian Navigation Constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youtao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of autonomous orbit determination of Lagrangian navigation constellation will affect the navigation accuracy for the deep space probes. Because of the special dynamical characteristics of Lagrangian navigation satellite, the error caused by different estimation algorithm will cause totally different autonomous orbit determination accuracy. We apply the extended Kalman filter and the fading–memory filter to determinate the orbits of Lagrangian navigation satellites. The autonomous orbit determination errors are compared. The accuracy of autonomous orbit determination using fading-memory filter can improve 50% compared to the autonomous orbit determination accuracy using extended Kalman filter. We proposed an integrated Kalman fading filter to smooth the process of autonomous orbit determination and improve the accuracy of autonomous orbit determination. The square root extended Kalman filter is introduced to deal with the case of inaccurate initial error variance matrix. The simulations proved that the estimation method can affect the accuracy of autonomous orbit determination greatly.

  7. Reanalyses of the radiation belt electron phase space density using nearly equatorial CRRES and polar-orbiting Akebono satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Shprits, Yuri; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Thorne, Richard; Chen, Yue; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Kim, Hee-jeong

    2009-05-01

    Data assimilation techniques provide algorithms that allow for blending of incomplete and inaccurate data with physics-based dynamic models to reconstruct the electron phase space density (PSD) in the radiation belts. In this study, we perform reanalyses of the radial PSD profile using two independent data sources from the nearly equatorial CRRES Medium Electron A (MEA) observations and the polar-orbiting Akebono Radiation Monitor (RDM) measurements for a 50-day period from 18 August to 6 October 1990. We utilize the University of California, Los Angeles, One-Dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (UCLA 1-D VERB) code and a Kalman filtering approach. Comparison of the reanalyses obtained independently using the CRRES MEA and Akebono RDM measurements shows that the dynamics of the PSD can be accurately reconstructed using Kalman filtering even when available data are sparse, inaccurate, and contaminated by random errors. The reanalyses exhibit similarities in the locations and magnitudes of peaks in radial profiles of PSD and the rate and radial extent of the dropouts during storms. This study shows that when unidirectional data are not available, pitch angle averaged flux measurements can be used to infer the long-term behavior (climatology) of the radiation belts. The methodology of obtaining PSD from pitch angle averaged and unidirectional fluxes using the Tsyganenko and Stern (1996) magnetic field model is described in detail.

  8. Improved cloud parameterization for Arctic climate simulations based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Daniel; Dethloff, Klaus; Dorn, Wolfgang; Rinke, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The defective representation of Arctic cloud processes and properties remains a crucial problem in climate modelling and in reanalysis products. Satellite-based cloud observations (MODIS and CPR/CALIOP) and single-column model simulations (HIRHAM5-SCM) were exploited to evaluate and improve the simulated Arctic cloud cover of the atmospheric regional climate model HIRHAM5. The ECMWF reanalysis dataset 'ERA-Interim' (ERAint) was used for the model initialization, the lateral boundary forcing as well as the dynamical relaxation inside the pan-Arctic domain. HIRHAM5 has a horizontal resolution of 0.25° and uses 40 pressure-based and terrain-following vertical levels. In comparison with the satellite observations, the HIRHAM5 control run (HH5ctrl) systematically overestimates total cloud cover, but to a lesser extent than ERAint. The underestimation of high- and mid-level clouds is strongly outweighed by the overestimation of low-level clouds. Numerous sensitivity studies with HIRHAM5-SCM suggest (1) the parameter tuning, enabling a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process, combined with (2) an extension of the prognostic-statistical (PS) cloud scheme, enabling the use of negatively skewed beta distributions. This improved model setup was then used in a corresponding HIRHAM5 sensitivity run (HH5sens). While the simulated high- and mid-level cloud cover is improved only to a limited extent, the large overestimation of low-level clouds can be systematically and significantly reduced, especially over sea ice. Consequently, the multi-year annual mean area average of total cloud cover with respect to sea ice is almost 14% lower than in HH5ctrl. Overall, HH5sens slightly underestimates the observed total cloud cover but shows a halved multi-year annual mean bias of 2.2% relative to CPR/CALIOP at all latitudes north of 60° N. Importantly, HH5sens produces a more realistic ratio between the cloud water and ice content. The considerably improved cloud simulation manifests in

  9. Orbits 2nd order singularity-free solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2014-01-01

    In its 2nd edition, this book covers the theory of satellite orbits, derives the complete solutions of orbital disturbances, describes the algorithms of orbits determination and the applications of the theory to the phenomenon of physical satellite formation.

  10. Towards high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions in the remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration by combining geostationary and polar orbit satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water flux going from the surface into the atmosphere as result of soil and surface water evaporation and plant transpiration. It constitutes a key component of the water cycle and its quantification is of crucial importance for a number of applications like water management, climatic modelling, agriculture monitoring and planning, etc. Estimating ET is not an easy task; specially if large areas are envisaged and various spatio-temporal patterns of ET are present as result of heterogeneity in land cover, land use and climatic conditions. In this respect, spaceborne remote sensing (RS) provides the only alternative to continuously measure surface parameters related to ET over large areas. The Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium, in the framework of EUMETSAT's "Land Surface Analysis-Satellite Application Facility" (LSA-SAF), has developed a model for the estimation of ET. The model is forced by RS data, numerical weather predictions and land cover information. The RS forcing is derived from measurements by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This ET model is operational and delivers ET estimations over the whole field of view of the MSG satellite (Europe, Africa and Eastern South America) (http://landsaf.meteo.pt) every 30 minutes. The spatial resolution of MSG is 3 x 3 km at subsatellite point and about 4 x 5 km in continental Europe. The spatial resolution of this product may constrain its full exploitation as the interest of potential users (farmers and natural resources scientists) may lie on smaller spatial units. This study aimed at testing methodological alternatives to combine RS imagery (geostationary and polar orbit satellites) for the estimation of ET such that the spatial resolution of the final product is improved. In particular, the study consisted in the implementation of two approaches for combining the current ET estimations with

  11. Initial assessment of the effects of energetic-ion injections in the magnetosphere due to the transport of satellite-power-system components from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.A.; Grebowsky, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    Potentially serious environmental effects exist when cargo orbital transfer vehicle (COTV) ion propulsion is used on the scale proposed in the preliminary definition studies of the Satellite Power System. These effects of the large scale injections of ion propulsion exhaust in the plasmasphere and in the outer magnetosphere are shown to be highly model dependent with major differences existing in the predicted effects of two models - the ion cloud model and the ion sheath model. The expected total number density deposition of the propellant Ar + in the plasmasphere, the energy spectra of the deposited Ar + and time-dependent behavior of the Ar + injected into the plasmasphere by a fleet of COTV vehicles differ drastically between the two models. The major environmental effect of the former model is communication disturbance due to plasma density irregularities, in contrast to the spectacular predictions of the latter model which include power line tripping and pipe line corrosion. The ion sheath model is demonstrated to be applicable to the proposed Ar + beam physics if the beam is divergent and turbulent whereas the ion cloud model is not a realistic approximation for such a beam because the frozen-field assumption on which it is based is not valid. Finally, it is shown that the environmental effects of ion propulsion may be mitigated by the appropriate adjustment of the beam parameters

  12. GLONASS orbit/clock combination in VNIIFTRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezmenov, I.; Pasynok, S.

    2015-08-01

    An algorithm and a program for GLONASS satellites orbit/clock combination based on daily precise orbits submitted by several Analytic Centers were developed. Some theoretical estimates for combine orbit positions RMS were derived. It was shown that under condition that RMS of satellite orbits provided by the Analytic Centers during a long time interval are commensurable the RMS of combine orbit positions is no greater than RMS of other satellite positions estimated by any of the Analytic Centers.

  13. Development of Mission and Spacecraft Dynamics Analysis System for Geostationary Communication Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Cheol Gong

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the motion of the subsystems as separate bodies as well as the entire satellite for the attitude and orbit control of a communication satellite by multi-body modeling technique. Thus, the system can be applied to a general communication satellite as well as a specific communication satellite, i.e. Koreasat I, II. The simulation results can be viewed by two-dimensional graphics and three-dimensional animation. The graphical user interface (GUI makes its usage much simpler. We have simulated a couple of scenarios for Koreasat I, II which are being operated as geostationary communication satellites to verify the system performance.

  14. Novel method of drizzle formation observation at large horizontal scales using multi-wavelength satellite imagery simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepanov, I.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The observations of on-board satellite imaging radiometers are representative of a far-reaching two-dimensional cloud top properties, however with a cutback in the capacity of profiling the cloud vertically. A combination of simulated radiances calculated at the top of the cloud in the near-infrared

  15. Sub-kilometer Simulation of Equatorial Plasma Bubble and Comparison with Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Stolle, C.; Su, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPB from a space weather point of view. The development of EPB is presently believed as an evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have already developed a 3D high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model with a grid spacing of as small as 1 km and presented nonlinear growth of EPB which shows very turbulent internal structures such as bifurcation and pinching. Recent upgrade of the HIRB model has made it possible to conduct the simulation with sub-kilometer grid spacing. The simulation results can be compared with various in situ satellite observations such as plasma drift velocity, plasma density, magnetic field, and their structures and power spectra, e.g. from the C/NOFS, ROCSAT, CHAMP, or Swarm missions. Our initial results show encouraging agreement between model results and observational data.

  16. Simulating Global AeroMACS Airport Ground Station Antenna Power Transmission Limits to Avoid Interference With Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low Earth orbit from transmitters at global airports was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on antenna distribution, gain patterns, duty cycle, and antenna tilt was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power from global airports required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  17. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  18. Satellite alignment. I. Distribution of substructures and their dependence on assembly history from n-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang Ocean; Lin, W. P.; Yu, Yu; Kang, X.; Dutton, Aaron; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2014-01-01

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. This alignment is dependent on galaxy properties, such that red satellites are more strongly aligned than blue satellites. Theoretical work conducted to interpret this phenomenon has found that it is due to the non-spherical nature of dark matter halos. However, most studies overpredict the alignment signal under the assumption that the central galaxy shape follows the shape of the host halo. It is also not clear whether the color dependence of alignment is due to an assembly bias or an evolution effect. In this paper we study these problems using a cosmological N-body simulation. Subhalos are used to trace the positions of satellite galaxies. It is found that the shapes of dark matter halos are mis-aligned at different radii. If the central galaxy shares the same shape as the inner host halo, then the alignment effect is weaker and agrees with observational data. However, it predicts almost no dependence of alignment on the color of satellite galaxies, though the late accreted subhalos show stronger alignment with the outer layer of the host halo than their early accreted counterparts. We find that this is due to the limitation of pure N-body simulations where satellite galaxies without associated subhalos ('orphan galaxies') are not resolved. These orphan (mostly red) satellites often reside in the inner region of host halos and should follow the shape of the host halo in the inner region.

  19. Satellite disintegration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, R. R.; Kaufman, B.; Heard, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of satellite disintegration is examined in detail. Elements of the orbits of individual fragments, determined by DOD space surveillance systems, are used to accurately predict the time and place of fragmentation. Dual time independent and time dependent analyses are performed for simulated and real breakups. Methods of statistical mechanics are used to study the evolution of the fragment clouds. The fragments are treated as an ensemble of non-interacting particles. A solution of Liouville's equation is obtained which enables the spatial density to be calculated as a function of position, time and initial velocity distribution.

  20. Thermal simulations of the STIX instrument for ESA Solar Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agata; Severyn, Karol; Grassmann, Kamil; Orleańskii, Piotr; Skup, Konrad R.; Arnold, Nicolas; Gröbelbauer, Hans-Peter; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Samuel; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Mann, Gottfied; Önel, Hakan; Bernet, Adeline; Blecha, Luc; Grimm, Oliver; Limousin, Olivier; Martignac, Jerome; Meuris, Aline

    2013-07-01

    The ESA Solar Orbiter mission, planned to be launched in 2017, is going to study the Sun with ten different instruments including the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays - STIX. The thermal environment on the elliptical orbit around the Sun - 0.28 AU at perihelion and 0.952 AU at aphelion - is extreme, where at one point of the orbit is very hot, while on another very cold. That makes the requirements for the heat fluxes exchanged between each instrument and the spacecraft, as well as between the instrument - subsystems, very restrictive. Here the authors discuss the thermal design with respect to the defined requirements and present the results of the thermal analyses performed with ESATAN TMS software.

  1. Monitoring Mars LOD Variations from a High Altitude Circular Equatorial Orbit: Theory and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, J.; Dehant, V.; Duron, J.

    2003-12-01

    We compute the perturbations of a high altitude circular equatorial orbit of a martian probe under the influence of an annual variation of the martian lenght of day. For this purpose, we use the first order perturbations of the newtonian equations of motion, where the small parameter is given from the hourglass model of Chao and Rubincam, which allow a simple computation of CO2 exchanges during the martian year. We are able to demonstrate that the perturbations contains two components: the first one is a sine/cosine modulation at the orbit frequency, the second one is composed of terms of the form exp(t)*sin(t), so the orbit may not stable in the long term (several martian years), with perturbations growing exponentially. We give the full theory and numbers.

  2. Integrating satellite retrieved leaf chlorophyll into land surface models for constraining simulations of water and carbon fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2013-07-01

    In terrestrial biosphere models, key biochemical controls on carbon uptake by vegetation canopies are typically assigned fixed literature-based values for broad categories of vegetation types although in reality significant spatial and temporal variability exists. Satellite remote sensing can support modeling efforts by offering distributed information on important land surface characteristics, which would be very difficult to obtain otherwise. This study investigates the utility of satellite based retrievals of leaf chlorophyll for estimating leaf photosynthetic capacity and for constraining model simulations of water and carbon fluxes. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. SACRA - global data sets of satellite-derived crop calendars for agricultural simulations: an estimation of a high-resolution crop calendar using satellite-sensed NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-01-01

    To date, many studies have performed numerical estimations of food production and agricultural water demand to understand the present and future supply-demand relationship. A crop calendar (CC) is an essential input datum to estimate food production and agricultural water demand accurately with the numerical estimations. CC defines the date or month when farmers plant and harvest in cropland. This study aims to develop a new global data set of a satellite-derived crop calendar for agricultural simulations (SACRA) and reveal advantages and disadvantages of the satellite-derived CC compared to other global products. We estimate global CC at a spatial resolution of 5 min (≈10 km) using the satellite-sensed NDVI data, which corresponds well to vegetation growth and death on the land surface. We first demonstrate that SACRA shows similar spatial pattern in planting date compared to a census-based product. Moreover, SACRA reflects a variety of CC in the same administrative unit, since it uses high-resolution satellite data. However, a disadvantage is that the mixture of several crops in a grid is not considered in SACRA. We also address that the cultivation period of SACRA clearly corresponds to the time series of NDVI. Therefore, accuracy of SACRA depends on the accuracy of NDVI used for the CC estimation. Although SACRA shows different CC from a census-based product in some regions, multiple usages of the two products are useful to take into consideration the uncertainty of the CC. An advantage of SACRA compared to the census-based products is that SACRA provides not only planting/harvesting dates but also a peak date from the time series of NDVI data.

  4. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  5. An Interactive Virtual Reality System for On-Orbit Servicing

    OpenAIRE

    Sagardia, Mikel; Hertkorn, Katharina; Hulin, Thomas; Wolff, Robin; Hummel, Johannes; Dodiya, Janki; Gerndt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The growth of space debris is becoming a serious problem. There is an urgent need for mitigation measures based on maintenance, repair and de-orbiting technologies. Our video presents a virtual reality framework in which robotic maintenance tasks of satellites can be simulated interactively. The two key components of this framework are a realistic virtual reality simulation and an immersive interaction device. The peculiarity of the virtual reality simulation is the combi...

  6. Vegetation monitoring for Guatemala: a comparison between simulated VIIRS and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, Vijendra K.; Easson, Gregory L.; Rowland, James

    2010-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are being widely used for vegetation monitoring across the globe. However, sensors will discontinue collecting these data in the near future. National Aeronautics and Space Administration is planning to launch a new sensor, visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS), to continue to provide satellite data for vegetation monitoring. This article presents a case study of Guatemala and compares the simulated VIIRS-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with MODIS-NDVI for four different dates each in 2003 and 2005. The dissimilarity between VIIRS-NDVI and MODIS-NDVI was examined on the basis of the percent difference, the two-tailed student's t-test, and the coefficient of determination, R 2. The per cent difference was found to be within 3%, the p-value ranged between 0.52 and 0.99, and R 2 exceeded 0.88 for all major types of vegetation (basic grains, rubber, sugarcane, coffee and forests) found in Guatemala. It was therefore concluded that VIIRS will be almost equally capable of vegetation monitoring as MODIS.

  7. Simulative Analysis of Inter-Satellite Optical Wireless Communication (IsOWC) Link with EDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab; Singh, Navpreet

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, simulative analysis and performance comparison of different EDFA (Erbium-doped fiber amplifier) configurations in a 10 Gbps inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) link have been reported for a 5,000 km long link and 1,550 nm operating wavelength. The results show that system in which both pre-amplifier and booster amplifier stages are implemented simultaneously outperforms systems with only pre-amplifier and booster amplifier stage. From the results, it can be seen that by deploying a transmission power level of 15 dBm, a link distance of 9,600 km can be achieved with a quality factor of 6.01 dB and BER (Bit error rate) of 1.07×10-9. Also, in this paper, the performance of an 8×7 Gbps WDM-IsOWC link has been reported. The results show that by using both EDFA pre-amplifier and booster amplifier stages, a link distance of 8,000 km for each channel is achievable with desired performance levels (Q≥6 and BER≤10-9). Also, the effect of channel spacing on the performance of WDM-IsOWC link is investigated. The results show that the received signal has acceptable performance levels when the channel spacing is 100 GHz but when the channel spacing is reduced to 80 GHz, the quality of the received signal degrades and link distance decreases.

  8. Quantized Advantages to a Proposed Satellite at L5 from Simulated Synoptic Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, A. M.; Petrie, G. J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The dependency the Earth and its inhabitants have on the Sun is delicate and complex and sometimes dangerous. At the NSO, we provide 24/7 coverage of the full-disk solar magnetic field used in solar forecasting, however this only includes data from the Sun's Earth facing side. Ideally we would like to have constant coverage of the entire solar surface, however we are limited in our solar viewing angle. Our project attempts to quantify the advantages of full-disk magnetograms from a proposed satellite at L5. With instrumentation at L5 we would have an additional 60 degrees of solar surface coverage not seen from Earth. These 60 degrees crucially contain the solar longitudes that are about to rotate towards Earth. Using a full-surface flux-transport model of the evolving solar photospheric field, I created a simulation of full-disk observations from Earth and L5. Using standard solar forecasting tools we quantify the relative accuracy of the Earth-Only and Earth plus L5 forecasts relative to the "ground truth" of the full surface field model, the ideal case. My results gauge exactly how much polar coverage is improved, contrast the spherical multipoles of each model, and use a Potential-Field Source-Surface (PFSS) magnetic field analysis model to find comparisons in the neutral lines and open field coverage.

  9. Evaluation of Three Parametric Models for Estimating Directional Thermal Radiation from Simulation, Airborne, and Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate model to correct thermal radiation anisotropy is important for the wide applications of land surface temperature (LST. This paper evaluated the performance of three published directional thermal radiation models—the Roujean–Lagouarde (RL model, the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF model, and the Vinnikov model—at canopy and pixel scale using simulation, airborne, and satellite data. The results at canopy scale showed that (1 the three models could describe directional anisotropy well and the Vinnikov model performed the best, especially for erectophile canopy or low leaf area index (LAI; (2 the three models reached the highest fitting accuracy when the LAI varied from 1 to 2; and (3 the capabilities of the three models were all restricted by the hotspot effect, plant height, plant spacing, and three-dimensional structure. The analysis at pixel scale indicated a consistent result that the three models presented a stable effect both on verification and validation, but the Vinnikov model had the best ability in the erectophile canopy (savannas and grassland and low LAI (barren or sparsely vegetated areas. Therefore, the Vinnikov model was calibrated for different land cover types to instruct the angular correction of LST. Validation with the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD-measured LST demonstrated that the root mean square (RMSE of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST product could be decreased by 0.89 K after angular correction. In addition, the corrected LST showed better spatial uniformity and higher angular correlation.

  10. Performance experiments with alternative advanced teleoperator control modes for a simulated solar maximum satellite repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, H.; Zak, H.; Kim, W. S.; Bejczy, A. K.; Schenker, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which were conducted at the JPL Advanced Teleoperator Lab to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of various teleoperator control modes in the performance of a simulated Solar Max Satellite Repair (SMSR) task. THe SMSR was selected as a test because it is very rich in performance capability requirements and it actually has been performed by two EVA astronauts in the Space Shuttle Bay in 1984. The main subtasks are: thermal blanket removal; installation of a hinge attachment for electrical panel opening; opening of electrical panel; removal of electrical connectors; relining of cable bundles; replacement of electrical panel; securing parts and cables; re-mate electrical connectors; closing of electrical panel; and reinstating thermal blanket. The current performance experiments are limited to thermal blanket cutting, electrical panel unbolting and handling electrical bundles and connectors. In one formal experiment even different control modes were applied to the unbolting and reinsertion of electrical panel screws subtasks. The seven control modes are alternative combinations of manual position and rate control with force feedback and remote compliance referenced to force-torque sensor information. Force-torque sensor and end effector position data and task completion times were recorded for analysis and quantification of operator performance.

  11. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna Using Lagrange Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA) is a necessary device in ships for receiving satellite signals when they are sailing on the sea. This paper presents a simple methodology to obtain the dynamic equations of MSTA through Lagrange method, which is fundamental in design of modelbased controll......Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA) is a necessary device in ships for receiving satellite signals when they are sailing on the sea. This paper presents a simple methodology to obtain the dynamic equations of MSTA through Lagrange method, which is fundamental in design of modelbased...

  12. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  13. Orbital free ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of some static and dynamic properties of liquid noble metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Bhuiyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several static and dynamic properties of liquid Cu, Ag and Au at thermodynamic states near their respective melting points, have been evaluated by means of the orbital free ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation method. The calculated static structure shows good agreement with the available X-ray and neutron diffraction data. As for the dynamic properties, the calculated dynamic structure factors point to the existence of collective density excitations along with a positive dispersion for l-Cu and l-Ag. Several transport coefficients have been obtained which show a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  14. Simulation of 4-turn algorithms for reconstructing lattice optic functions from orbit measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.; Iliev, A.

    1994-06-01

    We describe algorithms for reconstructing tune, closed-orbit, beta-function and phase advance from four individual turns of beam orbit acquisition data, under the assumption of coherent, almost linear and uncoupled betatron oscillations. To estimate the beta-function at, and phase advance between, position monitors, we require at least one anchor location consisting of two monitors separated by a drift. The algorithms were submitted to a Monte Carlo analysis to find the likely measurement accuracy of the optics functions in the KAON Factory Booster ring racetrack lattice, assuming beam position monitors with surveying and reading errors, and assuming an imperfect lattice with gradient and surveying errors. Some of the results of this study are reported. (author)

  15. Modeling and control of a gravity gradient stabilised satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aage Skullestad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes attitude control, i.e., 3-axes stabilisation and pointing, of a proposed Norwegian small gravity gradient stabilized satellite to be launched into low earth orbit. Generally, a gravity gradient stabilised system has limited stability and pointing capabilities, and wheels and/or magnetic coils are added in order to improve the attitude control. The best attitude accuracy is achieved using wheels, which can give accuracies down to less than one degree, but wheels increase the complexity and cost of the satellite. Magnetic coils allow cheaper satellites, and are an attractive solution to small, inexpensive satellites in low earth orbits and may provide an attitude control accuracy of a few degrees. Scientific measurements often require accurate attitude control in one or two axes only. Combining wheel and coil control may, in these cases, provide the best solutions. The simulation results are based on a linearised mathematical model of the satellite.

  16. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  17. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  18. Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

    The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the

  19. Analysis of 3-dimensional Hydro-dynamical Model Simulation in the Gulf of Kutch, India and Its Comparison with Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Osawa, T.; Zhao, C.; Kunte, P.D.; Ae, L.S.; Hara, M.; Moriyama, T.

    temperature, relative humidity and cloud fraction are obtained from Da Silva et al. (1994) climatic data sets from 1984-1991. Figure 2b shows the air temperature and the relative humidity above sea surface, and we can see that the temperature changes from 22... to monitor the variation of environment in the enclosed Gulf. Satellite data could provide cloud fraction from NOAA/AVHRR or other meteorological satellites. Making full use of satellite observations and combining with numerical model simulation will give...

  20. Simulation of large-scale soil water systems using groundwater data and satellite based soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Complex concepts for the physically correct depiction of dominant processes in the hydrosphere are increasingly at the forefront of hydrological modelling. Many scientific issues in hydrological modelling demand for additional system variables besides a simulation of runoff only, such as groundwater recharge or soil moisture conditions. Models that include soil water simulations are either very simplified or require a high number of parameters. Against this backdrop there is a heightened demand of observations to be used to calibrate the model. A reasonable integration of groundwater data or remote sensing data in calibration procedures as well as the identifiability of physically plausible sets of parameters is subject to research in the field of hydrology. Since this data is often combined with conceptual models, the given interfaces are not suitable for such demands. Furthermore, the application of automated optimisation procedures is generally associated with conceptual models, whose (fast) computing times allow many iterations of the optimisation in an acceptable time frame. One of the main aims of this study is to reduce the discrepancy between scientific and practical applications in the field of hydrological modelling. Therefore, the soil model DYVESOM (DYnamic VEgetation SOil Model) was developed as one of the primary components of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. DYVESOMs structure provides the required interfaces for the calibrations made at runoff, satellite based soil moisture and groundwater level. The model considers spatial and temporal differentiated feedback of the development of the vegetation on the soil system. In addition, small scale heterogeneities of soil properties (subgrid-variability) are parameterized by variation of van Genuchten parameters depending on distribution functions. Different sets of parameters are operated simultaneously while interacting with each other. The developed soil model is innovative regarding concept

  1. Globally-Optimized Local Pseudopotentials for (Orbital-Free) Density Functional Theory Simulations of Liquids and Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz G; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-08-08

    The accuracy of local pseudopotentials (LPSs) is one of two major determinants of the fidelity of orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) simulations. We present a global optimization strategy for LPSs that enables OFDFT to reproduce solid and liquid properties obtained from Kohn-Sham DFT. Our optimization strategy can fit arbitrary properties from both solid and liquid phases, so the resulting globally optimized local pseudopotentials (goLPSs) can be used in solid and/or liquid-phase simulations depending on the fitting process. We show three test cases proving that we can (1) improve solid properties compared to our previous bulk-derived local pseudopotential generation scheme; (2) refine predicted liquid and solid properties by adding force matching data; and (3) generate a from-scratch, accurate goLPS from the local channel of a non-local pseudopotential. The proposed scheme therefore serves as a full and improved LPS construction protocol.

  2. Improving BDS Autonomous Orbit Determination Performance Using Onboard Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Jing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous orbit determination is a crucial step for GNSS development to improve GNSS vulnerability, integrity, reliability and robustness. The newly launched BeiDou (BD satellites are capable of conducting satellite to satellite tracking (SST, which can be used for autonomous orbit determination. However, using SST data only, the BD satellite system (BDS will have whole constellation rotation in the absence of absolute constraints from ground or other celestial body over time, due to various force perturbations. The perturbations can be categorized into conservative forces and non-conservative forces. The conservative forces, such as the Earth non-spherical perturbations, tidal perturbation, the solar, lunar and other third-body perturbations, can be precisely modeled with latest force models. The non-conservative forces (i.e. Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP, on the other hand, are difficult to be modeled precisely, which are the main factors affecting satellite orbit determination accuracy. In recent years, accelerometers onboard satellites have been used to directly measure the non-conservative forces for gravity recovery and atmosphere study, such as GRACE, CHAMP, and GOCE missions. This study investigates the feasibility to use accelerometers onboard BD satellites to improve BD autonomous orbit determination accuracy and service span. Using simulated BD orbit and SST data, together with the error models of existing space-borne accelerometers, the orbit determination accuracy for BD constellation is evaluated using either SST data only or SST data with accelerometers. An empirical SRP model is used to extract non-conservative forces. The simulation results show that the orbit determination accuracy using SST with accelerometers is significantly better than that with SST data only. Assuming 0.33 m random noises and decimeter level signal transponder system biases in SST data, IGSO and MEO satellites decimeter level orbit accuracy can be

  3. Effects of assimilating precipitation zones derived from satellite and lightning data on numerical simulations of tropical-like Mediterranean storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, L.; Romero, R.; Luque, A.; Ramis, C.

    2009-08-01

    The scarcity of meteorological observations in maritime areas is a well-known problem that can be an important limitation in the study of different phenomena. Tropical-like storms or medicanes developed over the Mediterranean sea are intense storms with some similarities to the tropical ones. Although they do not reach the hurricane intensity, their potential for damage is very high, due to the densely populated Mediterranean coastal regions. In this study, the two notable cases of medicane development which occurred in the western Mediterranean basin in September 1996 and October 2003, are considered. The capability of mesoscale numerical models to simulate general aspects of such a phenomena has been previously shown. With the aim of improving the numerical results, an adjustment of the humidity vertical profiles in MM5 simulations is performed by means of satellite derived precipitation. Convective and stratiform precipitation types obtained from satellite images are used to individually adjust the profiles. Lightning hits are employed to identify convective grid points. The adjustment of the vertical humidity profiles is carried out in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses used as initial conditions for the simulations. Analyses nudging to ECMWF analyses and to the satellite-based humidity-corrected version of these analyses has also been applied using Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA). An additional adjustment is applied as observation nudging of satellite/lightning information at different time and spatial resolutions. Statistical parameters are proposed and tested as an objective way to intercompare satellite-derived and simulated trajectories. Simulations of medicanes exhibit a strong sensitivity to vertical humidity profiles. Trajectories of the storms are improved or worsened by using FDDA. A case dependence is obtained on the characteristics of the humidity-corrected medicanes. FDDA sensitivity on temporal and

  4. Effects of assimilating precipitation zones derived from satellite and lightning data on numerical simulations of tropical-like Mediterranean storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fita

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of meteorological observations in maritime areas is a well-known problem that can be an important limitation in the study of different phenomena. Tropical-like storms or medicanes developed over the Mediterranean sea are intense storms with some similarities to the tropical ones. Although they do not reach the hurricane intensity, their potential for damage is very high, due to the densely populated Mediterranean coastal regions. In this study, the two notable cases of medicane development which occurred in the western Mediterranean basin in September 1996 and October 2003, are considered. The capability of mesoscale numerical models to simulate general aspects of such a phenomena has been previously shown. With the aim of improving the numerical results, an adjustment of the humidity vertical profiles in MM5 simulations is performed by means of satellite derived precipitation. Convective and stratiform precipitation types obtained from satellite images are used to individually adjust the profiles. Lightning hits are employed to identify convective grid points. The adjustment of the vertical humidity profiles is carried out in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analyses used as initial conditions for the simulations. Analyses nudging to ECMWF analyses and to the satellite-based humidity-corrected version of these analyses has also been applied using Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA. An additional adjustment is applied as observation nudging of satellite/lightning information at different time and spatial resolutions. Statistical parameters are proposed and tested as an objective way to intercompare satellite-derived and simulated trajectories. Simulations of medicanes exhibit a strong sensitivity to vertical humidity profiles. Trajectories of the storms are improved or worsened by using FDDA. A case dependence is obtained on the characteristics of the humidity-corrected medicanes. FDDA sensitivity

  5. Effects of assimilating precipitation zones derived from satellite and lightning data on numerical simulations of tropical-like Mediterranean storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fita, L.; Romero, R.; Luque, A.; Ramis, C. [Univ. de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Grup de Meteorologia

    2009-07-01

    The scarcity of meteorological observations in maritime areas is a well-known problem that can be an important limitation in the study of different phenomena. Tropical-like storms or medicanes developed over the Mediterranean sea are intense storms with some similarities to the tropical ones. Although they do not reach the hurricane intensity, their potential for damage is very high, due to the densely populated Mediterranean coastal regions. In this study, the two notable cases of medicane development which occurred in the western Mediterranean basin in September 1996 and October 2003, are considered. The capability of mesoscale numerical models to simulate general aspects of such a phenomena has been previously shown. With the aim of improving the numerical results, an adjustment of the humidity vertical profiles in MM5 simulations is performed by means of satellite derived precipitation. Convective and stratiform precipitation types obtained from satellite images are used to individually adjust the profiles. Lightning hits are employed to identify convective grid points. The adjustment of the vertical humidity profiles is carried out in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses used as initial conditions for the simulations. Analyses nudging to ECMWF analyses and to the satellite-based humidity-corrected version of these analyses has also been applied using Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA). An additional adjustment is applied as observation nudging of satellite/lightning information at different time and spatial resolutions. Statistical parameters are proposed and tested as an objective way to intercompare satellite-derived and simulated trajectories. Simulations of medicanes exhibit a strong sensitivity to vertical humidity profiles. Trajectories of the storms are improved or worsened by using FDDA. A case dependence is obtained on the characteristics of the humidity-corrected medicanes. FDDA sensitivity on temporal and

  6. Estimating spacecraft attitude based on in-orbit sensor measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Britt; Lyn-Knudsen, Kevin; Mølgaard, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    of 2014/15. To better evaluate the performance of the payload, it is desirable to couple the payload data with the satellite's orientation. With AAUSAT3 already in orbit it is possible to collect data directly from space in order to evaluate the performance of the attitude estimation. An extended kalman...... filter (EKF) is used for quaternion-based attitude estimation. A Simulink simulation environment developed for AAUSAT3, containing a "truth model" of the satellite and the orbit environment, is used to test the performance The performance is tested using different sensor noise parameters obtained both...... from a controlled environment on Earth as well as in-orbit. By using sensor noise parameters obtained on Earth as the expected parameters in the attitude estimation, and simulating the environment using the sensor noise parameters from space, it is possible to assess whether the EKF can be designed...

  7. Analysis of the orbit errors in the CERN accelerators using model simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-09-01

    This paper will describe the use of the PLUS program to find various types of machine and beam errors such as, quadrupole strength, dipole strength, beam position monitors (BPMs), energy profile, and beam launch. We refer to this procedure as the GOLD (Generic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) Method which is a general technique that can be applied to analysis of errors in storage rings and transport lines. One useful feature of the Method is that it analyzes segments of a machine at a time so that the application and efficiency is independent of the size of the overall machine. Because the techniques are the same for all the types of problems it solves, the user need learn only how to find one type of error in order to use the program

  8. Beam orbit simulation in the central region of the RIKEN AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan; Goto, Akira; Yano, Yasushige

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the modification design of the central region for h=2 mode of acceleration in the RIKEN AVF cyclotron. we made a small modification to the electrode shape in the central region for optimization of the beam transmission. The central region is equipped with an axial injection system. The spiral type inflector is used for axial injection. The electric field distribution in the inflector and in four acceleration gaps has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The magnetic field is measured. The geometry of the central region has been tested with the computations of orbits carried out by means of the computer code CYCLONE. The optical properties of the spiral inflector and the central region are studied by using the program CASINO and CYCLONE, respectively. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field effects using the RELAX3D program

  9. Beam Orbit Simulation In The Central Region Of The Riken Avf Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, D; Subotic, K.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the modification design of the central region for A = 2 mode of acceleration in the Riken Avf cyclotron. The central region is equipped with an axial injection system. The spiral type inflector is used for axial injection. The electric field distribution in the inflector and in four acceleration gaps has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The magnetic field is measured. The geometry of the central region has been tested with the computations of orbits carried out by means of the computer code CYCLONE. The optical properties of the spiral inflector and the central region are studied by using the program CASINO and CYCLONE, respectively. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field using the RELAX3D program. (authors)

  10. Beam orbit simulation in the central region of the RIKEN AVF cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Toprek, D; Yano, Y

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the modification design of the central region for h=2 mode of acceleration in the RIKEN AVF cyclotron. we made a small modification to the electrode shape in the central region for optimization of the beam transmission. The central region is equipped with an axial injection system. The spiral type inflector is used for axial injection. The electric field distribution in the inflector and in four acceleration gaps has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The magnetic field is measured. The geometry of the central region has been tested with the computations of orbits carried out by means of the computer code CYCLONE. The optical properties of the spiral inflector and the central region are studied by using the program CASINO and CYCLONE, respectively. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field effects using the RELAX3D program.

  11. Beam orbit simulation in the central region of the RIKEN AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan; Goto, Akira; Yano, Yasushige

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the modification design of the central region for h = 2 mode of acceleration in the RIKEN AVF cyclotron. The central region is equipped with an axial injection system. The spiral type inflector is used for axial injection. The electric field distribution in the inflector and in four acceleration gaps has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The magnetic field is measured. The geometry of the central region has been tested with the computations of orbits carried out by means of the computer code CYCLONE. The optical properties of the spiral inflector and the central region are studied by using the program CASINO and CYCLONE, respectively. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field using the RELAX3D program. (author)

  12. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beam line at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. For a dc beam an ideal µSR flux for surface µ+ should be about 40 kHz/mm2. In this report we show how this flux could be achieved in a beam line using the AGS complex at BNL for a source of protons. We also determined that an orbit feedback system with a pair of thin silicon position monitors and kickers would miss the desired flux by at least an order of magnitude, even with perfect time resolution and no multiple scattering.

  13. Dynamical and observational constraints on satellites in the inner Pluto-Charon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Parker, Joel William; Duncan, Martin J.; Snowdall, J. Clark, Jr.; Levison, Harold F.

    1994-01-01

    It is not known if Pluto has other satellites besides its massive partner Charon. In the past, searches for additional satellites in the Pluto-Charon system have extended from the solar-tidal stability boundary (approximately 90 arcsec from Pluto) inward to about 1 arcsec from Pluto. Here we further explore the inner (i.e., less than 10 arcsec) region of the Pluto-Charon system to determine where additional satellites might lie. In particular, we report on (1) dynamical simulations to delineate the region where unstable orbits lie around Charon, (2) dynamical simulations which use the low orbital eccentricity of Charon to constrain the mass of any third body near Pluto, and (3) analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival images to search for satellites in the inner Pluto-Charon system. Although no objects were found, significant new constraints on bodies orbiting in the inner Pluto-Charon system were obtained.

  14. Small Satellite Passive Magnetic Attitude Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, David T.

    Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is capable of aligning a satellite within 5 degrees of the local magnetic field at low resource cost, making it ideal for a small satellite. However, simulation attempts to date have not been able to predict the attitude dynamics at a level sufficient for mission design. Also, some satellites have suffered from degraded performance due to an incomplete understanding of PMAC system design. This dissertation alleviates these issues by discussing the design, inputs, and validation of PMAC systems for small satellites. Design rules for a PMAC system are defined using the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat as an example. A Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) is defined for the attitude determination of a PMAC satellite without a rate gyro. After on-orbit calibration of the off-the-shelf magnetometer and photodiodes and an on-orbit fit to the satellite magnetic moment, the MEKF regularly achieves a three sigma attitude uncertainty of 4 degrees or less. CSSWE is found to settle to the magnetic field in seven days, verifying its attitude design requirement. A Helmholtz cage is constructed and used to characterize the CSSWE bar magnet and hysteresis rods both individually and in the flight configuration. Fitted parameters which govern the magnetic material behavior are used as input to a PMAC dynamics simulation. All components of this simulation are described and defined. Simulation-based dynamics analysis shows that certain initial conditions result in abnormally decreased settling times; these cases may be identified by their dynamic response. The simulation output is compared to the MEKF output; the true dynamics are well modeled and the predicted settling time is found to possess a 20 percent error, a significant improvement over prior simulation.

  15. Enhancing Famine Early Warning Systems with Improved Forecasts, Satellite Observations and Hydrologic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J.; Thiaw, W. M.; Hoell, A.; Korecha, D.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Magadzire, T.; Novella, N.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Robjohn, M.; Pomposi, C.; Galu, G.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Landsfeld, M. F.; Harrison, L.; Davenport, F.; Husak, G. J.; Endalkachew, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drought early warning science, in support of famine prevention, is a rapidly advancing field that is helping to save lives and livelihoods. In 2015-2017, a series of extreme droughts afflicted Ethiopia, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa in OND and Eastern Africa in MAM, pushing more than 50 million people into severe food insecurity. Improved drought forecasts and monitoring tools, however, helped motivate and target large and effective humanitarian responses. Here we describe new science being developed by a long-established early warning system - the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). FEWS NET is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. FEWS NET research is advancing rapidly on several fronts, providing better climate forecasts and more effective drought monitoring tools that are being used to support enhanced famine early warning. We explore the philosophy and science underlying these successes, suggesting that a modal view of climate change can support enhanced seasonal prediction. Under this modal perspective, warming of the tropical oceans may interact with natural modes of variability, like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, to enhance Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature gradients during both El Niño and La Niña-like climate states. Using empirical data and climate change simulations, we suggest that a sequence of droughts may commence in northern Ethiopia and Southern Africa with the advent of a moderate-to-strong El Niño, and then continue with La Niña/West Pacific related droughts in equatorial eastern East Africa. Scientifically, we show that a new hybrid statistical-dynamic precipitation forecast system, the FEWS NET Integrated Forecast System (FIFS), based on reformulations of the Global Ensemble Forecast System weather forecasts and National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal climate predictions, can effectively anticipate recent East and Southern African drought events. Using cross-validation, we

  16. New insight of Arctic cloud parameterization from regional climate model simulations, satellite-based, and drifting station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, D.; Dethloff, K.; Dorn, W.; Rinke, A.; Wu, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Cloud observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites helped to explain the reduced total cloud cover (Ctot) in the atmospheric regional climate model HIRHAM5 with modified cloud physics. Arctic climate conditions are found to be better reproduced with (1) a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process and (2) a more generalized subgrid-scale variability of total water content. As a result, the annual cycle of Ctot is improved over sea ice, associated with an almost 14% smaller area average than in the control simulation. The modified cloud scheme reduces the Ctot bias with respect to the satellite observations. Except for autumn, the cloud reduction over sea ice improves low-level temperature profiles compared to drifting station data. The HIRHAM5 sensitivity study highlights the need for improving accuracy of low-level (<700 m) cloud observations, as these clouds exert a strong impact on the near-surface climate.

  17. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  18. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    noise signal level exceeds 10 times the normal background. EXPERIMENTS FOR SATELLITE ASTRONOMY 615 ANTENNA MONOPOLE -., PREAMPLFE = BANDPASS-FILTER...OUTPUT TO AND DETECTOR TELEMETRYCHANNELS (18) CALIBRATION NOISE MATRIX CLOCK NOISE SOURCE ’ON’ SOURCE COMMAND F ROM PROGRAMERP ANTENNA MONOPOLE FIGURE 13...Animal Tempera- ture Sensing for Studying the Effect of Prolonged Orbital Flight on the Circadian Rhythms of Pocket Mice . Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting

  19. Test of Neural Network Techniques using Simulated Dual-Band Data of LEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    component to allow for glinting surfaces, such as solar panels. Radiant intensities are calculated for a blue band (468-495 nm) and a red band (738-765...When a satellite is visible for at least one of the observation sites, OSC is used to calculate radiant intensity in the blue and red spectral bands...Input node, aji , contains the ith value of radiant intensity for the jth pass of a satellite. In this work, the n input nodes are values of radiant

  20. Satellite cluster flight using on-off cyclic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gurfil, Pini

    2015-01-01

    Nano-satellite clusters and disaggregated satellites are new concepts in the realm of distributed satellite systems, which require complex cluster management - mainly regulating the maximal and minimal inter-satellite distances on time scales of years - while utilizing simple on-off propulsion systems. The simple actuators and long time scales require judicious astrodynamical modeling coupled with specialized orbit control. This paper offers a satellite cluster orbit control law which works for long time scales in a perturbed environment while utilizing fixed-magnitude thrusters. The main idea is to design a distributed controller which balances the fuel consumption among the satellites, thus mitigating the effect of differential drag perturbations. The underlying methodology utilizes a cyclic control algorithm based on a mean orbital elements feedback. Stability properties of the closed-loop cyclic control system do not adhere to the classical Lyapunov stability theory, so an effort is made to define and implement a suitable stability theory of noncompact equilibria sets. A state selection scheme is proposed for efficiently establishing a low Earth orbit cluster. Several simulations, including a real mission study, and several comparative investigations, are performed to show the strengths of the proposed control law.

  1. Design and simulation of a ~390 GHz seventh harmonic gyrotron using a large orbit electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengping; He, Wenlong; Cross, Adrian W.; Donaldson, Craig R.; Zhang, Liang; Phelps, Alan D. R.; Ronald, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    A ~390 GHz harmonic gyrotron based on a cusp electron gun has been designed and numerically modelled. The gyrotron operates at the seventh harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency with the beam interacting with a TE71 waveguide mode. Theoretical as well as numerical simulation results using the 3D particle-in-cell code MAGIC are presented. The cusp gun generated an axis-encircling, annular shaped electron beam of energy 40 keV, current 1.5 A with a velocity ratio α of 3. Smooth cylindrical waveguides have been studied as the interaction cavities and their cavity Q optimized for 390 GHz operation. In the simulations ~600 W of output power at the design frequency has been demonstrated.

  2. Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva C. Karau; Pamela G. Sikkink; Robert E. Keane; Gregory K. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the...

  3. FORMATION OF MULTIPLE-SATELLITE SYSTEMS FROM LOW-MASS CIRCUMPLANETARY PARTICLE DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Takeda, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Circumplanetary particle disks would be created in the late stage of planetary formation either by impacts of planetary bodies or disruption of satellites or passing bodies, and satellites can be formed by accretion of disk particles spreading across the Roche limit. Previous N-body simulation of lunar accretion focused on the formation of single-satellite systems from disks with large disk-to-planet mass ratios, while recent models of the formation of multiple-satellite systems from disks with smaller mass ratios do not take account of gravitational interaction between formed satellites. In the present work, we investigate satellite accretion from particle disks with various masses, using N-body simulation. In the case of accretion from somewhat less massive disks than the case of lunar accretion, formed satellites are not massive enough to clear out the disk, but can become massive enough to gravitationally shepherd the disk outer edge and start outward migration due to gravitational interaction with the disk. When the radial location of the 2:1 mean motion resonance of the satellite reaches outside the Roche limit, the second satellite can be formed near the disk outer edge, and then the two satellites continue outward migration while being locked in the resonance. Co-orbital satellites are found to be occasionally formed on the orbit of the first satellite. Our simulations also show that stochastic nature involved in gravitational interaction and collision between aggregates in the tidal environment can lead to diversity in the final mass and orbital architecture, which would be expected in satellite systems of exoplanets

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of attitude and orbit estimation using real earth magnetic field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    A single, augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit was developed and tested with simulated and real magnetometer and rate data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is accurately known, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft's orbit, are a function of orbit and attitude errors. These differences can be used to estimate the orbit and attitude. The test results of the EKF with magnetometer and gyro data from three NASA satellites are presented and evaluated.

  5. Analysis of the Accuracy of Beidou Combined Orbit Determination Enhanced by LEO and ISL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Laiping

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the precision of BeiDou orbit determination under the conditions of regional ground monitoring station and make good use of increasingly rich on-board data and upcoming ISL technology, a method of BeiDou precision orbit determination is proposed which combines the use of ground monitoring stations data, low earth orbit satellite(LEOs data and Inter-Satellite Link(ISL data. The effects of assisting data of LEOs and ISL on the precision orbit determination of navigation satellite are discussed. Simulation analysis is carried out mainly from the number of LEOs, orbit slot configuration and ISL. The results show that the orbit precision of BeiDou will greatly improve about 73% with a small number of LEOs, while improvement of clock bias is not remarkable; the uniform orbit slot configuration of the same number of LEOs has a modest effect on the accuracy of combined orbit determination; compared with LEOs, the increase of ISL will significantly improve the accuracy of orbit determination with a higher efficiency.

  6. The YORP effect on the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja, Antonella A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Cognion, Rita L.; Ryan, William; Ryan, Eileen V.

    2018-01-01

    The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is a proposed explanation for the observed rotation behavior of inactive satellites in Earth orbit. This paper further explores the YORP effect for highly asymmetric inactive satellites. Satellite models are developed to represent the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites, both of which are currently inactive in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A simple satellite model for the GOES 8 satellite is used to analyze the short period variations of the angular velocity and obliquity as a result of the YORP effect. A more complex model for the rotational dynamics of the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites are developed to probe their sensitivity and to match observed spin periods and states of these satellites. The simulated rotation periods are compared to observations for both satellites. The comparison between YORP theory and observed rotation rates for both satellites show that the YORP effect could be the cause for the observed rotational behavior. The YORP model also predicts a novel state for the GOES 8 satellite, namely that it could periodically fall into a tumbling rotation state. Recent observations of this satellite are consistent with this prediction.

  7. Preliminary results from a simulated laboratory experiment or an encounter of cluster satellite probes with a reconnection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Ren, Y.; Ji, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Darfman, S.

    2006-12-01

    With the recent upgrade of the MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment) device[1], our experimental operation allows us to carry out a jog experiment in which a current sheet can be moved swiftly across an inserted probe assembly. A cluster of probes with variable distances can be inserted into a known desired position in the MRX device. This setup can be similar to the situation in which a cluster of satellites encounters a rapidly moving reconnection layer. If necessary, we can create a neutral sheet where the density of one side is significantly higher than the other, as is the case for the magnetopause. A variable guide field will be applied to study its effect on reconnection. We proposed[2] to document basic patterns of data during a simulated encounter of the MRX reconnection layer with the four-probe mock-up system and compare them with data acquired from past satellites. Relative position of the MMS satellites in the magnetosphere can then be determined. Optimum cluster configuration or distance between the four satellites can be determined for various diagnostics or research missions. The relationship of magnetic fluctuations[3] with the observed out-of- plane quadrupole field, a characteristic signature of the Hall MHD, can be also studied in this series of experiments. In this paper, results from a preliminary experiment will be presented. These experiments utilize effectively the unique MRX ability to accurately know the location of diagnostics with respect to the moving reconnection layer. Supported by DoE, NASA, NSF. [1] M. Yamada et al, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052119 (2006), [2] M.Yamada et al, MMS-IDS proposal (2006), [3] H. Ji et al, Phys. Rev. Letts. 92, 115001 (2004)

  8. Changing inclination of earth satellites using the gravity of the moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla de Souza Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the problem of the orbital control of an Earth's satellite using the gravity of the Moon. The main objective is to study a technique to decrease the fuel consumption of a plane change maneuver to be performed in a satellite that is in orbit around the Earth. The main idea of this approach is to send the satellite to the Moon using a single-impulsive maneuver, use the gravity field of the Moon to make the desired plane change of the trajectory, and then return the satellite to its nominal semimajor axis and eccentricity using a bi-impulsive Hohmann-type maneuver. The satellite is assumed to start in a Keplerian orbit in the plane of the lunar orbit around the Earth and the goal is to put it in a similar orbit that differs from the initial orbit only by the inclination. A description of the close-approach maneuver is made in the three-dimensional space. Analytical equations based on the patched conics approach are used to calculate the variation in velocity, angular momentum, energy, and inclination of the satellite. Then, several simulations are made to evaluate the savings involved. The time required by those transfers is also calculated and shown.

  9. Design and Simulation of a Nano-Satellite Attitude Determination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    4 D. SURVEY OF CUBESAT ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEMS... 6 1. Pumpkin IMI ADCS...imagery satellites are going through the same trend in resolution. They have improved in the past decade, from relatively low resolution at about 5m to...this is the nearly complete lack of a pre-packaged ADS. Until August of 2009, there was only one ADS available on the market. It was the Pumpkin

  10. GPS-based system for satellite tracking and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, Willy I.; Thornton, Catherine L.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance receivers and data processing systems developed for GPS are reviewed. The GPS Inferred Positioning System (GIPSY) and the Orbiter Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) are described. The OASIS software is used to assess GPS system performance using GIPSY for data processing. Consideration is given to parameter estimation for multiday arcs, orbit repeatability, orbit prediction, daily baseline repeatability, agreement with VLBI, and ambiguity resolution. Also, the dual-frequency Rogue receiver, which can track up to eight GPS satellites simultaneously, is discussed.

  11. Simulation of Satellite, Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR with DART (I):Waveform Simulation with Quasi-Monte Carlo Ray Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Yin, Tiangang; Lauret, Nicolas; Grau, Eloi; Rubio, Jeremy; Cook, Bruce D.; Morton, Douglas C.; Sun, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) provides unique data on the 3-D structure of atmosphere constituents and the Earth's surface. Simulating LiDAR returns for different laser technologies and Earth scenes is fundamental for evaluating and interpreting signal and noise in LiDAR data. Different types of models are capable of simulating LiDAR waveforms of Earth surfaces. Semi-empirical and geometric models can be imprecise because they rely on simplified simulations of Earth surfaces and light interaction mechanisms. On the other hand, Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) models are potentially accurate but require long computational time. Here, we present a new LiDAR waveform simulation tool that is based on the introduction of a quasi-Monte Carlo ray tracing approach in the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model. Two new approaches, the so-called "box method" and "Ray Carlo method", are implemented to provide robust and accurate simulations of LiDAR waveforms for any landscape, atmosphere and LiDAR sensor configuration (view direction, footprint size, pulse characteristics, etc.). The box method accelerates the selection of the scattering direction of a photon in the presence of scatterers with non-invertible phase function. The Ray Carlo method brings traditional ray-tracking into MCRT simulation, which makes computational time independent of LiDAR field of view (FOV) and reception solid angle. Both methods are fast enough for simulating multi-pulse acquisition. Sensitivity studies with various landscapes and atmosphere constituents are presented, and the simulated LiDAR signals compare favorably with their associated reflectance images and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) waveforms. The LiDAR module is fully integrated into DART, enabling more detailed simulations of LiDAR sensitivity to specific scene elements (e.g., atmospheric aerosols, leaf area, branches, or topography) and sensor configuration for airborne or satellite LiDAR sensors.

  12. Origin of the Local Group satellite planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil; O'Ryan, David; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2018-04-01

    We attempt to understand the planes of satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW) and M31 in the context of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), which implies a close MW-M31 flyby occurred ≈8 Gyr ago. Using the timing argument, we obtain MW-M31 trajectories consistent with cosmological initial conditions and present observations. We adjust the present M31 proper motion within its uncertainty in order to simulate a range of orbital geometries and closest approach distances. Treating the MW and M31 as point masses, we follow the trajectories of surrounding test particle disks, thereby mapping out the tidal debris distribution. Around each galaxy, the resulting tidal debris tends to cluster around a particular orbital pole. We find some models in which these preferred spin vectors align fairly well with those of the corresponding observed satellite planes. The radial distributions of material in the simulated satellite planes are similar to what we observe. Around the MW, our best-fitting model yields a significant fraction (0.22) of counter-rotating material, perhaps explaining why Sculptor counter-rotates within the MW satellite plane. In contrast, our model yields no counter-rotating material around M31. This is testable with proper motions of M31 satellites. In our best model, the MW disk is thickened by the flyby 7.65 Gyr ago to a root mean square height of 0.75 kpc. This is similar to the observed age and thickness of the Galactic thick disk. Thus, the MW thick disk may have formed together with the MW and M31 satellite planes during a past MW-M31 flyby.

  13. Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

  14. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver D.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    We present Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE)/GIZMO hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter haloes, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ≃ 1010 M⊙) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ≃ 109 M⊙), and with two feedback implementations. The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M⋆ ≃ 106 to 104 M⊙ without a break. Every host is filled with subhaloes, many of which form stars. Each of our dwarfs with M⋆ ≃ 106 M⊙ has 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M⋆ = 3-200 × 103 M⊙. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhaloes. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the Universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) simulations to show that targeting ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35 per cent compared to random pointings, and specifically identify the region around the Phoenix dwarf galaxy as a good potential target. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M⋆ ≃ 3-30 × 103 M⊙) form within Mpeak ≃ 0.5-3 × 109 M⊙ haloes. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population ( > 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙ is a probable dividing line between haloes hosting reionization `fossils' and those hosting dwarfs that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization.

  15. Some design considerations for planetary relay communications satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.; Bourke, R. D.

    1966-01-01

    Items affecting information transmitted from payload landed on remote planet to Earth via communications satellite including orbit, transmission policy and orbit injection error effect on communication capability

  16. New Methods for Retrieval of Chlorophyll Red Fluorescence from Hyperspectral Satellite Instruments: Simulations and Application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    to estimate red SIF emission. Our approach is then an extension of previous approaches applied to satellite data that utilized only the filling-in of SFLs by red SIF. We conducted retrievals of red SIF using an extensive database of simulated radiances covering a wide range of conditions. Our new algorithm produces good agreement between the simulated truth and retrievals and shows the potential of the O2 bands for noise reduction in red SIF retrievals as compared with approaches that rely solely on SFL filling. Biases seen with existing satellite data, most likely due to instrumental artifacts that vary in time, space, and with instrument, must be addressed in order to obtain reasonable results. Our 8-year record of red SIF observations over land with the GOME-2 allows for the first time reliable global mapping of monthly anomalies. These anomalies are shown to have similar spatiotemporal structure as those in the far red, particularly for drought-prone regions. There is a somewhat larger percentage response in the red as compared with the far red for these areas that are drought sensitive. We also demonstrate that good-quality ocean fluorescence line height retrievals can be achieved with GOME-2, SCIAMACHY, and similar instruments by utilizing the full complement of radiance measurements that span the red SIF emission feature.

  17. Satellite services system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  18. Impact of Assimilation of Conventional and Satellite Radiance GTS Observations on Simulation of Mesoscale Convective System Over Southeast India Using WRF-3DVar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhulatha, A.; Rajeevan, M.; Bhowmik, S. K. Roy; Das, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of present study is to investigate the impact of assimilation of conventional and satellite radiance observations in simulating the mesoscale convective system (MCS) formed over south east India. An assimilation methodology based on Weather Research and Forecasting model three dimensional variational data assimilation is considered. Few numerical experiments are carried out to examine the individual and combined impact of conventional and non-conventional (satellite radiance) observations. After the successful inclusion of additional observations, strong analysis increments of temperature and moisture fields are noticed and contributed to significant improvement in model's initial fields. The resulting model simulations are able to successfully reproduce the prominent synoptic features responsible for the initiation of MCS. Among all the experiments, the final experiment in which both conventional and satellite radiance observations assimilated has showed considerable impact on the prediction of MCS. The location, genesis, intensity, propagation and development of rain bands associated with the MCS are simulated reasonably well. The biases of simulated temperature, moisture and wind fields at surface and different pressure levels are reduced. Thermodynamic, dynamic and vertical structure of convective cells associated with the passage of MCS are well captured. Spatial distribution of rainfall is fairly reproduced and comparable to TRMM observations. It is demonstrated that incorporation of conventional and satellite radiance observations improved the local and synoptic representation of temperature, moisture fields from surface to different levels of atmosphere. This study highlights the importance of assimilation of conventional and satellite radiances in improving the models initial conditions and simulation of MCS.

  19. Monte-Carlo Orbit/Full Wave Simulation of Fast Alfvén Wave (FW) Damping on Resonant Ions in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M.; Chan, V. S.; Tang, V.; Bonoli, P.; Pinsker, R. I.; Wright, J.

    2005-09-01

    To simulate the resonant interaction of fast Alfvén wave (FW) heating and Coulomb collisions on energetic ions, including finite orbit effects, a Monte-Carlo code ORBIT-RF has been coupled with a 2D full wave code TORIC4. ORBIT-RF solves Hamiltonian guiding center drift equations to follow trajectories of test ions in 2D axisymmetric numerical magnetic equilibrium under Coulomb collisions and ion cyclotron radio frequency quasi-linear heating. Monte-Carlo operators for pitch-angle scattering and drag calculate the changes of test ions in velocity and pitch angle due to Coulomb collisions. A rf-induced random walk model describing fast ion stochastic interaction with FW reproduces quasi-linear diffusion in velocity space. FW fields and its wave numbers from TORIC are passed on to ORBIT-RF to calculate perpendicular rf kicks of resonant ions valid for arbitrary cyclotron harmonics. ORBIT-RF coupled with TORIC using a single dominant toroidal and poloidal wave number has demonstrated consistency of simulations with recent DIII-D FW experimental results for interaction between injected neutral-beam ions and FW, including measured neutron enhancement and enhanced high energy tail. Comparison with C-Mod fundamental heating discharges also yielded reasonable agreement.

  20. Mapping Offshore Winds Around Iceland Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar and Mesoscale Model Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Nawri, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    effects, gap flow, coastal barrier jets, and atmospheric gravity waves are not only observed in SAR, but are also modeled well from HARMONIE. Offshore meteorological observations are not available, but wind speed and wind direction measurements from coastal meteorological masts are found to compare well...... to nearby offshore locations observed by SAR. More than 2500 SAR scenes from the Envisat ASAR wide swathmode are used for wind energy resource estimation. The wind energy potential observed from satellite SAR shows high values above 1000 Wm −2 in coastal regions in the south, east, and west, with lower...

  1. Assessment of ionospheric Joule heating by GUMICS-4 MHD simulation, AMIE, and satellite-based statistics: towards a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palmroth

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4. In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE, and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents

  2. The Results of Complex Research of GSS "SBIRS-Geo 2" Behavior in the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Sukhov, K. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Motrunich, I. I.

    2017-04-01

    The new generation of geosynchronous satellites SBIRS of US Air Force early warning system series (Satellite Early Warning System) replaced the previous DSP-satellite series (Defense Support Program). Currently from the territory of Ukraine, several GSS of DSP series and one "SBIRS-Geo 2" are available to observation. During two years of observations, we have received and analyzed for two satellites more than 30 light curves in B, V, R photometric system. As a result of complex research, we propose a model of "SBIRS-Geo" 2 orbital behavior compared with the same one of the DSP-satellite. To control the entire surface of the Earth with 15-16 sec interval, including the polar regions, 4 SBIRS satellites located every 90 deg. along the equator are enough in GEO orbit. Since DSP-satellites provide the coverage of the Earth's surface to 83 deg. latitudes with a period of 50 sec, DSP-satellites should be 8. All the conclusions were made based on an analysis of photometric and coordinate observations using the simulation of the dynamics of their orbital behavior.

  3. Applications of TRMM-based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation for Global Runoff Simulation: Prototyping a Global Flood Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.

  4. Assessment of GPM and TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Products in Streamflow Simulations in a Data-Sparse Mountainous Watershed in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite precipitation products from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission and its predecessor the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM are a critical data source for hydrological applications in ungauged basins. This study conducted an initial and early evaluation of the performance of the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG final run and the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42V7 precipitation products, and their feasibility in streamflow simulations in the Chindwin River basin, Myanmar, from April 2014 to December 2015 was also assessed. Results show that, although IMERG and 3B42V7 can potentially capture the spatiotemporal patterns of historical precipitation, the two products contain considerable errors. Compared with 3B42V7, no significant improvements were found in IMERG. Moreover, 3B42V7 outperformed IMERG at daily and monthly scales and in heavy rain detections at four out of five gauges. The large errors in IMERG and 3B42V7 distinctly propagated to streamflow simulations via the Xinanjiang hydrological model, with a significant underestimation of total runoff and high flows. The bias correction of the satellite precipitation effectively improved the streamflow simulations. The 3B42V7-based streamflow simulations performed better than the gauge-based simulations. In general, IMERG and 3B42V7 are feasible for use in streamflow simulations in the study area, although 3B42V7 is better suited than IMERG.

  5. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes...

  6. Analysis of Satellite-Based Navigation Signal Reflectometry: Simulations and Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per; Durgonics, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    on different ocean characteristics. The spectra of the simulated surface reflections are analyzed, and the results from the simulations are compared to measured GPS surface reflections. The measurements were performed using a space-qualified GPS receiver placed on a mountain at the Haleakala observatory...... on the Hawaiian island of Maui. The GPS receiver was during the experiments running in an open-loop configuration. The analysis of both the simulated surface-reflection signals and the measured reflection signals will in general reveal spectral structures of the reflected signals that can lead to extraction...

  7. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Satellite Subsystems for End-to-End Spacecraft Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schum, William K; Doolittle, Christina M; Boyarko, George A

    2006-01-01

    During the past ten years, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has been simultaneously developing high-fidelity spacecraft payload models as well as a robust distributed simulation environment for modeling spacecraft subsystems...

  9. Estimating the Mass of the Milky Way Using the Ensemble of Classical Satellite Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ekta; Besla, Gurtina; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Mandel, Kaisey

    2018-06-01

    High precision proper motions are currently available for approximately 20% of the Milky Way's known satellite galaxies. Often, the 6D phase space information of each satellite is used separately to constrain the mass of the MW. In this talk, I will discuss the Bayesian framework outlined in Patel et al. 2017b to make inferences of the MW's mass using satellite properties such as specific orbital angular momentum, rather than just position and velocity. By extending this framework from one satellite to a population of satellites, we can now form simultaneous MW mass estimates using the Illustris-Dark cosmological simulation that are unbiased by high speed satellites such as Leo I (Patel et al., submitted). Our resulting MW mass estimates reduce the current factor of two uncertainty in the mass range of the MW and show promising signs for improvement as upcoming ground- and space-based observatories obtain proper motions for additional MW satellite galaxies.

  10. STUDY OF POLLUTANT DISTRIBUTION IN BENOA BAY USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Ardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Euthrofication that caused by nitrate and phosphate contamination and also sedimentation process is the mainproblem that took place in Benoa Bay Territorial water. The distribution of phosphate pollutant in Benoa bay territorialwater was modeled by numeric of Princeton Ocean model (POM. The input of this pollutant model were a tidal currentpattern, M2 tidal current residue, biological factor, physic and chemistry, that influenced pollutant concentration.Meanwhile, the sedimentation concentration was mapped with ALOS AVNIR-2 sensor image satellite and this image wasanalysed with statistic method (Linear Regression.The result of phosphate modeling concentration was 0.1 mg/1 to 0.0022 mg/1, where the concentration wascategorized very hazardous to the territorial water environment. Because the phosphate concentration in a pollutantresources was beyond the standard level of environmental quality, that was 0.015 mg/1 for fishery cultivation and alsotourism activity (Bali Governor Regulation No.8th 2007. While, the direction of the distribution was affected by currentpattern of movement, that was when the ebb level of high water moving into the bay and when the ebb to high tidemoving out of the bay.The result of statistic approaches with ALOS of AVNIR-2 censor can be used for mapping sedimentationdistribution advantages in Benoa Bay. The values were: R2 Band 1 is 0.3839, Band 2 is 0.6123 and Band 3 is 0.5468. Inthis methodology, the correlation was not significant, due to, the quantity of in-situ data was small and the time researchwas not at the same time with satellite data.

  11. Mesoscale spiral vortex embedded within a Lake Michigan snow squall band - High resolution satellite observations and numerical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Keen, Cecil S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark; Pease, Steven R.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that Great Lakes snow squall convection occurs in a variety of different modes depending on various factors such as air-water temperature contrast, boundary-layer wind shear, and geostrophic wind direction. An exceptional and often neglected source of data for mesoscale cloud studies is the ultrahigh resolution multispectral data produced by Landsat satellites. On October 19, 1972, a clearly defined spiral vortex was noted in a Landsat-1 image near the southern end of Lake Michigan during an exceptionally early cold air outbreak over a still very warm lake. In a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional Eulerian hydrostatic primitive equation mesoscale model with an initially uniform wind field, a definite analog to the observed vortex was generated. This suggests that intense surface heating can be a principal cause in the development of a low-level mesoscale vortex.

  12. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  13. Simulations of the Holuhraun eruption 2014 with WRF-Chem and evaluation with satellite and ground based SO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Arnold-Arias, Delia; Flandorfer, Claudia; Maurer, Christian; Mantovani, Simone; Natali, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions, with gas or/and particle emissions, directly influence our environment, with special significance when they either occur near inhabited regions or are transported towards them. In addition to the well-known affectation of air traffic, with large economic impacts, the ground touching plumes can lead directly to an influence of soil, water and even to a decrease of air quality. The eruption of Holuhraun in August 2014 in central Iceland is the country's largest lava and gas eruption since the Lakagígar eruption in 1783. Nevertheless, very little volcanic ash was produced. The main atmospheric threat from this event was the SO2 pollution that frequently violated the Icelandic National Air Quality Standards in many population centers. However, the SO2 affectation was not limited to Iceland but extended to mainland Europe. The on-line coupled model WRF-Chem is used to simulate the dispersion of SO2 for this event that affected the central European regions. The volcanic emissions are considered in addition to the anthropogenic and biogenic ground sources at European scale. A modified version of WRF-Chem version 4.1 is used in order to use time depending injection heights and mass fluxes which were obtained from in situ observations. WRF-Chem uses complex gas- (RADM2) and aerosol- (MADE-SORGAM) chemistry and is operated on a European domain (12 km resolution), and a nested grid covering the Alpine region (4 km resolution). The study is showing the evaluation of the model simulations with satellite and ground based measurement data of SO2. The analysis is conducted on a data management platform, which is currently developed in the frame of the ESA-funded project TAMP "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform": it provides comprehensive functionalities to visualize and numerically compare data from different sources (model, satellite and ground-measurements).

  14. The formation of Pluto's low-mass satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bromley, Benjamin C., E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the New Horizons mission, we consider how Pluto's small satellites—currently Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra—grow in debris from the giant impact that forms the Pluto-Charon binary. After the impact, Pluto and Charon accrete some of the debris and eject the rest from the binary orbit. During the ejection, high-velocity collisions among debris particles produce a collisional cascade, leading to the ejection of some debris from the system and enabling the remaining debris particles to find stable orbits around the binary. Our numerical simulations of coagulation and migration show that collisional evolution within a ring or a disk of debris leads to a few small satellites orbiting Pluto-Charon. These simulations are the first to demonstrate migration-induced mergers within a particle disk. The final satellite masses correlate with the initial disk mass. More massive disks tend to produce fewer satellites. For the current properties of the satellites, our results strongly favor initial debris masses of 3-10 × 10{sup 19} g and current satellite albedos A ≈ 0.4-1. We also predict an ensemble of smaller satellites, R ≲ 1-3 km, and very small particles, R ≈ 1-100 cm and optical depth τ ≲ 10{sup –10}. These objects should have semimajor axes outside the current orbit of Hydra.

  15. Monte-Carlo estimation of the inflight performance of the GEMS satellite x-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; Tamagawa, Toru; Hayato, Asami; Enoto, Teruaki; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kaneko, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Black, Kevin; Hill, Joanne; Jahoda, Keith; Krizmanic, John; Sturner, Steven; Griffiths, Scott; Kaaret, Philip; Marlowe, Hannah

    2014-07-01

    We report a Monte-Carlo estimation of the in-orbit performance of a cosmic X-ray polarimeter designed to be installed on the focal plane of a small satellite. The simulation uses GEANT for the transport of photons and energetic particles and results from Magboltz for the transport of secondary electrons in the detector gas. We validated the simulation by comparing spectra and modulation curves with actual data taken with radioactive sources and an X-ray generator. We also estimated the in-orbit background induced by cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit.

  16. Evaluation of CMIP5 continental precipitation simulations relative to satellite-based gauge-adjusted observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, A.; AghaKouchak, A.; Phillips, T. J.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to cross-validate 34 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical simulations of precipitation against the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data, quantifying model pattern discrepancies, and biases for both entire distributions and their upper tails. The results of the volumetric hit index (VHI) analysis of the total monthly precipitation amounts show that most CMIP5 simulations are in good agreement with GPCP patterns in many areas but that their replication of observed precipitation over arid regions and certain subcontinental regions (e.g., northern Eurasia, eastern Russia, and central Australia) is problematical. Overall, the VHI of the multimodel ensemble mean and median also are superior to that of the individual CMIP5 models. However, at high quantiles of reference data (75th and 90th percentiles), all climate models display low skill in simulating precipitation, except over North America, the Amazon, and Central Africa. Analyses of total bias (B) in CMIP5 simulations reveal that most models overestimate precipitation over regions of complex topography (e.g., western North and South America and southern Africa and Asia), while underestimating it over arid regions. Also, while most climate model simulations show low biases over Europe, intermodel variations in bias over Australia and Amazonia are considerable. The quantile bias analyses indicate that CMIP5 simulations are even more biased at high quantiles of precipitation. It is found that a simple mean field bias removal improves the overall B and VHI values but does not make a significant improvement at high quantiles of precipitation.

  17. A Satellite-Based Model for Simulating Ecosystem Respiration in the Tibetan and Inner Mongolian Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to accurately evaluate ecosystem respiration (RE in the alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the temperate grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, as it serves as a sensitivity indicator of regional and global carbon cycles. Here, we combined flux measurements taken between 2003 and 2013 from 16 grassland sites across northern China and the corresponding MODIS land surface temperature (LST, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, and land surface water index (LSWI to build a satellite-based model to estimate RE at a regional scale. First, the dependencies of both spatial and temporal variations of RE on these biotic and climatic factors were examined explicitly. We found that plant productivity and moisture, but not temperature, can best explain the spatial pattern of RE in northern China’s grasslands; while temperature plays a major role in regulating the temporal variability of RE in the alpine grasslands, and moisture is equally as important as temperature in the temperate grasslands. However, the moisture effect on RE and the explicit representation of spatial variation process are often lacking in most of the existing satellite-based RE models. On this basis, we developed a model by comprehensively considering moisture, temperature, and productivity effects on both temporal and spatial processes of RE, and then, we evaluated the model performance. Our results showed that the model well explained the observed RE in both the alpine (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 0.77 g C m−2 day−1 and temperate grasslands (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 0.60 g C m−2 day−1. The inclusion of the LSWI as the water-limiting factor substantially improved the model performance in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and the spatialized basal respiration rate as an indicator for spatial variation largely determined the regional pattern of RE. Finally, the model accurately reproduced the seasonal and inter-annual variations and spatial variability of RE, and it avoided

  18. Transit navigation through Northern Sea Route from satellite data and CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khon, Vyacheslav C.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Semenov, Vladimir A.

    2017-02-01

    Rapid Arctic sea ice decline over the last few decades opens new perspectives for Arctic marine navigation. Further warming in the Arctic will promote the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as an alternative to the conventional Suez or Panama Canal routes for intercontinental shipping. Here we use both satellite data and CMIP5 ensemble of climate models to estimate the NSR transit window allowing intercontinental navigation between Atlantic and Pacific regions. To this end, we introduce a novel approach to calculate start and end dates of the navigation season along the NSR. We show that modern climate models are able to reproduce the mean time of the NSR transit window and its trend over the last few decades. The selected models demonstrate that the rate of increase of the NSR navigation season will slow down over the next few decades with the RCP4.5 scenario. By the end of the 21st century ensemble-mean estimates show an increase of the NSR transit window by about 4 and 6.5 months according to RCP4.5 and 8.5, respectively. Estimated trends for the end date of the navigation season are found to be stronger compared to those for the start date.

  19. Technology programs and related policies - Impacts on communications satellite business ventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The DOMSAT II stochastic communication satellite business venture financial planning simulation model is described. The specification of business scenarios and the results of several analyses are presented. In particular, the impacts of NASA on-orbit propulsion and power technology programs are described. The effects of insurance rates and self-insurance and of the use of the Space Shuttle and Ariane transportation systems on a typical fixed satellite service business venture are discussed.

  20. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol

    2016-07-01

    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  1. Integrating satellite retrieved leaf chlorophyll into land surface models for constraining simulations of water and carbon fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gitelson, Anatoly A.

    2013-01-01

    variability exists. Satellite remote sensing can support modeling efforts by offering distributed information on important land surface characteristics, which would be very difficult to obtain otherwise. This study investigates the utility of satellite based

  2. Fuzzy attitude control for a nanosatellite in leo orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Daniel; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria; Aviles, Taisir

    Fuzzy logic controllers are flexible and simple, suitable for small satellites Attitude Determination and Control Subsystems (ADCS). In this work, a tailored fuzzy controller is designed for a nanosatellite and is compared with a traditional Proportional Integrative Derivative (PID) controller. Both control methodologies are compared within the same specific mission. The orbit height varies along the mission from injection at around 380 km down to a 200 km height orbit, and the mission requires pointing accuracy over the whole time. Due to both the requirements imposed by such a low orbit, and the limitations in the power available for the attitude control, a robust and efficient ADCS is required. For these reasons a fuzzy logic controller is implemented as the brain of the ADCS and its performance and efficiency are compared to a traditional PID. The fuzzy controller is designed in three separated controllers, each one acting on one of the Euler angles of the satellite in an orbital frame. The fuzzy memberships are constructed taking into account the mission requirements, the physical properties of the satellite and the expected performances. Both methodologies, fuzzy and PID, are fine-tuned using an automated procedure to grant maximum efficiency with fixed performances. Finally both methods are probed in different environments to test their characteristics. The simulations show that the fuzzy controller is much more efficient (up to 65% less power required) in single maneuvers, achieving similar, or even better, precision than the PID. The accuracy and efficiency improvement of the fuzzy controller increase with orbit height because the environmental disturbances decrease, approaching the ideal scenario. A brief mission description is depicted as well as the design process of both ADCS controllers. Finally the validation process and the results obtained during the simulations are described. Those results show that the fuzzy logic methodology is valid for small

  3. Automated tracking for advanced satellite laser ranging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.; Sweeney, Harold E.; Conklin, Brion P.; Dunn, Peter J.

    1996-06-01

    NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging Network was originally developed during the 1970's to track satellites carrying corner cube reflectors. Today eight NASA systems, achieving millimeter ranging precision, are part of a global network of more than 40 stations that track 17 international satellites. To meet the tracking demands of a steadily growing satellite constellation within existing resources, NASA is embarking on a major automation program. While manpower on the current systems will be reduced to a single operator, the fully automated SLR2000 system is being designed to operate for months without human intervention. Because SLR2000 must be eyesafe and operate in daylight, tracking is often performed in a low probability of detection and high noise environment. The goal is to automatically select the satellite, setup the tracking and ranging hardware, verify acquisition, and close the tracking loop to optimize data yield. TO accomplish the autotracking tasks, we are investigating (1) improved satellite force models, (2) more frequent updates of orbital ephemerides, (3) lunar laser ranging data processing techniques to distinguish satellite returns from noise, and (4) angular detection and search techniques to acquire the satellite. A Monte Carlo simulator has been developed to allow optimization of the autotracking algorithms by modeling the relevant system errors and then checking performance against system truth. A combination of simulator and preliminary field results will be presented.

  4. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  5. Evaluation of ACCMIP ozone simulations and ozonesonde sampling biases using a satellite-based multi-constituent chemical reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Bowman, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) ensemble ozone simulations for the present day from the 2000 decade simulation results are evaluated by a state-of-the-art multi-constituent atmospheric chemical reanalysis that ingests multiple satellite data including the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) for 2005-2009. Validation of the chemical reanalysis against global ozonesondes shows good agreement throughout the free troposphere and lower stratosphere for both seasonal and year-to-year variations, with an annual mean bias of less than 0.9 ppb in the middle and upper troposphere at the tropics and mid-latitudes. The reanalysis provides comprehensive spatiotemporal evaluation of chemistry-model performance that compliments direct ozonesonde comparisons, which are shown to suffer from significant sampling bias. The reanalysis reveals that the ACCMIP ensemble mean overestimates ozone in the northern extratropics by 6-11 ppb while underestimating by up to 18 ppb in the southern tropics over the Atlantic in the lower troposphere. Most models underestimate the spatial variability of the annual mean lower tropospheric concentrations in the extratropics of both hemispheres by up to 70 %. The ensemble mean also overestimates the seasonal amplitude by 25-70 % in the northern extratropics and overestimates the inter-hemispheric gradient by about 30 % in the lower and middle troposphere. A part of the discrepancies can be attributed to the 5-year reanalysis data for the decadal model simulations. However, these differences are less evident with the current sonde network. To estimate ozonesonde sampling biases, we computed model bias separately for global coverage and the ozonesonde network. The ozonesonde sampling bias in the evaluated model bias for the seasonal mean concentration relative to global

  6. ORIGIN OF THE DIFFERENT ARCHITECTURES OF THE JOVIAN AND SATURNIAN SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Ida, S.; Stewart, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Jovian regular satellite system mainly consists of four Galilean satellites that have similar masses and are trapped in mutual mean-motion resonances except for the outer satellite, Callisto. On the other hand, the Saturnian regular satellite system has only one big icy body, Titan, and a population of much smaller icy moons. We have investigated the origin of these major differences between the Jovian and Saturnian satellite systems by semi-analytically simulating the growth and orbital migration of proto-satellites in an accreting proto-satellite disk. We set up two different disk evolution/structure models that correspond to Jovian and Saturnian systems, by building upon previously developed models of an actively supplied proto-satellite disk, the formation of gas giants, and observations of young stars. Our simulations extend previous models by including the (1) different termination timescales of gas infall onto the proto-satellite disk and (2) different evolution of a cavity in the disk, between the Jovian and Saturnian systems. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations and have shown that in the case of the Jovian systems, four to five similar-mass satellites are likely to remain trapped in mean-motion resonances. This orbital configuration is formed by type I migration, temporal stopping of the migration near the disk inner edge, and quick truncation of gas infall caused by Jupiter opening a gap in the solar nebula. The Saturnian systems tend to end up with one dominant body in the outer regions caused by the slower decay of gas infall associated with global depletion of the solar nebula. The total mass and compositional zoning of the predicted Jovian and Saturnian satellite systems are consistent with the observed satellite systems.

  7. Live Satellite Communications... An Exciting Teaching Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes ways that orbiting satellites carrying amateur radios can be used in the classroom at various grade levels to supplement physics, mathematics, electronics, and social science curricula. (MLH)

  8. Effect of Bias Correction of Satellite-Rainfall Estimates on Runoff Simulations at the Source of the Upper Blue Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Habib

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerous evaluation studies indicated that satellite-rainfall products are contaminated with significant systematic and random errors. Therefore, such products may require refinement and correction before being used for hydrologic applications. In the present study, we explore a rainfall-runoff modeling application using the Climate Prediction Center-MORPHing (CMORPH satellite rainfall product. The study area is the Gilgel Abbay catchment situated at the source basin of the Upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia, Eastern Africa. Rain gauge networks in such area are typically sparse. We examine different bias correction schemes applied locally to the CMORPH product. These schemes vary in the degree to which spatial and temporal variability in the CMORPH bias fields are accounted for. Three schemes are tested: space and time-invariant, time-variant and spatially invariant, and space and time variant. Bias-corrected CMORPH products were used to calibrate and drive the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV rainfall-runoff model. Applying the space and time-fixed bias correction scheme resulted in slight improvement of the CMORPH-driven runoff simulations, but in some instances caused deterioration. Accounting for temporal variation in the bias reduced the rainfall bias by up to 50%. Additional improvements were observed when both the spatial and temporal variability in the bias was accounted for. The rainfall bias was found to have a pronounced effect on model calibration. The calibrated model parameters changed significantly when using rainfall input from gauges alone, uncorrected, and bias-corrected CMORPH estimates. Changes of up to 81% were obtained for model parameters controlling the stream flow volume.

  9. Monitoring the Algerian Basin through glider observations, satellite altimetry and numerical simulations along a SARAL/AltiKa track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicino, G.; Cotroneo, Y.; Ruiz, S.; Sánchez Román, A.; Pascual, A.; Fusco, G.; Tintoré, J.; Budillon, G.

    2018-03-01

    The Algerian Basin is a key component of the general circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The presence of both fresh Atlantic water and more saline Mediterranean water gives the basin an intense inflow/outflow regime and complex circulation patterns. Energetic mesoscale structures that evolve from meanders of the Algerian Current into isolated cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies dominate the area, with marked repercussions on biological activity. Despite its remarkable importance, this region and its variability are still poorly known and basin-wide knowledge of its meso- and submesoscale features is still incomplete. Studying such complex processes requires a synergistic approach that involves integrated observing systems. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the advantages of combined use of autonomous underwater vehicles, such as gliders, with a new generation of satellite altimetry. In this context, we present results of an observational program conducted in the Algerian Basin during fall 2014 and 2015 that aimed to advance our knowledge of its main features. The study was carried out through analysis of high resolution glider observations, collected along the Algerian BAsin Circulation Unmanned Survey (ABACUS) chokepoint, in synergy with co-located SARAL/AltiKa altimetric products and CMEMS numerical simulations. Results show that glider-derived dynamic height and SARAL/AltiKa absolute dynamic topography have similar patterns, with RMS of the differences ranging between 1.11 and 2.90 cm. Even though larger discrepancies are observed near the Balearic and Algerian coasts, correlation coefficients between glider and satellite observations seem mostly to be affected by reduced synopticity between the measurements. Glider observations acquired during the four surveys reveal the presence of several water masses of Atlantic and Mediterranean origin (i.e., AW and LIW at different modification levels) with marked seasonal variability.

  10. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  11. Influence of cracking clays on satellite estimated and model simulated soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertisols are clay soils that are common in the monsoonal and dry warm regions of the world. One of the characteristics of these soil types is to form deep cracks during periods of extended dry, resulting in significant variation of the soil and hydrologic properties. Understanding the influence of these varying soil properties on the hydrological behavior of the system is of considerable interest, particularly in the retrieval or simulation of soil moisture. In this study we compare surface soil moisture (θ in m3 m−3 retrievals from AMSR-E using the VUA-NASA (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in collaboration with NASA algorithm with simulations from the Community Land Model (CLM over vertisol regions of mainland Australia. For the three-year period examined here (2003–2005, both products display reasonable agreement during wet periods. During dry periods however, AMSR-E retrieved near surface soil moisture falls below values for surrounding non-clay soils, while CLM simulations are higher. CLM θ are also higher than AMSR-E and their difference keeps increasing throughout these dry periods. To identify the possible causes for these discrepancies, the impacts of land use, topography, soil properties and surface temperature used in the AMSR-E algorithm, together with vegetation density and rainfall patterns, were investigated. However these do not explain the observed θ responses. Qualitative analysis of the retrieval model suggests that the most likely reason for the low AMSR-E θ is the increase in soil porosity and surface roughness resulting from cracking of the soil. To quantitatively identify the role of each factor, more in situ measurements of soil properties that can represent different stages of cracking need to be collected. CLM does not simulate the behavior of cracking soils, including the additional loss of moisture from the soil continuum during drying and the infiltration into cracks during rainfall events

  12. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  13. Solar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  14. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  15. Orbital Disturbance Analysis due to the Lunar Gravitational Potential and Deviation Minimization through the Trajectory Control in Closed Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, L D; Rocco, E M; De Moraes, R V

    2013-01-01

    A study evaluating the influence due to the lunar gravitational potential, modeled by spherical harmonics, on the gravity acceleration is accomplished according to the model presented in Konopliv (2001). This model provides the components x, y and z for the gravity acceleration at each moment of time along the artificial satellite orbit and it enables to consider the spherical harmonic degree and order up to100. Through a comparison between the gravity acceleration from a central field and the gravity acceleration provided by Konopliv's model, it is obtained the disturbing velocity increment applied to the vehicle. Then, through the inverse problem, the Keplerian elements of perturbed orbit of the satellite are calculated allowing the orbital motion analysis. Transfer maneuvers and orbital correction of lunar satellites are simulated considering the disturbance due to non-uniform gravitational potential of the Moon, utilizing continuous thrust and trajectory control in closed loop. The simulations are performed using the Spacecraft Trajectory Simulator-STRS, Rocco (2008), which evaluate the behavior of the orbital elements, fuel consumption and thrust applied to the satellite over the time

  16. Linear Time Varying Approach to Satellite Attitude Control Using only Electromagnetic Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2000-01-01

    , lightweight, and power efficient actuators is therefore crucial and viable. This paper discusser linear attitude control strategies for a low earth orbit satellite actuated by a set of mutually perpendicular electromagnetic coils. The principle is to use the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field......, nevertheless, a solution of the riccati equation gives an excellent frame for investigations provided in this paper. An observation that geomagnetic field changes approximately periodically when satellite is on a near polar orbit is used throughout this paper. Three types of attitude controllers are proposed......: an infinite horizon, a finite horizon, and a constant gain controller. Their performance is evaluated and compared in the simulation study of the environment...

  17. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz radio waves from fifty terrestrial Long Range Aid to Navigation (LORAN transmitters. Their mean luminosity patch in the plasmasphere is a circular area with a radius of 300 km and a power density of 22 μW/Hz as observed at 660 km height above the ground. The luminosity patches exhibit a southward displacement of 450 km with respect to the locations of the LORAN transmitters. The displacement is reduced to 150 km when an upward propagation of the radio waves along the geomagnetic field line is assumed. This residual displacement indicates that the radio waves undergo 150 km sub-ionospheric propagation prior to entering a magnetospheric duct and escaping into near-Earth space. The residual displacement at low (L < 2.14 and high (L > 2.14 geomagnetic latitudes ranges from 100 km to 200 km which suggests that the smaller inclination of the geomagnetic field lines at low latitudes helps to trap the radio waves and to keep them in the magnetospheric duct. Diffuse luminosity areas are observed northward of the magnetic conjugate locations of LORAN transmitters at extremely low geomagnetic latitudes (L < 1.36 in Southeast Asia. This result suggests that the propagation along the geomagnetic field lines results in a spatial spreading of the radio wave energy over distances of 1 Mm. The summative assessment of the electric field intensities measured in space show that nadir observations of terrestrial 100 kHz radio waves, e.g., from

  18. Study of an integral field spectrograph for the SNAP satellite. Prototype, simulation and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeunier, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The SNAP (Supernovae/Acceleration Probe) project plans to measure very precisely the cosmological parameters and to determine the nature of dark energy by observations of type Ia supernovae and weak lensing. The SNAP instrument consists in a 2-meter telescope with a one square-degree imager and a spectrograph in the visible and infrared range. A dedicated optimized integral field spectrograph based on an imager slicer technology has been developed. To test and validate the performances, two approaches have been developed: a complete simulation of the complete instrument at the pixel level and the manufacturing and test of a spectrograph prototype operating at room temperature and in cryogenic environment. In this thesis we will test the optical and functional performances of the SNAP spectrograph: especially diffraction losses, stray-light and spectro-photometric calibration. We present an original approach for the spectro-photometric calibration adapted for the slicer and the optical performances resulting from the first measurement campaign in the visible range. (author) [fr

  19. Trends in mobile satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  20. Flight results from the gravity-gradient-controlled RAE-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The in-orbit dynamics of a large, flexible spacecraft has been modeled with a computer simulation, which was used for designing the control system, developing a deployment and gravity-gradient capture procedure, predicting the steady-state behavior, and designing a series of dynamics experiments for the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellite. This flexible body dynamics simulator permits three-dimensional, large-angle rotation of the total spacecraft and includes effects of orbit eccentricity, thermal bending, solar pressure, gravitational accelerations, and the damper system. Flight results are consistent with the simulator predictions and are presented for the deployment and capture phases, the steady-state mission, and the dynamics experiments.

  1. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Kazadzis, Stelios; Taylor, Michael; Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Marinou, Eleni; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Solomos, Stavros; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Amiridis, Vassilis; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kontoes, Charalabos

    2017-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO) observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM) and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) attenuation by as much as 40-50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) decrease (80-90 %), while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS). Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m-2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m-2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are being planned.

  2. Analysis for orbital rendezvous of Chang'E-5 using SBI technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Shan, Q.; Li, P.

    2016-12-01

    Chang'E-5 will be launched in later 2017/early 2018 using a new generation rocket from Wenchang satellite launch center, Hainan, China. It is a lunar sampling return mission, and it is the first time for China to carry out orbital rendezvous and docking in the Moon. How to achieve orbital rendezvous successfully in the Moon is very important in Chang'E-5 mission. Orbital rendezvous will be implemented between an orbiter and an ascender 200 km above the Moon. The ground tracking techniques include range, Doppler and VLBI, and they will be used to track the orbiter and the ascender when the ascender is about 70 km farther away from the orbiter. Later the ascender will approach the orbiter automatically. As a successful example, in Chang'E-3, the differential phase delay (delta delay) data between the rover and the lander are obtained with a random error of about 1 ps, and the relative position of the rover is determined with an accuracy of several meters by using same beam VLBI (SBI) technique. Here the application of the SBI technique for Chang'E-5 orbital rendezvous is discussed. SBI technique can be used to track the orbiter and the ascender simultaneously when they are in the same beam. Delta delay of the two probes can be derived, and the measurement accuracy is much higher than that of the traditional VLBI data because of the cancelation of common errors. Theoretically it can result in a more accurate relative orbit between the two probes. In the simulation, different strategies are discussed to analyze the contribution of SBI data to the orbit accuracy improvement especially relative orbit between the orbiter and ascender. The simulation results show that the relative position accuracy of the orbiter and ascender can reach about 1 m with delta delay data of 10 ps.

  3. Earth Satellite Population Instability: Underscoring the Need for Debris Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-chyi; Johnson, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    the number density of satellites is above a critical spatial density, the production rate of new satellites (i.e., debris) due to collisions exceeds the loss of objects due to orbital decay. NASA s evolutionary satellite population model LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model), developed by the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, is a high fidelity three-dimensional physical model that is capable of simulating the historical satellite environment, as well as the evolution of future debris populations (14, 15). The subject study assumed no rocket bodies and spacecraft were launched after December 2004, and no future disposal maneuvers were allowed for existing spacecraft, few of which currently have such a capability. The rate of satellite explosions would naturally decrease to zero within a few decades as the current satellite population ages. The LEGEND future projection adopts a Monte Carlo approach to simulate future on-orbit explosions and collisions. Within a given projection time step, once the explosion probability is estimated for an intact object, a random number is drawn and compared with the probability to determine if an explosion would occur. A similar procedure is applied to collisions for each pair of target and projectile involved within the same time step. Due to the nature of the Monte Carlo process, multiple projection runs must be performed and analyzed before one can draw reliable and meaningful conclusions from the outcome. A total of fifty, 200-year future projection Monte Carlo simulations were executed and evaluated (16).

  4. Visibility Analysis of Domestic Satellites on Proposed Ground Sites for Optical Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to analyze the satellite visibility at the randomly established ground sites, to determine the five optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking of domestic satellites, and to verify the acquisition of the optical observation time sufficient to maintain the precise ephemeris at optimal ground sites that have been already determined. In order to accomplish these objectives, we analyzed the visibility for sun-synchronous orbit satellites, low earth orbit satellites, middle earth orbit satellites and domestic satellites as well as the continuous visibility along with the fictitious satellite ground track, and calculate the effective visibility. For the analysis, we carried out a series of repetitive process using the satellite tool kit simulation software developed by Analytical Graphics Incorporated. The lighting states of the penumbra and direct sun were set as the key constraints of the optical observation. The minimum of the observation satellite elevation angle was set to be 20 degree, whereas the maximum of the sun elevation angle was set to be -10 degree which is within the range of the nautical twilight. To select the candidates for the optimal optical observation, the entire globe was divided into 84 sectors in a constant interval, the visibility characteristics of the individual sectors were analyzed, and 17 ground sites were arbitrarily selected and analyzed further. Finally, five optimal ground sites (Khurel Togoot Observatory, Assy-Turgen Observatory, Tubitak National Observatory, Bisdee Tier Optical Astronomy Observatory, and South Africa Astronomical Observatory were determined. The total observation period was decided as one year. To examine the seasonal variation, the simulation was performed for the period of three days or less with respect to spring, summer, fall and winter. In conclusion, we decided the optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking

  5. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Craig; Parker, Joel; Dichmann, Don; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  6. Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line-of-sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth's elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

  7. Online Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions in the NASA GEOS-4 Model and Comparisons to Satellite and Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter; daSilva, Arlindo; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We have implemented a module for tropospheric aerosols (GO CART) online in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 model and simulated global aerosol distributions for the period 2000-2006. The new online system offers several advantages over the previous offline version, providing a platform for aerosol data assimilation, aerosol-chemistry-climate interaction studies, and short-range chemical weather forecasting and climate prediction. We introduce as well a methodology for sampling model output consistently with satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals to facilitate model-satellite comparison. Our results are similar to the offline GOCART model and to the models participating in the AeroCom intercomparison. The simulated AOT has similar seasonal and regional variability and magnitude to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer observations. The model AOT and Angstrom parameter are consistently low relative to AERONET in biomass-burning-dominated regions, where emissions appear to be underestimated, consistent with the results of the offline GOCART model. In contrast, the model AOT is biased high in sulfate-dominated regions of North America and Europe. Our model-satellite comparison methodology shows that diurnal variability in aerosol loading is unimportant compared to sampling the model where the satellite has cloud-free observations, particularly in sulfate-dominated regions. Simulated sea salt burden and optical thickness are high by a factor of 2-3 relative to other models, and agreement between model and satellite over-ocean AOT is improved by reducing the model sea salt burden by a factor of 2. The best agreement in both AOT magnitude and variability occurs immediately downwind of the Saharan dust plume.

  8. Mass Transport Properties of LiD-U Mixtures from Orbital FreeMolecular Dynamics Simulations and a Pressure-Matching Mixing Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakovsky, Leonid; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Mass transport properties for LiD-U mixtures were calculated using a pressure matching mixture rule for the mixing of LiD and of U properties simulated with Orbital Free Molecular Dynamics (OFMD). The mixing rule was checked against benchmark OFMD simulations for the fully interacting three-component (Li, D, U) system. To obtain transport coefficients for LiD-U mixtures of different (LiD) x U (1-x) compositions as functions of temperature and mixture density is a tedious task. Quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be employed, as in the case LiD or U. However, due to the presence of the heavy constituent U, such simulations proceed so slowly that only a limited number of numerical data points in the (x, ρ, T) phase space can be obtained. To finesse this difficulty, transport coefficients for a mixture can be obtained using a pressure-matching mixing rule discussed. For both LiD and U, the corresponding transport coefficients were obtained earlier from quantum molecular dynamics simulations. In these simulations, the quantum behavior of the electrons was represented using an orbital free (OF) version of density functional theory, and ions were advanced in time using classical molecular dynamics. The total pressure of the system, P = nk B T/V + P e , is the sum of the ideal gas pressure of the ions plus the electron pressure. The mass self-diffusion coefficient for species α, D α , the mutual diffusion coefficient for species α and β, Dαβ, and the shear viscosity, η, are computed from the appropriate autocorrelation function. The details of similar QMD calculations on LiH are described in Ref. [1] for 0.5 eV < T < 3 eV, and in Ref. [2] for 2 eV < T < 6 eV.

  9. Probability of satellite collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  10. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  11. An analysis of the low-earth-orbit communications environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diersing, Robert Joseph

    Advances in microprocessor technology and availability of launch opportunities have caused interest in low-earth-orbit satellite based communications systems to increase dramatically during the past several year