Sample records for satellite mission concept

  1. The German joint research project "concepts for future gravity satellite missions" (United States)

    Reubelt, Tilo; Sneeuw, Nico; Fichter, Walter; Müller, Jürgen


    Within the German joint research project "concepts for future gravity satellite missions", funded by the Geotechnologies programme of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, options and concepts for future satellite missions for precise (time-variable) gravity field recovery are investigated. The project team is composed of members from science and industry, bringing together experts in geodesy, satellite systems, metrology, sensor technology and control systems. The majority of team members already contributed to former gravity missions. The composition of the team guarantees that not only geodetic aspects and objectives are investigated, but also technological and financial constraints are considered. Conversely, satellite, sensor and system concepts are developed and improved in a direct exchange with geodetic and scientific claims. The project aims to develop concepts for both near and mid-term future satellite missions, taking into account e.g. advanced satellite formations and constellations, improved orbit design, innovative metrology and sensor systems and advances in satellite systems.

  2. Simulation Studies of Satellite Laser CO2 Mission Concepts (United States)

    Kawa, Stephan Randy; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Collatz, G. J.; Sun X.; Weaver, C. J.


    Results of mission simulation studies are presented for a laser-based atmospheric CO2 sounder. The simulations are based on real-time carbon cycle process modeling and data analysis. The mission concept corresponds to ASCENDS as recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey. Compared to passive sensors, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages that hold promise to advance CO2 measurement capability in the next decade. Although the precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency, analysis of possible instrument technology indicates that such sensors are more than feasible. Radiative transfer model calculations, an instrument model with representative errors, and a simple retrieval approach complete the cycle from "nature" run to "pseudodata" CO2. Several mission and instrument configuration options are examined, and the sensitivity to key design variables is shown. Examples are also shown of how the resulting pseudo-measurements might be used to address key carbon cycle science questions.

  3. The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission Concept and Development (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani


    The use of iodine propellant for Hall thrusters has been studied and proposed by multiple organizations due to the potential mission benefits over xenon. In 2013, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center competitively selected a project for the maturation of an iodine flight operational feed system through the Technology Investment Program. Multiple partnerships and collaborations have allowed the team to expand the scope to include additional mission concept development and risk reduction to support a flight system demonstration, the iodine Satellite (iSAT). The iSAT project was initiated and is progressing towards a technology demonstration mission preliminary design review. The current status of the mission concept development and risk reduction efforts in support of this project is presented.

  4. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering (United States)

    Reil, Robin L.


    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  5. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate (United States)

    Renno, N.; Williams, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.; Kremic, T.; Agrawal, A.; Andreae, M.; Bierbaum, R.; Blakeslee, R.; Boerner, A.; Bowles, N.; Christian, H.; Dunion, J.; Horvath, A.; Huang, X.; Khain, A.; Kinne, S.; Lemos, M.-C.; Penner, J.


    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. Knowledge of these interactions is foundational to our understanding of weather and climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Decadal Survey (NRC 2007) indicate that the uncertainty in how clouds adjust to aerosol perturbations dominates the uncertainty in the overall quantification of the radiative forcing attributable to human activities. The Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (CHASER) mission concept responds to the IPCC and Decadal Survey concerns by studying the activation of CCN and their interactions with clouds and storms. CHASER proposes to revolutionize our understanding of the interactions of aerosols with clouds by making the first global measurements of the fundamental physical entity linking them: activated cloud condensation nuclei. The CHASER mission was conceptualized to measure all quantities necessary for determining the interactions of aerosols with clouds and storms. Measurements by current satellites allow the determination of crude profiles of cloud particle size but not of the activated CCN that seed them. CHASER uses a new technique (Freud et al. 2011; Rosenfeld et al. 2012) and high-heritage instruments to produce the first global maps of activated CCN and the properties of the clouds associated with them. CHASER measures the CCN concentration and cloud thermodynamic forcing simultaneously, allowing their effects to be distinguished. Changes in the behavior of a group of weather systems in which only one of the quantities varies (a partial derivative of the intensity with the desirable quantity) allow the determination of each effect statistically. The high uncertainties of current climate predictions limit their much-needed use in decision-making. CHASER mitigates this

  6. The Delta low-inclination satellite concept, an opportunity to enhance the science return of the Swarm mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, Gauthier; Leger, Jean-Michel; Olsen, Nils

    ESA’s Swarm mission aims at studying all sources of Earth’s magnetic field. It consists of two satellites (Alpha and Charlie), which fly side-by-side on near polar orbits at an altitude of slightly less than 500 km, and of a third satellite (Bravo) on a similar but slightly more polar and higher...... of these data, however, would be possible if a fourth “Delta” satellite were to be launched soon enough to join the constellation at a similar altitude but much lower inclination orbit (such as 60°). Such a satellite would provide less geographical coverage but a much faster mapping of all local times over...... orbit, which progressively drifts with respect to that of Alpha and Charlie. This orbital configuration has proven extremely valuable, as evidenced by the many results already obtained from the first two years of the mission. These results, however, also reveal that geomagnetic field modeling...

  7. Multi-mission Satellite Management (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  8. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  9. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission (United States)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.


    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  10. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate


    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  11. Measuring Absolute Thermospheric Densities And Accommodation Coefficients Using Paddlewheel Satellites: Past Findings, Present Uses, And Future Mission Concepts (United States)

    Pilinski, Marcin D.; Moe, Kenneth; Palo, Scott E.; Argrow, Brian M.


    The first absolute measurement of thermospheric density was made by combining simultaneous observations of spin and semimajor axis decay of Explorer VI. Providing two independent measures of the interaction with the airstream enabled the determination of both air density and drag coefficient. Then by using a realistic model of the gas-surface interaction, the energy accommodation coefficient was determined. Only four such measurements were made prior to the time of writing. In this paper, we review the history of paddlewheel measurements and explain their importance to ongoing work in satellite drag. Next, a novel concept for paddlewheel satellites based on the CubeSat platform is discussed along with the relevant design parameters. A rudimentary error analysis for paddlewheel measurements evaluated the feasibility of these designs and it was found that the drag torques generated on a three-kilogram paddlewheel are within the measurement capabilities of today's technologies. For certain types of paddlewheel configurations, the use of direct simulation methods is important for accurately analyzing the data. This is because a paddlewheel with the spin axis oriented in the orbit normal direction undergoes significant flow-shadowing and this is not easily represented by analytical methods. Increasing the availability of accommodation measurements via the paddlewheel method represents an improvement in the accuracy of Earth's total density models as well as the understanding of gas-surface interactions in low Earth orbit. This is of profound importance in the prediction of satellite orbits as well as the understanding of atmospheric phenomena.

  12. Lynx mission concept study (United States)

    Vikhlinin, Alexey


    Lynx is an observatory-class mission, featuring high throughput, exquisite angular resolution over a substantial field of view, and high spectral resolution for point and extended X-ray sources. The design requirements provide a tremendous leap in capabilities relative to missions such as Chandra and Athena. Lynx will observe the dawn of supermassive black holes through detection of very faint X-ray sources in the early universe and will reveal the "invisible drivers" of galaxy and structure formation through observations of hot, diffuse baryons in and around the galaxies. Lynx will enable breakthroughs across all of astrophysics, ranging from detailed understanding of stellar activity including effects on habitability of associated planets to population statistics of neutron stars and black holes in the Local Group galaxies, to earliest groups and clusters of galaxies, and to cosmology

  13. Lynx Mission concept status (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Allured, Ryan; Bandler, Simon R.; Basso, Stefano; Bautz, Marshall W.; Baysinger, Michael F.; Biskach, Michael P.; Boswell, Tyrone M.; Capizzo, Peter D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Civitani, Marta M.; Cohen, Lester M.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, Jacqueline M.; DeRoo, Casey T.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Dominguez, Alexandra; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Garcia, Jay C.; Gelmis, Karen E.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Hopkins, Randall C.; Jackson, Thomas; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kraft, Ralph P.; Liu, Tianning; McClelland, Ryan S.; McEntaffer, Randy L.; McCarley, Kevin S.; Mulqueen, John A.; Özel, Feryal; Pareschi, Giovanni; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Rodriguez, Mitchell A.; Rowe, Justin W.; Saha, Timo T.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Solly, Peter M.; Suggs, Robert M.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Tutt, James H.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Walker, Julian; Yoon, Wonsik; Zhang, William W.


    Lynx is a concept under study for prioritization in the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Providing orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity over Chandra, Lynx will examine the first black holes and their galaxies, map the large-scale structure and galactic halos, and shed new light on the environments of young stars and their planetary systems. In order to meet the Lynx science goals, the telescope consists of a high-angular resolution optical assembly complemented by an instrument suite that may include a High Definition X-ray Imager, X-ray Microcalorimeter and an X-ray Grating Spectrometer. The telescope is integrated onto the spacecraft to form a comprehensive observatory concept. Progress on the formulation of the Lynx telescope and observatory configuration is reported in this paper.

  14. Starshade Rendezvous Mission Probe Concept (United States)

    Seager, Sara; Kasdin, Jeremy; Starshade Rendezvous Probe Team


    The Starshade Rendezvous Mission Concept Prove is a Starshade that works with the WFIRST Mission, but is built and launched separately, with a rendezvous on orbit. A 2015 Exo-S report first detailed the mission concept. In the current study we develop a new scientific vision for WFIRST exoplanet discovery and characterization, using the complementary coronagraph and starshade to execute the most sensitive and thorough direct imaging campaign ever attempted. The overarching goal of our proposal is to carry out the first “deep dive” direct imaging exploration of planetary systems orbiting the nearest sun-like stars in a search for Earth-like planets using only a fraction of the WFIRST telescope time. The study aims to improve on the Exo-S 2015 report with updated study of the key spacecraft and starshade technology development issues, as related to WFIRST design changes since 2015 that make the timely implementation of such a mission possible.

  15. Efficient mission control for the 48-satellite Globalstar Constellation (United States)

    Smith, Dan


    The Globalstar system is being developed by Globalstar, Limited Partnership and will utilize 48 satellites in low earth orbit (See Figure 1) to create a world-wide mobile communications system consistent with Vice President Gore's vision of a Global Information Infrastructure. As a large long term commercial system developed by a newly formed organization, Globalstar provides an excellent opportunity to explore innovative solutions for highly efficient satellite command and control. Design and operational concepts being developed are unencumbered by existing physical and organizational infrastructures. This program really is 'starting with a clean sheet of paper'. Globalstar operations challenges can appear enormous. Clearly, assigning even a single person around the clock to monitor and control each satellite is excessive for Globalstar (it would require a staff of 200] . Even with only a single contact per orbit per satellite, data acquisitions will start or stop every 45 seconds] Although essentially identical, over time the satellites will develop their own 'personalities'and will re quire different data calibrations and levels of support. This paper discusses the Globalstar system and challenges and presents engineering concepts, system design decisions, and operations concepts which address the combined needs and concerns of satellite, ground system, and operations teams. Lessons from past missions have been applied, organizational barriers broken, partnerships formed across the mission segments, and new operations concepts developed for satellite constellation management. Control center requirements were then developed from the operations concepts.

  16. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions (United States)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)


    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  17. Reusable space tug concept and mission (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona


    The paper deals with the conceptual design of a space tug to be used in support to Earth satellites transfer manoeuvres. Usually Earth satellites are released in a non-definitive low orbit, depending on the adopted launcher, and they need to be equipped with an adequate propulsion system able to perform the transfer to their final operational location. In order to reduce the mass at launch of the satellite system, an element pre-deployed on orbit, i.e. the space tug, can be exploited to perform the transfer manoeuvres; this allows simplifying the propulsion requirements for the satellite, with a consequent decrease of mass and volume, in favour of larger payloads. The space tug here presented is conceived to be used for the transfer of a few satellites from low to high orbits, and vice versa, if needed. To support these manoeuvres, dedicated refuelling operations are envisaged. The paper starts from on overview of the mission scenario, the concept of operations and the related architecture elements. Then it focuses on the detailed definition of the space tug, from the requirements' assessment up to the budgets' development, through an iterative and recursive design process. The overall mission scenario has been derived from a set of trade-off analyses that have been performed to choose the mission architecture and operations that better satisfy stakeholder expectations: the most important features of these analyses and their results are described within the paper. Eventually, in the last part of the work main conclusions are drawn on the selected mission scenario and space tug and further utilizations of this innovative system in the frame of future space exploration are discussed. Specifically, an enhanced version of the space tug that has been described in the paper could be used to support on orbit assembly of large spacecraft for distant and long exploration missions. The Space Tug development is an activity carried on in the frame of the SAPERE project (Space

  18. Next Generation Satellite Gravimetry Mission Study (NGGM-D) (United States)

    Gruber, T.; Brieden, P.; Daras, I.; Danzmann, K.; Doll, B.; Elsaka, B.; Feili, D.; Flechtner, F.; Flury, J.; Heinzel, G.; Iran-Pour, S.; Kusche, J.; Langemann, M.; Löcher, A.; Mueller, J.; Murböck, M.; Naeimi, M.; Pail, R.; Raimondo, J.; Reiche, J.; Reubelt, T.; Sheard, B.; Sneeuw, N. J.; Wang, X.; Weise, D.


    The main goal of this project is to develop a mission concept for long term monitoring of mass variations in the system Earth in order to improve our knowledge about the global and regional water cycle (with the components continental hydrology, ocean, ice, atmosphere) as well as about processes of the solid Earth. In times of global change this is needed to make more realistic predictions of system Earth parameters on the basis of models derived from these observations. While geometric observation concepts like remote sensing by optical and microwave techniques mainly observe changes at the Earth surface, gravimetric methods are the only measurement technique, which is sensitive to mass variations. Because of the complementarity of gravimetric and geometric observation concepts significant synergies and added value for the understanding of global processes can be obtained. Starting from the existing concepts of the GRACE and GRACE-FO (Follow-On) missions, sensitivity and spatial resolution shall be increased, such that also smaller scale time variable signals can be resolved, which cannot be detected with the current techniques. For such a mission new and significantly improved observation techniques are needed. This concerns in particular the measurement of inter-satellite distances, the observation of non-gravitational accelerations and the configuration of the satellite orbits or of a constellation of satellites. These new components and their complex interactions form the basis for a new space based observation concept for mass variations in system Earth. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) currently is funding a preparatory study in order to develop a mission concept for a next generation gravity field mission. The study is coordinated by Technical University Munich and incorporates all major players in the field of satellite gravimetry in Germany. By joining scientific, technological and industrial expertise the resulting mission concept shall form the

  19. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny


    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  20. The LUVOIR Large Mission Concept (United States)

    O'Meara, John; LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team


    LUVOIR is one of four large mission concepts for which the NASA Astrophysics Division has commissioned studies by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) drawn from the astronomical community. We are currently developing two architectures: Architecture A with a 15.1 meter segmented primary mirror, and Architecture B with a 9.2 meter segmented primary mirror. Our focus in this presentation is the Architecture A LUVOIR. LUVOIR will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 point. It will be designed to support a broad range of astrophysics and exoplanet studies. The initial instruments developed for LUVOIR Architecture A include 1) a high-performance optical/NIR coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopic capability, 2) a UV imager and spectrograph with high spectral resolution and multi-object capability, 3) a high-definition wide-field optical/NIR camera, and 4) a high resolution UV/optical spectropolarimeter. LUVOIR will be designed for extreme stability to support unprecedented spatial resolution and coronagraphy. It is intended to be a long-lifetime facility that is both serviceable, upgradable, and primarily driven by guest observer science programs. In this presentation, we will describe the observatory, its instruments, and survey the transformative science LUVOIR can accomplish.

  1. Satellite servicing mission preliminary cost estimation model (United States)


    The cost model presented is a preliminary methodology for determining a rough order-of-magnitude cost for implementing a satellite servicing mission. Mission implementation, in this context, encompassess all activities associated with mission design and planning, including both flight and ground crew training and systems integration (payload processing) of servicing hardward with the Shuttle. A basic assumption made in developing this cost model is that a generic set of servicing hardware was developed and flight tested, is inventoried, and is maintained by NASA. This implies that all hardware physical and functional interfaces are well known and therefore recurring CITE testing is not required. The development of the cost model algorithms and examples of their use are discussed.

  2. An Analytical Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Small Satellites in Performing Novel Imaging Missions (United States)

    Weaver, Oesa A.

    In the last two decades, small satellites have opened up the use of space to groups other than governments and large corporations, allowing for increased participation and experimentation. This democratization of space was primarily enabled by two factors: improved technology and reduced launch costs. Improved technology allowed the miniaturization of components and reduced overall cost meaning many of the capabilities of larger satellites could be replicated at a fraction of the cost. In addition, new launcher systems that could host many small satellites as ride-shares on manifested vehicles lowered launch costs and simplified the process of getting a satellite into orbit. The potential of these smaller satellites to replace or augment existing systems has led to a flood of potential satellite and mission concepts, often with little rigorous study of whether the proposed satellite or mission is achievable or necessary. This work proposes an analytical framework to aid system designers in evaluating the ability of an existing concept or small satellite to perform a particular imaging mission, either replacing or augmenting existing capabilities. This framework was developed and then refined by application to the problem of using small satellites to perform a wide area search mission -- a mission not possible with existing imaging satellites, but one that would add to current capabilities. Requirements for a wide area search mission were developed, along with a list of factors that would affect image quality and system performance. Two existing small satellite concepts were evaluated for use by examining image quality from the systems, selecting an algorithm to perform the search function automatically, and then assessing mission feasibility by applying the algorithm to simulated imagery. Finally, a notional constellation design was developed to assess the number of satellites required to perform the mission. It was found that a constellation of 480 Cube

  3. The EXIST Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.


    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  4. Gravitacijske satelitske misije : Satellite gravity missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medžida Mulić


    Full Text Available Sila teže se smatra osnovnom fizikalnom silom u prirodi. Savremene satelitske misije: CHAMP, GRACE i GOCE omogućile su dobivanje globalnih modela polja sile teže s veoma visokom tačnošću, kao i njegovih prostornih i temporalnih varijacija. U ovom radu istaknuti su ciljevi, karakteristike i rezultati navedenih misija, te iznesena očekivanja u budućnosti, kao i njihov značaj i doprinos za geodetsku praksu kao i istraživanja u oblasti geodezije, geofizike i hidrologije. : Gravity is considered as the basic physical force in the nature. Modern satellite missions: CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE allowed modeling of the global gravity field with very high accuracy, as well as its spatial and temporal variations. This paper describes the main objectives, characteristics, the latest results of these missions, as well as the expectations of the future observations, and their importance and contributions for the surveying and geodetic practice, and scientific achievements as well, in geodesy, geophysics and hydrology.

  5. Mission and system concepts for Mars robotic precursor missions (United States)

    Scoon, George E. N.; Hechler, Martin


    Mission and system design concepts reflecting the status at about the midpoint of the Marsnet phase A study are reported. The objective of Marsnet is to place three to four small stations (approximately 80 kg) on the surface of Mars to perform scientific measurements in the areas of geophysics (seismology), geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, meteorology, and exobiology. The ESA Landers will constitute part of a global network to which NASA is planning to contribute up to 16 other stations. The Mars Global Network may be seen as a precursor to the exploration of Mars by mobile vehicles in terms of its scientific measurements. But, also, some aspects of mission and system design addressed may be applicable to more complex robotic missions to Mars, for example, the development and testing of feasible probe delivery concepts; the design of low mass, low power components, and solar arrays suited for the Mars environment; and the development of a low complexity mobile instrument deployment device.

  6. NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul


    With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.

  7. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission (United States)

    O'Keefe, William


    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  8. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.


    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and,

  9. Habitation Concepts and Tools for Asteroid Missions and Commercial Applications (United States)

    Smitherman, David


    In 2009 studies were initiated in response to the Augustine Commission s review of the Human Spaceflight Program to examine the feasibility of additional options for space exploration beyond the lunar missions planned in the Constellation Program. One approach called a Flexible Path option included possible human missions to near-Earth asteroids. This paper presents an overview of possible asteroid missions with emphasis on the habitation options and vehicle configurations conceived for the crew excursion vehicles. One launch vehicle concept investigated for the Flexible Path option was to use a dual launch architecture that could serve a wide variety of exploration goals. The dual launch concept used two medium sized heavy lift launch vehicles for lunar missions as opposed to the single Saturn V architecture used for the Apollo Program, or the one-and-a-half vehicle Ares I / Ares V architecture proposed for the Constellation Program. This dual launch approach was studied as a Flexible Path option for lunar missions and for possible excursions to other destinations like geosynchronous earth orbiting satellites, Lagrange points, and as presented in this paper, asteroid rendezvous. New habitation and exploration systems for the crew are presented that permit crew sizes from 2 to 4, and mission durations from 100 to 360 days. Vehicle configurations are presented that include habitation systems and tools derived from International Space Station (ISS) experience and new extra-vehicular activity tools for asteroid exploration, Figure 1. Findings from these studies and as presented in this paper indicate that missions to near-Earth asteroids appear feasible in the near future using the dual launch architecture, the technologies under development from the Constellation Program, and systems derived from the current ISS Program. In addition, the capabilities derived from this approach that are particularly beneficial to the commercial sector include human access to

  10. The LOFT mission concept: a status update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feroci, M.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; van der Klis, M.; Liu, L. -P; Orleanski, P.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Schanne, S.; Stella, L.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Watts, A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.; Zhang, S. -N; Bhattacharyya, S.; Agudo, I.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Albertus, C.; Alford, M.; Alpar, A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, L.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Andersson, N.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Artigue, R.; Artigues, B.; Atteia, J. -L; Azzarello, P.; Bakala, P.; Ballantyne, D.; Baldazzi, G.; Baldo, M.; Balman, S.; Barbera, M.; van Baren, C.; Barret, D.; Baykal, A.; Begelman, M.; Behar, E.; Behar, O.; Belloni, T.; Bernardini, F.; Bertuccio, G.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchini, A.; Binko, P.; Blay, P.; Bocchino, F.; Bode, M.; Bodin, P.; Bombaci, I.; Bonnet Bidaud, J. -M; Boutloukos, S.; Bouyjou, F.; Bradley, L.; Braga, J.; Briggs, M. S.; Brown, E.; Buballa, M.; Bucciantini, N.; Burderi, L.; Burgay, M.; Bursa, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Cackett, E.; Cadoux, F.; Cais, P.; Caliandro, G. A.; Campana, R.; Campana, S.; Cao, X.; Capitanio, F.; Casares, J.; Casella, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cavechi, Y.; Celestin, S.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Chakrabarty, D.; Chamel, N.; Château, F.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chenevez, J.; Chernyakova, M.; Coker, J.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Coriat, M.; Cornelisse, R.; Costamante, L.; Cros, A.; Cui, W.; Cumming, A.; Cusumano, G.; Czerny, B.; D'Aı, A.; D'Ammando, F.; D'Elia, V.; Dai, Z.; Del Monte, E.; De Luca, A.; De Martino, D.; Dercksen, J. P. C.; De Pasquale, M.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; Degenaar, N.; den Herder, J. W.; Diebold, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Dong, Y.; Donnarumma, I.; Doroshenko, V.; Doyle, G.; Drake, S. A.; Durant, M.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enoto, T.; Erkut, M. H.; Esposito, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Fabian, A.; Falanga, M.; Favre, Y.; Feldman, C.; Fender, R.; Feng, H.; Ferrari, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. H.; Fraser, G. W.; Frericks, M.; Fullekrug, M.; Fuschino, F.; Gabler, M.; Galloway, D. K.; Gálvez Sanchez, J. L.; Gandhi, P.; Gao, Z.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Gendre, B.; Gevin, O.; Gezari, S.; Giles, A. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Gogus, E.; Goldwurm, A.; Goluchová, K.; Götz, D.; Gou, L.; Gouiffes, C.; Grandi, P.; Grassi, M.; Greiner, J.; Grinberg, V.; Groot, P.; Gschwender, M.; Gualtieri, L.; Guedel, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Guy, L.; Haas, D.; Haensel, P.; Hailey, M.; Hamuguchi, K.; Hansen, F.; Hartmann, D. H.; Haswell, C. A.; Hebeler, K.; Heger, A.; Hempel, M.; Hermsen, W.; Homan, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudec, R.; Huovelin, J.; Huppenkothen, D.; Inam, S. C.; Ingram, A.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Israel, G.; Iwasawa, K.; Izzo, L.; Jacobs, H. M.; Jetter, F.; Johannsen, T.; Jenke, P. A.; Jonker, P.; Josè, J.; Kaaret, P.; Kalamkar, K.; Kalemci, E.; Kanbach, G.; Karas, V.; Karelin, D.; Kataria, D.; Keek, L.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Koerding, E.; Kokkotas, K.; Komossa, S.; Korpela, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kuiper, L. M.; Kunneriath, D.; Kurkela, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; La Franca, F.; Labanti, C.; Lai, D.; Lamb, F. K.; Lachaud, C.; Laubert, P. P.; Lebrun, F.; Li, X.; Liang, E.; Limousin, O.; Lin, D.; Linares, M.; Linder, D.; Lodato, G.; Longo, F.; Lu, F.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T. J.; Macera, D.; Maestre, S.; Mahmoodifar, S.; Maier, D.; Malcovati, P.; Malzac, J.; Malone, C.; Mandel, I.; Mangano, V.; Manousakis, A.; Marelli, M.; Margueron, J.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S. B.; Markowitz, A.; Marinucci, A.; Martindale, A.; Martínez, G.; McHardy, I. M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mehdipour, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendez, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Migliari, S.; Mignani, R.; Michalska, M.; Mihara, T.; Miller, M. C.; Miller, J. M.; Mineo, T.; Miniutti, G.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Mouchet, M.; Mouret, G.; Mulačová, J.; Muleri, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Negueruela, I.; Neilsen, J.; Neubert, T.; Norton, A. J.; Nowak, M.; Nucita, A.; O'Brien, P.; Oertel, M.; Olsen, P. E. H.; Orienti, M.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Osten, R.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Papitto, A.; Paragi, Z.; Paredes, J. M.; Patruno, A.; Paul, B.; Pederiva, F.; Perinati, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Peretz, U.; Perez, M. A.; Perez-Torres, M.; Peterson, B. M.; Petracek, V.; Pittori, C.; Pons, J.; Portell, J.; Possenti, A.; Postnov, K.; Poutanen, J.; Prakash, M.; Prandoni, I.; Le Provost, H.; Psaltis, D.; Pye, J.; Qu, J.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Ramsay, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rashevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ray, P. S.; Rea, N.; Reddy, S.; Reig, P.; Reina Aranda, M.; Remillard, R.; Reynolds, C.; Rezzolla, L.; Ribo, M.; de la Rie, R.; Riggio, A.; Rios, A.; Rischke, D. H.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Rohlfs, R.; Romano, P.; Rossi, E. M. R.; Rozanska, A.; Rousseau, A.; Rudak, B.; Russell, D. M.; Ryde, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Sala, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Salvetti, D.; Sanna, A.; Sandberg, J.; Savolainen, T.; Scaringi, S.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Schatz, H.; Schee, J.; Schmid, C.; Serino, M.; Shakura, N.; Shore, S.; Schnittman, J. D.; Schneider, R.; Schwenk, A.; Schwope, A. D.; Sedrakian, A.; Seyler, J. -Y; Shearer, A.; Slowikowska, A.; Sims, M.; Smith, A.; Smith, D. M.; Smith, P. J.; Sobolewska, M.; Sochora, V.; Soffitta, P.; Soleri, P.; Song, L.; Spencer, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stappers, B.; Staubert, R.; Steiner, A. W.; Stergioulas, N.; Stevens, A. L.; Stratta, G.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Stuchlik, Z.; Suchy, S.; Suleimanov, V.; Tamburini, F.; Tauris, T.; Tavecchio, F.; Tenzer, C.; Thielemann, F. K.; Tiengo, A.; Tolos, L.; Tombesi, F.; Tomsick, J.; Torok, G.; Torrejon, J. M.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tramacere, A.; Traulsen, I.; Trois, A.; Turolla, R.; Turriziani, S.; Typel, S.; Uter, P.; Uttley, P.; Vacchi, A.; Varniere, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Vietri, M.; Vincent, F. H.; Vrba, V.; Walton, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Weinberg, N.; Wende, H.; Wheatley, P.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wille, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Winter, B.; Walk, S. J.; Wood, K.; Woosley, S. E.; Wu, X.; Xu, R.; Yu, W.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, W.; Yuan, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zampieri, L.; Zdunik, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, S.; Zingale, M.; Zwart, F.


    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) is a mission concept which was proposed to ESA as M3 and M4 candidate in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument and the uniquely large

  11. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records (United States)

    Halpern, David


    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.

  12. The Ganymede Interior Structure, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) Mission Concept (United States)

    Lynch, K. L.; Smith, I. B.; Singer, K. N.; Vogt, M. F.; Blackburn, D. G.; Chaffin, M.; Choukroun, M.; Ehsan, N.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Gibbons, L. J.; hide


    The NASA Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) at JPL offers graduate students and young professionals a unique opportunity to learn about the mission design process. Program participants select and design a mission based on a recent NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity (AO). Starting with the AO, in this case the 2009 New Frontiers AO, participants generate a set of science goals and develop a early mission concept to accomplish those goals within the constraints provided. As part of the 2010 NASA PSSS, the Ganymede Interior, Surface, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) team developed a preliminary satellite design for a science mission to Jupiter's moon Ganymede. The science goals for this design focused on studying the icy moon's magnetosphere, internal structure, surface composition, geological processes, and atmosphere. By the completion of the summer school an instrument payload was selected and the necessary mission requirements were developed to deliver a spacecraft to Ganymede that would accomplish the defined science goals. This poster will discuss those science goals, the proposed spacecraft and the proposed mission design of this New Frontiers class Ganymede observer.

  13. Satellite orbit determination using satellite gravity gradiometry observations in GOCE mission perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bobojć


    Full Text Available Between the years 2004 and 2005 the launch of the first gradiometric satellite is planned. This satellite will be an important element of the Gravity Field and Steady – State Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE. This mission is one of the reasons for performing the simulation research of the Satellite Gravity Gradiometry. Our work contains the theory description and simulation results of the satellite orbit determination using the gravity tensor observations. In the process of the satellite orbit determination the initial dynamic state vector corrections are obtained. These corrections are estimated by means of the gravity gradiometry measurements. The performed simulations confirm the possibility of satellite orbit determination by means of the gravity tensor observations.Key words. satellite geodesy, satellite gradiometry, satellite orbits

  14. Multi-agent robotic systems and applications for satellite missions (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel A.

    A revolution in the space sector is happening. It is expected that in the next decade there will be more satellites launched than in the previous sixty years of space exploration. Major challenges are associated with this growth of space assets such as the autonomy and management of large groups of satellites, in particular with small satellites. There are two main objectives for this work. First, a flexible and distributed software architecture is presented to expand the possibilities of spacecraft autonomy and in particular autonomous motion in attitude and position. The approach taken is based on the concept of distributed software agents, also referred to as multi-agent robotic system. Agents are defined as software programs that are social, reactive and proactive to autonomously maximize the chances of achieving the set goals. Part of the work is to demonstrate that a multi-agent robotic system is a feasible approach for different problems of autonomy such as satellite attitude determination and control and autonomous rendezvous and docking. The second main objective is to develop a method to optimize multi-satellite configurations in space, also known as satellite constellations. This automated method generates new optimal mega-constellations designs for Earth observations and fast revisit times on large ground areas. The optimal satellite constellation can be used by researchers as the baseline for new missions. The first contribution of this work is the development of a new multi-agent robotic system for distributing the attitude determination and control subsystem for HiakaSat. The multi-agent robotic system is implemented and tested on the satellite hardware-in-the-loop testbed that simulates a representative space environment. The results show that the newly proposed system for this particular case achieves an equivalent control performance when compared to the monolithic implementation. In terms on computational efficiency it is found that the multi

  15. A Class for Teachers Featuring a NASA Satellite Mission (United States)

    Battle, R.; Hawkins, I.


    As part of the NASA IDEA (Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy) program, the UC Berkeley Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA) received a grant to develop a self-contained teacher professional development class featuring NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite mission. This class was offered in collaboration with the Physics/Astronomy Department and the Education Department of San Francisco State University during 1994, and in collaboration with the UCB Graduate School of Education in 1995 as an extension course. The class served as the foundation for the Science Education Program at CEA, providing valuable lessons and experience through a full year of intense collaboration with 50 teachers from the diverse school districts of the San Francisco Bay Area teaching in the 3rd--12th grade range. The underlying theme of the class focused on how scientists carry out research using a NASA satellite mission. Emphasis was given to problem-solving techniques, with specific examples taken from the pre- and post-launch stages of the EUVE mission. The two, semester-long classes were hosted by the CEA, so the teachers spent an average of 4 hours/week during 17 weeks immersed in astrophysics, collaborating with astronomers, and working with colleagues from the Lawrence Hall of Science and the Graduate School of Education. The teachers were taught the computer skills and space astrophysics concepts needed to perform hands-on analysis and interpretation of the EUVE satellite data and the optical identification program. As a final project, groups of teachers developed lesson plans based on NASA and other resources that they posted on the World Wide Web using html. This project's model treats teachers as professionals, and allows them to collaborate with scientists and to hone their curriculum development skills, an important aspect of their professional growth. We will summarize class highlights and showcase teacher-developed lesson plans. A detailed evaluation

  16. Satellite Servicing in Mission Design Studies at the NASA GSFC (United States)

    Leete, Stephen J.


    Several NASA missions in various stages of development have undergone one-week studies in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC), mostly in preparation for proposals. The possible role of satellite servicing has been investigated for several of these missions, applying the lessons learned from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing, taking into account the current state of the art, projecting into the future, and implementing NASA long-range plans, and is presented here. The general benefits and costs of injecting satellite servicing are detailed, including components such as mission timeline, mass, fuel, spacecraft design, risk abatement, life extension, and improved performance. The approach taken in addressing satellite servicing during IMDC studies is presented.

  17. SLS launched missions concept studies for LUVOIR mission (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.


    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and estimated 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-m class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  18. The Bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning


    targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus......The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target....... Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected...

  19. Technologies and Mission Concepts for NHST (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.


    A technology workshop entitled "Innovative Designs for the Next Large Aperture Optical/UV Telescope" was held on April 10-11 at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. This workshop was held to consider the technologies that will be required to support optical/UV space missions designed to carry out the science envisioned by the Hubble Science Legacy meeting held in April 2002 in Chicago. Subjects covered at the workshop included: optical designs, wavefront control, mirror technologies, spectrographs, coronagraphs, detector technologies, and in-space construction. A summary of the workshop and near-term plans for investigating several mission concepts will be provided. Funding for this workshop was provided by NASA.

  20. Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues (United States)

    Walbridge, E. W.

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  1. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.


    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  2. Tailoring Systems Engineering Projects for Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Horan, Stephen; Belvin, Keith


    NASA maintains excellence in its spaceflight systems by utilizing rigorous engineering processes based on over 50 years of experience. The NASA systems engineering process for flight projects described in NPR 7120.5E was initially developed for major flight projects. The design and development of low-cost small satellite systems does not entail the financial and risk consequences traditionally associated with spaceflight projects. Consequently, an approach is offered to tailoring of the processes such that the small satellite missions will benefit from the engineering rigor without overly burdensome overhead. In this paper we will outline the approaches to tailoring the standard processes for these small missions and describe how it will be applied in a proposed small satellite mission.

  3. Europa Clipper Mission Concept Preliminary Planetary Protection Approach (United States)

    Jones, Melissa; Schubert, Wayne; Newlin, Laura; Cooper, Moogega; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Ellyin, Raymond; Vaishampayan, Parag; Crum, Ray


    sterilized to a level deemed to be unable to cause harmful contamination of any of the icy Galilean satellites (Europa, Ganymede and Callisto). Due to the intricacies of meeting the driving planetary protection requirement on the mission concept, the project has invested in early development studies to integrate a feasible approach for implementing these planetary protection requirements within the engineering constraints of the mission. Results of the following studies will be presented: evaluation of the impact of new Heat Microbial Reduction specifications on the mission; bulk material encapsulated bioburden; developing vapor hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for the integration environment. The overall planetary protection implementation approach will be discussed.

  4. Acceleration Noise Considerations for Drag-free Satellite Geodesy Missions (United States)

    Hong, S. H.; Conklin, J. W.


    The GRACE mission, which launched in 2002, opened a new era of satellite geodesy by providing monthly mass variation solutions with spatial resolution of less than 200 km. GRACE proved the usefulness of a low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking formation. Analysis of the GRACE data showed that the K-Band ranging system, which is used to measure the range between the two satellites, is the limiting factor for the precision of the solution. Consequently, the GRACE-FO mission, schedule for launch in 2017, will continue the work of GRACE, but will also test a new, higher precision laser ranging interferometer compared with the K-Band ranging system. Beyond GRACE-FO, drag-free systems are being considered for satellite geodesy missions. GOCE tested a drag-free attitude control system with a gravity gradiometer and showed improvements in the acceleration noise compensation compared to the electrostatic accelerometers used in GRACE. However, a full drag-free control system with a gravitational reference sensor has not yet been applied to satellite geodesy missions. More recently, this type of drag-free system was used in LISA Pathfinder, launched in 2016, with an acceleration noise performance two orders of magnitude better than that of GOCE. We explore the effects of drag-free performance in satellite geodesy missions similar to GRACE-FO by applying three different residual acceleration noises from actual space missions: GRACE, GOCE and LISA Pathfinder. Our solutions are limited to degree 60 spherical harmonic coefficients with biweekly time resolution. Our analysis shows that a drag-free system with acceleration noise performance comparable to GOCE and LISA-Pathfinder would greatly improve the accuracy of gravity solutions. In addition to these results, we also present the covariance shaping process used in the estimation. In the future, we plan to use actual acceleration noise data measured using the UF torsion pendulum. This apparatus is a ground facility at

  5. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth S.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)


    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 approximately km. It will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface and enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns and their evolution with time, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which these dynamos operate. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on times scales ranging from months to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on astrobiology and life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA and ESA long-term time lines, SI complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets. In this paper we will describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address those goals, and the design concepts now under study.

  6. The LOFT mission concept: a status update (United States)

    Feroci, M.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; van der Klis, M.; Liu, L.-P.; Orleanski, P.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Schanne, S.; Stella, L.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Watts, A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.; Zhang, S.-N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Agudo, I.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Albertus, C.; Alford, M.; Alpar, A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, L.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Andersson, N.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Artigue, R.; Artigues, B.; Atteia, J.-L.; Azzarello, P.; Bakala, P.; Ballantyne, D.; Baldazzi, G.; Baldo, M.; Balman, S.; Barbera, M.; van Baren, C.; Barret, D.; Baykal, A.; Begelman, M.; Behar, E.; Behar, O.; Belloni, T.; Bernardini, F.; Bertuccio, G.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchini, A.; Binko, P.; Blay, P.; Bocchino, F.; Bode, M.; Bodin, P.; Bombaci, I.; Bonnet Bidaud, J.-M.; Boutloukos, S.; Bouyjou, F.; Bradley, L.; Braga, J.; Briggs, M. S.; Brown, E.; Buballa, M.; Bucciantini, N.; Burderi, L.; Burgay, M.; Bursa, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Cackett, E.; Cadoux, F.; Cais, P.; Caliandro, G. A.; Campana, R.; Campana, S.; Cao, X.; Capitanio, F.; Casares, J.; Casella, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cavechi, Y.; Celestin, S.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Chakrabarty, D.; Chamel, N.; Château, F.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.; Chenevez, J.; Chernyakova, M.; Coker, J.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Coriat, M.; Cornelisse, R.; Costamante, L.; Cros, A.; Cui, W.; Cumming, A.; Cusumano, G.; Czerny, B.; D'Aı, A.; D'Ammando, F.; D'Elia, V.; Dai, Z.; Del Monte, E.; De Luca, A.; De Martino, D.; Dercksen, J. P. C.; De Pasquale, M.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; Degenaar, N.; den Herder, J. W.; Diebold, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Dong, Y.; Donnarumma, I.; Doroshenko, V.; Doyle, G.; Drake, S. A.; Durant, M.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enoto, T.; Erkut, M. H.; Esposito, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Fabian, A.; Falanga, M.; Favre, Y.; Feldman, C.; Fender, R.; Feng, H.; Ferrari, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. H.; Fraser, G. W.; Frericks, M.; Fullekrug, M.; Fuschino, F.; Gabler, M.; Galloway, D. K.; Gálvez Sanchez, J. L.; Gandhi, P.; Gao, Z.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Gendre, B.; Gevin, O.; Gezari, S.; Giles, A. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Gogus, E.; Goldwurm, A.; Goluchová, K.; Götz, D.; Gou, L.; Gouiffes, C.; Grandi, P.; Grassi, M.; Greiner, J.; Grinberg, V.; Groot, P.; Gschwender, M.; Gualtieri, L.; Guedel, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Guy, L.; Haas, D.; Haensel, P.; Hailey, M.; Hamuguchi, K.; Hansen, F.; Hartmann, D. H.; Haswell, C. A.; Hebeler, K.; Heger, A.; Hempel, M.; Hermsen, W.; Homan, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudec, R.; Huovelin, J.; Huppenkothen, D.; Inam, S. C.; Ingram, A.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Israel, G.; Iwasawa, K.; Izzo, L.; Jacobs, H. M.; Jetter, F.; Johannsen, T.; Jenke, P. A.; Jonker, P.; Josè, J.; Kaaret, P.; Kalamkar, K.; Kalemci, E.; Kanbach, G.; Karas, V.; Karelin, D.; Kataria, D.; Keek, L.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Koerding, E.; Kokkotas, K.; Komossa, S.; Korpela, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kuiper, L. M.; Kunneriath, D.; Kurkela, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; La Franca, F.; Labanti, C.; Lai, D.; Lamb, F. K.; Lachaud, C.; Laubert, P. P.; Lebrun, F.; Li, X.; Liang, E.; Limousin, O.; Lin, D.; Linares, M.; Linder, D.; Lodato, G.; Longo, F.; Lu, F.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T. J.; Macera, D.; Maestre, S.; Mahmoodifar, S.; Maier, D.; Malcovati, P.; Malzac, J.; Malone, C.; Mandel, I.; Mangano, V.; Manousakis, A.; Marelli, M.; Margueron, J.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S. B.; Markowitz, A.; Marinucci, A.; Martindale, A.; Martínez, G.; McHardy, I. M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mehdipour, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendez, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Migliari, S.; Mignani, R.; Michalska, M.; Mihara, T.; Miller, M. C.; Miller, J. M.; Mineo, T.; Miniutti, G.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Mouchet, M.; Mouret, G.; Mulačová, J.; Muleri, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Negueruela, I.; Neilsen, J.; Neubert, T.; Norton, A. J.; Nowak, M.; Nucita, A.; O'Brien, P.; Oertel, M.; Olsen, P. E. H.; Orienti, M.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Osten, R.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Papitto, A.; Paragi, Z.; Paredes, J. M.; Patruno, A.; Paul, B.; Pederiva, F.; Perinati, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Peretz, U.; Perez, M. A.; Perez-Torres, M.; Peterson, B. M.; Petracek, V.; Pittori, C.; Pons, J.; Portell, J.; Possenti, A.; Postnov, K.; Poutanen, J.; Prakash, M.; Prandoni, I.; Le Provost, H.; Psaltis, D.; Pye, J.; Qu, J.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Ramsay, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rashevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ray, P. S.; Rea, N.; Reddy, S.; Reig, P.; Reina Aranda, M.; Remillard, R.; Reynolds, C.; Rezzolla, L.; Ribo, M.; de la Rie, R.; Riggio, A.; Rios, A.; Rischke, D. H.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Rohlfs, R.; Romano, P.; Rossi, E. M. R.; Rozanska, A.; Rousseau, A.; Rudak, B.; Russell, D. M.; Ryde, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Sala, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Salvetti, D.; Sanna, A.; Sandberg, J.; Savolainen, T.; Scaringi, S.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Schatz, H.; Schee, J.; Schmid, C.; Serino, M.; Shakura, N.; Shore, S.; Schnittman, J. D.; Schneider, R.; Schwenk, A.; Schwope, A. D.; Sedrakian, A.; Seyler, J.-Y.; Shearer, A.; Slowikowska, A.; Sims, M.; Smith, A.; Smith, D. M.; Smith, P. J.; Sobolewska, M.; Sochora, V.; Soffitta, P.; Soleri, P.; Song, L.; Spencer, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stappers, B.; Staubert, R.; Steiner, A. W.; Stergioulas, N.; Stevens, A. L.; Stratta, G.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Stuchlik, Z.; Suchy, S.; Suleimanov, V.; Tamburini, F.; Tauris, T.; Tavecchio, F.; Tenzer, C.; Thielemann, F. K.; Tiengo, A.; Tolos, L.; Tombesi, F.; Tomsick, J.; Torok, G.; Torrejon, J. M.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tramacere, A.; Traulsen, I.; Trois, A.; Turolla, R.; Turriziani, S.; Typel, S.; Uter, P.; Uttley, P.; Vacchi, A.; Varniere, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Vietri, M.; Vincent, F. H.; Vrba, V.; Walton, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Weinberg, N.; Wende, H.; Wheatley, P.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wille, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Winter, B.; Walk, S. J.; Wood, K.; Woosley, S. E.; Wu, X.; Xu, R.; Yu, W.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, W.; Yuan, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zampieri, L.; Zdunik, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, S.; Zingale, M.; Zwart, F.


    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) is a mission concept which was proposed to ESA as M3 and M4 candidate in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument and the uniquely large field of view of its wide field monitor, LOFT will be able to study the behaviour of matter in extreme conditions such as the strong gravitational field in the innermost regions close to black holes and neutron stars and the supra-nuclear densities in the interiors of neutron stars. The science payload is based on a Large Area Detector (LAD, >8m2 effective area, 2-30 keV, 240 eV spectral resolution, 1 degree collimated field of view) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM, 2-50 keV, 4 steradian field of view, 1 arcmin source location accuracy, 300 eV spectral resolution). The WFM is equipped with an on-board system for bright events (e.g., GRB) localization. The trigger time and position of these events are broadcast to the ground within 30 s from discovery. In this paper we present the current technical and programmatic status of the mission.

  7. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions (United States)

    Wickler, Martin


    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  8. Level-2 product generation for the Swarm satellite constellation mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Erik Holmdahl; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Olsen, Nils

    In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of ESA's Swarm constellation mission, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. The Swarm ESL/SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, derives...

  9. Satellite-On-A-Chip Feasibility for Distributed Space Missions (United States)


    provide the first global " internet in the sky" for the entire globe. 0 A proposed magnetospheric constellation mission that may reveal how Co-Orbiting Satellite Assistant ( COSA ) [20]R.G. Zencik and K. Kohlhepp, "GPS Micro Using Glass Ceramic Materials And 3-D Laser Navigation and

  10. A concept for global crop forecasting. [using microwave radiometer satellites (United States)

    Lovelace, U. M.; Wright, R. L.


    The mission, instrumentation, and design concepts for microwave radiometer satellites for continuous crop condition forecasting and monitoring on a global basis are described. Soil moisture affects both crop growth and the dielectric properties of the soil, and can be quantified by analysis of reflected radiance passively received by orbiting spacecraft. A dedicated satellite reading a swath 200 km across, with 1 km and 1 K temperature resolution, could track the time-varying changes of solid moisture, sea ice, and water surface temperature. Launched by the Shuttle into an interim orbit, a boost would place the satellite in a 400 or 700 km orbit. Resolution requirements indicate a 45-725 m diam antenna, with 70 dB gain, operating at frequencies of 1.08, 2.03, and 4.95 GHz to ensure atmospheric transparency. Alternative structural concepts include either double-layer tetrahedral or single-layer geodesic trusses as the basic structural members. An analysis of the electrostatic positioning of the parabolic antenna membrane is outlined.

  11. Titan exploration with advanced systems. A study of future mission concepts (United States)


    The requirements, capabilities, and programmatic issues associated with science-intensive mission concepts for the advanced exploration of Saturn's largest satellite are assessed. The key questions to be answered by a Titan exploratory mission are: (1) the atmospheric composition; (2) the atmospheric structure; (3) the nature of the surface; and (4) the nature of the interior of Titan. Five selected mission concepts are described in terms of their design requirements. Mission hardware concepts include balloons and/or blimps which will allow both atmospheric and surface observations for a long period of time. Key aspects of performance analysis are presented. Mission profiles and cost summaries are given. Candidate payloads are identified for imaging and nonimaging orbiters, a buoyant station, a haze probe, and a penetrator.

  12. The Ganymede Interior Structure, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) Mission Concept (United States)

    Lynch, K. L.; Smith, I. B.; Singer, K. N.; Vogt, M. F.; Blackburn, D. G.; Chaffin, M.; Choukroun, M.; Ehsan, N.; Dibraccio, G. A.; Gibbons, L. J.; Gleeson, D.; Jones, B. A.; Legall, A.; McEnulty, T.; Rampe, E.; Schrader, C.; Seward, L.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Williamson, P.; Castillo, J.; Budney, C.


    As part of the 2010 NASA Planetary Science Summer School, the Ganymede Interior, Surface, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) team developed a preliminary satellite design for a science mission to Jupiter's moon Ganymede.

  13. Airborne Mission Concept for Coastal Ocean Color and Ecosystems Research (United States)

    Guild, L. S.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Kudela, R. M.; Palacios, S. L.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Dunagan, S. E.


    NASA airborne missions in 2011 and 2013 over Monterey Bay, CA demonstrated novel above- and in-water calibration and validation measurements supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The resultant airborne data characterize contemporaneous coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems spanning a next-generation spectral domain (320-875 nm). This airborne instrument suite for calibration, validation, and research flew at the lowest safe altitude (ca. 100 ft or 30 m) as well as higher altitudes (e.g., 6,000 ft or 1,800 m) above the sea surface covering a larger area in a single synoptic sortie than ship-based measurements at a few stations during the same sampling period. Data collection of coincident atmospheric and aquatic properties near the sea surface and at altitude allows the input of relevant variables into atmospheric correction schemes to improve the output of corrected imaging spectrometer data. Specific channels support legacy and next-generation satellite capabilities, and flights are planned to within 30 min of satellite overpass. This concept supports calibration and validation activities of ocean color phenomena (e.g., river plumes, algal blooms) and studies of water quality and coastal ecosystems. The 2011 COAST mission flew at 100 and 6,000 ft on a Twin Otter platform with flight plans accommodating the competing requirements of the sensor suite, which included the Coastal-Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) for the first time. C-AIR (Biospherical Instruments Inc.) also flew in the 2013 OCEANIA mission at 100 and 1,000 ft on the Twin Otter below the California airborne simulation of the proposed NASA HyspIRI satellite system comprised of an imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared multispectral imager on the ER-2 at 65,000 ft (20,000 m). For both missions, the Compact-Optical Profiling System (Biospherical

  14. The UV Survey Mission Concept, CETUS (United States)

    Heap, Sara; and the CETUS Team


    In March 2017, NASA selected CETUS for study of a Probe-class mission concept. W. Danchi is the CETUS PI, and S. Heap is the Science PI. CETUS is primarily a UV survey telescope to complement survey telescopes of the 2020’s including E-ROSITA, Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam and Prime-Focus Spectrograph, WFIRST, and the Square Kilometer Array. CETUS comprises a 1.5-m wide-field telescope and three science instruments: a wide-field (1045” on a side) far-UV and near-UV camera; a similarly wide-field near-UV multi-object spectrograph utilizing a next-generation micro-shutter array; and a single-object spectrograph with options of spectral region (far-UV or near-UV) and spectral resolving power (2,000 or 40,000). The survey instruments will operate simultaneously thereby producing wide-field images in the near-UV and far-UV and a spectrogram containing near-UV spectra of up to 100 sources free of spectral overlap and astronomical background. ln concert with other survey telescopes, CETUS will focus on understanding galaxy evolution at cosmic noon (z~1-2).

  15. A framework for employing femtosatellites in planetary science missions, including a proposed mission concept for Titan (United States)

    Perez, Tracie Renea Conn

    Over the past 15 years, there has been a growing interest in femtosatellites, a class of tiny satellites having mass less than 100 grams. Research groups from Peru, Spain, England, Canada, and the United States have proposed femtosat designs and novel mission concepts for them. In fact, Peru made history in 2013 by releasing the first - and still only - femtosat tracked from LEO. However, femtosatellite applications in interplanetary missions have yet to be explored in detail. An interesting operations concept would be for a space probe to release numerous femtosatellites into orbit around a planetary object of interest, thereby augmenting the overall data collection capability of the mission. A planetary probe releasing hundreds of femtosats could complete an in-situ, simultaneous 3D mapping of a physical property of interest, achieving scientific investigations not possible for one probe operating alone. To study the technical challenges associated with such a mission, a conceptual mission design is proposed where femtosats are deployed from a host satellite orbiting Titan. The conceptual mission objective is presented: to study Titan's dynamic atmosphere. Then, the design challenges are addressed in turn. First, any science payload measurements that the femtosats provide are only useful if their corresponding locations can be determined. Specifically, what's required is a method of position determination for femtosatellites operating beyond Medium Earth Orbit and therefore beyond the help of GPS. A technique is presented which applies Kalman filter techniques to Doppler shift measurements, allowing for orbit determination of the femtosats. Several case studies are presented demonstrating the usefulness of this approach. Second, due to the inherit power and computational limitations in a femtosatellite design, establishing a radio link between each chipsat and the mothersat will be difficult. To provide a mathematical gain, a particular form of forward error

  16. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan


    800 nanometers with three additional discrete near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) ocean aerosol correction bands. Also, to avoid drift in sensor sensitivity from being interpreted as environmental change, climate change research requires rigorous monitoring of sensor stability. For SeaWiFS, monthly lunar imaging accurately tracked stability at an accuracy of approximately 0.1% that allowed the data to be used for climate studies [2]. It is now acknowledged by the international community that future missions and sensor designs need to accommodate lunar calibrations. An overview of ocean color remote sensing and a review of the progress made in ocean color remote sensing and the variety of research applications derived from global satellite ocean color data are provided. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the design options for ocean color satellite radiometers, performance and testing criteria, and sensor components (optics, detectors, electronics, etc.) that must be integrated into an instrument concept. These ultimately dictate the quality and quantity of data that can be delivered as a trade against mission cost. Historically, science and sensor technology have advanced in a "leap-frog" manner in that sensor design requirements for a mission are defined many years before a sensor is launched and by the end of the mission, perhaps 15-20 years later, science applications and requirements are well beyond the capabilities of the sensor. Section 3 provides a summary of historical mission science objectives and sensor requirements. This progression is expected to continue in the future as long as sensor costs can be constrained to affordable levels and still allow the incorporation of new technologies without incurring unacceptable risk to mission success. The IOCCG Report Number 13 discusses future ocean biology mission Level-1 requirements in depth.

  17. The Next Landsat Satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (United States)

    Rons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.


    The Landsat program is one of the longest running satellite programs for Earth observations from space. The program was initiated by the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972. Since then a series of six more Landsat satellites were launched and at least one of those satellites has been in operations at all times to continuously collect images of the global land surface. The Department of Interior (DOI) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) preserves data collected by all of the Landsat satellites at their Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This 40-year data archive provides an unmatched record of the Earth's land surface that has undergone dramatic changes in recent decades due to the increasing pressure of a growing population and advancing technologies. EROS provides the ability for anyone to search the archive and order digital Landsat images over the internet for free. The Landsat data are a public resource for observing, characterizing, monitoring, trending, and predicting land use change over time providing an invaluable tool for those addressing the profound consequences of those changes to society. The most recent launch of a Landsat satellite occurred in 1999 when Landsat 7 was placed in orbit. While Landsat 7 remains in operation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the DOI/ USGS are building its successor satellite system currently called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). NASA has the lead for building and launching the satellite that will carry two Earth-viewing instruments, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The OLI will take images that measure the amount of sunlight reflected by the land surface at nine wavelengths of light with three of those wavelengths beyond the range of human vision. T1RS will collect coincident images that measure light emitted by the land surface as a function of surface temperature at two longer wavelengths well beyond the

  18. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik N.


    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  19. A Battery Certification Testbed for Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Cameron, Zachary; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Luna, Ali Guarneros; Goebel, Kai; Poll, Scott


    A battery pack consisting of standard cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion cells has been chosen for small satellite missions based on previous flight heritage and compliance with NASA battery safety requirements. However, for batteries that transit through the International Space Station (ISS), additional certification tests are required for individual cells as well as the battery packs. In this manuscript, we discuss the development of generalized testbeds for testing and certifying different types of batteries critical to small satellite missions. Test procedures developed and executed for this certification effort include: a detailed physical inspection before and after experiments; electrical cycling characterization at the cell and pack levels; battery-pack overcharge, over-discharge, external short testing; battery-pack vacuum leak and vibration testing. The overall goals of these certification procedures are to conform to requirements set forth by the agency and identify unique safety hazards. The testbeds, procedures, and experimental results are discussed for batteries chosen for small satellite missions to be launched from the ISS.

  20. Versatile Satellite Architecture and Technology: A New Architecture for Low Cost Satellite Missions for Solar-Terrestrial Studies (United States)

    Cook, T. A.; Chakrabarti, S.; Polidan, R.; Jaeger, T.; Hill, L.


    Early in the 20th century, automobiles appeared as extraordinary vehicles - and now they are part of life everywhere. Late in the 20th century, internet and portable phones appeared as innovations - and now omni-present requirements. At mid-century, the first satellites were launched into space - and now 50 years later - "making a satellite" remains in the domain of highly infrequent events. Why do all universities and companies not have their own satellites? Why is the work force capable of doing so remarkably small? Why do highly focused science objectives that require just a glimpse from space never get a chance to fly? Historically, there have been two primary impediments to place an experiment in orbit - high launch costs and the high cost of spacecraft systems and related processes. The first problem appears to have been addressed through the availability of several low-cost (< $10M) commercial launch opportunities. The Versatile Satellite Architecture and Technology (VerSAT) will address the second. Today's space missions are often large, complex and require development times typically a decade from conception to execution. In present risk-averse scenario, the huge expense of these one-of-a-kind mission architecture can only be justified if the technology required to make orders of magnitude gains is flight-proven at the time mission conception. VerSAT will complement these expensive missions which are "too large to fail" and the CUBESATs. A number of Geospace science experiments that could immediately take advantage of VerSAT have been identified. They range from the study of fundamental questions of the "ignorosphere" from a single satellite lasting a few days - a region of space that was probed once about 40 years ago, to a constellation of satellites which will disentangle the space and time ambiguity of the variability of ionospheric structures and their link to the storms in the Sun to long-term studies of the Sun-Earth system. VerSAT is a true

  1. Design and Analysis of a Formation Flying System for the Cross-Scale Mission Concept (United States)

    Cornara, Stefania; Bastante, Juan C.; Jubineau, Franck


    The ESA-funded "Cross-Scale Technology Reference Study has been carried out with the primary aim to identify and analyse a mission concept for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve dynamical non-linear coupling across multiple length scales. To fulfill this scientific mission goal, a constellation of spacecraft is required, flying in loose formations around the Earth and sampling three characteristic plasma scale distances simultaneously, with at least two satellites per scale: electron kinetic (10 km), ion kinetic (100-2000 km), magnetospheric fluid (3000-15000 km). The key Cross-Scale mission drivers identified are the number of S/C, the space segment configuration, the reference orbit design, the transfer and deployment strategy, the inter-satellite localization and synchronization process and the mission operations. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the mission design and analysis for the Cross-Scale concept and outlines a technically feasible mission architecture for a multi-dimensional investigation of space plasma phenomena. The main effort has been devoted to apply a thorough mission-level trade-off approach and to accomplish an exhaustive analysis, so as to allow the characterization of a wide range of mission requirements and design solutions.

  2. Mars Telecom Orbiter mission operations concepts (United States)

    Deutsch, Marie-Jose; Komarek, Tom; Lopez, Saturnino; Townes, Steve; Synnott, Steve; Austin, Richard; Guinn, Joe; Varghese, Phil; Edwards, Bernard; Bondurant, Roy; hide


    The Mars Telecom Orbiter (MTO) relay capability enables next decadal missions at Mars, collecting gigabits of data a day to be relayed back at speeds exceeding 4 Mbps and it facilitates small missions whose limited resources do not permit them to have a direct link to Earth.

  3. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.


    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  4. Agent-based algorithm for fault detection and recovery of gyroscope's drift in small satellite missions (United States)

    Carvajal-Godinez, Johan; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard


    Failure detection, isolation, and recovery is an essential requirement of any space mission design. Several spacecraft components, especially sensors, are prone to performance deviation due to intrinsic physical effects. For that reason, innovative approaches for the treatment of faults in onboard sensors are necessary. This work introduces the concept of agent-based fault detection and recovery for sensors used in satellite attitude determination and control. Its focuses on the implementation of an algorithm for addressing linear drift bias in gyroscopes. The algorithm was implemented using an agent-based architecture that can be integrated into the satellite's onboard software. Numerical simulations were carried out to show the effectiveness of this scheme in satellite's operations. The proposed algorithm showed a reduction of up to 50% in the stabilization time for the detumbling maneuver, and also an improvement in the pointing accuracy of up to 20% when it was applied in precise payload pointing procedures. The relevance of this contribution is its added value for optimizing the launch and early operation of small satellite missions, as well as, an enabler for innovative satellite functions, for instance, optical downlink communication.

  5. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  6. Global gravity field recovery from the ARISTOTELES satellite mission (United States)

    Visser, P. N. A. M.; Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.


    One of the primary objectives of the future ARISTOTELES satellite mission is to map Earth's gravity field with high resolution and accuracy. In order to achieve this objective, the ARISTOTELES satellite will be equipped with a gravity gradiometer and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Global gravity field error analyses have been performed for several combinations of gradiometer and GPS observations. These analyses indicated that the bandwidth limitation of the gradiometer prevents a stable high-accuracy, high-resolution gravity solution if no additional information is available. However, with the addition of high-accuracy GPS observations, a stable gravity field solution can be obtained. A combination of the measurements acquired by the high-quality GPS receiver and the bandwidth-limited gradiometer on board ARISTOTELES will yield a global gravity field model with a resolution of less than 100 km and with an accuracy of better than 5 mGal for gravity anomalies and 10 cm for geoid undulations.

  7. PoPSat: The Polar Precipitation Satellite Mission (United States)

    Binder, Matthias J.; Agten, Dries; Arago-Higueras, Nadia; Borderies, Mary; Diaz-Schümmer, Carlos; Jamali, Maryam; Jimenez-Lluva, David; Kiefer, Joshua; Larsson, Anna; Lopez-Gilabert, Lola; Mione, Michele; Mould, Toby JD; Pavesi, Sara; Roth, Georg; Tomicic, Maja


    The terrestrial water cycle is one of many unique regulatory systems on planet Earth. It is directly responsible for sustaining biological life on land and human populations by ensuring sustained crop yields. However, this delicate balanced system continues to be influenced significantly by a changing climate, which has had drastic impacts particularly on the polar regions. Precipitation is a key process in the weather and climate system, due to its storage, transport and release of latent heat in the atmosphere. It has been extensively investigated in low latitudes, in which detailed models have been established for weather prediction. However, a gap has been left in higher latitudes above 65°, which show the strongest response to climate changes and where increasing precipitations have been foreseen in the future. In order to establish a global perspective of atmospheric processes, space observation of high-latitude areas is crucial to produce globally consistent data. The increasing demand for those data has driven a critical need to devise a mission which fills the gaps in current climate models. The authors propose the Polar Precipitation Satellite (PoPSat), an innovative satellite mission to provide enhanced observation of light and medium precipitation, focusing on snowfall and light rain in high latitudes. PoPSat is the first mission aimed to provide high resolution 3D structural information about snow and light precipitation systems and cloud structure in the covered areas. The satellite is equipped with a dual band (Ka and W band) phased-array radar. These antennas provide a horizontal resolution of 2 km and 4 km respectively which will exceed all other observations made to date at high-latitudes, while providing the additional capability to monitor snowfall. The data gathered will be compatible and complementary with measurements made during previous missions. PoPSat has been designed to fly on a sun-synchronous, dawn-dusk orbit at 460 km. This orbit

  8. A global high resolution mean sea surface from multi mission satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per


    Satellite altimetry from the GEOSAT and the ERS-1 geodetic missions provide altimeter data with a very dense coverage. Hence, the heights of the sea surface may be recovered very detailed. Satellite altimetry from the 35 days repeat cycle mission of the ERS satellites and, especially, from the 10...

  9. The LUVOIR Mission Concept: Update and Technology Overview (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.


    We present an overview of the Large Ultra Violet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) decadal mission concept study. We provide updates from recent activities of the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) and the Technology Working Group (TWG). We review the technology prioritization and discuss specific technology needs to enable the LUVOIR mission.

  10. Cost-Effective Icy Bodies Exploration using Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Nayak, Michael; Aziz, Jonathan; Cohen, Aaron; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Klamm, Benjamin; hide


    It has long been known that Saturn's moon Enceladus is expelling water-rich plumes into space, providing passing spacecraft with a window into what is hidden underneath its frozen crust. Recent discoveries indicate that similar events could also occur on other bodies in the solar system, such as Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres in the asteroid belt. These plumes provide a possible giant leap forward in the search for organics and assessing habitability beyond Earth, stepping stones toward the long-term goal of finding extraterrestrial life. The United States Congress recently requested mission designs to Europa, to fit within a cost cap of $1B, much less than previous mission designs' estimates. Here, innovative cost-effective small spacecraft designs for the deep-space exploration of these icy worlds, using new and emerging enabling technologies, and how to explore the outer solar system on a budget below the cost horizon of a flagship mission, are investigated. Science requirements, instruments selection, rendezvous trajectories, and spacecraft designs are some topics detailed. The mission concepts revolve around a comparably small-sized and low-cost Plume Chaser spacecraft, instrumented to characterize the vapor constituents encountered on its trajectory. In the event that a plume is not encountered, an ejecta plume can be artificially created by a companion spacecraft, the Plume Maker, on the target body at a location timed with the passage of the Plume Chaser spacecraft. Especially in the case of Ceres, such a mission could be a great complimentary mission to Dawn, as well as a possible future Europa Clipper mission. The comparably small volume of the spacecraft enables a launch to GTO as a secondary payload, providing multiple launch opportunities per year. Plume Maker's design is nearly identical to the Plume Chaser, and fits within the constraints for a secondary payload launch. The cost-effectiveness of small spacecraft missions enables the

  11. Conception d'instrument pour une mission d'observation haute resolution et grand champ (United States)

    Fayret, Jean-Philippe; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Lamard, Jean-Luc; Devilliers, Christophe; Costes, Vincent


    The future Earth observation missions aim at delivering images with a high resolution and a large field of view. The PLEIADES mission, coming after the SPOT satellites, lead to enhance the resolution to submetric values with a swath over 20km. Panchromatic and multispectral images will be proposed. Starting with the mission requirements elaborated by the CNES, Alcatel Space Industries has conducted a study to identify the instrument concepts most suited to comply with these performance. In addition, to minimise the development costs, a mini satellite approach has been selected, leading to a compact concept for the instrument design. During the study, various detection techniques and the associated detectors have been investigated from classical pushbroom to supermode acquisition modes. For each of these options, different optical lay-outs were proposed and evaluated with respect to performance as well as interfaces requirements. Optical performance, mechanical design constraints and manufacturing processes were taken into account to assess the performances of the various solutions. Eventually the most promising concept was selected and a preliminary design study performed. This concept, based on a Korsch optical scheme associated with TDI detectors, complies with the mission requirements and allows for a wide number of possibilities of accommodation with a minisatellite class platform.

  12. Satellite power system. Concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Reference System description emphasizes technical and operational information required in support of environmental, socioeconomic, and comparative assessment studies. Supporting information has been developed according to a guideline of implementing two 5 GW SPS systems per year for 30 years beginning with an initial operational data of 2000 and with SPS's being added at the rate of two per year (10 GW/year) until 2030. The Reference System concept, which features gallium--aluminum--arsenide (GaAlAs) and silicon solar cell options, is described in detail. The concept utilizes a planar solar array (about 55 km/sup 2/) built on a graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic structure. The silicon array uses a concentration ratio of one (no concentration), whereas the GaAlAs array uses a concentration ratio of two. A one-kilometer diameter phased array microwave antenna is mounted on one end. The antenna uses klystrons as power amplifiers with slotted waveguides as radiating elements. The satellite is constructed in geosynchronous orbit in a six-month period. The ground receiving stations (rectenna) are completed during the same time period. The other two major components of an SPS program are (1) the construction bases in space and launch and mission control bases on earth and (2) fleets of various transportation vehicles that support the construction and maintenance operations of the satellites. These transportation vehicles include Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV), Personnel Launch Vehicles (PLV), Cargo Orbit Transfer Vehicles (COTV), and Personnel Orbit Transfer Vehicles (POTV). The earth launch site chosen is the Kennedy Space Center, pending further study.

  13. Towards the Development of a Global, Satellite-Based, Terrestrial Snow Mission Planning Tool (United States)

    Forman, Bart; Kumar, Sujay; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Nag, Sreeja


    A global, satellite-based, terrestrial snow mission planning tool is proposed to help inform experimental mission design with relevance to snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). The idea leverages the capabilities of NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and the Tradespace Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C) to harness the information content of Earth science mission data across a suite of hypothetical sensor designs, orbital configurations, data assimilation algorithms, and optimization and uncertainty techniques, including cost estimates and risk assessments of each hypothetical permutation. One objective of the proposed observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) is to assess the complementary or perhaps contradictory information content derived from the simultaneous collection of passive microwave (radiometer), active microwave (radar), and LIDAR observations from space-based platforms. The integrated system will enable a true end-to-end OSSE that can help quantify the value of observations based on their utility towards both scientific research and applications as well as to better guide future mission design. Science and mission planning questions addressed as part of this concept include: What observational records are needed (in space and time) to maximize terrestrial snow experimental utility? How might observations be coordinated (in space and time) to maximize this utility? What is the additional utility associated with an additional observation? How can future mission costs be minimized while ensuring Science requirements are fulfilled?

  14. Towards the Development of a Global, Satellite-based, Terrestrial Snow Mission Planning Tool (United States)

    Forman, Bart; Kumar, Sujay; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Nag, Sreeja


    A global, satellite-based, terrestrial snow mission planning tool is proposed to help inform experimental mission design with relevance to snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). The idea leverages the capabilities of NASAs Land Information System (LIS) and the Tradespace Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT C) to harness the information content of Earth science mission data across a suite of hypothetical sensor designs, orbital configurations, data assimilation algorithms, and optimization and uncertainty techniques, including cost estimates and risk assessments of each hypothetical orbital configuration.One objective the proposed observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) is to assess the complementary or perhaps contradictory information content derived from the simultaneous collection of passive microwave (radiometer), active microwave (radar), and LIDAR observations from space-based platforms. The integrated system will enable a true end-to-end OSSE that can help quantify the value of observations based on their utility towards both scientific research and applications as well as to better guide future mission design. Science and mission planning questions addressed as part of this concept include:1. What observational records are needed (in space and time) to maximize terrestrial snow experimental utility?2. How might observations be coordinated (in space and time) to maximize utility? 3. What is the additional utility associated with an additional observation?4. How can future mission costs being minimized while ensuring Science requirements are fulfilled?

  15. Control of the Soft X-ray Polychromator on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite (United States)

    Springer, L. A.; Levay, M.; Gilbreth, C. W.; Finch, M. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Firth, J. G.


    The Soft X-ray Polychromator on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite consists of two largely independent instruments: the Flat Crystal Spectrometer, a highly collimated scanning spectrometer mounted on a raster platform, and the Bent Crystal Spectrometer, a broadly collimated spectrometer providing high time-resolution (128 ms) spectra for the study of rapidly evolving phenomena. Each instrument is controlled by a microcomputer system built around an RCA 1802 microprocessor. This paper presents a discussion of the motivation for using a microprocessor in this application, and the design concepts that were implemented. The effectiveness of the approach as seen after several months of operation will also be discussed.

  16. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  17. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering (United States)

    Reil, Robin


    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  18. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions (United States)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric


    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  19. Development of a New Radiation Sensor for Satellite Missions (United States)

    Ritter, Birgit; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hauslage, Jens; Marsalek, Karel; Aeckerlein, Joachim; M, Hartmut

    The RAMIS (RAdiation Measurements In Space) experiment aims to measure cosmic radiation with energy deposition ranging from minimal ionizing protons up to relativistic iron nuclei. The radiation detector principle uses two silicon detectors, each with an active area of 0.5cm² that are arranged in a telescope configuration. The experiment will fly in 2016 on the first mission of the newly developed DLR (German Aerospace Center) Compact Satellite, which intends to provide an easy accessible platform for scientific research within DLR as well as for international partners and their experiments. As the satellite will orbit Earth at an altitude of about 600 km on a polar orbit, valuable insights are gained not only in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) component of the radiation field and in solar energetic particles (SEPs) in case of solar events. Also the trapped radiation in the horns of the electron belts around Earth can be studied in detail. Particle fluxes will be monitored and energy deposition spectra recorded from which linear energy transfer spectra will be generated. These spectra give an estimate for the quality of the radiation field. The RAMIS experiment consists of two modules, i.e. two small silicon detector telescopes, with one module being located outside on top of the satellite, while the other one is placed inside next to the primary payload of the satellite, the Eu:CROPIS experiment. Eu:CROPIS is a combined self-sustained biological life support system under Moon and Mars gravity, which uses Euglena as oxygen suppliers, biofilter for wastewater treatment and detoxification, and urine as primary fertilizer. In addition to its scientific output RAMIS will provide dosimetric monitoring for Eu:CROPIS and serve as a radiation exposure information system for the satellite bus. Furthermore the obtained data can be used for benchmarking and improvement of radiation belt models as well as of shielding models by combining the results of both modules. The RAMIS

  20. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons (United States)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; hide


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

  1. Orogenic mass changes detectable in satellite gravity missions (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Pivetta, Tommaso; Morsut, Federico


    Long term GNSS time series detect vertical crustal movement rates, which typically at orogens demonstrate uplift. The orogenic uplift can be ascribed to tectonic and post-glacial adjustments and crustal thickening. We investigate the sensitivity of satellite gravity change rate observations to detect the associated mass changes. Gravity change rate joint with uplift monitoring allows to distinguish the mechanism of uplift (Braitenberg and Shum, 2016). We use known vertical uplift rates over specific orogens to predict the gravity change for different geodynamic hypotheses of pure uplift and mantle inflow, or crustal thickening and isostatic Moho lowering. The sensitivity of gravity as a tool to distinguish the two mechanisms is investigated. The estimate of this tectonic signal is important, when the observed gravity change rates of GRACE and future missions are interpreted exclusively in terms of hydrologic changes tied to climatic variation. We find that in some areas, as the Tibetan plateau and the Himalayan- Alpine range, the tectonic signal is measurable by satellite gravity and contributes to a better understanding of the geodynamic processes leading to orogenesis. Braitenberg C. and Shum C. K. (2016). Geodynamic implications of temporal gravity changes over Tibetan Plateau. Italian Journal of Geosciences, in press.

  2. The new worlds observer: The astrophysics strategic mission concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cash W.


    Full Text Available We present some results of the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for the New Worlds Observer (NWO. We show that the use of starshades is the most effective and affordable path to mapping and understanding our neighboring planetary systems, to opening the search for life outside our solar system, while serving the needs of the greater astronomy community. A starshade-based mission can be implemented immediately with a near term program of technology demonstration.

  3. Critical areas: Satellite power systems concepts (United States)


    Critical Areas are defined and discussed in the various areas pertinent to satellite power systems. The presentation is grouped into five areas (General, Space Systems, Solar Energy Conversion, Microwave Systems, and Environment/Ecology) with a sixth area (Power Relay) considered separately in an appendix. Areas for Future Consideration as critical areas are discussed in a second appendix.

  4. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan


    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  5. A Strategy to Determine Whether to Use GPU for a Satellite Mission Scheduling Algorithm (United States)

    Lee, Soojeon; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Jaehoon

    As the first Korean multi-mission geostationary satellite, Chollian was launched on June 27, 2010. Chollian is being successfully controlled using a satellite ground control system (SGCS) developed by ETRI. A mission planning subsystem (MPS) in SGCS gathers mission requests from users, performs complex mission scheduling, and generates a conflict-free mission schedule. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current mission scheduling algorithms of the Chollian satellite, select three representative constraint checking schemes among these algorithms, and implement new graphics processing unit (GPU)-based constraint checking schemes for the three representative schemes. We compare the performance of the GPU-based and CPU-based constraint checking schemes based on the size of the problem set and the time complexity of the problem. Finally, we suggest a strategy to determine whether or not to adopt GPU for a satellite mission scheduling algorithm.

  6. Advanced concept for a crewed mission to the martian moons (United States)

    Conte, Davide; Di Carlo, Marilena; Budzyń, Dorota; Burgoyne, Hayden; Fries, Dan; Grulich, Maria; Heizmann, Sören; Jethani, Henna; Lapôtre, Mathieu; Roos, Tobias; Castillo, Encarnación Serrano; Schermann, Marcel; Vieceli, Rhiannon; Wilson, Lee; Wynard, Christopher


    This paper presents the conceptual design of the IMaGInE (Innovative Mars Global International Exploration) Mission. The mission's objectives are to deliver a crew of four astronauts to the surface of Deimos and perform a robotic exploration mission to Phobos. Over the course of the 343 day mission during the years 2031 and 2032, the crew will perform surface excursions, technology demonstrations, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of the Martian moons, as well as site reconnaissance for future human exploration of Mars. This mission design makes use of an innovative hybrid propulsion concept (chemical and electric) to deliver a relatively low-mass reusable crewed spacecraft (approximately 100 mt) to cis-martian space. The crew makes use of torpor which minimizes launch payload mass. Green technologies are proposed as a stepping stone towards minimum environmental impact space access. The usage of beamed energy to power a grid of decentralized science stations is introduced, allowing for large scale characterization of the Martian environment. The low-thrust outbound and inbound trajectories are computed through the use of a direct method and a multiple shooting algorithm that considers various thrust and coast sequences to arrive at the final body with zero relative velocity. It is shown that the entire mission is rooted within the current NASA technology roadmap, ongoing scientific investments and feasible with an extrapolated NASA Budget. The presented mission won the 2016 Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts - Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) competition.

  7. Formation flying within a constellation of nano-satellites the QB50 mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, E.K.A.; Sundaramoorthy, P.; Bouwmeester, J.; Zandbergen, B.; Reinhard, R.


    QB50 is a mission establishing an international network of 50 nano-satellites for multi-point, in-situ measurements in the lower thermosphere and re-entry research. As part of the QB50 mission, the Delft University of Technology intends to contribute two nano-satellites both being equipped with a

  8. Origins Space Telescope Concept 1: Mid to Far Infrared Mission (United States)

    Carter, Ruth; DiPirro, Michael; Origins Space Telescope Decadal Mission Study Team


    Origins Space Telescope (OST), is a NASA large mission concept designed to investigate the mid to far infrared sky. It would launch in the mid 2030’s, with mission development and implementation beginning in the mid-2020’s. This poster presents the overall architecture of OST Mission Concept 1. The Concept 1 telescope has a 9-meter diameter off-axis primary mirror, a three-mirror astigmat with a field steering mirror, covering the wavelength range of 6 to 600 µm. Five science instruments are on board the OST observatory for spectroscopy, imaging and coronagraphy. The instruments are the Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS), High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS), Far –IR Imaging and Polarimeter (FIP), Mid-IR Imaging Spectrometer and Coronagraph (MISC) and Heterodyne Instrument (HERO). The instruments are housed in the Instrument Accommodation Module (IAM). The Telescope and IAM are actively cooled to 4 Kelvin by relative high maturity 4 K cryocoolers To limit the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Spacecraft thermal radiation into the 4 K environment, multiple layers of sun shields similar to those used on JWST, are implemented. The sun-shields are also designed to minimize solar pressure and center of gravity discrepancies, thus resulting in the “sugar-scoop” like shape. To prevent locally generated stray light from entering the 4 Kelvin environment during mission operations, a 4 K baffle around the telescope and IAM is used. The OST Observatory will be inserted to a Sun-Earth L2 for mission operations.

  9. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    McCann, Robert S.


    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

  10. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications (United States)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.


    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  11. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion (United States)

    Elsperman, M.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D. B.; Clifford, S. M.; Lawrence, S. J.


    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances (including advances in autonomous operation and propulsion technology) to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow (system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Since the SAR and the notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would be huge data volume producers - to maximize the science return we are currently considering the usage of laser communications systems; this notional spacecraft represents one pathway to evaluate the utility of laser communications in planetary exploration while providing useful science return.. Mission Concept: Using a common space craft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. SEP provides the greatest payload advantage albeit at the sacrifice of mission time. Our concept involves using a SEP enabled space craft (Boeing 702SP) with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Our concept of operations is to launch on May 5, 2018 using a launch vehicle with 2000kg launch capacity with a C3 of 7.4. After reaching Mars it takes 145 days to spiral down to a 250 km orbit above the surface of Mars when Mars SAR operations begin. Summary/Conclusions: A robust and compelling Mars mission can be designed to meet the 2018 Mars launch window opportunity. Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous

  12. Satellite systems for personal applications concepts and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Richharia, Madhavendra


    Presents the concepts, technology, and role of satellite systems in support of personal applications, such as mobile and broadband communications, navigation, television, radio and multimedia broadcasting, safety of life services, etc. This book presents a novel perspective on satellite systems, reflecting the modern personal technology context, and hence a focus on the individual as end-user. The book begins by outlining key generic concepts before discussing techniques adopted in particular application areas; next, it exemplifies these techniques through discussion of state-of-art c

  13. Trajectory Design for the Europa Clipper Mission Concept (United States)

    Buffington, Brent


    Europa is one of the most scientifically intriguing targets in planetary science due to its potential suitability for extant life. As such, NASA has funded the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to jointly determine and develop the best mission concept to explore Europa in the near future. The result of nearly 4 years of work--the Europa Clipper mission concept--is a multiple Europa flyby mission that could efficiently execute a number of high caliber science investigations to meet Europa science priorities specified in the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey, and is capable of providing reconnaissance data to maximize the probability of both a safe landing and access to surface material of high scientific value for a future Europa lander. This paper will focus on the major enabling component for this mission concept--the trajectory. A representative trajectory, referred to as 13F7-A21, would obtain global-regional coverage of Europa via a complex network of 45 flybys over the course of 3.5 years while also mitigating the effects of the harsh Jovian radiation environment. In addition, 5 Ganymede and 9 Callisto flybys would be used to manipulate the trajectory relative to Europa. The tour would reach a maximum Jovicentric inclination of 20.1 deg. have a deterministic (Delta)V of 164 m/s (post periapsis raise maneuver), and a total ionizing dose of 2.8 Mrad (Si).

  14. Getting the GeoSTAR Instrument Concept Ready for a Space Mission (United States)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lim, B.; Tanner, A.; Ruf, C.


    The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer - GeoSTAR - is a microwave sounder intended for geostationary satellites. First proposed for the EO-3 New Millennium mission in 1999, the technology has since been developed under the Instrument Incubator Program. Under IIP-03 a proof-of-concept demonstrator operating in the temperature sounding 50 GHz band was developed to show that the aperture synthesis concept results in a realizable, stable and accurate imaging-sounding radiometer. Some of the most challenging technology, such as miniature low-power 183- GHz receivers used for water vapor sounding, was developed under IIP-07. The first such receiver has recently been adapted for use in the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR), which was previously developed under IIP-98. This receiver represents a new state of the art and outperforms the previous benchmark by an order of magnitude in radiometric sensitivity. It was first used in the GRIP hurricane field campaign in 2010, where HAMSR became the first microwave sounder to fly on the Global Hawk UAV. Now, under IIP-10, we will develop flight-like subsystems and a brassboard testing system, which will facilitate rapid implementation of a space mission. GeoSTAR is the baseline payload for the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission - one of NASA's 15 "decadal-survey" missions. Although PATH is currently in the third tier of those missions, the IIP efforts have advanced the required technology to a point where a space mission can be initiated in a time frame commensurate with second-tier missions. An even earlier Venture mission is also being considered.

  15. Concept of an Effective Sentinel-1 Satellite SAR Interferometry System


    Lazecky, Milan; Comut, Fatma Canaslan; Bakon, Matus; Qin, Yuxiao; Perissin, Daniele; Hatton, Emma; Spaans, Karsten; Mendez, Pablo J. Gonzalez; Guimaraes, Pedro; de Sousa, Joaquim J.M.; Kocich, David; Ustun, Aydin


    This brief study introduces a partially working concept being developed at IT4Innovations supercomputer (HPC) facility. This concept consists of several modules that form a whole body of an efficient system for observation of terrain or objects displacements using satellite SAR interferometry (InSAR). A metadata database helps to locate data stored in various storages and to perform basic analyzes. A special database has been designed to describe Sentinel-1 data, on its burst level. Custom Se...

  16. Metrology concepts for a space interferometer mission: SMART-2 (United States)

    Wielders, Arno A.; Calvel, Bertrand; Swinkels, Bas L.; Chapman, Patrick D.


    In preparation for the planet-finding missions DARWIN (ESA) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (NASA) a range of precursor missions are being defined, aimed at testing and validating the technology needed to make the planet-finder missions feasible from a technology point of view. In Europe the SMART-2 mission is meant to test high critical technologies for the DARWIN and the gravitation wave mission LISA (ESA/NASA). The mission SMART-2 consists of two spacecraft. These two spacecraft will demonstrate the feasibility of formation flying related to the DARWIN mission. Furthermore SMART-2 will simulate a stellar interferometer by combining white light from the two spacecraft in an interferometric focus. Two fringe-tracking modes of operations will be tested. In the standard fringe-tracking mode an onboard optical delay line is commanded to keep the optical path difference within the coherence length of the combined light. In the second mode the optical path difference is equalised by commanding the FEEPS (Field Emission Electric Propulsion) thrusters. In both modes a range of metrology systems are needed to measure deviations from the nominal configuration of the two spacecraft. Here we report on the work related to metrology systems for the SMART-2 mission needed to measure the longitudinal distance with nanometer accuracy and the lateral position of one spacecraft with respect to the second spacecraft with 5 mm accuracy. We discuss the present concepts for the metrology systems for SMART-2 and we will elaborate on the possibility to integrate the different optical metrology systems into a single system reducing complexity, risks and mass.

  17. Modeling Cloud and Precipitation Processes - Considerations for Future Satellite Missions (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Saleeby, S. M.; Wu, D.


    , suggestions will be made regarding those processes that should form the focus of future satellite missions if significant improvements are to be made in representing such processes in regional and global CRMs.

  18. MGS and Odyssey - Relay Satellites for the MER Mission (United States)

    Esposito, Pasquale B.; Bhat, R.; Demcak, S.; Ardakab, S.; Breeden, J.; Helfrich, C.; Jefferson, D.; Stauch, J.


    Both Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey are currently in low altitude, nearly circular and highly inclined orbits about Mars. Thus, they are available and compatible to serve as relay satellites for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Consequently, the MER project developed requirements for MGS to be overhead, at a specific time with a 30 second tolerance, during the atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase of both MER vehicles. The result, after execution of a single orbit synchronization maneuver (OSM) on 10/03/03, 92.4 days or 1130 orbits before Spirit's EDL, was that MGS was over Spirit 8 seconds past the required time. This maneuver, with a delta-velocity of 0.534 m/s, caused the orbital period to change by 3.34 s and resulted in a time-phasing change of 62 min 19 s in order to achieve the EDL overflight. Based on the navigation and execution of an OSM on 01/04/04, MGS was overhead for the Opportunity EDL on 01/25/04,3.5 seconds after the required epoch. Requirements also existed for the Odyssey over-flight of the MER rovers after landing and various equipment deployments had been completed. Thus, these requirements were that Odyssey should rise no earlier than specified times with respect to each of the landing sites. The Odyssey over-flights of both Spirit and Opportunity on sol 1 were equally successful. This paper will present the navigation plan, trajectory propagation accuracy and maneuver execution for the successful MGS and Odyssey over-flights of both the MER rovers.

  19. Operational Concept of the NEXTSat-1 for Science Mission and Space Core Technology Verification (United States)

    Shin, Goo-Hwan; Chae, Jang-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Min, Kyung-Wook; Sohn, Jong-Dae; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Moon, Bong-Gon


    The next generation small satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1) program has been kicked off in 2012, and it will be launched in 2016 for the science missions and the verification of space core technologies. The payloads for these science missions are the Instrument for the Study of Space Storms (ISSS) and NIR Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history (NISS). The ISSS and the NISS have been developed by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and Korea Astronomy and Space science Institute (KASI) respectively. The ISSS detects plasma densities and particle fluxes of 10 MeV energy range near the Earth and the NISS uses spectrometer. In order to verify the spacecraft core technologies in the space, the total of 7 space core technologies (SCT) will be applied to the NEXTSat-1 for space verification and those are under development. Thus, the operation modes for the ISSS and the NISS for space science missions and 7 SCTs for technology missions are analyzed for the required operation time during the NEXTSat-1¡¯s mission life time of 2 years. In this paper, the operational concept of the NEXTSat-1¡¯s science missions as well as the verification of space core technologies are presented considering constraints of volume, mass, and power after launch.

  20. Operational Concept of the NEXTSat-1 for Science Mission and Space Core Technology Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goo-Hwan Shin


    Full Text Available The next generation small satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1 program has been kicked off in 2012, and it will be launched in 2016 for the science missions and the verification of space core technologies. The payloads for these science missions are the Instrument for the Study of Space Storms (ISSS and NIR Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history (NISS. The ISSS and the NISS have been developed by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST and Korea Astronomy and Space science Institute (KASI respectively. The ISSS detects plasma densities and particle fluxes of 10 MeV energy range near the Earth and the NISS uses spectrometer. In order to verify the spacecraft core technologies in the space, the total of 7 space core technologies (SCT will be applied to the NEXTSat-1 for space verification and those are under development. Thus, the operation modes for the ISSS and the NISS for space science missions and 7 SCTs for technology missions are analyzed for the required operation time during the NEXTSat-1’s mission life time of 2 years. In this paper, the operational concept of the NEXTSat-1’s science missions as well as the verification of space core technologies are presented considering constraints of volume, mass, and power after launch.

  1. Research into language concepts for the mission control center (United States)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.


    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  2. The SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) Small Satellite Mission: From Payload to Ground Station Development and Everything in Between (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Cotten, D. L.


    This work introduces the mission concept, technologies, and development status for the measuring SPectral Ocean Color (SPOC) small satellite mission, which will use a hyperspectral imager to map sensitive coastal regions and off coast water quality near the state of Georgia and beyond. SPOC is being developed by The University of Georgia's Small Satellite Research Laboratory (SSRL) with funds from NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP). The project is led by undergraduates from a wide range of backgrounds and supervised by a multidisciplinary team of Principal Investigators. Using optical components, electronics boards, a grating spectrometer, and a CMOS array the students will assemble and integrate the payload components and ensure their compatibility with the other subsystems. In-house development and assembly includes building the hyperspectral imager, as well integrating it into the satellite, and testing of the different subsystems of the satellite. The mission will collect spectral data along a 300 km swath using the grating spectrometer to diffract the incoming radiation into the 440-865 nm spectral range. The resulting images will be 75 km x 300 km in size, have a 120 m spatial resolution, and a spectral resolution of 2 nm, covering 100 spectral bands. The resulting dataset will allow for spectral analysis comparisons with some of NASA's legacy satellites. The work describes the timeline and current progress of the SPOC mission. Focus will be equally distributed to all the different systems of the satellite including their development, testing, and integration. Particular emphasis is given to Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS), command and data handling (CDH), payload, power generation, S-Band/X-Band transceivers, and the development of ground station capabilities (S-Band/X-Band).

  3. Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx): Architecture of the 4m Mission Concept (United States)

    Kuan, Gary M.; Warfield, Keith R.; Mennesson, Bertrand; Kiessling, Alina; Stahl, H. Philip; Martin, Stefan; Shaklan, Stuart B.; amini, rashied


    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) study is tasked by NASA to develop a scientifically compelling and technologically feasible exoplanet direct imaging mission concept, with extensive general astrophysics capabilities, for the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astrophysics. The baseline architecture of this space-based observatory concept encompasses an unobscured 4m diameter aperture telescope flying in formation with a 72-meter diameter starshade occulter. This large aperture, ultra-stable observatory concept extends and enhances upon the legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope by allowing us to probe even fainter objects and peer deeper into the Universe in the same ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared wavelengths, and gives us the capability, for the first time, to image and characterize potentially habitable, Earth-sized exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. Revolutionary direct imaging of exoplanets will be undertaken using a high-contrast coronagraph and a starshade imager. General astrophysics science will be undertaken with two world-class instruments – a wide-field workhorse camera for imaging and multi-object grism spectroscopy, and a multi-object, multi-resolution ultraviolet spectrograph. This poster outlines the baseline architecture of the HabEx flagship mission concept.

  4. The C3PO project: a laser communication system concept for small satellites (United States)

    d'Humières, Benoît; Esmiller, Bruno; Gouy, Yann; Steck, Emilie; Quintana, Crisanto; Faulkner, Graham; O'Brien, Dominic; Sproll, Fabian; Wagner, Paul; Hampf, Daniel; Riede, Wolfgang; Salter, Michael; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Jakonis, Darius; Piao, Xiaoyu; Karlsson, Mikael; Oberg, Olof; Petermann, Ingemar; Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Krezel, Jerzy; Debowska, Anna; Thueux, Yoann


    The satellite market is shifting towards smaller (micro and nanosatellites), lowered mass and increased performance platforms. Nanosatellites and picosatellites have been used for a number of new, innovative and unique payloads and missions. This trend requires new concepts for a reduced size, a better performance/weight ratio and a reduction of onboard power consumption. In this context, disruptive technologies, such as laser-optical communication systems, are opening new possibilities. This paper presents the C3PO1 system, "advanced Concept for laser uplink/ downlink CommuniCation with sPace Objects", and the first results of the development of its key technologies. This project targets the design of a communications system that uses a ground-based laser to illuminate a satellite, and a Modulating Retro-Reflector (MRR) to return a beam of light modulated by data to the ground. This enables a downlink, without a laser source on the satellite. This architecture suits well to small satellite applications so as high data rates are potentially provided with very low board mass. C3PO project aims to achieve data rates of 1Gbit/s between LEO satellites and Earth with a communication payload mass of less than 1kilogram. In this paper, results of the initial experiments and demonstration of the key technologies will be shown.

  5. Swarm satellite mission scheduling & planning using Hybrid Dynamic Mutation Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Zheng, Zixuan; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard


    Space missions have traditionally been controlled by operators from a mission control center. Given the increasing number of satellites for some space missions, generating a command list for multiple satellites can be time-consuming and inefficient. Developing multi-satellite, onboard mission scheduling & planning techniques is, therefore, a key research field for future space mission operations. In this paper, an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) using a new mutation strategy is proposed as a mission scheduling algorithm. This new mutation strategy, called Hybrid Dynamic Mutation (HDM), combines the advantages of both dynamic mutation strategy and adaptive mutation strategy, overcoming weaknesses such as early convergence and long computing time, which helps standard GA to be more efficient and accurate in dealing with complex missions. HDM-GA shows excellent performance in solving both unconstrained and constrained test functions. The experiments of using HDM-GA to simulate a multi-satellite, mission scheduling problem demonstrates that both the computation time and success rate mission requirements can be met. The results of a comparative test between HDM-GA and three other mutation strategies also show that HDM has outstanding performance in terms of speed and reliability.

  6. Astrometric Gravitation Probe: a space mission concept for fundamental physics (United States)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Fienga, Agnes; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Riva, Alberto; Busonero, Deborah


    Modern technological developments have pushed the accuracy of astrometric measurements in the visible band down to the micro-arcsec level. This allows to test theories of gravity in the weak field limit to unprecedented level, with possible consequences spanning from the validity of fundamental physics principles, to tests of theories describing cosmological and galactic dynamics without resorting to Dark Matter and Dark Energy.This is the main goal of Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) mission, which will be achieved by highly accurate astrometric determination of light deflection (as a modern rendition of the Dyson, Eddington, and Robertson eclipse experiment of 1919), aberration, and of the orbits of selected Solar System objects, with specific reference to the excess shift of the pericentre effect.The AGP concept was recently proposed for the recent call for ESA M4 missions as a collaboration among several scientists coming from many different European and US institutions. Its payload is based on a 1.15 m diameter telescope fed through a coronagraphic system by four fields, two set in symmetric positions around the Sun, and two in the opposite direction, all imaged on a CCD detector. Large parts of the instrument are common mode to all fields. The baseline operation mode is the scan of the ±1.13 deg Ecliptic strip, repeated for a minimum of 3 years and up to an optimal duration of 5 years. Operations and calibrations are simultaneous, defined in order to ensure common mode instrumental effects, identified and removed in data reduction. The astrometric and coronagraphic technologies build on the heritage of Gaia and Solar Orbiter.We review the mission concept and its science case, and discuss how this measurement concepts can be scaled to different mission implementations.

  7. Concept and implementation of the Globalstar mobile satellite system (United States)

    Schindall, Joel


    Globalstar is a satellite-based mobile communications system which provides quality wireless communications (voice and/or data) anywhere in the world except the polar regions. The Globalstar system concept is based upon technological advancements in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite technology and in cellular telephone technology, including the commercial application of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technologies. The Globalstar system uses elements of CDMA and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), combined with satellite Multiple Beam Antenna (MBA) technology and advanced variable-rate vocoder technology to arrive at one of the most efficient modulation and multiple access systems ever proposed for a satellite communications system. The technology used in Globalstar includes the following techniques in obtaining high spectral efficiency and affordable cost per channel: (1) CDMA modulation with efficient power control; (2) high efficiency vocoder with voice activity factor; (3) spot beam antenna for increased gain and frequency reuse; (4) weighted satellite antenna gain for broad geographic coverage; (5) multisatellite user links (diversity) to enhance communications reliability; and (6) soft hand-off between beams and satellites. Initial launch is scheduled in 1997 and the system is scheduled to be operational in 1998. The Globalstar system utilizes frequencies in L-, S- and C-bands which have the potential to offer worldwide availability with authorization by the appropriate regulatory agencies.

  8. Recovering the time-variable gravitational field using satellite gradiometry: requirements and gradiometer concept (United States)

    Douch, Karim; Müller, Jürgen; Heinzel, Gerhard; Wu, Hu


    The successful GRACE mission and its far-reaching benefits have highlighted the interest to continue and extend the mapping of the Earth's time-variable gravitational field with follow-on missions and ideally a higher spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we would like to put forward satellite gravitational gradiometry as an alternative solution to satellite-to-satellite tracking for future missions. Besides the higher sensitivity to smaller scales compared to GRACE-like missions, a gradiometry mission would only require one satellite and would provide a direct estimation of a functional of the gravitational field. GOCE, the only gradiometry mission launched so far, was not sensitive enough to map the time-variable part of the gravity field. However, the unprecedented precision of the state-of-the-art optical metrology system on-board the LISA PATHFINDER satellite has opened the way to more performant space inertial sensors. We will therefore examine whether it is technically possible to go beyond GOCE performances and to quantify to what extent the time-variable gravitational field could be determined. First, we derive the requirements on the knowledge of the attitude and the position of the satellite and on the measured gradients in terms of sensitivity and calibration accuracy for a typical repeat low-orbit. We conclude in particular that a noise level smaller than 0.1 mE/√Hz- is required in the measurement bandwidth [5x10-4 ; 10-2]Hz so as to be sensitive to the time-variable gravity signal. We introduce then the design and characteristics of the new gradiometer concept and give an assessment of its noise budget. Contrary to the GOCE electrostatic gradiometer, the position of the test-mass in the accelerometer is measured here by laser interferometry rather than by a capacitive readout system, which improves the overall measurement chain. Finally, the first results of a performance analysis carried out thanks to an end-to-end simulator are discussed and compared

  9. Athena: mission concept, study status, and optics development (United States)

    Guainazzi, M.; Study Athena Team


    Athena is the L-class mission selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to address the theme of 'the Hot and energetic Universe' in the Cosmic Vision program. Officially selected for L2 with a launch date in 2028, Athena is currently in the study phase, to be proposed for 'adoption' around 2019/20. The Athena mission concept comprises two instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) a cryogenic imaging spectrometer covering the 0.3 to 10 keV energy range with unprecedented energy resolution; and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) covering the 0.1 to 12 keV energy range, based on a silicon active pixel sensor. It features a large field of view, excellent spatial and energy resolution and count rate capabilities up to the Crab regime. The 12-m focal length Athena mirror provides effective area (goal) of ≃2 m^2 at 1 keV, angular resolution of 5 arc seconds Half Energy Width at 40 arc minutes. This combination is made possible by the Silicon Pore Optics technology developed by ESA and Cosine Measurement Systems over the last decade. In this talk I will review the mission concept, optics development, and study status.

  10. Prototype Design and Mission Analysis for a Small Satellite Exploiting Environmental Disturbances for Attitude Stabilization (United States)


    Responsive Satellite PD Proportional-Derivative P-POD Poly-Picosatellite Orbital Deployer RAAN Right Ascension of Ascending Node RW Reaction Wheel SSA...length, mission duration and even the orbital altitudes got bigger, wider, and higher. The performance requirements dictated bigger satellites , so...Equatorial Orbit (GEO) belt are large antennas and solar panels on satellites , large telescopes as payloads on spacecraft and the football-field

  11. Design, Simulation and Optimisation of a Low-Pressure Micro-Resistojet for Small Satellite Missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervone, A.; Mancas, A; Zandbergen, B.T.C.


    Incorporating propulsion in small satellites is becoming a growing trend, due to its potential for enabling new and ambitious mission objectives. One of these objectives is formation flying, that will be pursued by TU Delft for the DelFFi mission as part of the larger QB50 project. For DelFFi, two

  12. Mission-planning concepts for interaction of multiple reconnaissance platforms (United States)

    Thomas, Boyd J.


    Reconnaissance mission planning, including: scheduling of flight operations, target selection, archiving of IMINT data, and dissemination of IMINT data, is an increasingly complex function at all levels; all the more so as the next generation of highly agile, multi-role, real- time imaging systems come on line. The near-simultaneous advent of JSTARS, UAVs, and ATARS, each playing separate but overlapping roles in reconnaissance/surveillance operations, adds to the necessity to rethink how we plan to use these systems synergistically to maximum benefit. The goal is always to produce and disseminate Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) data in some optimum fashion as a means to the ultimate end of achieving/maintaining tactical superiority. To meet this goal new concepts for integrating the mission planning of multiple imaging platforms are needed. Some are suggested here.

  13. Predicted Exoplanet Yields for the HabEx Mission Concept (United States)

    Stark, Christopher; Mennesson, Bertrand; HabEx STDT


    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is a concept for a flagship mission to directly image and characterize extrasolar planets around nearby stars and to enable a broad range of general astrophysics. The HabEx Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) is currently studying two architectures for HabEx. Here we summarize the exoplanet science yield of Architecture A, a 4 m monolithic off-axis telescope that uses a vortex coronagraph and a 72m external starshade occulter. We summarize the instruments' capabilities, present science goals and observation strategies, and discuss astrophysical assumptions. Using a yield optimization code, we predict the yield of potentially Earth-like extrasolar planets that could be detected, characterized, and searched for signs of habitability and/or life by HabEx. We demonstrate that HabEx could also detect and characterize a wide variety of exoplanets while searching for potentially Earth-like planets.

  14. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions (United States)

    Stedman, J. K.


    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  15. Los Alamos RAGE Simulations of the HAIV Mission Concept (United States)

    Weaver, Robert P.; Barbee, Brent W.; Wie, Bong; Zimmerman, Ben


    The mitigation of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) can be accomplished by a variety of methods including kinetic impactors, gravity tractors and several nuclear explosion options. Depending on the available lead time prior to Earth impact, non- nuclear options can be very effective at altering a PHOs orbit. However if the warning time is short nuclear options are generally deemed most effective at mitigating the hazard. The NIAC mission concept for a nuclear mission has been presented at several meetings, including the last PDC (2013).We use the adaptive mesh hydrocode RAGE to perform detailed simulations of this Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) mission concept. We use the RAGE code to simulate the crater formation by the kinetic impactor as well as the explosion and energy coupling from the follower nuclear explosive device (NED) timed to detonate below the original surface to enhance the energy coupling. The RAGE code has been well validated for a wide variety of applications. A parametric study will be shown of the energy and momentum transfer to the target 100 m diameter object: 1) the HAIV mission as planned; 2) a surface explosion and 3) a subsurface (contained) explosion; both 2) and 3) use the same source energy as 1).Preliminary RAGE simulations show that the kinetic impactor will carve out a surface crater on the object and the subsequent NED explosion at the bottom of the crater transfers energy and momentum to the target effectively moving it off its Earth crossing orbit. Figure 1 shows the initial (simplified) RAGE 2D setup geometry for this study. Figure 2 shows the crater created by the kinetic impactor and Figure 3 shows the time sequence of the energy transfer to the target by the NED.

  16. Determination of the optimal set of frequency bands for the PLANCK CMBR satellite mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik


    The PLANCK satellite (previously known as COBRAS/SAMBA) is chosen to be the next medium sized mission in ESAs Horizon 2000 programme. It is intended to observe anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) with a sensitivity and angular resolution which is far better than previ...... signals. Also the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) CMBR mission. selected as one of the NASA MIDEX missions. is tested for its ability to overcame foreground contamination....

  17. The Solar Power Satellite concept - Towards the future (United States)

    Kraft, C. C., Jr.


    An evolutionary program phasing with respect to the development of a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is considered, taking into account concept identification, concept evaluation, exploratory research, space technology projects, system development, and commercial operations. At the present time the concept evaluation phase of the program is underway. This phase is scheduled for completion in 1980. It will result in a recommendation as to whether the concept should be explored further and if so, in what manner. The recommendation will be based on technical feasibility, economic and environmental considerations, and comparisons with other potential systems of the future. It is premature to speculate on the conclusions and recommendations from the evaluation program as to whether the program should proceed to the next phase.

  18. A systematic method of generating Galilean satellite-to-satellite transfers for Orbiter/Lander missions (United States)

    Soldner, J. K.; Feingold, H.


    A Galilean satellite tour design strategy is presented which minimizes the approach velocities at the target satellites. A technique is developed such that once a Hohmann transfer is established between any two adjacent Galilean satellites, transfer trajectories to the remaining Galilean satellites can be derived in a systematic manner. A relationship between spacecraft orbital period and perijove radius is used to develop an algorithm which produces transfer trajectories by simply accounting for the satellites' angular position. The algorithm is incorporated into a FORTRAN code which demonstrates that a finite number of realizable trajectories exist in the specialized Galilean satellite tours due to resonance phasing. The basic assumption is made that the orbits of all the Galilean satellites are circular and coplanar.

  19. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  20. Application of Influence Diagrams in Identifying Soviet Satellite Missions (United States)


    Progress design was the inclusion of a returnable capsule with a capacity of 150 kg. This im- provement alleviates the requirement for a Soyuz mission to...fourth generation systems which allow for the ejection and deorbit of film capsules versus deorbiting the entire spacecraft. In addition, an improved...environmental monitoring systems. The module also contained an array of instruments for geophysical and astrophysical experimentation. Soyuz . The Soyuz

  1. Turbulence Heating ObserveR: - Satellite Mission Proposal (United States)

    Vaivads, A.; Retino, A.; Soucek, J.; Khotyaintsev, Yu V.; Valentini, F.; Escoubet, C. P.; Alexandrova, O.; Andre, M.; Bale, S. D.; Balikhin, M.; hide


    The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earths magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4). THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.

  2. Mission planning optimization of video satellite for ground multi-object staring imaging (United States)

    Cui, Kaikai; Xiang, Junhua; Zhang, Yulin


    This study investigates the emergency scheduling problem of ground multi-object staring imaging for a single video satellite. In the proposed mission scenario, the ground objects require a specified duration of staring imaging by the video satellite. The planning horizon is not long, i.e., it is usually shorter than one orbit period. A binary decision variable and the imaging order are used as the design variables, and the total observation revenue combined with the influence of the total attitude maneuvering time is regarded as the optimization objective. Based on the constraints of the observation time windows, satellite attitude adjustment time, and satellite maneuverability, a constraint satisfaction mission planning model is established for ground object staring imaging by a single video satellite. Further, a modified ant colony optimization algorithm with tabu lists (Tabu-ACO) is designed to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm can fully exploit the intelligence and local search ability of ACO. Based on full consideration of the mission characteristics, the design of the tabu lists can reduce the search range of ACO and improve the algorithm efficiency significantly. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithm in terms of optimization performance, and it can obtain satisfactory scheduling results for the mission planning problem.

  3. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions (United States)

    Israel, David J.


    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  4. A European mobile satellite system concept exploiting CDMA and OBP (United States)

    Vernucci, A.; Craig, A. D.


    This paper describes a novel Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) concept applicable to networks allowing access to a large number of gateway stations ('Hubs'), utilizing low-cost Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT's). Efficient operation of the Forward-Link (FL) repeater can be achieved by adopting a synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technique, whereby inter-code interference (self-noise) is virtually eliminated by synchronizing orthogonal codes. However, with a transparent FL repeater, the requirements imposed by the highly decentralized ground segment can lead to significant efficiency losses. The adoption of a FL On-Board Processing (OBP) repeater is proposed as a means of largely recovering this efficiency impairment. The paper describes the network architecture, the system design and performance, the OBP functions and impact on implementation. The proposed concept, applicable to a future generation of the European LMSS, was developed in the context of a European Space Agency (ESA) study contract.

  5. A new concept of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Li, Xun; Duan, Baoyan; Song, Liwei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Wang, Dongxu


    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) is a tremendous energy system that collects and converts solar power to electric power in space, and then transmits the electric power to earth wirelessly. In this paper, a novel SSPS concept based on ε-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial is proposed. A spherical condenser made of ENZ metamaterial is developed, by using the refractive property of the ENZ metamaterial sunlight can be captured and redirected to its center. To make the geometric concentration ratio of the PV array reasonable, a hemispherical one located at the center is used to collect and convert the normal-incidence sunlight to DC power, then through a phased array transmitting antenna the DC power is beamed down to the rectenna on the ground. Detailed design of the proposed concept is presented.

  6. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick


    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  7. Multi-satellite Mission in China for Monitoring Natural Hazards (Invited) (United States)

    Guo, H.


    The impacts of natural hazards are continuing to increase around the world, and mitigation of the damages caused by natural hazards like floods, droughts, earthquakes, and cyclones has been a global challenge. Current evidence demonstrates there are many kinds of technologies for natural hazard management, but space technology is recognized as one of the most effective means. After 30 years of development, China has become an important member of the global remote sensing community. China has successfully developed an Earth observation system consisting of meteorological satellites, resources satellites, ocean satellites, environment and disaster monitoring satellites, micro-satellites, navigation satellites, and manned spacecraft. In this presentation, a short overview of China's Earth observation satellite missions will be presented. Specifically, the Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting (SSCEDMF) will be introduced and discussed. SSCEDMF is a follow-up '4+4' satellite constellation including four optical satellites and four radar satellites, meant to improve disaster management capability in China. At the current stage, two optical satellites and an s-band synthetic aperture radar satellite have successfully launched. Disasters are a global issue that no country can address individually, requiring sharing and collaboration. China has benefited greatly from international collaboration in disaster mitigation, and has actively worked with international partners. To share our experience in dealing with the risk of disasters, some achievements and progress in space technology applications for disaster management will be introduced. In addition, collaborative activities with IRDR, the UN-SPIDER Beijing Office, and the CAS-TWAS Centre of Excellence on Space Technology for Disaster Mitigation (STDM) will be described.

  8. Low-earth-orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design (United States)

    Slywezak, Richard A.


    This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

  9. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji


    As accuracy of satellite precipitation estimates improves and observation frequency increases, application of those data to societal benefit areas, such as weather forecasts and flood predictions, is expected, in addition to research of precipitation climatology to analyze precipitation systems. There is, however, limitation on single satellite observation in coverage and frequency. Currently, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is scheduled under international collaboration to fulfill various user requirements that cannot be achieved by the single satellite, like the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The GPM mission is an international mission to achieve high-accurate and high-frequent rainfall observation over a global area. GPM is composed of a TRMM-like non-sun-synchronous orbit satellite (GPM core satellite) and constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM core satellite carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), which is being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and microwave radiometer provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of DPR instrument is in good progress for scheduled launch in 2013, and DPR Critical Design Review has completed in July - September 2009. Constellation satellites, which carry a microwave imager and/or sounder, are planned to be launched around 2013 by each partner agency for its own purpose, and will contribute to extending coverage and increasing frequency. JAXA's future mission, the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Water (GCOM-W) satellite will be one of constellation satellites. The first generation of GCOM-W satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2011, and it carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), which is being developed based on the experience of the AMSR-E on EOS Aqua satellite

  10. WatER: The proposed Water Elevation Recovery satellite mission (United States)

    Alsdorf, D.; Mognard, N.; Rodriguez, E.; Participants, W.


    Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface water storage and discharge globally. The core mission objective is to describe and understand the continental water cycle and the hydrological processes (e.g., floodplain hydraulics) at work in a river basin. The key question that will be answered by WatER is: "Where is water stored on Earth's land surfaces, and how does this storage vary in space and time?" WatER will facilitate societal needs by (1) improving our understanding of flood hazards; (2) freely providing water volume information to countries who critically rely on rivers that cross political borders; and (3) mapping the variations in water bodies that contribute to disease vectors (e.g., malaria). Conventional altimeter profiles are, without question, incapable of supplying the measurements needed to address scientific and societal questions. WatER will repeatedly measure the spatially distributed water surface elevations (h) of wetlands, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc. Successive h measurements yield dh/dt, (t is time), hence a volumetric change in water stored or lost. Individual images of h yield dh/dx (x is distance), hence surface water slope, which is necessary for estimating streamflow. WatER's main instrument is a Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIN) which is the only technology capable of supplying the required imaging capability of h. KaRIN has a rich heritage based on (1) the many highly successful ocean observing radar altimeters, (2) the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and (3) the development effort of the Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter (WSOA). The interferometric altimeter is a near-nadir viewing, 120 km wideswath based instrument that uses interferometric SAR processing of the returned pulses to yield single-look 5m azimuth and 10m to 70m range resolution, with an elevation accuracy of approximately 50 cm. Polynomial based averaging of heights along the

  11. Status of the fast mission : Micro-satellite formation flying for technology, science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.; Moon, S.G.; Zheng, G.


    FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) is a cooperative Dutch Chinese formation flying mission led by Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands and Tsinghua University in China. It is expected to be the first international micro-satellite formation

  12. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service (United States)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren


    operation time of up to 10 years. It also enables measurements of the libration point environment with the scientific payloads. This includes sensors for space dust, solar and cosmic radiation activity for satellite lifetime estimation and lunar crew protection by providing early-warning systems. The paper describes the mission concept and the pre-design of the demonstrator satellite according to the operational mission requirements, advantages and benefits of this service. The concept was awarded with the Space Generation Advisory Council and OHB Scholarship in 2011 and the concept study is conducted at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) [1] of the University of Stuttgart and OHB-System, Bremen [2].

  13. On requirements for a satellite mission to measure tropical rainfall (United States)

    Thiele, Otto W. (Editor)


    Tropical rainfall data are crucial in determining the role of tropical latent heating in driving the circulation of the global atmosphere. Also, the data are particularly important for testing the realism of climate models, and their ability to simulate and predict climate accurately on the seasonal time scale. Other scientific issues such as the effects of El Nino on climate could be addressed with a reliable, extended time series of tropical rainfall observations. A passive microwave sensor is planned to provide information on the integrated column precipitation content, its areal distribution, and its intensity. An active microwave sensor (radar) will define the layer depth of the precipitation and provide information about the intensity of rain reaching the surface, the key to determining the latent heat input to the atmosphere. A visible/infrared sensor will provide very high resolution information on cloud coverage, type, and top temperatures and also serve as the link between these data and the long and virtually continuous coverage by the geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The unique combination of sensor wavelengths, coverages, and resolving capabilities together with the low-altitude, non-Sun synchronous orbit provide a sampling capability that should yield monthly precipitation amounts to a reasonable accuracy over a 500- by 500-km grid.

  14. G3E - Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe: mission concept (United States)

    Butz, Andre; Orphal, Johannes; Bovensmann, Heinrich; von Clarmann, Thomas; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Knigge, Thiemo; Muenzenmayer, Ralf; Schmuelling, Frank


    Anthropogenic activities release various gaseous and particulate substances into the Earth's atmosphere affecting air quality and climate. The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are particularly important drivers of man-made climate change while ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosols are major players in tropospheric photochemistry controlling air quality. Once released to the atmosphere the fate of man-made pollutants and climate forcers is controlled by natural removal processes. We present the mission concept of the Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E). G3E primarily aims at accurately measuring CO2 and CH4 column-average concentrations across Europe with spatial and temporal resolution of a few kilometers and a few hours, respectively. Such spatiotemporally dense imaging of the greenhouse gas concentration fields above Europe is expected to boost our ability to disentangle anthropogenic emissions from natural source and sink processes and to impose unprecedented observational constraints on surface flux quantification. In support of the retrieval and interpretation of greenhouse gas concentrations, G3E's grating spectrometers cover a wide spectral range from the near infrared into the shortwave infrared. This facilitates estimates of column-average CO and aerosol abundances providing extra information on air-quality from a geostationary view. A flexible pointing design further allows for selecting focus regions beyond the European continent in order to address the surface flux budgets of other regions of interest such as tropical Africa. We demonstrate G3E's capabilities in terms of prospective instrument design, observation concept, and retrieval performance.

  15. The Staring OBservations of the Atmosphere (SOBA) Mission Concept (United States)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Johnson, Matthew S.; Chen, Rick; Quincy, Allison; Fladeland, Matthew


    The Staring OBservations of the Atmosphere (SOBA) Mission is a concept that was developed and matured under the guidance of the NASA Ames Project EXellence (APEX) program. If funded, it will provide an unprecedented opportunity to improve ash transport forecasts and climate model simulations associated with volcanic eruptions. NASA and National science objectives require a better understanding of volcanic aerosol and trace gas emissions, transport, chemical transformation, and deposition, since they impact Earth's climate and atmospheric composition, human health, and aviation safety. Natural hazards such as the 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland demonstrated how existing remote-sensing assets were inadequate for individual volcanic event monitoring. During this eruption, available instruments were unable to provide data necessary to initialize volcanic plume transport models so that they could accurately predict the quantity and location of volcanic ash. As a result, thousands of flights around the world were grounded unnecessarily, at great expense. Volcanoes can also play a large role in regulation of the Earth's climate, so SOBA observations will also be used to evaluate and improve volcanic aerosol and trace gas simulation in chemical transport models (CTMs) and global climate models (GCMs). We propose the development of an airborne remote sensing concept and field campaign that will respond to an eruption and provide near real time observations of a volcanic plume, specifically ash injection height, transport, aerosol microphysical physical properties, and the location and concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) (sulfate (SO42-) aerosol precursor). This airborne system will utilize a depolarization sensitive, downward looking Light Detection And Ranging (lidar) instrument and an ultraviolet (UV) imaging spectrometer, and will provide data to be ingested by volcanic ash advisory models. Furthermore, the lessons learned in the development

  16. Managed and Supported Missions in the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Replacing the p.m. orbit & ground system (GS) of POES satellites, JPSS sensors will collect weather, ocean & climate data. JPSS's Common Ground System (CGS), made up of C3 & IDP parts and developed by Raytheon, now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers data between ground facilities, processes them into Environmental Data Records for NOAA's weather centers and evolves to support JPSS-1 in 2017. CGS processed S-NPP data creates many TBs/day across >2 dozen environmental data products (EDPs), doubling after JPSS launch. But CGS goes beyond this by providing data routing to other missions: GCOM-W1, Coriolis/Windsat, EOS, NSF's McMurdo Station, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and POES & MetOp satellites. Each system orbits 14 times/day, downlinking data 1-2 times/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/sec, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. CGS's flexible, multimission capabilities offer major chances for cost reduction & improved information integration across the missions. CGS gives a vital flexible-expandable-virtualized modern GS architecture. Using 5 global ground stations to receive S-NPP & JPSS-1 data, CGS links with high-bandwidth commercial fiber to rapidly move data to the IDP for EDP creation & delivery and leverages these networks to provide added support to more missions. CGS data latency will be < 80 minutes. JPSS CGS is a mature, tested solution for support to operational weather forecasting for civil, military and international partners and climate research. It features a flexible design handling order-of-magnitude increases in data over legacy systems and meets tough science accuracy needs. The Raytheon-built CGS gives the full GS capability, from design & development through operations & sustainment, facilitating future evolution to support more missions.

  17. Feasibility analysis of XSOLANTRA: A mission concept to detect exoplanets with an array of CubeSats (United States)

    Banazadeh, P.; Lazio, J.; Jones, D.; Scharf, D. P.; Fowler, W.; Aladangady, C.

    Seeking “ nearby habitable worlds” was one of three science themes identified in the Astronomy Decadal Survey. Hundreds of extrasolar planets are known, but magnetic fields are likely required for these planets to be habitable. As of today, no direct constraints on the magnetic field characteristics of extrasolar planets exist. The ExtraSolar Observing Low-frequency Array of Nano Satellites for Radio Astronomy (XSOLANTRA), formerly known as XSOLARA is a feasibility study of a student designed, built, and tested micro-satellite mission to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) around Earth. XSOLANTRA will look at the Electron Cyclotron Maser Emission generated by the interaction between stellar wind and a planetary magnetosphere from which interior composition and atmospheric shielding can be inferred. The science instrument for XSOLANTRA is the entire array of fourteen CubeSats operating together as an interferometer. The fourteen CubeSats will be stacked on a SHuttle Expendable Rocket for Payload Augmentation (SHERPA) vehicle as a payload and will be deployed once arrived at DRO. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate that a CubeSat mission with cost of no more than $60 million is capable of detecting extrasolar planets. The study showed that a CubeSat mission within these constraints is possible; however, some questions still remain unanswered. This paper summarizes the mission concept starting from the science requirements, key mission design decisions, component level feasibility analysis and management and cost analysis.

  18. SMOS: a satellite mission to measure ocean surface salinity (United States)

    Font, Jordi; Kerr, Yann H.; Srokosz, Meric A.; Etcheto, Jacqueline; Lagerloef, Gary S.; Camps, Adriano; Waldteufel, Philippe


    The ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission will be launched by 2005. Its baseline payload is a microwave L-band (21 cm, 1.4 GHz) 2D interferometric radiometer, Y shaped, with three arms 4.5 m long. This frequency allows the measurement of brightness temperature (Tb) under the best conditions to retrieve soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS). Unlike other oceanographic variables, until now it has not been possible to measure salinity from space. However, large ocean areas lack significant salinity measurements. The 2D interferometer will measure Tb at large and different incidence angles, for two polarizations. It is possible to obtain SSS from L-band passive microwave measurements if the other factors influencing Tb (SST, surface roughness, foam, sun glint, rain, ionospheric effects and galactic/cosmic background radiation) can be accounted for. Since the radiometric sensitivity is low, SSS cannot be recovered to the required accuracy from a single measurement as the error is about 1-2 psu. If the errors contributing to the uncertainty in Tb are random, averaging the independent data and views along the track, and considering a 200 km square, allow the error to be reduced to 0.1-0.2 pus, assuming all ancillary errors are budgeted.

  19. The Advanced Patricle-astrophysics Telescope (APT) Mission Concept (United States)

    Buckley, James


    The Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) is a concept for a probe-class gamma-ray mission aimed at two primary science objects: (1) providing sensitivity to thermal-WIMP dark matter over the entire natural range of annihilation cross-sections and masses and (2) identifying short GRBs or gravity wave sources by detecting and localizing MeV gamma-ray transients. The instrument combines a pair tracker and Compton telescope in one simple monolithic design. By using scintillating fibers for the tracker and wavelength-shifting fibers to readout CsI detectors, the instrument could achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with Fermi at GeV energies, and several orders of magnitude improvement in MeV sensitivity compared to Comptel. The instrument would have roughly the same number of electronic channels as Fermi, but would provide an effective area of 12m2, and a geometry factor of 100 m2 str. The same CsI detectors used in the tracker/Compton telescope could be used for detection of high-energy transition radiation for measurements of light cosmic-ray abundances, making this a multi-purpose astro-particle physics observatory. The instantaneous all-sky sensitivity would provide a capability almost unique over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, providing a critical component of multi-messenger studies of the universe. We acknowledge support from the Washington University McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences.

  20. Solar Occultation Constellation for Retrieving Aerosols and Trace Element Species (SOCRATES): Proposed Mission Concept (United States)

    Gordley, L. L.; Bailey, S. M.


    The goal of SOCRATES is to resolve the critical but underexplored role of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) in climate change. The mission would provide the suite of measurements required to quantify UTLS transport pathways and their contribution to UTLS composition, and to evaluate the radiative forcing implications of changes in UTLS composition forced by expected changes in these pathways as the climate evolves. The discrimination and quantification of UTLS transport pathways requires simultaneous measurement of several key trace gases and aerosols with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution. Furthermore, aerosols and clouds, often present in the UTLS, complicate the measurement of trace gases. The SOCRATES sensor is a 23-channel Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR), referred to as GLO (GFCR Limb solar Occultation), with heritage from HALOE on UARS, and SOFIE on AIM. GLO measures aerosol extinction from 0.45 to 3.88 μm, important radiatively active gases in the UTLS (H2O, O3, CH4, N2O), key tracers of UTLS transport (HCN, CO, HDO), gases important in stratospheric O3 chemistry (HCl and HF), and temperature from cloud top to 50 km at a vertical resolution of SOCRATES mission concept is a 6-element constellation of autonomous small satellites, each mated with a GLO sensor, and deployed from a single launch vehicle. The SOCRATES/GLO approach reaps the advantages of solar occultation: high precision and accuracy; robust calibration; and high vertical resolution, while mitigating the sparse coverage of a single solar occultation sensor. We present the SOCRATES science case, and key elements of the SOCRATES mission and GLO instrument concepts.

  1. Satellite processing facilities: a new solid-waste planning concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.S.

    The concept of using satellite facilities for regional solid-waste management is a response to the need for realistic long-range planning for resource recovery. A feasibility study was made of a single-line processing facility to determine its efficiency and cost potential. The study concludes that economics require a region large enough to produce adequate waste, the presence of an energy market for the combustible fraction, and an independent and flexible organization. The plan offers an alternative to numerous landfills and long-distance transfer as well as local employment opportunities. Cost estimates of $5 to $12 per ton for the test study are competitive with the cost of operating landfills. Markets for the recovered materials were identified during the study.

  2. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian


    capability to perform reconnais-sance for a future lander. In consultation with NASA Headquarters, the SDT developed a reconnaissance goal: Characterize Scientifically Compelling Sites, and Hazards, for a Potential Future Landed Mission to Europa. This leads to two reconnaissance objectives: Site Safety: Assess the distribution of surface hazards, the load-bearing capacity of the surface, the structure of the subsurface, and the regolith thickness; and Sci-ence Value: Assess the composition of surface materi-als, the geologic context of the surface, the potential for geological activity, the proximity of near surface water, and the potential for active upwelling of ocean material. The Europa Clipper mission concept provides an efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability through understanding the satellite's ice shell and ocean, composition, and geology. It also provides for surface reconnaissance for potential future landed exploration of Europa. Development of the Eu-ropa Clipper mission concept is ongoing, with current studies focusing on spacecraft design trades and re-finements, launch vehicle options (EELV and SLS), and power source (MMRTG and solar), to name a few. We will provide an update on status of the science and reconnaissance effort, as well as the results of trade studies as relevant to the science and reconnaissance potential of the mission concept.

  3. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra


    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date concerning MMS formation flying. The MMS spacecraft spin at a rate of 3.1 RPM, with spin axis roughly aligned with Ecliptic North. Several booms are used to deploy instruments: two 5 m magnetometer booms in the spin plane, two rigid booms of length 12.5 m along the positive and negative spin axes, and four flexible wire booms of length 60 m in the spin plane. Minimizing flexible motion of the wire booms requires that reorientation of the spacecraft spin axis be kept to a minimum: this is limited to attitude maneuvers to counteract the effects of gravity-gradient and apparent solar motion. Orbital maneuvers must therefore be carried out in essentially the nominal science attitude. These burns make use of a set of monopropellant hydrazine thrusters: two (of thrust 4.5 N) along the spin axis in each direction, and eight (of thrust 18 N) in the spin plane; the latter are pulsed at the spin rate to produce a net delta-v. An on-board accelerometer-based controller is used to accurately generate a commanded delta-v. Navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the MOC Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for maneuver design. These commands are then uplinked to the spacecraft and executed autonomously using the controller, with the ground monitoring the burns in real time.

  4. Concept and technology development for the multispectral imager of the Canadian Polar Communications and Weather mission (United States)

    Moreau, Louis; Dubois, Patrick; Girard, Frédéric; Tanguay, François; Giroux, Jacques


    The Polar Communications and Weather (PCW) mission is proposed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), in partnership with Environment Canada, the Department of National Defence, and several other Canadian government departments. The objectives of the PCW mission are to offer meteorological observations and telecommunication services for the Canadian North. These capabilities are particularly important because of increasing interest in the Arctic and the desire to maintain Canadian sovereignty in this region. The PCW mission has completed its Phase A in 2011. The PCW Meteorological Payload is a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) that will provide near-real time weather imagery for the entire circumpolar region with a refresh period of 15 to 30 minutes. Two satellites on a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) will carry the instrument so as to observe the high latitudes 24 hours per day from a point of view that is almost geostationary. The data from the imagers are expected to greatly enhance accuracy of numerical weather prediction models for North America and globally. The mission will also produce useful information on environment and climate in the North. During Phase A, a certain number of critical technologies were identified. The CSA has initiated an effort to develop some of these so that their Technology Readiness Level (TRL) will be suitable for the follow-on phases of the program. An industrial team lead by ABB has been selected to perform technology development activities for the Meteorological Payload. The goal of the project is to enhance the TRL of the telescope, the spectral separation optics, and the infrared multispectral cameras of the PCW Meteorological Payload by fabricating and testing breadboards for these items. We will describe the Meteorological Payload concept and report on the status of the development activities.

  5. Application of a Novel Long-Reach Manipulator Concept to Asteroid Redirect Missions (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.


    A high priority mission currently being formulated by NASA is to capture all or part of an asteroid and return it to cis-lunar space for examination by an astronaut crew. Two major mission architectures are currently being considered: in the first (Mission Concept A), a spacecraft would rendezvous and capture an entire free flying asteroid (up to 14 meters in diameter), and in the second (Mission Concept B), a spacecraft would rendezvous with a large asteroid (which could include one of the Martian moons) and retrieve a boulder (up to 4 meters in diameter). A critical element of the mission is the system that will capture the asteroid or boulder material, enclose it and secure it for the return flight. This paper describes the design concepts, concept of operations, structural sizing and masses of capture systems that are based on a new and novel Tendon- Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) general-purpose robotic system. Features of the TALISMAN system are described and the status of its technology development is summarized. TALISMAN-based asteroid material retrieval system concepts and concepts-of-operations are defined for each asteroid mission architecture. The TALISMAN-based capture systems are shown to dramatically increase operational versatility while reducing mission risk. Total masses of TALISMAN-based systems are presented, reinforcing the mission viability of using a manipulator-based approach for the asteroid redirect mission.

  6. Art concepts of EVA retrieval of WESTAR/PALAPA satellites to Cargo bay (United States)


    Art concepts of EVA retrieval of WESTAR/PALAPA satellites to Cargo bay docking. Views include: astronuat approaching satellite using the manned manuevering unit (MMU) while the shuttle hovers above the earth (35276); Satellite sitting in open cargo bay (35277); Astronaut manipulating satellite in preparation for placing it in orbit. The satellite is in the grasp of the extended remote manipulator system's (RMS) end effector (35278); Astronaut using MMU to approach satellite in orbit while shuttle with open payload bay remains below (35279); Astronauts standing in foot restraints in the open payload bay. The satellite is suspended above them by the RMS and they appear to be repairing it (35280); Front view of shuttle in orbit with RMS extended placing satellite in orbit (35281); One astronaut stands in foot restraints in the payload bay under the satellite he is repairing. The other astronaut uses the MMU to work from above. The satellite is suspended by the RMS (35282).

  7. A Cooperative Multi-Satellite Mission for Controlled Active Debris Removal from Low Earth Orbit (United States)


    area for components and structural fragments surviving reentry shall not exceed 1 in 10,000.” Bon- nal et al. [13] quantify the risks presented by...engine survive reentry. The resulting casualty area and kinetic energy at impact for the propellant tank are 10.15 m2 and 25.9 kJ, and for the complex het- erogeneous multi-satellite mission design. From the authors experience in formation flying mission design [59], [60], [61], [62

  8. Novel low cost standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus for LEO missions (United States)

    Anubhav, T.; Sarwesh, P.; Narayan, V.; Varma, P. A.; Prasad, R. A.; Loganathan, M.; Rao, D. N.; Sriram, S.; Venkatesh, M.

    This paper focuses on SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS which is a standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus. It provides a standard platform for a wide variety of missions in LEO and can be realized in a very short developmental period. The bus was designed and developed for SRMSAT, the SRM University (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial University) student Nano-Satellite, by the undergraduate students and faculty of SRM University in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The bus can support payloads up to a mass of 20kg. SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS has a mass of around 6 kg and dimensions 280mm × 280mm × 280mm with an available volume of 11000 cc. Vibration Testing of the bus has been performed upto 6.7 gRMS. This makes the satellite capable of being launched by any launch vehicle in the world. An innovative PCB mounting design has been introduced in this structure bus which facilitates mounting of a maximum 7 PCB trays independently, each tray capable of holding a 250 mm2 PCB. Structural analysis of SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS was done using NX Nastran. The boundary conditions for each analysis were defined based on the loading conditions as specified by the launcher, PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle). Optimization of each individual component was performed by maintaining a minimum threshold between the local frequencies of the component and global frequencies of the entire satellite. Static, Modal, Harmonic and Random Vibration analysis of the structure bus was performed. This paper also describes the methodology followed in the static and dynamic analysis of the structure bus to finalize the design. The results have been tested and validated at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore with around 90% accuracy and the structure has been certified as a standard structure bus for Nano-satellite missions. In terms of expandability, this structure bus is capable of accommodating deployable solar panels. Also, the payload mounting is not only restricted to th- bottom deck but can

  9. A robust mission concept for a low-cost Ceres Plume Sample Return (United States)

    Poncy, J.; Fontdecaba, J.; Couzin, P.


    The recent discovery of ejecta from dwarf planet Ceres by scientists [1] using ESA's Herschel telescope provides for a golden opportunity for a low cost sample return mission for very high value science return. NASA's mission Dawn will arrive at Ceres in 2015 and pave the way for future missions to Ceres. Thales Alenia Space presents here an original short-duration low-cost mission concept that provides for two low altitude fly-by's of Ceres and returns samples from the plumes to the Earth. Mission parameters are discussed and preliminary assessed in view of maximizing mission success.

  10. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions (United States)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.


    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  11. Argus: An Io observer mission concept study from the 2014 NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School (United States)

    Hays, L. E.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Becerra, P.; Basu, K.; Davis, B.; Fox, V. K.; Herman, J. F. C.; Hughes, A. C. G.; Keane, J. T.; Marcucci, E.; Mendez-Ramos, E.; Nelessen, A.; Neveu, M.; Parrish, N. L.; Scheinberg, A. L.; Wrobel, J. S.


    Jupiter's satellite Io represents the ideal target for studying extreme tidal heating and volcanism, two of the most important processes in the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. The 2011 Planetary Decadal Survey identified an Io Observer as a high-priority New Frontiers class mission to be considered for the decade 2013-2022. In response to the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, we propose a mission concept for an Io Observer mission, named Argus (after the mythical watchman of Io), developed by the students of the August 2014 session of the Planetary Science Summer School hosted by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, together with JPL's Team X. The goals of our mission are: (i) Study the effects of tidal heating and its implications for habitability in the Solar System and beyond; (ii) Investigate active lava flows on Io as an analog for early Earth; (iii) Analyze the interaction of Io with the Jovian system through material exchange and magnetospheric activity; (iv) Study the internal structure of Io, as well as its chemical and tectonic history in order to gain insight into its formation and that of the other Galilean satellites.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.


    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  13. Feasibility of microminiature satellites (United States)

    Imai, Ryouichi


    A conceptual study is conducted on technical problems and system design techniques to accomplish higher performance microminiature satellites by smaller systems. Applications of microminiature satellite technology to practical satellite mission are mentioned. Concepts of microminiature satellites, measures to miniaturize satellites, and micro-miniaturization technologies for communication and data processing, electric solar power paddle, attitude and orbit control, structure, thermal control, propulsion, and instrumentation systems are outlined. Examples of miniaturizing satellite missions such as planet exploration, low-altitude communication networks, space positioning system, low-altitude earth observation mission, clustered satellites, tethered satellites, and timely observation are described. Satellite miniaturizing technology can also be used to launch systems by lasers, and superconductive linear catapults (space escalator). It is pointed out that keys to promote satellite miniaturization are electronics, precision machining, raw material, electric power source technologies, and system design technology to integrate those technologies.

  14. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)


    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  15. Joint IKI/ROSCOSMOS - NASA Science Definition Team and concept mission to Venus based on Venera-D (United States)

    Zasova, L.; Senske, D.; Economou, T.; Eismont, N.; Esposito, L.; Gerasimov, M.; Gorinov, D.; Ignatiev, N.; Ivanov, M.; Jessup, K. Lea; Khatuntsev, I.; Korablev, O.; Kremic, T.; Limaye, S.; Lomakin, I.; Martynov, A.; Ocampo, A.; Vaisberg, O.; Burdanov, A.


    NASA and IKI/Roscosmos established in 2015 a Joint Science Definition Team (JSDT), a key task of which was to codify the synergy between the goals of Venera-D with those of NASA. In addition, the JSDT studied potential NASA provided mission augmentations (experiments /elements) that could to fill identified science gaps. The first report to NASA - IKI/Roscosmos was provided in January 2017. The baseline Venera-D concept includes two elements, and orbiter and a lander, with potential contributions consisting of an aerial platform/balloon, small long-lived surface stations or a sub-satellite.

  16. Satellite Constellations for Space Weather and Ionospheric Studies: Overview of the COSMIC and COSMIC-2 Missions (United States)

    Schreiner, W. S.; Pedatella, N. M.; Weiss, J.


    Measurements from constellations of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are proving highly useful for ionospheric science and space weather studies. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), a joint US/Taiwan mission launched in April 2006, is a six micro-satellite constellation carrying Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receivers. COSMIC has collected a large amount of useful data from these scientific payloads and is still currently collecting up to 1,000 RO measurement events per day on average. The GPS RO dual-frequency L-band phase and amplitude measurements can be used to observe absolute Total Electron Content (TEC) and scintillation on lines of sight between the LEO and GPS satellites, and electron density profiles via the RO method. The large number and complete global and local time coverage of COSMIC data are allowing scientists to observe ionospheric and plasmaspheric phenomena that are difficult to see with other instruments. The success of COSMIC has prompted U.S. agencies and Taiwan to execute a COSMIC follow-on mission (called COSMIC-2) that will put twelve satellites with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) RO payloads into orbit on two launches in the 2017-20 time frame. The first launch in 2017 will place six satellites in a 520-km altitude 24 deg inclination orbit, which is ideal for low latitude ionospheric research and space weather forecasting. The planned second launch (not currently funded) places six additional satellites in a 750 km 72 deg inclination orbit to provide global coverage and increased sampling density. COSMIC-2 will make use of an advanced radio occultation receiver with an innovative beam-forming antenna design, and is expected to produce at least 10,000 high-quality atmospheric and ionospheric profiles per day from GPS and GLONASS signals to support operational weather prediction, climate monitoring, and space weather forecasting. Each COSMIC-2 spacecraft

  17. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (United States)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.


    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  18. GRACE Mission Design: Impact of Uncertainties in Disturbance Environment and Satellite Force Models (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Qu, Min


    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) primary mission will be performed by making measurements of the inter-satellite range change between two co-planar, low altitude, near-polar orbiting satellites. Understanding the uncertainties in the disturbance environment, particularly the aerodynamic drag and torques, is critical in several mission areas. These include an accurate estimate of the spacecraft orbital lifetime, evaluation of spacecraft attitude control requirements, and estimation of the orbital maintenance maneuver frequency necessitated by differences in the drag forces acting on both satellites. The FREEMOL simulation software has been developed and utilized to analyze and suggest design modifications to the GRACE spacecraft. Aerodynamic accommodation bounding analyses were performed and worst-case envelopes were obtained for the aerodynamic torques and the differential ballistic coefficients between the leading and trailing GRACE spacecraft. These analyses demonstrate how spacecraft aerodynamic design and analysis can benefit from a better understanding of spacecraft surface accommodation properties, and the implications for mission design constraints such as formation spacing control.

  19. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel


    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  20. PRIMA Platform capability for satellite missions in LEO and MEO (SAR, Optical, GNSS, TLC, etc.) (United States)

    Logue, T.; L'Abbate, M.


    PRIMA (Piattaforma Riconfigurabile Italiana Multi Applicativa) is a multi-mission 3-axis stabilized Platform developed by Thales Alenia Space Italia under ASI contract.PRIMA is designed to operate for a wide variety of applications from LEO, MEO up to GEO and for different classes of satellites Platform Family. It has an extensive heritage in flight heritage (LEO and MEO Satellites already fully operational) in which it has successfully demonstrated the flexibility of use, low management costs and the ability to adapt to changing operational conditions.The flexibility and modularity of PRIMA provides unique capability to satisfy different Payload design and mission requirements, thanks to the utilization of recurrent adaptable modules (Service Module-SVM, Propulsion Module-PPM, Payload Module-PLM) to obtain mission dependent configuration. PRIMA product line development is continuously progressing, and is based on state of art technology, modular architecture and an Integrated Avionics. The aim is to maintain and extent multi-mission capabilities to operate in different environments (LEO to GEO) with different payloads (SAR, Optical, GNSS, TLC, etc.). The design is compatible with a wide range of European and US equipment suppliers, thus maximising cooperation opportunity. Evolution activities are mainly focused on the following areas: Structure: to enable Spacecraft configurations for multiple launch; Thermal Control: to guarantee thermal limits for new missions, more demanding in terms of environment and payload; Electrical: to cope with higher power demand (e.g. electrical propulsion, wide range of payloads, etc.) considering orbital environment (e.g. lighting condition); Avionics : AOCS solutions optimized on mission (LEO observation driven by agility and pointing, agility not a driver for GEO). Use of sensors and actuators tailored for specific mission and related environments. Optimised Propulsion control. Data Handling, SW and FDIR mission customization

  1. The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) Mission Using the HiSat Conformal Satellite Architecture (United States)

    Miller, Nathanael A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Soto, Hector L.; Stewart, Victor A.; Jones, Mark L.; Kowalski, Matthew C.; Ben Shabat, Adam; Gough, Kerry M.; Stavely, Rebecca L.; Shim, Alex C.; hide


    The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) experiment, designed as a quick turnaround mission to make radiation measurements in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will fly as a hosted payload in partnership with NovaWurks using their Hyper-integrated Satlet (HISat) architecture. The need for the mission arises as the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionization Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model moves from a research effort into an operational radiation assessment tool. Currently, airline professionals are the second largest demographic of radiation workers and to date their radiation exposure is undocumented in the USA. The NAIRAS model seeks to fill this information gap. The data collected by R3S, in addition to the complementary data from a NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) atmospheric balloon mission entitled Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X), will validate exposure prediction capabilities of NAIRAS. The R3S mission collects total dose and radiation spectrum measurements using a Teledyne µDosimeter and a Liulin-6SA2 LED spectrometer. These two radiation sensors provide a cross correlated radiometric measurement in combination with the Honeywell HMR2300 Smart Digital Magnetometer. The magnetometer assesses the Earth's magnetic field in the LEO environment and allows radiation dose to be mapped as a function of the Earth's magnetic shielding. R3S is also unique in that the radiation sensors will be exposed on the outer surface of the spacecraft, possibly making this the first measurements of the LEO radiation environment with bare sensors. Viability of R3S as an extremely fast turnaround mission is due, in part, to the nature of the robust, well-defined interfaces of the conformal satellite HiSat Architecture. The HiSat architecture, which was developed with the support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Phoenix Program, enabled the R3S system to advance from the first concept to delivery of preliminary design review (PDR) level documents in

  2. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). NASA established the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), comprised of scientists, engineers, and technologists, which supported ARRM mission requirements formulation, answered specific questions concerning potential target asteroid physical properties, and produced a publically available report. The ARM Investigation Team is being organized to support ARM implementation and execution. NASA is also open to collaboration with its international partners and welcomes further discussions. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, and a discussion

  3. The science and measurement concepts underlying the BIOMASS mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quegan, Shaun; Chave, Jerome; Dall, Jørgen


    The BIOMASS mission is designed to provide unique information on the biomass in the world's forests at spatial and temporal resolutions suitable for characterizing their dynamics and their contribution to carbon cycle estimates. To achieve this it combines biomass estimates from direct inversion...... of polarimetric backscattering coefficients with Pol-InSAR forest height estimates. The mission will also support important secondary objectives, including sub-surface imaging in arid zones, production of a bare-earth DTM and ice applications, and is optimized to be robust against environmental and ionospheric...

  4. ESA's Future Earth Explorer: new candidate mission concepts (United States)

    Drinkwater, M.; Ingmann, P.; Kern, M.; Langen, J.; Drusch, M.; Davidson, M.; Bensi, P.; Carnicero, B.; Thompson, A.; Silvestrin, P.; Lin, C.; Heliere, F.; Bezy, J.; Durand, Y.; Aguirre, M.; Haagmans, R.


    The European Space Agency has released the call for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission Ideas in March 2005 with the aim to select the 7th Earth Explorer mission to be launched in the 2014 timeframe. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to detailed scientific and technical assessment. Six proposals have been selected to be further investigated in a detailed scientific and technical assessment study, after which a down-selection will be made. The six candidate missions selected are: A-SCOPE - (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth): Improving the understanding of the global carbon cycle and regional carbon dioxide fluxes, BIOMASS - global measurements of forest biomass and extent, CoReH2O - (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory): Detailed observations of key snow, ice and water cycle characteristics, FLEX - (FLuorescence EXplorer): Observation of global photosynthesis through the measurement of fluorescence, PREMIER - (PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre- wave Emitted Radiation): Understanding the processes that link trace gases, radiation, chemistry and climate in the atmosphere and TRAQ - (TRopospheric composition and Air Quality) - Air quality monitoring and long-range transport of air pollutants. This paper will give an overview of the science objectives and preliminary requirement specifications for each candidate mission. A user concultation meeting will be held at the Congress Centre of the Belém Cultural Centre in Lisbon, Portugal, on 20-21 January 2009 to proceed with selected ones in feasibility study.

  5. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) -- A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bonamente, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Jenke, P.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Orr, M. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.


    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new γ-ray astrophysics mission concept expected to have unprecedented sensitivity in the nuclear regime. Operating in lunar orbit, LOCO will utilize lunar occultation imaging to survey and probe the cosmos.

  6. Revisiting the South Atlantic Anomaly after 3 years of Swarm satellite mission (United States)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Campuzano, Saioa A.; De Santis, Angelo


    Covering part of Southern America and the South Atlantic Ocean, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is nowadays one of the most important and largest features of the geomagnetic field at the Earth's surface. It is characterized by lower intensity values than expected for those geomagnetic latitudes. Thanks to the global geomagnetic models, the spatial and temporal geometry of the Earth's magnetic field can be defined at the core-mantle boundary, showing the origin of the SAA as a reversal polarity patch that is growing with a pronounced rate of -2.54ṡ105 nT per century and with western drift. Since the Swarm satellite mission of the European Space Agency was launched at the end of 2013, the three twin satellites are picking up the most accurate values of the geomagnetic field up to now. In this work, we use the satellite magnetic data from Swarm mission along with the observatory ground data of surrounding areas to evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of the SAA during the Swarm-life.

  7. Advanced satellite concepts for future generation VSAT networks (United States)

    Naderi, F. Michael; Wu, William W.


    Advanced communication networks that use very-small-aperture terminals (VSATs) are considered. The techniques and technologies suitable for powerful satellites and system architectures for future VSAT networks are discussed. These include high effective isotropic radiated power, multiple-beam satellite antennas, and various access techniques. Examples of systems planned by the government and private industry are described.

  8. Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (IPL): A concept for an interplanetary mission in the mid-eighties (United States)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Feldman, W.


    A concept for a near-earth interplanetary mission in the mid-eighties is described. The proposed objectives would be to determine the composition of the interplanetary constituents and its dependence on source-conditions and to investigate energy and momentum transfer processes in the interplanetary medium. Such a mission would accomplish three secondary objectives: (1) provide a baseline for deep space missions, (2) investigate variations of the solar wind with solar activity, and (3) provide input functions for magnetospheric studies.

  9. An examination of emerging in-space propulsion concepts for one-year crewed mars missions (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Rauwolf, Gerald A.; Maggio, Gaspare; Patel, Saroj; Sorensen, Kirk


    A study was completed that provides a meaningful, even-handed, comparison assessment of promising candidate, in-space, exploration propulsion concepts to support emerging ``near-term'' crewed Mars mission applications. In particular, the study examined the mission performance feasibility and risk of a number of near-, mid-, and far-term in-space propulsion concepts to support crewed Mars missions starting in 2018 that can have the crewed portion of the mission performed in one year or less. This study used exploration propulsion system team technology specialist advocates to identify seven meaningful, representative mission architecture scenarios to ``best'' demonstrate the capability of such in-space propulsion technology options to support the near-term crewed Mars mission requirement. Additionally, a common set of top-level mission/system requirements was established for the study, which was incorporated in the assessment of all the mission options considered. Mission performance for abundant chemical (Ab-Chem), bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR), high power nuclear electric propulsion (HP-NEP), momentum tether/chemical, solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar electric propulsion/chemical (SEP-Chem) and Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) based missions were estimated for this quick trip, 2018 crewed Mars flight opportunity. Each of these mission options are characterized in terms of their overall mission performance capability, crewed mission duration, Initial Mass to Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), which including dry and propellant weight required, overall mission time, number of flight elements (propulsion units/tank sets), and number of Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicle launches. Potential top-level development, implementation, and operational issues/risks for each mission scenario considered are also identified. .

  10. Report of the Joint Scientific Mission Definition Team for an infrared astronomical satellite (United States)


    The joint effort is reported of scientists and engineers from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States working as a team for the purpose of exploring the possibility of a cooperative venture. The proposed mission builds upon experience gained from the successful Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS). This satellite will be in a polar orbit at an altitude of 900 km. It will carry an 0.6 m diameter telescope cooled with helium to a temperature near 10K. An array of approximately 100 detectors will be used to measure the infrared flux in four wavelength bands centered at 10, 20, 50, and 100 microns. Sources will be located on the sky with positional accuracy of 1/2 arcminute. The instrument should be able to investigate the structure of extended sources with angular scales up to 1.0 deg. The entire sky will be surveyed and the full lifetime of the mission of about one year will be necessary to complete the survey. Special observational programs will also be incorporated into the mission.

  11. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.


    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  12. Improving the lack of missional effectiveness of congregations with small satellite meetings from an interdisciplinary practical theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur R. Tucker


    Full Text Available There is much literature concerning small church groups. We are swamped with articles and blogs about what to do to make your small group succeed. Many of these are purely pragmatic, with a smattering of theology or ecclesiology. I believe it is time to take a fresh practical theological look at their place in congregational life and their ecclesiological role. One aim of the missional concept is that congregations transform the communities in the contemporary worlds in which they exist. Whilst many churches now have a dual structure of small satellite groups attached around the main larger worship meeting variously known as cell groups, life groups, etc., it would appear from research that they are not using this dual combination effectively from a missional perspective and thus are not being as effective as they could be in fulfilling the missio Dei. This article attempts to learn how this may be improved using an interdisciplinary practical theology approach combining what may be learnt about this dual structure from the sociology of groups, church history, ecclesiology, and contemporary contextual studies. It concludes by making appropriate recommendations.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article suggests how their effectiveness may be significantly improved using an intra/interdisciplinary practical theology approach combining what may be learnt about this dual structure from the sociology of groups, church history, perception theory in the area of ecclesial paradigms, missional and Trinitarian ecclesiology, and contemporary contextual studies. It concludes by making appropriate recommendations.Keywords: Dual group structures; contemporary developments;actional analysis; improving missional effectiveness; contextual importance

  13. Advanced multiple access concepts in mobile satellite systems (United States)

    Ananasso, Fulvio


    Some multiple access strategies for Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) are discussed. These strategies were investigated in the context of three separate studies conducted for the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Satellite-Switched Frequency Division Multiple Access (SS-FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Frequency-Addressable Beam architectures are addressed, discussing both system and technology aspects and outlining advantages and drawbacks of either solution with associated relevant hardware issues. An attempt is made to compare the considered option from the standpoint of user terminal/space segment complexity, synchronization requirements, spectral efficiency, and interference rejection.

  14. A Thomson X-ray polarimeter for a small satellite mission and its scientific prospects (United States)

    Paul, Biswajit; Gopala Krishna, M. R.; Puthiya Veetil, Rishin; Duraichelvan, R.; Maitra, Chandreyee


    A Thomson X-ray polarimeter is under fabrication for a small satellite mission of the ISRO. A brief description of the design, specifications, sensitivity, and development status of this instrument will be given. We will then discuss some of the important scientific goals, especially about accretion powered pulsars and accreting black holes, both in their hard and soft states. With an enregy range of 5-30 keV, this instrument will be a bridge between the soft X-ray polarimeter GEMS and the various Compton polarimeters under development.

  15. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room (United States)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.


    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  16. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    To realise the full potential of modern low cost mini-micro-nano-satellite missions, regular and affordable launch opportunities are required. It is simply not economic to launch individual satellites of 5-300kg on single dedicated launchers costing typically 15-20M per launch. Whilst there have been periodic 'piggy-back' launches of small satellites on US launchers since the 1960's, these have been infrequent and often experienced significant delays due the vagaries of the main (paying!) payload. In 1989, Arianespace provided a critical catalyst to the microsatellite community when it imaginatively developed the ASAP platform on Ariane-4 providing, for the first time, a standard interface and affordable launch contracts for small payloads up to 50kg. During the 1990's, some 20 small satellites have been successfully launched on the Ariane-4 ASAP ring for international customers carrying out a range of operational, technology demonstration and training missions. However, most of these microsatellite missions seek low Earth orbit and especially sun-synchronous orbits, but the number of primary missions into these orbit has declined since 1996 and with it the availability of useful low cost launch opportunities for microsatellites. Whilst Ariane-5 has an enhanced capacity ASAP, it has yet to be widely used due both to the infrequent launches, higher costs, and the GTO orbit required by the majority of customers. China, Japan and India have also provided occasional secondary launches for small payloads, but not yet on a regular basis. Fortunately, the growing interest and demand for microsatellite missions coincided with the emergence of regular, low cost launch opportunities from the former Soviet Union (FSU) - both as secondary 'piggy-back' missions or as multiple microsatellite payloads on converted military ICBMs. Indeed, the FSU now supplies the only affordable means of launching minisatellites (200-500kg) into LEO as dedicated missions on converted missiles as

  17. Evaluating Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Numerical Models using Current and Potential Future Satellite Missions (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Tanelli, S.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Petersen, W. A.; Kummerow, C. D.


    Cloud, aerosol and precipitation processes play a fundamental role in the water and energy cycle. It is critical to accurately represent these microphysical processes in numerical models if we are to better predict cloud and precipitation properties on weather through climate timescales. Much has been learned about cloud properties and precipitation characteristics from NASA satellite missions such as TRMM, CloudSat, and more recently GPM. Furthermore, data from these missions have been successfully utilized in evaluating the microphysical schemes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and global models. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. These uncertainties can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that microphysical processes cannot be directly observed or measured, but instead have to be inferred from those cloud properties that can be measured. Evaluation of microphysical parameterizations are becoming increasingly important as enhanced computational capabilities are facilitating the use of more sophisticated schemes in CRMs, and as future global models are being run on what has traditionally been regarded as cloud-resolving scales using CRM microphysical schemes. In this talk we will demonstrate how TRMM, CloudSat and GPM data have been used to evaluate different aspects of current CRM microphysical schemes, providing examples of where these approaches have been successful. We will also highlight CRM microphysical processes that have not been well evaluated and suggest approaches for addressing such issues. Finally, we will introduce a potential NASA satellite mission, the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CAPPM), which would facilitate the development and evaluation of different microphysical-dynamical feedbacks in numerical models.

  18. CLAIRE: a Canadian Small Satellite Mission for Measurement of Greenhouse Gases (United States)

    Sloan, James; Grant, Cordell; Germain, Stephane; Durak, Berke; McKeever, Jason; Latendresse, Vincent


    CLAIRE, a Canadian mission operated by GHGSat Inc. of Montreal, is the world's first satellite designed to measure greenhouse gas emissions from single targeted industrial facilities. Claire was launched earlier this year into a 500 km polar sun-synchronous orbit selected to provide an acceptable balance between return frequency and spatial resolution. Extensive simulations of oil & gas facilities, power plants, hydro reservoirs and even animal feedlots were used to predict the mission performance. The principal goal is to measure the emission rates of carbon dioxide and methane from selected targets with greater precision and lower cost than ground-based alternatives. CLAIRE will measure sources having surface areas less than 10 x 10 km2 with a spatial resolution better than 50 m, thereby providing industrial site operators and government regulators with the information they need to understand, manage and ultimately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions more economically. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, coupled with a 2D InGaAs focal plane array operating in the short-wave infrared with a spectral resolution of about 0.1 nm. The patented, high étendue, instrument design provides signal to noise ratios that permit quantification of emission rates with accuracies adequate for most regulatory reporting thresholds. The very high spatial resolution of the density maps produced by the CLAIRE mission resolves plume shapes and emitter locations so that advanced dispersion models can derive accurate emission rates of multiple sources within the field of view. The satellite bus, provided by the University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory, is based on the well-characterized NEMO architecture, including hardware that has significant spaceflight heritage. The mission is currently undergoing initial test and validation measurements in preparation for commercial operation later this year.

  19. Nisar Spacecraft Concept Overview: Design Challenges for a Proposed Flagship Dual-Frequency SAR Mission (United States)

    Xaypraseuth, Peter; Chatterjee, Alok; Satish, R.


    NISAR would be the inaugural collaboration between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) on an Earth Science mission, which would feature an L-Band SAR instrument and an S-Band SAR instrument. As partners, NASA and ISRO would each contribute different engineering elements to help achieve the proposed scientific objectives of the mission. ISRO-Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre would provide the GSLV-Mark II launch vehicle, which would deliver the spacecraft into the desired orbit. ISRO-Satellite Centre would provide the spacecraft based on its I3K structural bus, a commonly used platform for ISRO's communication satellite missions, which would provide the resources necessary to operate the science payload. NASA would augment the spacecraft capabilities with engineering payload systems to help store, and transmit the large volume of science data.

  20. Architecture and System Engineering Development Study of Space-Based Satellite Networks for NASA Missions (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.


    Traditional NASA missions, both near Earth and deep space, have been stovepipe in nature and point-to-point in architecture. Recently, NASA and others have conceptualized missions that required space-based networking. The notion of networks in space is a drastic shift in thinking and requires entirely new architectures, radio systems (antennas, modems, and media access), and possibly even new protocols. A full system engineering approach for some key mission architectures will occur that considers issues such as the science being performed, stationkeeping, antenna size, contact time, data rates, radio-link power requirements, media access techniques, and appropriate networking and transport protocols. This report highlights preliminary architecture concepts and key technologies that will be investigated.

  1. Big Bang to Biosignatures: The LUVOIR Decadal Mission Concept (United States)

    Roberge, A.; Luvoir Mission Concept Team


    The Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) is a concept for a multi-wavelength space observatory with broad science goals. One of its major aims is to characterize habitable exoplanets around Sun-like stars and search them for signs of life.

  2. Exploring Asteroid Interiors: The Deep Interior Mission Concept (United States)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Cangahuala, A.; Keith, L.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Neumann, G.; Ostro, S. J.; Reinert, R.; Safaeinili, A.


    Deep Interior is a mission to determine the geophysical properties of near-Earth objects, including the first volumetric image of the interior of an asteroid. Radio reflection tomography will image the 3D distribution of complex dielectric properties within the 1 km rendezvous target and hence map structural, density or compositional variations. Laser altimetry and visible imaging will provide high-resolution surface topography. Smart surface pods culminating in blast experiments, imaged by the high frame rate camera and scanned by lidar, will characterize active mechanical behavior and structure of surface materials, expose unweathered surface for NIR analysis, and may enable some characterization of bulk seismic response. Multiple flybys en route to this target will characterize a diversity of asteroids, probing their interiors with non-tomographic radar reflectance experiments. Deep Interior is a natural follow-up to the NEARShoemaker mission and will provide essential guidance for future in situ asteroid and comet exploration. While our goal is to learn the interior geology of small bodies and how their surfaces behave, the resulting science will enable pragmatic technologies required of hazard mitigation and resource utilization.

  3. 3-Axis magnetic control: flight results of the TANGO satellite in the PRISMA mission (United States)

    Chasset, C.; Noteborn, R.; Bodin, P.; Larsson, R.; Jakobsson, B.


    PRISMA implements guidance, navigation and control strategies for advanced formation flying and rendezvous experiments. The project is funded by the Swedish National Space Board and run by OHB-Sweden in close cooperation with DLR, CNES and the Danish Technical University. The PRISMA test bed consists of a fully manoeuvrable MANGO satellite as well as a 3-axis controlled TANGO satellite without any Δ V capability. PRISMA was launched on the 15th of June 2010 on board DNEPR. The TANGO spacecraft is the reference satellite for the experiments performed by MANGO, either with a "cooperative" or "non-cooperative" behaviour. Small, light and low-cost were the keywords for the TANGO design. The attitude determination is based on Sun sensors and magnetometers, and the active attitude control uses magnetic torque rods only. In order to perform the attitude manoeuvres required to fulfil the mission objectives, using any additional gravity gradient boom to passively stabilize the spacecraft was not allowed. After a two-month commissioning phase, TANGO separated from MANGO on the 11th of August 2010. All operational modes have been successfully tested, and the pointing performance in flight is in accordance with expectations. The robust Sun Acquisition mode reduced the initial tip-off rate and placed TANGO into a safe attitude in TANGO points its GPS antenna towards zenith with sufficient accuracy to track as many GPS satellites as MANGO. At the same time, it points its solar panel towards the Sun, and all payload equipments can be switched on without any restriction. This paper gives an overview of the TANGO Attitude Control System design. It then presents the flight results in the different operating modes. Finally, it highlights the key elements at the origin of the successful 3-axis magnetic control strategy on the TANGO satellite.

  4. CMBPol Mission Concept Study: Probing Inflation with CMB Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Daniel; Adshead, Peter; Amblard, Alexandre; Ashoorioon, Amjad; Bartolo, Nicola; Bean, Rachel; Beltran, Maria; de Bernardis, Francesco; Bird, Simeon; Chen, Xingang; Chung, Daniel Jun Hun; Colombo, Loris; Cooray, Asantha R.; Creminelli, Paolo; Dodelson, Scott; Dunkley, Joanna; Dvorkin, Cora; Easther, Richard; Finelli, Fabio; Flauger, Raphael; Hertzberg, Mark P.; Jones-Smith, Katherine; Kachru, Shamit; Kadota, Kenji; Khoury, Justin; Kinney, William H.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liddle, Andrew R.; Liguori, Michele; Lim, Eugene A.; Linde, Andrei D.; Matarrese, Sabino; Mathur, Harsh; McAllister, Liam; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Nicolis, Alberto; Pagano, Luca; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Peloso, Marco; Pogosian, Levon; Pierpaoli, Elena; Riotto, Antonio; Seljak, Uros; Senatore, Leonardo; Shandera, Sarah E.; Silverstein, Eva; Smith, Tristan; Vaudrevange, Pascal M.; Verde, Licia; Wandelt, Ben; Wands, David; Watson, Scott; Wyman, Mark; Yadav, Amit; Valkenburg, Wessel; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    We summarize the utility of precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements as probes of the physics of inflation. We focus on the prospects for using CMB measurements to differentiate various inflationary mechanisms. In particular, a detection of primordial B-mode polarization would demonstrate that inflation occurred at a very high energy scale, and that the inflaton traversed a super-Planckian distance in field space. We explain how such a detection or constraint would illuminate aspects of physics at the Planck scale. Moreover, CMB measurements can constrain the scale-dependence and non-Gaussianity of the primordial fluctuations and limit the possibility of a significant isocurvature contribution. Each such limit provides crucial information on the underlying inflationary dynamics. Finally, we quantify these considerations by presenting forecasts for the sensitivities of a future satellite experiment to the inflationary parameters.

  5. The Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2): Science Requirements, Concept, and Implementation (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Tom; Martino, Anthony; Abdalati, Waleed; Brunt, Kelly; Csatho, Beata; Farrell, Sinead; Fricker, Helen; Gardner, Alex; Harding, David; hide


    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission used laser altimetry measurements to determine changes in elevations of glaciers and ice sheets, as well as sea ice thickness distribution. These measurements have provided important information on the response of the cryosphere (Earths frozen surfaces) to changes in atmosphere and ocean condition. ICESat operated from 2003-2009 and provided repeat altimetry measurements not only to the cryosphere scientific community but also to the ocean, terrestrial and atmospheric scientific communities. The conclusive assessment of significant ongoing rapid changes in the Earths ice cover, in part supported by ICESat observations, has strengthened the need for sustained, high accuracy, repeat observations similar to what was provided by the ICESat mission. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for planned launch in 2018. The primary scientific aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea ice freeboard and ice sheet elevation to determine their changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet, and from 10s of meters to the entire polar oceans for sea ice freeboard. ICESat carried a single beam profiling laser altimeter that produced approximately 70 m diameter footprints on the surface of the Earth at approximately 150 m along-track intervals. In contrast, ICESat-2 will operate with three pairs of beams, each pair separated by about 3 km across-track with a pair spacing of 90 m. Each of the beams will have a nominal 17 m diameter footprint with an along-track sampling interval of 0.7 m. The differences in the ICESat-2 measurement concept are a result of overcoming some limitations associated with the approach used in the ICESat mission. The beam pair configuration of ICESat-2 allows for the determination of local cross-track slope, a significant factor in measuring elevation change

  6. A Novel Concept for Monitoring of Maritime Traffic by Micro-Satellites


    Narheim, B.T.; ERIKSEN T.; Høye, G.K.; Wahl, T.


    A concept for monitoring of maritime traffic by micro-satellites has been studied at FFI [1]. The concept is based on localization of maritime vessels by passive detection of their X-band navigation radar (3 cm wavelength), and subsequent direction finding and determination of the geographic position. A Phase-A study [3] on the utilization of this concept, for monitoring of the maritime traffic in ocean areas under Norwegian jurisdiction has demonstrated the feasibility of the concept. Locali...

  7. Ten years of measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Satellite Mission (United States)

    Walker, Kaley; McElroy, C. Thomas; Bernath, Peter F.; Boone, Chris

    Recently, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has completed a decade of measurements from orbit. This Canadian-led scientific satellite uses infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy to investigate the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere. The primary instrument on-board, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) is a high-resolution (0.02 cm (-1) ) FTS operating between 750 and 4400 cm (-1) . It also contains two filtered imagers (0.525 and 1.02 microns) to measure atmospheric extinction due to clouds and aerosols. The second instrument is a dual UV-visible-NIR spectrophotometer called ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) which extends the ACE wavelength coverage to the 280-1030 nm spectral region. The ACE instruments make solar occultation measurements from which altitude profiles of atmospheric trace gas species, temperature and pressure are retrieved. The 650 km altitude, 74 degree circular orbit provides global measurement coverage with a focus on the Arctic and Antarctic regions. These results are being used for studies relating to ozone depletion, climate-chemistry coupling and air pollution. As well, the decade long time series has been used to investigate trends in atmospheric constituents. This presentation will give an overview of the mission status and will provide a survey of the scientific results obtained from ACE.

  8. Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; hide


    At the start of 2011, the proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission was staffing up in expectation of becoming an official project later in the year for a launch in 2020. A unique aspect of the pre-project work was a strong emphasis and investment on the foundations of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). As so often happens in this business, plans changed: NASA's budget and science priorities were released and together fundamentally changed the course of JEO. As a result, it returned to being a study task whose objective is to propose more affordable ways to accomplish the science. As part of this transition, the question arose as to whether it could continue to afford the investment in MBSE. In short, the MBSE infusion has survived and is providing clear value to the study effort. By leveraging the existing infrastructure and a modest additional investment, striking advances in the capture and analysis of designs using MBSE were achieved. In the process, the need to remain relevant in the new environment has brought about a wave of innovation and progress. The effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting. It has successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of architecting to system modeling. We have found that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional methods. We have also found that a diverse 'ecosystem' of modeling tools and languages (SysML, Mathematica, even Excel) is not only viable, but an important enabler of agility and adaptability. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  9. “You can get there from here”: Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO (United States)

    Baker, Adam M.; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Schaffner, Jake; Sweeting, Martin


    Small satellites have historically been forced to use low cost propulsion, or to do without in order to maintain low cost. Since 1999 an increasing number of SSTL's customers have demanded the capability to precisely position and subsequently manoeuvre their satellites, driven largely by the current attraction of small satellite constellations such as Disaster Monitoring (DMC), which require propulsion for launcher injection error correction, drag compensation, constellation phasing and proximity manoeuvring and rendezvous. SSTL has successfully flight qualified a simple, low cost propulsion system based on a low power (15-100 W) resistojet employing green propellants such as butane and xenon, and demonstrated key constellation manoeuvres. The system is capable of up to 60 m/s deltaV and will be described here. The SSTL low power resistojet is however limited by a low Isp ( ˜50s for Xenon in the present design, and ˜100s with nitrogen and butane) and a slow reaction time ( 10min warm-up required). An increasing desire to apply small satellite technology to high deltaV missions while retaining the low cost aspect demands new solutions. 'Industry standard' solutions based on cryogenic propulsion, or toxic, carcinogenic storable propellants such as hydrazine/nitrogen oxides combination are not favourable for small satellite missions developed within SSTL's low cost engineering environment. This paper describes a number of strawman missions with high deltaV and/or precision manoeuvring requirements and some low cost propulsion solutions which have been explored at the Surrey Space Centre to meet future needs: Deployment of a complex constellation of nano- or pico-satellites from a secondary launch to a new orbit. The S3TV concept has been developed to allow deployment up to 12 payloads from an 'off-the-shelf' thrust tube, using a restartable nitrous oxide hybrid engine, operating in a dual mode with resistojets for attitude control. Orbit transfer of an enhanced

  10. 'You can get there from here': Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Adam M.; Silva Curiel, Alex da; Sweeting, Martin [Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd., Surrey (United Kingdom); Schaffner, Jake [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)


    Small satellites have historically been forced to use low cost propulsion, or to do without in order to maintain low cost. Since 1999 an increasing number of SSTL's customers have demanded the capability to precisely position and subsequently manoeuvre their satellites, driven largely by the current attraction of small satellite constellations such as Disaster Monitoring (DMC), which require propulsion for launcher injection error correction, drag compensation, constellation phasing and proximity manoeuvring and rendezvous. SSTL has successfully flight qualified a simple, low cost propulsion system based on a low power (15-100 W) resistojet employing green propellants such as butane and xenon, and demonstrated key constellation manoeuvres. The system is capable of up to 60 m/s deltaV and will be described here. The SSTL low power resistojet is however limited by a low Isp ( about 50s for Xenon in the present design, and about 100s with nitrogen and butane) and a slow reaction time (10 min warm-up required). An increasing desire to apply small satellite technology to high deltaV missions while retaining the low cost aspect demands new solutions. 'Industry standard' solutions based on cryogenic propulsion, or toxic, carcinogenic storable propellants such as hydrazine/nitrogen oxides combination are not favourable for small satellite missions developed within SSTL's low cost engineering environment. This paper describes a number of strawman missions with high deltaV and/or precision manoeuvring requirements and some low cost propulsion solutions which have been explored at the Surrey Space Centre to meet future needs: (1) Deployment of a complex constellation of nano- or pico-satellites from a secondary launch to a new orbit. The S3TV concept has been developed to allow deployment up to 12 payloads from an 'off-the-shelf' thrust tube, using a restartable nitrous oxide hybrid engine, operating in a dual mode with resistojets for attitude

  11. Comparison of gridded multi-mission and along-track mono-mission satellite altimetry wave heights with in situ near-shore buoy data.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Hithin, N.K.

    coasts of India. Among all of the satellites, a greater number of collocated points and better correlation were found for Jason-2. A comparison of the SWH data from multi-mission products (Jason-1, Jason-2, Envisat, and ERS-2) obtained from AVISO...

  12. Asteroid Redirect Mission Concept: A Bold Approach for Utilizing Space Resources (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.


    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavour from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid 2020's using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  13. Saturn's icy satellites investigated by Cassini-VIMS. II. Results at the end of nominal mission (United States)

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R.N.; Cuzzi, J.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Nicholson, P.D.; McCord, T.B.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Tosi, F.; Nelson, R.M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.


    We report the detailed analysis of the spectrophotometric properties of Saturn's icy satellites as derived by full-disk observations obtained by visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) experiment aboard Cassini. In this paper, we have extended the coverage until the end of the Cassini's nominal mission (June 1st 2008), while a previous paper (Filacchione, G., and 28 colleagues [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, hereby referred to as Paper I) reported the preliminary results of this study. During the four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the entire population of Saturn's icy satellites allowing us to make a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the major satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus) and irregular moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso, Phoebe). The results we discuss here are derived from the entire dataset available at June 2008 which consists of 1417 full-disk observations acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (as defined in Paper I: I/F continua at 0.55 ??m, 1.822 ??m and 3.547 ??m, visible spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide bands depths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to investigate the disk-integrated composition of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants" abundances and typical regolith grain properties. These quantities vary from the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Janus visible colors are intermediate between these two classes having a slightly positive spectral slope. These results could help to decipher the origins and evolutionary history of the minor moons of the Saturn's system. We introduce a polar representation of the spectrophotometric

  14. On a more rigorous gravity field processing for future LL-SST type gravity satellite missions (United States)

    Daras, I.; Pail, R.; Murböck, M.


    In order to meet the augmenting demands of the user community concerning accuracies of temporal gravity field models, future gravity missions of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) type are planned to carry more precise sensors than their precedents. A breakthrough is planned with the improved LL-SST measurement link, where the traditional K-band microwave instrument of 1μm accuracy will be complemented by an inter-satellite ranging instrument of several nm accuracy. This study focuses on investigations concerning the potential performance of the new sensors and their impact in gravity field solutions. The processing methods for gravity field recovery have to meet the new sensor standards and be able to take full advantage of the new accuracies that they provide. We use full-scale simulations in a realistic environment to investigate whether the standard processing techniques suffice to fully exploit the new sensors standards. We achieve that by performing full numerical closed-loop simulations based on the Integral Equation approach. In our simulation scheme, we simulate dynamic orbits in a conventional tracking analysis to compute pseudo inter-satellite ranges or range-rates that serve as observables. Each part of the processing is validated separately with special emphasis on numerical errors and their impact in gravity field solutions. We demonstrate that processing with standard precision may be a limiting factor for taking full advantage of new generation sensors that future satellite missions will carry. Therefore we have created versions of our simulator with enhanced processing precision with primarily aim to minimize round-off system errors. Results using the enhanced precision show a big reduction of system errors that were present at the standard precision processing even for the error-free scenario, and reveal the improvements the new sensors will bring into the gravity field solutions. As a next step, we analyze the contribution of

  15. Mission planning for on-orbit servicing through multiple servicing satellites: A new approach (United States)

    Daneshjou, K.; Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A. A.; Bakhtiari, M.


    In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for the mission planning of on-orbit servicing such as visual inspection, active debris removal and refueling through multiple servicing satellites (SSs). The scheduling has been done with the aim of minimization of fuel consumption and mission duration. So a multi-objective optimization problem is dealt with here which is solved by employing particle swarm optimization algorithm. Also, Taguchi technique is employed for robust design of effective parameters of optimization problem. The day that the SSs have to leave parking orbit, transfer duration from parking orbit to final orbit, transfer duration between one target to another, and time spent for the SS on each target are the decision parameters which are obtained from the optimization problem. The raised idea is that in addition to the aforementioned decision parameters, eccentricity and inclination related to the initial orbit and also phase difference between the SSs on the initial orbit are identified by means of optimization problem, so that the designer has not much role on determining them. Furthermore, it is considered that the SS and the target rendezvous at the servicing point and the SS does not perform any phasing maneuver to reach the target. It should be noted that Lambert theorem is used for determination of the transfer orbit. The results show that the proposed approach reduces the fuel consumption and the mission duration significantly in comparison with the conventional approaches.

  16. Automated Mars surface sample return mission concepts for achievement of essential scientific objectives (United States)

    Weaver, W. L.; Norton, H. N.; Darnell, W. L.


    Mission concepts were investigated for automated return to Earth of a Mars surface sample adequate for detailed analyses in scientific laboratories. The minimum sample mass sufficient to meet scientific requirements was determined. Types of materials and supporting measurements for essential analyses are reported. A baseline trajectory profile was selected for its low energy requirements and relatively simple implementation, and trajectory profile design data were developed for 1979 and 1981 launch opportunities. Efficient spacecraft systems were conceived by utilizing existing technology where possible. Systems concepts emphasized the 1979 launch opportunity, and the applicability of results to other opportunities was assessed. It was shown that the baseline missions (return through Mars parking orbit) and some comparison missions (return after sample transfer in Mars orbit) can be accomplished by using a single Titan III E/Centaur as the launch vehicle. All missions investigated can be accomplished by use of Space Shuttle/Centaur vehicles.

  17. Dynamic communications for small satellites using disruption tolerant network concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuditta, N.; Gill, E.K.A.; Fernández, B.; Isaac, D.


    New network technologies are providing interconnectivity in areas previously unheard of. One of these novel technologies, named Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), shows promise for the space industry. In order to study its suitability for University projects, a model of a University space mission

  18. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices (United States)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.


    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  19. Voyage to Troy: A mission concept for the exploration of the Trojan asteroids (United States)

    Saikia, S.; Das, A.; Laipert, F.; Dapkus, C.; Kendall, J.; Bowling, T.; Steckloff, J.; Holbert, S.; Graves, K.; Anthony, T.; Bobick, R.; Huang, Y.; Stuart, J.; Longuski, J.; Minton, D.


    The Trojan asteroids, located at Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points, are a potential source of insights into long-standing questions on the origin and early history of the Solar System. The 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey recommends a Trojan Tour and Rendezvous mission as high-priority among medium-class missions. A dedicated mission to the Trojan asteroids could confirm or refute multiple theories to correctly explain the Trojan asteroids' current location, characteristics, and behavior. In-depth and conclusive evidence for the Trojan asteroids' internal and external make-up as well as dynamical behavior hav been challenging due to limitations of ground- and space-based observations. Notwithstanding these limitations, it has been inferred that there are two distinct sub- populations that are distinguishable in visible and near-infrared spectra (redder and less red) within the swarms. These spectral groupings have not yet been conclusively linked to physical characteristics (e.g. size) or other observed parameters (e.g. albedo) of the primordial bodies. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's concept studies for Decadal Survey evaluated three concepts for missions to Trojan asteroids: each utilizing chemical- solar-electric, and radioisotope-electric for propulsion. Both Solar and Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators were considered for power [2]. We present a new conceptual mission to explore the Trojan asteroids that achieves the science goals prioritized in the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. The proposed mission aims to study both a redder and less red asteroid for the surface mineralogical and elemental composition, state of surface regolith, evidence and consequences of external modification processes such as collisional evolution, space weathering, and irradiation. Some potential targets in the L4 Greek camp currently under consideration for this mission include Achilles, Hektor and Agamemnon (redder) and Eurybates, Deipylos and Kalchas (less

  20. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO) Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey; McNamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver


    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a space-based gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return.

  1. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven


    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  2. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission (United States)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.


    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  3. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts Through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices (United States)

    Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.


    This slide presentation reviews the development of a rapid cost assessment models for evaluation of exploration missions through the application of complexity based cost indices. In Fall of 2004, NASA began developing 13 documents, known as "strategic roadmaps," intended to outline a strategy for space exploration over the next 30 years. The Third Strategic Roadmap, The Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration, focused on strategy for robotic exploration of the Solar System. Development of the Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration led to the investigation of a large variety of missions. However, the necessity of planning around scientific inquiry and budgetary constraints made it necessary for the roadmap development team to evaluate potential missions not only for scientific return but also cost. Performing detailed cost studies for each of the large number of missions was impractical given the time constraints involved and lack of detailed mission studies; so a method of rapid cost assessment was developed by us to allow preliminary analysis. It has been noted that there is a strong correlation between complexity and cost and schedule of planetary missions. While these correlations were made after missions had been built and flown (successfully or otherwise), it seemed likely that a similar approach could provide at least some relative cost ranking. Cost estimation relationships (CERs) have been developed based on subsystem design choices. These CERs required more detailed information than available, forcing the team to adopt a more high level approach. Costing by analogy has been developed for small satellites, however, planetary exploration missions provide such varying spacecraft requirements that there is a lack of adequately comparable missions that can be used for analogy.

  4. Solar power satellite concepts and potential related space systems (United States)

    Redding, T. E.


    Recent parametric studies of alternate SPS design concepts have shown that the concept appears technically feasible. The parametric studies were based on the use of advanced technology silicon solar cells for solar energy conversion. Solar array blanket unit masses of 0.31 to 0.46 kg/sq m were investigated. Conversion efficiencies of 15 to 17 percent air mass zero (AMO at 247 K) with a concentration ratio of two were considered. The systems were sized for a ground power output of 10 GW. To the level of detail studied, no design or operational problems were encountered that did not appear amenable to solution; however, the economic viability of the SPS concepts studied is obviously dependent upon a combination of technology advancement and/or the costs of competitive sources.

  5. Estimating water storage changes and sink terms in Volta Basin from satellite missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner G. Ferreira


    Full Text Available The insufficiency of distributed in situ hydrological measurements is a major challenge for hydrological studies in many regions of the world. Satellite missions such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM can be used to improve our understanding of water resources beyond surface water in poorly gauged basins. In this study we combined GRACE and TRMM to investigate monthly estimates of evaporation plus runoff (sink terms using the water balance equation for the period from January 2005 to December 2010 within the Volta Basin. These estimates have been validated by comparison with time series of sink terms (evaporation plus surface and subsurface runoff from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS. The results, for the period under consideration, show strong agreement between both time series, with a root mean square error (RMSE of 20.2 mm/month (0.67 mm/d and a correlation coefficient of 0.85. This illustrates the ability of GRACE to predict hydrological quantities, e.g. evaporation, in the Volta Basin. The water storage change data from GRACE and precipitation data from TRMM all show qualitative agreement, with evidence of basin saturation at approximately 73 mm in the equivalent water column at the annual and semi-annual time scales.

  6. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment for the ASCENDS Satellite Mission (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Baker, D. F.; Mountain, M.; Henderson, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Zaccheo, T. S.


    Top-down estimates of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 will benefit from the increasing measurement density brought by recent and future additions to the suite of in situ and remote CO2 measurement platforms. In particular, the planned NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) satellite mission will provide greater coverage in cloudy regions, at high latitudes, and at night than passive satellite systems, as well as high precision and accuracy. In a novel approach to quantifying the ability of satellite column measurements to constrain CO2 fluxes, we use a portable library of footprints (surface influence functions) generated by the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model in a regional Bayesian synthesis inversion. The regional Lagrangian framework is well suited to make use of ASCENDS observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution, in this case at 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude and weekly for North America. We consider random measurement errors only, modeled as a function of mission and instrument design specifications along with realistic atmospheric and surface conditions. We find that the ASCENDS observations could potentially reduce flux uncertainties substantially at biome and finer scales. At the 1 degree x 1 degree, weekly scale, the largest uncertainty reductions, on the order of 50 percent, occur where and when there is good coverage by observations with low measurement errors and the a priori uncertainties are large. Uncertainty reductions are smaller for a 1.57 micron candidate wavelength than for a 2.05 micron wavelength, and are smaller for the higher of the two measurement error levels that we consider (1.0 ppm vs. 0.5 ppm clear-sky error at Railroad Valley, Nevada). Uncertainty reductions at the annual, biome scale range from 40 percent to 75 percent across our four instrument design cases, and from 65 percent to 85 percent for the continent as a whole. Our uncertainty

  7. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) - A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bonamente, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Harmon, B. A.; Jenke, P.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Orr, M. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.


    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new lunar-based concept to probe the nuclear astrophysics regime. It will be a pioneering mission in high-energy astrophysics: the first to employ occultation as the principle detection and imaging method.

  8. New Approach to Concept Feasibility and Design Studies for Astrophysics Missions (United States)

    Deutsch, M. J.; McLaughlin, W.; Nichols, J.


    JPL has assembled a team of multidisciplinary experts with corporate knowledge of space mission and instrument development. The advanced Concept Design Team, known as Team X, provides interactive design trades including cost as a design parameter, and advanced visualization for pre-Phase A Studies.

  9. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.


    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  10. The Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP) for Exploration of the Ice Giants - A PSDS3 Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Atkinson, David H.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Dillman, robert A.; Hope, Drew J.; Li, Jing; Saikia, Sarag J.; Simon, Amy A.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Wong, Michael H.


    The Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP) mission concept was selected under the NASA Planetary Science Deep Space Small Satellite (PSDS3) call. Envisioned as a secondary probe on a future ice giant flagship mission nominally comprising an orbiter and primary probe, SNAP would provide measurements of spatially variable atmospheric properties such as the abundances of key volatiles, the distribution of clouds and cloud-forming chemical species, thermal stratification and stability of the atmosphere, and the vertical profile of zonal wind speeds at the probe descent location. In addition to Uranus and Neptune, the SNAP design is also a viable Saturn entry probe.The SNAP mission concept would comprise a 30-kg entry probe with a diameter of ~0.5m (less than half the size of the Galileo probe) that could descend through at least 5-bars. The baseline payload would include an atmospheric structure instrument to measure the altitude profile of atmospheric pressure and temperature, an atmospheric composition sensor, and an ultrastable oscillator to enable radio science measurements including Doppler wind tracking. An identical ultrastable oscillator would be carried within the probe relay link receiver hardware on the carrier spacecraft. All probe data, including pre-entry and entry calibration and housekeeping data, entry accelerometry, and descent pressures, temperatures, composition, and zonal winds, would be returned to Earth by utilizing the carrier as a relay station.The in-situ atmospheric investigations enabled by SNAP would lead to an improved understanding of the chemical and physical processes that shape giant planet atmospheres, which in turn would shed light on the formation and evolution processes of the giant planets and the Solar System. The composition measurements would also provide chemical evidence addressing theories of planetary migration, thereby improving the understanding of the giant planets' role in promoting a habitable planetary systems.

  11. Signature of biased range in the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity and its measurements with satellite-satellite tracking missions: theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Li-E [Chang' an University, Department of Geophysics, College of Geology Engineering and Geomatics, Xi' an (China); Xu, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Beijing (China)


    Having great accuracy in the range and range rate measurements, the GRACE mission and the planed GRACE follow on mission can in principle be employed to place strong constraints on certain relativistic gravitational theories. In this paper, we work out the range observable of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity for the satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) measurements. We find out that a characteristic time accumulating range signal appears in non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity, which has no analogue found in the standard parity-preserving metric theories of gravity. The magnitude of this Chern-Simons range signal will reach a few times of χ cm for each free flight of these SST missions, here χ is the dimensionless post-Newtonian parameter of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons theory. Therefore, with the 12 years data of the GRACE mission, one expects that the mass scale M{sub CS} = (4ℎc)/(χa) of the non-dynamical Chern-Simons gravity could be constrained to be larger than 1.9 x 10.9 eV. For the GRACE FO mission that scheduled to be launched in 2017, the much stronger bound that M{sub CS} ≥ 5 x 10{sup -7} eV is expected. (orig.)

  12. An advanced processing concept for mobile satellite communications (United States)

    Craig, A. D.; Wishart, A. W.; Bakken, P. M.; Bjornstrom, G.


    The findings of a series of studies performed for EAS on the feasibility of an advanced processing payload concept for a geostationary European land mobile system providing narrowband digitally coded voice channels are summarized. A baseline transparent payload architecture is described that is characterized by the use of digital beamforming to produce multiple independently steered agile beams from a single large L-band mobile link phased array, with each beam carrying a single user channel. A combination of SAW-chirp Fourier transform and digital signal processing (DSP) is used for individual FDM channel demultiplexing and multiplexing. Other key DSP features are on-board level control of individual channels to avoid excessive margins and the use of active interference suppression of cochannel interferers to maximize frequency reuse. The concept is compared at the system level with a more conventional analog payload approach involving multiple fixed spot beams, with both systems providing 4200 channels. The processing system is shown to offer advantages in terms of onboard power, frequency reuse potential, and flexibility in meeting changing traffic requirements.

  13. The NASA probe-class mission concept, CETUS (Cosmic Evolution Through Ultraviolet Spectroscopy) (United States)

    Heap, Sara; Danchi, William; Burge, James; Dodson, Kelly; Hull, Anthony; Kendrick, Steven; McCandliss, Stephan; Mehle, Gregory; Purves, Lloyd; Sheikh, David; Valente, Martin; Woodruff, Robert A.


    We report on the early phases of a NASA-sponsored study of CETUS (Cosmic Evolution Through Ultraviolet Spectroscopy), a Probe-class mission concept. By definition, the full lifecycle cost of a Probe mission is greater than 400M (i.e. Explorer missions) and less than 1.00B ("Flagship" missions). The animating idea behind our study is that CETUS can help answer fundamental questions about galaxy evolution by carrying out a massive UV imaging and spectroscopic survey of galaxies and combining its findings with data obtained by other survey telescopes of the 2020's. The CETUS mission concept comprises a 1.5-m wide-field telescope and three scientific instruments: a near-UV multi-object slit spectrograph with a micro-shutter array as the slit device; a near-UV and far-UV camera with angular resolution of 0.42" (near-UV) or 0.55" (far-UV); and a near-UV or far-UV single-object spectrograph aimed at providing access to the UV after Hubble is gone. We describe the scientific rationale for CETUS and the telescope and instruments in their early design phase.

  14. Concept Study For A Near-term Mars Surface Sample Return Mission (United States)

    Smith, M. F.; Thatcher, J.; Sallaberger, C.; Reedman, T.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.

    The return of samples from the surface of Mars is a challenging problem. Present mission planning is for complex missions to return large, focused samples sometime in the next decade. There is, however, much scientific merit in returning a small sample of Martian regolith before the end of this decade at a fraction of the cost of the more ambitious missions. This paper sets out the key elements of this concept that builds on the work of the Beagle 2 project and space robotics work in Canada. The paper will expand the science case for returning a regolith sample that is only in the range of 50-250g but would nevertheless include plenty of interesting mate- rial as the regolith comprises soil grains from a wide variety of locations i.e. nearby rocks, sedimentary formations and materials moved by fluids, winds and impacts. It is possible that a fine core sample could also be extracted and returned. The mission concept is to send a lander sized at around 130kg on the 2007 or 2009 opportunity, immediately collect the sample from the surface, launch it to Mars orbit, collect it by the lander parent craft and make an immediate Earth return. Return to Earth orbit is envisaged rather than direct Earth re-entry. The lander concept is essen- tially a twice-size Beagle 2 carrying the sample collection and return capsule loading equipment plus the ascent vehicle. The return capsule is envisaged as no more than 1kg. An overall description of the mission along with methods for sample acquisition, or- bital rendezvous and capsule return will be outlined and the overall systems budgets presented. To demonstrate the near term feasibility of the mission, the use of existing Canadian and European technologies will be highlighted.

  15. Concept for a Lunar Transfer Vehicle for Small Satellite Delivery to the Moon from the International Space Station (United States)

    Elliott, John; Alkalai, Leon


    The International Space Station (ISS) has developed as a very capable center for scientific research in Lower Earth Orbit. An additional potential of the ISS that has not thus far been exploited, is the use of this orbiting plat-form for the assembly and launching of vehicles that could be sent to more distant destinations. This paper reports the results of a recent study that looked at an architecture and conceptual flight system design for a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) that could be delivered to the ISS in segments, assembled, loaded with payload and launched from the ISS with the objective of delivering multiple small and micro satellites to lunar orbit. The design of the LTV was optimized for low cost and high payload capability, as well as ease of assembly. The resulting design would use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to carry a total payload mass of 250 kg from the ISS to a 100 km lunar orbit. A preliminary concept of operations was developed considering currently available delivery options and ISS capabili-ties that should prove flexible enough to accommodate a variety of payloads and missions. This paper will present an overview of the study, including key trades, mission and flight system design, and notional operational concept.

  16. Hail detection algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measuring mission core satellite sensors (United States)

    Mroz, Kamil; Battaglia, Alessandro; Lang, Timothy J.; Tanelli, Simone; Cecil, Daniel J.; Tridon, Frederic


    By exploiting an abundant number of extreme storms observed simultaneously by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite's suite of sensors and by the ground-based S-band Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) network over continental US, proxies for the identification of hail are developed based on the GPM core satellite observables. The full capabilities of the GPM observatory are tested by analyzing more than twenty observables and adopting the hydrometeor classification based on ground-based polarimetric measurements as truth. The proxies have been tested using the Critical Success Index (CSI) as a verification measure. The hail detection algorithm based on the mean Ku reflectivity in the mixed-phase layer performs the best, out of all considered proxies (CSI of 45%). Outside the Dual frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) swath, the Polarization Corrected Temperature at 18.7 GHz shows the greatest potential for hail detection among all GMI channels (CSI of 26% at a threshold value of 261 K). When dual variable proxies are considered, the combination involving the mixed-phase reflectivity values at both Ku and Ka-bands outperforms all the other proxies, with a CSI of 49%. The best-performing radar-radiometer algorithm is based on the mixed-phase reflectivity at Ku-band and on the brightness temperature (TB) at 10.7 GHz (CSI of 46%). When only radiometric data are available, the algorithm based on the TBs at 36.6 and 166 GHz is the most efficient, with a CSI of 27.5%.

  17. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project (United States)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas


    The ST5 technology demonstration mission led by GSFC of NASA's New Millennium Program managed by JPL consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) deployed into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. In order to meet the launch date schedule of ST5, a different approach was required rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It was determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform three spacecraft I&T activities in series using standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all three spacecraft, learning and gaining knowledge and efficiency as spacecraft #1 integration and testing progressed. They became acutely familiar with the hardware, operation and processes for I&T, thus had the experience and knowledge to safely execute I&T for spacecraft #2 and #3. The integration team was extremely versatile; each member could perform many different activities or work any spacecraft, when needed. ST5 was successfully integrated, tested and shipped to the launch site per the I&T schedule that was planned three years previously. The I&T campaign was completed with ST5's successful launch on March 22, 2006.

  18. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions (United States)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  19. Satellite formation design in orbits of high eccentricity for missions with performance criteria specified over a region of interest (United States)

    Roscoe, Christopher William Thomas

    Several methods are presented for the design of satellite formations for science missions in high-eccentricity reference orbits with quantifiable performance criteria specified throughout only a portion the orbit, called the Region of Interest (RoI). A modified form of the traditional average along-track drift minimization condition is introduced to account for the fact that performance criteria are only specified within the RoI, and a robust formation design algorithm (FDA) is defined to improve performance in the presence of formation initialization errors. Initial differential mean orbital elements are taken as the design variables and the Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix (G-A STM) is used for relative motion propagation. Using mean elements and the G-A STM allows for explicit inclusion of J2 perturbation effects in the design process. The methods are applied to the complete formation design problem of the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission and results are verified using the NASA General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). Since satellite formations in high-eccentricity orbits will spend long times at high altitude, third-body perturbations are an important design consideration as well. A detailed analytical analysis of third-body perturbation effects on satellite formations is also performed and averaged dynamics are derived for the particular case of the lunar perturbation. Numerical results of the lunar perturbation analysis are obtained for the example application of the MMS mission and verified in GMAT.

  20. Low-degree gravity change from GPS data of COSMIC and GRACE satellite missions (United States)

    Lin, Tingjung; Hwang, Cheinway; Tseng, Tzu-Pang; Chao, B. F.


    This paper demonstrates estimation of time-varying gravity harmonic coefficients from GPS data of COSMIC and GRACE satellite missions. The kinematic orbits of COSMIC and GRACE are determined to the cm-level accuracy. The NASA Goddard's GEODYN II software is used to model the orbit dynamics of COSMIC and GRACE, including the effect of a static gravity field. The surface forces are estimated per one orbital period. Residual orbits generated from kinematic and reference orbits serve as observables to determine the harmonic coefficients in the weighted-constraint least-squares. The monthly COSMIC and GRACE GPS data from September 2006 to December 2007 (16 months) are processed to estimate harmonic coefficients to degree 5. The geoid variations from the GPS and CSR RL04 (GRACE) solutions show consistent patterns over space and time, especially in regions of active hydrological changes. The monthly GPS-derived second zonal coefficient closely resembles the SLR-derived and CSR RL04 values, and third and fourth zonal coefficients resemble the CSR RL04 values.

  1. NASA CloudSat and CALIPSO Satellite Missions Partner with the GLOBE Program for Successful Scientist-Student Collaborations (United States)

    Krumm, D. K.; Robinson, D. Q.; Boger, R. A.; Maggi, B.


    NASA places strong emphasis on education and involvement of students and teachers in their missions. CloudSat and CALIPSO are two satellite-based research missions launched together on the same Delta II rocket in fall, 2005. They form the center of the "A-Train" satellite formation. The A-Train consists of five missions flying in close proximity, providing combined detailed observations about the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and radiation budget that will allow scientists to make better predictions related to climate change. CloudSat will use radar and provide a global survey of cloud properties to aid with improving cloud models and the accuracy of weather forecasts ( CALIPSO will use lidar to detect size and distribution of aerosols to aid in improving our understanding of the role aerosols and clouds play in Earth's climate system ( Each of the A-Train missions has a unique education and outreach program for students and teachers. Included in the CloudSat and CALIPSO outreach is a partnership with the GLOBE Program aimed at involving students worldwide in data collection and research ( Students will use the existing GLOBE protocols on aerosols, clouds and precipitation to collect data as the satellites pass over their schools. CALIPSO and CloudSat will provide students with an opportunity to not only participate in data collection on a global level, but also to do research with near-real time data from the satellite instruments and their own observations. In addition to participation in GLOBE, students will be able to utilize educational resources created by the CloudSat and CALIPSO outreach teams. These include a NASA CONNECT video on the two missions, problem-based learning modules that allow the students to use inquiry to research and answer questions involving real-life situations, educational interactive websites, information packets, and master teacher

  2. Program assessment report, statement of findings. Satellite power systems concept development and evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    What is known, uncertain, and unknown about the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is stated. The important technical, environmental, and cost goal questions that must be answered prior to making a commitment to the SPS concept are discussed. Although significant technological, environmental and economic questions remain to be answered, the preliminary investigations undertaken in the CDEP do provide a basis for a policy decision on further commitment. Also, areas of research and experimentation required to acquire the knowledge by which a series of informed, time-phased decisions may be made concerning the possibility of the SPS concept playing a major role in the United States' energy future are suggested.

  3. Concepts for on board satellite image registration. Volume 4: Impact of data set selection on satellite on board signal processing (United States)

    Ruedger, W. H.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Snyder, W. E.


    The NASA NEEDS program goals present a requirement for on-board signal processing to achieve user-compatible, information-adaptive data acquisition. This volume addresses the impact of data set selection on data formatting required for efficient telemetering of the acquired satellite sensor data. More specifically, the FILE algorithm developed by Martin-Marietta provides a means for the determination of those pixels from the data stream effects an improvement in the achievable system throughput. It will be seen that based on the lack of statistical stationarity in cloud cover, spatial distribution periods exist where data acquisition rates exceed the throughput capability. The study therefore addresses various approaches to data compression and truncation as applicable to this sensor mission.

  4. STS-41 mission charts, computer-generated and artist concept drawings, photos (United States)


    STS-41 related charts, computer-generated and artist concept drawings, and photos of the Ulysses spacecraft and mission flight path provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). Charts show the Ulysses mission flight path and encounter with Jupiter (45980, 45981) and sun (illustrating cosmic dust, gamma ray burst, magnetic field, x-rays, solar energetic particles, visible corona, interstellar gas, plasma wave, cosmic rays, solar radio noise, and solar wind) (45988). Computer-generated view shows the Ulysses spacecraft (45983). Artist concept illustrates Ulysses spacecraft deploy from the space shuttle payload bay (PLB) with the inertial upper stage (IUS) and payload assist module (PAM-S) visible (45984). Ulysses spacecraft is also shown undergoing preflight testing in the manufacturing facility (45985, 45986, 45987).

  5. Core to Atmosphere Exploration of Ice Giants: A Uranus Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Jensema, R. J.; Arias-Young, T. M.; Wilkins, A. N.; Ermakov, A.; Bennett, C.; Dietrich, A.; Hemingway, D.; Klein, V.; Mane, P.; Marr, K. D.; Masterson, J.; Siegel, V.; Stober, K. J.; Talpe, M.; Vines, S. K.; Wetteland, C. J.


    Ice giants remain largely unexplored, as their large distance from the Sun limits both Earth-based observations and spacecraft visits. The significant occurrence of ice giant-sized planets among detected exoplanets presents an impetus to study Uranus to understand planetary formation, dynamics, and evolution. In addition, Uranus is also uniquely interesting, given the large inclination of its rotation axis and magnetospheric configuration. In this work, we design a mission concept that aims to maximize scientific return by measuring Uranus' chemical composition, internal structure, and magnetosphere, the first two being primary indicators of ice giant formation mechanisms. For this study, we analyze the trade space for a Uranus mission constrained by a cost cap of $1B. We discuss the decision making processes behind our choices of the science priorities, instrument suite and orbital configuration. Trade space decisions include a strong onboard instrument suite in lieu of a descent probe, an orbiter instead of a flyby mission, and design constraints on the power and propulsion systems. The mission, CAELUS (Core and Atmospheric Evolution Laboratory for Uranus Science), is designed for an August 2023 launch. Following a 14-year cruise with multiple planetary gravity assists, the spacecraft would begin its science mission, which consists of a series of ten 30-day near-polar orbits around Uranus. The instrument suite would consist of a microwave radiometer, Doppler seismometer, magnetometer, and UV spectrometer. These four instruments, along with a high-gain antenna capable of gravity science, would provide a comprehensive science return that meets the bulk of the scientific objectives of the 2013 NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey for ice giants, most notably those regarding the chemical composition, interior structure, and dynamo of Uranus. This mission concept was created as part of an educational exercise for the 2014 Planetary Science Summer School at the Jet

  6. Origins Space Telescope: Science Case and Design Reference Mission for Concept 1 (United States)

    Meixner, Margaret; Cooray, Asantha; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Melnick, Gary; Leisawitz, David; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Bergin, Edwin; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team


    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The science case for OST covers four themes: Tracing the Signature of Life and the Ingredients of Habitable Worlds; Charting the Rise of Metals, Dust and the First Galaxies, Unraveling the Co-evolution of Black Holes and Galaxies and Understanding Our Solar System in the Context of Planetary System Formation. Using a set of proposed observing programs from the community, we estimate a design reference mission for OST mission concept 1. The mission will complete significant programs in these four themes and have time for other programs from the community. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at

  7. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code (United States)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.


    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  8. SYNERGY: an Explorer mission concept for a next-generation ultraviolet survey (United States)

    MacKenty, John W.; Tumlinson, Jason; Arenberg, Jonathan W.; Elder, Craig; Gunderson, Adam; Warwick, Steven; O'Connell, Terri; Wong, Carlton


    Synergy is an Explorer class mission concept to obtain a large-area, multi-tier near-ultraviolet sky survey with lowresolution, spatially resolved slitless spectroscopy (R = 200-600) and simultaneous arc-second imaging between 210-320 nm. It's Wide and Deep surveys will examine the co-evolution of more than 200 million galaxies, 500,000 AGN, and 30,000 gas halos between 0.8 z z = 2 require ultraviolet observations.

  9. A Mission Concept to Study Multigenerational Mammalian Reproduction in Partial Gravity (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Simon, Matthew A.; Chai, Patrick R.; Neilan, James H.; Stillwagen, Fred H.; Williams, Phillip A.; Lewis, Weston


    A team at NASA Langley Research Center conducted a study during which a conceptual space mission was designed. In this study, rodents are used as human analogs to gather biological and systems data in a relevant environment applicable to future settlements on Mars. The mission concept uniquely addresses the combined effects of long-durations (one-year or greater), autonomous and robotic operations, and biological responses to partial gravity with an emphasis on reproduction. The objectives of this study were to 1) understand challenges associated with designing an artificial gravity habitat that supports the reproduction and maturation of a large animal colony, 2) identify mission architectures and operational concepts to transport and maintain such a facility, and 3) identify fundamental science considerations for mammalian reproduction studies to inform vehicle design. A model demonstration unit was developed to visualize and test certain design concepts that resulted from these considerations. Three versions of this demonstration unit were built over the course of the study, each taking into account lessons learned from the previous version. This paper presents the updated baseline mission and spacecraft design concepts to achieve these objectives, with a specific emphasis on updates since publication in previous works. Analyses of the integrated system trades among the elements which make up the conceptual vehicle are described to address overall feasibility and identify potential integrated design opportunities. The latest iteration of the habitat robotics design and a conceptual design example for autonomous care of crew and systems are also presented. Finally, the conclusion of this conceptual design study, necessary future analyses to enable such a facility, and comments upon other applications of a similar exploration-focused research facilities are addressed.

  10. A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range (United States)

    Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy


    When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover

  11. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Summary Mission Timeline and Performance Relative to Pre-Launch Mission Success Criteria (United States)

    Webb, Charles E.; Zwally H. Jay; Abdalati, Waleed


    The Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission was conceived, primarily, to quantify the spatial and temporal variations in the topography of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. It carried on board the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which measured the round-trip travel time of a laser pulse emitted from the satellite to the surface of the Earth and back. Each range derived from these measurements was combined with precise, concurrent orbit and pointing information to determine the location of the laser spot centroid on the Earth. By developing a time series of precise topographic maps for each ice sheet, changes in their surface elevations can be used to infer their mass balances.

  12. Concept study for a low cost near-term Mars surface sample return mission (United States)

    Draper, C.; Kemble, S.; Parkinson, R.; Smith, M.; Thatcher, J.; Reedman, T.; Sallaberger, C.; Pillinger, C.; Sims, M.

    Man has always had a fascination with the red planet and the quest to reveal its secrets. Although in the past this ques t has been confined to observation from afar and in-situ analysis by dated technology, the chance now exists to extract far more from the Martian surface than ever before - by bringing it home. The idea of a Mars Sample Return mission is not a new phenomenon and plans have been in existence for the last 30 years. The trouble is that these have always been restricted on the grounds of technology, politics and, more predominantly, cost. Many such missions have been estimated at well over 1billion, with huge development times and multiple launches for various mission stages. Plans for direct return missions from the Martian surface had the drawbacks of (a) being too expensive in terms of the launch costs required to lift the propellant needed for return and (b) being too slow if an in-situ resource propellant production technique was used. The alternative solution was to return via a rendezvous in Mars orbit, thus reducing the mass to be transported to and from the Martian surface. The most popular of the orbital rendezvous options involved the launch of a combined Mars Ascent Vehicle/Mars Rover mission to gather samples in readiness for a subsequent return to Earth via a second mission that would deliver an Earth Return Vehicle into Mars orbit with which to transport the samples back. This method had the disadvantages of incurring large costs from the prolonged stay at Mars and high launch costs due to the necessity of two separate launches. The concept of this study is to utilise the orbital rendezvous method but incorporate each of the elements into a single mission (i.e. one launch) using mature and affordable lander technology to return a small regolith core sample. This not only reduces launch and development costs, making the mission more `affordable', but also lowers the risk of mission failure compared to the two-launch method. An

  13. Novel pole-sitter mission concepts for continuous polar remote sensing (United States)

    Ceriotti, Matteo; Heiligers, Jeannette; McInnes, Colin R.


    The pole-sitter concept is a solution to the poor temporal resolution of polar observations from highly inclined, low Earth orbits and the poor high latitude coverage from geostationary orbit. It considers a spacecraft that is continuously above either the North or South Pole and, as such, can provide real-time, continuous and hemispheric coverage of the polar regions. Despite the significant distance from the Earth, the utility of this platform for Earth observation and telecommunications is clear, and applications include polar weather forecasting and atmospheric science, glaciology and ice pack monitoring, ultraviolet imaging for aurora studies, continuous telecommunication links with polar regions, arctic ship routing and support for future high latitude oil and gas exploration. The paper presents a full mission design, including launch (Ariane 5 and Soyuz vehicles), for two propulsion options (a near-term solar electric propulsion (SEP) system and a more advanced combination of a solar sail with an SEP system). An optional transfer from the North Pole to South Pole and vice-versa allows viewing of both poles in summer. The paper furthermore focuses on payloads that could be used in such a mission concept. In particular, by using instruments designed for past deep space missions (DSCOVR), it is estimated that resolutions up to about 20 km/pixel in the visible wavelengths can be obtained. The mass of these instruments is well within the capabilities of the pole-sitter design, allowing an SEP-only mission lifetime of about 4 years, while the SEP/sail propulsion technology enables missions of up to 7 years.

  14. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik


    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  15. New Mission Concept Study: Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) (United States)


    This Report summarizes the activity carried out under the New Mission Concept (NMC) study for a mission to conduct a sensitive all-sky imaging survey in the hard x-ray (HX) band (approximately 10-600 keV). The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission was originally proposed for this NMC study and was then subsequently proposed for a MIDEX mission as part of this study effort. Development of the EXIST (and related) concepts continues for a future flight proposal. The hard x-ray band (approximately 10-600 keV) is nearly the final band of the astronomical spectrum still without a sensitive imaging all-sky survey. This is despite the enormous potential of this band to address a wide range of fundamental and timely objectives - from the origin and physical mechanisms of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the processes on strongly magnetic neutron stars that produce soft gamma-repeaters and bursting pulsars; from the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars to the origin and evolution of the hard x-ray diffuse background; from the nature and number of black holes and neutron stars and the accretion processes onto them to the extreme non-thermal flares of normal stars; and from searches for expected diffuse (but relatively compact) nuclear line (Ti-44) emission in uncatalogued supernova remnants to diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton emission from galaxy clusters. A high sensitivity all-sky survey mission in the hard x-ray band, with imaging to both address source confusion and time-variable background radiations, is very much needed.

  16. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, Pre-Launch Activities, and Opportunities (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Tom; Csatho, Beata M.


    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPee and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICES at. In contrast to ICES at, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using approximately 532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  17. Propulsion System Testing for the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Demonstration Mission (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Kamhawi, Hani


    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload, providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cm cu and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high delta v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. 3, 4 Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature (less than 100 C) to yield I2 vapor at or below 50 torr. At low power, the measured performance of an iodine-fed HET is very similar to that of a state-of-the-art xenon-fed thruster. Just as importantly, the current-voltage discharge characteristics of low power iodine-fed and xenon-fed thrusters are remarkably similar, potentially reducing development and qualifications costs by making it possible to use an already-qualified xenon-HET PPU in an iodine-fed system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the

  18. 3Cat-3/MOTS Nanosatellite Mission for Optical Multispectral and GNSS-R Earth Observation: Concept and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Castellví


    Full Text Available The 3Cat-3/MOTS (3: Cube, Cat: Catalunya, 3: 3rd CubeSat mission/Missió Observació Terra Satèl·lit mission is a joint initiative between the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (UPC to foster innovative Earth Observation (EO techniques based on data fusion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R and optical payloads. It is based on a 6U CubeSat platform, roughly a 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm parallelepiped. Since 2012, there has been a fast growing trend to use small satellites, especially nanosatellites, and in particular those following the CubeSat form factor. Small satellites possess intrinsic advantages over larger platforms in terms of cost, flexibility, and scalability, and may also enable constellations, trains, federations, or fractionated satellites or payloads based on a large number of individual satellites at an affordable cost. This work summarizes the mission analysis of 3Cat-3/MOTS, including its payload results, power budget (PB, thermal budget (TB, and data budget (DB. This mission analysis is addressed to transform EO data into territorial climate variables (soil moisture and land cover change at the best possible achievable spatio-temporal resolution.

  19. ³Cat-3/MOTS Nanosatellite Mission for Optical Multispectral and GNSS-R Earth Observation: Concept and Analysis. (United States)

    Castellví, Jordi; Camps, Adriano; Corbera, Jordi; Alamús, Ramon


    The ³Cat-3/MOTS (3: Cube, Cat: Catalunya, 3: 3rd CubeSat mission/Missió Observació Terra Satèl·lit) mission is a joint initiative between the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (UPC) to foster innovative Earth Observation (EO) techniques based on data fusion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) and optical payloads. It is based on a 6U CubeSat platform, roughly a 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm parallelepiped. Since 2012, there has been a fast growing trend to use small satellites, especially nanosatellites, and in particular those following the CubeSat form factor. Small satellites possess intrinsic advantages over larger platforms in terms of cost, flexibility, and scalability, and may also enable constellations, trains, federations, or fractionated satellites or payloads based on a large number of individual satellites at an affordable cost. This work summarizes the mission analysis of ³Cat-3/MOTS, including its payload results, power budget (PB), thermal budget (TB), and data budget (DB). This mission analysis is addressed to transform EO data into territorial climate variables (soil moisture and land cover change) at the best possible achievable spatio-temporal resolution.

  20. A Comparison Of A Solar Power Satellite Concept To A Concentrating Solar Power System (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.


    A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the Solar Power Satellite concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, that the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground.

  1. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.


    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  2. Mission Opportunities for the Flight Validation of the Kinetic Impactor Concept for Asteroid Deflection (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Getzandanner, Kenneth


    The kinetic impactor technique for deflecting near-Earth objects (NEOs), whereby a spacecraft is directed to collide with a NEO to alter its orbit via momentum transfer, is one of several proposed methods for defendingEarth against hazardous NEOs (asteroids and comets). In this paper we present detailed mission design concepts for a notionally feasible and aff ordable kinetic impactor flight validation mission deployed to a currently known near-Earth asteroid (NEA). Several filter steps are devised that utilize relevant criteria to optimally balance keyparameters, such as approach phase angle, estimated NEA diameter, relative velocity at intercept, and current NEA orbit knowledge, and produce refined lists of the most promising candidate target NEAs.

  3. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul


    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.

  4. Argus: A concept study for an Io observer mission from the 2014 NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School (United States)

    Becerra, Patricio; Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Hays, Lindsay E.; Keane, James T.; Neveu, Marc; Basu, Ko; Davis, Byron; Mendez-Ramos, Eugina; Nelessen, Adam; Fox, Valerie; Herman, Jonathan F.; Parrish, Nathan L.; Hughes, Andrea C.; Marcucci, Emma; Scheinberg, Aaron; Wrobel, Jonathan S.


    Jupiter’s moon Io is the ideal target to study extreme tidal heating and volcanism, two major processes shaping the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. In response to the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, we propose an Io Observer mission concept named Argus (after the mythical watchman of Io). This concept was developed by the students of the August 2014 session of NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School, together with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Team X.The science objectives of our mission are: (1) study the physical process of tidal heating and its implications for habitability in the Solar System and beyond; (2) investigate active lava flows on Io as an analog for volcanism on early Earth; (3) analyze the interaction between Io and the Jovian system via material exchange and magnetospheric activity; (4) study Io’s chemistry and geologic history to gain insight into the formation and evolution of the Galilean satellites. Our mission consists of a Jupiter-orbiting spacecraft performing ten close flybys of Io. The orbital inclination of ~31 degrees minimizes the total radiation dose received, at the cost of having to perform fast flybys (13 km/s).The instrument payload includes: (1) IGLOO, a multi-band camera for regional (500 m/pixel) and high-resolution (50 m/pixel) imaging; (2) IoLA, a laser altimeter to measure the triaxial shape and diurnal tidal deformation, and topographic profiles of individual surface features; (3) IGNITERS, a thermal emission radiometer/spectrometer to map nighttime temperatures, thermal inertia, and characterize Io’s atmosphere; (4) IoNIS, a near-infrared spectrometer to map global (10 km/pixel) and local (2 km/pixel) surface composition; (5) IoFLEX, a magnetometer and (6) IoPEX, a plasma particle analyzer to characterize the magnetic environment and understand the nature of Io’s induced and possible intrinsic magnetic fields; (7) IRAGE, a gravity science experiment to probe Io’s interior

  5. Solar Occultation Constellation for Retrieving Aerosols and Trace Element Species (SOCRATES) Mission Concept (United States)

    Bailey, S. M.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Fish, C. S.; Gordley, L. L.; Fromm, M. D.


    The goal of SOCRATES is to quantify the critical role of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) in the climate system. The mission would provide, for the first time, the suite of measurements required to quantify stratosphere/troposphere exchange (STE) pathways and their contribution to UTLS composition, and to evaluate the radiative forcing implications of potential changes in STE pathways with climate change. The discrimination and quantification of STE pathways requires simultaneous measurement of several key trace gases and aerosols with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution. Furthermore, aerosol and clouds, often present in the UTLS, complicate the measurement of trace gases. The SOCRATES sensor is a 23-channel Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR), referred to as GLO (GFCR Limb solar Occultation), with heritage from HALOE on UARS, and SOFIE on AIM. GLO measures aerosol extinction from 0.45 to 3.88 μm, important radiatively active gases in the UTLS (H2O, O3, CH4, N2O), key tracers of STE (HCN, CO, HDO), gases important in stratospheric O3 chemistry (HCl and HF), and temperature from cloud top to 50 km at a vertical resolution of 1 km. Improved pointing knowledge will provide dramatically better retrieval precision in the UTLS, even in the presence of aerosols, than possible with HALOE. In addition, the GLO form factor is only a few percent of that of HALOE, and costs for a constellation of GLO sensors is within the cost cap of a NASA Venture mission. The SOCRATES mission concept is an 8-element constellation of autonomous CubeSats, each mated with a GLO sensor, deployed from a single launch vehicle. The SOCRATES/GLO approach reaps the advantages of solar occultation: high precision and accuracy; robust calibration; and high vertical resolution, while mitigating the sparse coverage of a single solar occultation sensor. We present the SOCRATES science case, and key elements of the SOCRATES mission and GLO instrument concepts.

  6. Ultra-long Duration Balloon Mission Concept Study: EXIST-LITE Hard X-ray Imaging Survey (United States)


    We carried out a mission concept Study for an ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) mission to conduct a high-sensitivity hard x-ray (approx. 20-600 keV) imaging sky survey. The EXIST-LITE concept has been developed, and critical detector technologies for realistic fabrication of very large area Cd-Zn-Te imaging detector arrays are now much better understood. A ULDB mission such as EXIST-LITE is now even more attractive as a testbed for the full Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission, recommended by the Decadal Survey, and now included in the NASA Roadmap and Strategic Plan as one of the 'Einstein Probes'. In this (overdue!) Final Report we provide a brief update for the science opportunities possible with a ULDB mission such as EXIST-LITE and relate these to upcoming missions (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and Swift) as well as the ultimate very high sensitivity sky survey mission EXIST. We then review the progress made over this investigation in Detector/Telescope design concept, Gondola and Mission design concept, and Data Handling/Analysis.

  7. Characterization of NIR InGaAs imager arrays for the JDEM SNAP mission concept


    Seshadri, S; Cole, M D; Hancock, B.; Ringold, P.; Wrigley, C; Bonati, M.; Brown, M. G.; Schubnell, M.; Rahmer, G.; Guzman, D.; Figer, D.; Tarle, G; Smith, R M; Bebek, C.


    We present the results of a study of the performance of InGaAs detectors conducted for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) dark energy mission concept. Low temperature data from a nominal 1.7um cut-off wavelength 1kx1k InGaAs photodiode array, hybridized to a Rockwell H1RG multiplexer suggest that InGaAs detector performance is comparable to those of existing 1.7um cut-off HgCdTe arrays. Advances in 1.7um HgCdTe dark current and noise initiated by the SNAP detector research and devel...

  8. On the estimation of physical height changes using GRACE satellite mission data – A case study of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godah Walyeldeen


    Full Text Available The dedicated gravity satellite missions, in particular the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission launched in 2002, provide unique data for studying temporal variations of mass distribution in the Earth’s system, and thereby, the geometry and the gravity fi eld changes of the Earth. The main objective of this contribution is to estimate physical height (e.g. the orthometric/normal height changes over Central Europe using GRACE satellite mission data as well as to analyse them and model over the selected study area. Physical height changes were estimated from temporal variations of height anomalies and vertical displacements of the Earth surface being determined over the investigated area. The release 5 (RL05 GRACE-based global geopotential models as well as load Love numbers from the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM were used as input data. Analysis of the estimated physical height changes and their modelling were performed using two methods: the seasonal decomposition method and the PCA/ EOF (Principal Component Analysis/Empirical Orthogonal Function method and the differences obtained were discussed. The main fi ndings reveal that physical height changes over the selected study area reach up to 22.8 mm. The obtained physical height changes can be modelled with an accuracy of 1.4 mm using the seasonal decomposition method.

  9. Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer Mission Attitude Determination and Control Concept (United States)

    Bladt, Jeff; Deininger, William D.; Kalinowski, William C.; Boysen, Mary; Bygott, Kyle; Guy, Larry; Pentz, Christina; Seckar, Chris; Valdez, John; Wedmore, Jeffrey; hide


    The goal of the Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) Mission is to expand understanding of high-energy astrophysical processes and sources, in support of NASA's first science objective in Astrophysics: "Discover how the universe works." X-ray polarimetry is the focus of the IXPE science mission. Polarimetry uniquely probes physical anisotropies-ordered magnetic fields, aspheric matter distributions, or general relativistic coupling to black-hole spin-that are not otherwise measurable. The IXPE Observatory consists of Spacecraft and Payload modules. The Payload includes three polarization sensitive, X-ray detector units (DU), each paired with its corresponding grazing incidence mirror module assemblies (MMA). A deployable boom provides the correct separation (focal length) between the DUs and MMAs. These Payload elements are supported by the IXPE Spacecraft. A star tracker is mounted directly with the deployed Payload to minimize alignment errors between the star tracker line of sight (LoS) and Payload LoS. Stringent pointing requirements coupled with a flexible structure and a non-collocated attitude sensor-actuator configuration requires a thorough analysis of control-structure interactions. A non-minimum phase notch filter supports robust control loop stability margins. This paper summarizes the IXPE mission science objectives and Observatory concepts, and then it describes IXPE attitude determination and control implementation. IXPE LoS pointing accuracy, control loop stability, and angular momentum management are discussed.

  10. Assessment of a 2016 Mission Concept: The Search for Trace Gases in the Atmosphere of Mars (United States)

    Zurek, Richard W.; Chicarro, Augustin; Allen, Mark A.; Bertauz, Jean-Loup; Clancy, R. Todd; Daerden, Frank; Formisano, Vittorio; Garvin, James B.; neukum, Gerhard; Smith, Michael D.


    The reported detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars as well as its potentially large seasonal spatial variations challenge our understanding of both the sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The presence of methane suggests ongoing exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere of potentially biogenic trace gases, while the spatial and temporal variations cannot be accounted for with current knowledge of martian photochemistry. A Joint Instrument Definition Team (JIDT) was asked to assess concepts for a mission that might follow up on these discoveries within the framework of a series of joint missions being considered by ESA and NASA for possible future exploration of Mars. The following is based on the report of the JIDT to the space agencies (Zurek et al., 2009); a synopsis of the report was presented at the Workshop on Mars Methane held in Frascati, Italy, in November 2009. To summarize, the JIDT believed that a scientifically exciting and credible mission could be conducted within the evolving capabilities of the science/telecommunications orbiter being considered by ESA and NASA for possible launch in the 2016 opportunity for Mars.

  11. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions (United States)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; hide


    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  12. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: atmospheric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.; Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.L.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a preliminary, three-year program to investigate the impacts of the construction and operation of a satellite power system, of unprecedented scale. The Department of Energy's program, titled The Concept Development and Evaluation Program, focused its investigations on a Reference System description that calls for the use of either silicon (Si) or gallium aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) photovoltaic cells on 60 satellites to be constructed in GEO over a 30-yr period. Rectennas would be constructed on the ground to receive microwave energy from the satellites. Each satellite-rectenna pair is designed to produce 5 GW of power on an essentially continuous basis for use as a baseload power source for an electric power distribution system. The environmental assessment part of the program was divided into five interdependent task areas. The present document constitutes the final technical report on one of the five task areas, the Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects, and as such presents an in-depth summary of work performed during the assessment program. The issues associated with SPS activities in the troposphere are examined. These include tropospheric weather modification related to rectenna operations and rocket launches, and air quality impacts related to rocketlaunch ground clouds. Then progressing upward through the various levels of the atmosphere, the principal middle and upper atmospheric effects associated with rocket effluents are analyzed. Finally, all of the potential SPS atmospheric effects are summarized.

  13. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; hide


    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within

  14. Life Science Research in Outer Space: New Platform Technologies for Low-Cost, Autonomous Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Parra, Macarena P.; Niesel, David; McGinnis, Michael; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Nicholson, Wayne; Mancinelli, Rocco; Piccini, Matthew E.; Beasley, Christopher C.; Timucin, Linda R.; hide


    We develop integrated instruments and platforms suitable for economical, frequent space access for autonomous life science experiments and processes in outer space. The technologies represented by three of our recent free-flyer small-satellite missions are the basis of a rapidly growing toolbox of miniaturized biologically/biochemically-oriented instrumentation now enabling a new generation of in-situ space experiments. Autonomous small satellites ( 1 50 kg) are less expensive to develop and build than fullsize spacecraft and not subject to the comparatively high costs and scheduling challenges of human-tended experimentation on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and comparable platforms. A growing number of commercial, government, military, and civilian space launches now carry small secondary science payloads at far lower cost than dedicated missions; the number of opportunities is particularly large for so-called cube-sat and multicube satellites in the 1 10 kg range. The recent explosion in nano-, micro-, and miniature technologies, spanning fields from telecommunications to materials to bio/chemical analysis, enables development of remarkably capable autonomous miniaturized instruments to accomplish remote biological experimentation. High-throughput drug discovery, point-of-care medical diagnostics, and genetic analysis are applications driving rapid progress in autonomous bioanalytical technology. Three of our recent missions exemplify the development of miniaturized analytical payload instrumentation: GeneSat-1 (launched: December 2006), PharmaSat (launched: May 2009), and O/OREOS (organism/organics exposure to orbital stresses; scheduled launch: May 2010). We will highlight the overall architecture and integration of fluidic, optical, sensor, thermal, and electronic technologies and subsystems to support and monitor the growth of microorganisms in culture in these small autonomous space satellites, including real-time tracking of their culture

  15. STS-26 Tracking and Data Relay Satellite C (TDRS-C) artist concept drawing (United States)


    ANOTHER EYE IN THE SKY -- This artist's concept drawing depicts the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite C (TDRS-C) orbiting the Earth at 171 degrees west longitude. TDRS-C will be the primary payload for STS-26 and Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Built by TRW, Redondo Beach, California, and managed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland, the TDRS-C -- once deployed into its geosynchronous operational orbit 22,300 miles (35,800 km) from Earth -- will be designated TDRS-3.

  16. Analysis of the Touch-And-Go Surface Sampling Concept for Comet Sample Return Missions (United States)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars


    This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.

  17. Innovative Applications of DOD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  18. Innovative Applications of DoD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  19. The GeneSat-1 Microsatellite MissionA Challenge in Small Satellite Design


    Kitts, Christopher; Hines, John; Agasid, Elwood; Ricco, Antonio; Yost, Bruce; Ronzano, Karolyn; Puig-Suari, Jordi


    The mission of the GeneSat-1 technology demonstration spacecraft is to validate the use of researchquality instrumentation for in situ biological research and processing. GeneSat-1 is a “triple-CubeSat” vehicle currently being developed for launch as a secondary payload on a Minotaur launch vehicle in late 2006. Spacecraft and mission development is being led by the NASA Ames Research Center Astrobionics group. However, university participation is a crucial element of the program with signifi...

  20. SWARM - An earth Observation Mission investigating Geospace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.


    The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the Swarm science objectives, the mission concept, the scientific instrumentation, and the expected contribution to the ILWS programme will be summarized. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR....

  1. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept: Imaging the Surfaces and Interiors of Other Stars (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)


    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, uv-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum. baseline of 0.5-km and providing a resolution of 60 micro-arcseconds at 1550 A. It will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface and enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns and their evolution with time, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamic the stars in which these dynamos operate. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on times scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA and ESA long-term time lines, SI complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets. in this paper we describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address those goals, and the design concepts now under study.

  2. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept technology development overview (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.


    The Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four large mission concept studies being developed by NASA for consideration in the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR will support a broad range of science objectives, including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has tasked a Technology Working Group (TWG), with more than 60 members from NASA centers, academia, industry, and international partners, with identifying technologies that enable or enhance the LUVOIR science mission. The TWG has identified such technologies in the areas of Coronagraphy, Ultra-Stable Opto-mechanical Systems, Detectors, Coatings, Starshades, and Instrument Components, and has completed a detailed assessment of the state-of-the-art. We present here a summary of this technology assessment effort, as well as the current progress in defining a technology development plan to mature these technologies to the required technology readiness level (TRL).

  3. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept design update (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Aloezos, Steve; Bly, Vincent T.; Collins, Christine; Crooke, Julie; Dressing, Courtney D.; Fantano, Lou; Feinberg, Lee D.; France, Kevin; Gochar, Gene; Gong, Qian; Hylan, Jason E.; Jones, Andrew; Linares, Irving; Postman, Marc; Pueyo, Laurent; Roberge, Aki; Sacks, Lia; Tompkins, Steven; West, Garrett


    In preparation for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, NASA has commissioned the study of four large mission concepts, including the Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has identified a broad range of science objectives including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is providing the design and engineering support to develop executable and feasible mission concepts that are capable of the identified science objectives. We present an update on the first of two architectures being studied: a 15- meter-diameter segmented-aperture telescope with a suite of serviceable instruments operating over a range of wavelengths between 100 nm to 2.5 μm. Four instruments are being developed for this architecture: an optical / near-infrared coronagraph capable of 10-10 contrast at inner working angles as small as 2 λ/D the LUVOIR UV Multi-object Spectrograph (LUMOS), which will provide low- and medium-resolution UV (100 - 400 nm) multi-object imaging spectroscopy in addition to far-UV imaging; the High Definition Imager (HDI), a high-resolution wide-field-of-view NUV-Optical-IR imager; and a UV spectro-polarimeter being contributed by Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). A fifth instrument, a multi-resolution optical-NIR spectrograph, is planned as part of a second architecture to be studied in late 2017.

  4. Satellite Formation Flight Results from Phase 1 of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Godine, Dominic


    This paper describes the underlying dynamics of formation flying in a high-eccentricity orbit such as that of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The GPS-based results used for MMS navigation are summarized, as well as the procedures that are used to design the maneuvers used to place the spacecraft into a tetrahedron formation and then maintain it. The details of how to carry out these maneuvers are then discussed. Finally, the numerical results that have been obtained concerning formation flying for the MMS mission to date (e.g. tetrahedron sizes flown, maneuver execution error, fuel usage, etc.) are presented in detail.

  5. Aircraft data collection in support of NASA's earth observing satellite missions (United States)

    NASA's Earth observing missions have been providing global information on soil moisture, vegetation, and precipitation that is crucial for hydrological and agricultural applications. For example, accurate soil moisture information is a key component in land surface and agricultural models used for w...

  6. Design and implementation of a Cube satellite mission for Antarctic glacier and sea ice observation (United States)

    Wu, Shufan; Zhao, Tiancheng; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Xiao


    The research for global climate changes calls for high quality satellite data and imageries regarding the Polar Regions. In recent years, the emerging Earth-Observation micro/nano satellite technology provides new data sources for polar region observations. The STU-2A, also named TW-1A, is such a nano satellite designed for polar region observation activities. It is a 3U CubeSat of 2.9 kg with a size of 30 × 10 × 10 cm carrying an Earth observation camera, launched into a Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO) at 481 km with an inclination of 97.3°, on September 25, 2015. During the Antarctic summer of 2015/16, it has acquired visible-light true color images with a resolution of 94 m, covering different sea and coastal regions including Amundsen Sea, Ross Sea and Vincennes Bay. These images were used to analyze the change of glacier and sea ice, compared and calibrated with reference to the publically available MODIS images with a resolution of 250 m. As the camera was specially designed for the Polar regions which have an environment of low solar elevation angle and high surface reflectance, it eliminates the oversaturation problem of the MODIS sensors and can provide high quality images. Based on data analysis and assessment, it is confirmed that this satellite data can meet the demand of glacier and sea ice observation. This paper presents the Cubesat system design and configuration, the payload camera design, and its application in Antarctic glacier and sea ice observation.

  7. How can present and future satellite missions support scientific studies that address ocean acidification? (United States)

    Salisbury, Joseph; Vandemark, Douglas; Jonsson, Bror; Balch, William; Chakraborty, Sumit; Lohrenz, Steven; Chapron, Bertrand; Hales, Burke; Mannino, Antonio; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Reul, Nicolas; Signorini, Sergio; Wanninkhof, Rik; Yates, Kimberly K.


    Space-based observations offer unique capabilities for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of the upper ocean inorganic carbon cycle and, in turn, supporting research tied to ocean acidification (OA). Satellite sensors measuring sea surface temperature, color, salinity, wind, waves, currents, and sea level enable a fuller understanding of a range of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena that drive regional OA dynamics as well as the potentially varied impacts of carbon cycle change on a broad range of ecosystems. Here, we update and expand on previous work that addresses the benefits of space-based assets for OA and carbonate system studies. Carbonate chemistry and the key processes controlling surface ocean OA variability are reviewed. Synthesis of present satellite data streams and their utility in this arena are discussed, as are opportunities on the horizon for using new satellite sensors with increased spectral, temporal, and/or spatial resolution. We outline applications that include the ability to track the biochemically dynamic nature of water masses, to map coral reefs at higher resolution, to discern functional phytoplankton groups and their relationships to acid perturbations, and to track processes that contribute to acid variation near the land-ocean interface.

  8. Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT-P): A Probe-Class Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, P. S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Feroci, M.; Jenke, Peter; Griffith, C.; Zane, S.; Winter, B.; Brandt, S.; Hernamdez, M.; hide


    LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (less than $1B) X-ray timing mission, based on the LOFT M-class concept originally proposed to ESA's M3 and M4 calls. LOFT-P requires very large collecting area, high time resolution, good spectral resolution, broadband spectral coverage (2-30 keV), highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to detect and respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. Many of LOFTP's targets are bright, rapidly varying sources, so these measurements are synergistic to imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments, addressing much smaller distance scales than are possible without very long baseline X-ray interferometry, and using complementary techniques to address the geometry and dynamics of emission regions. LOFT-P was presented as an example mission to the head of NASA's Astrophysics Division, to demonstrate the strong community support for creation of a probe-class, for missions costing between $500M and $1B. We submitted a white paper4 in response to NASA PhysPAG's call for white papers: Probe-class Mission Concepts, describing LOFT-P science and a simple extrapolation from the ESA study costs. The next step for probe-class missions will be input into the NASA Astrophysics Decadal Survey to encourage the creation of a probe-class opportunity. We report on a 2016 study by MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office of LOFT-P, a US-led probe-class LOFT concept.

  9. NetSat-4G A four nano-satellite formation for global geomagnetic gradiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Tiago; Scharnagl, Julian; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    This paper proposes a concept for a Global GeomaGnetic Gradiometry (4G) nano-satellite mission. The proposed concept makes use of a formation of four nano-satellites carrying vector magnetometers and flying in a Cartwheel-Helix formation at low altitude. The use of four satellites makes possible ...

  10. Mission Design and Concept of Operations of a 6U CubeSat Mission for Proximity Operations and RSO Imaging (United States)


    flight heritage on the CINEMA mission that has recently launched. The radio operates in the S-band (around the 2.2GHz band) for downlink, and in the...Battery 9 numerous 8 On-board computer 6-7 Oculus 9 Radio 9 CINEMA , Sep. 2012 10 S-band antenna 7-8 numerous 11 Mini rangefinder 5 none 12 IR camera

  11. The CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS) Mission Concept (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Shih, Albert Y.; Warren, Harry; DeForest, Craig; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Schwartz, Richard A.; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Palo, Scott; Steslicki, Marek; Sylwester, Janusz; Gburek, Szymon; Mrozek, Tomasz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Torre, Gabriele; Crowley, Geoffrey; Schattenburg, Mark


    Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics, origins, and evolution of these energetic processes, providing probes both into the temperature distributions and elemental compositions of hot plasmas; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport and mass flow. A better understanding of the thermal plasma improves our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed small satellite mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-FastSDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. Multiple detectors and tailored apertures provide sensitivity to a wide range of solar conditions, optimized for a launch during solar minimum. The precise spectra from these instruments will provide detailed measurements of the coronal temperature distribution and elemental abundances from the quiet Sun to active regions and flares. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a custom pinhole camera and Chandra-heritage X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide spatially- resolved, full-Sun imaging spectroscopy from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. MOXSI’s unique capabilities enable SXR spectroscopy and temperature diagnostics of individual

  12. A Closed Brayton Power Conversion Unit Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Missions (United States)

    Joyner, Claude Russell; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John


    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt & Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level.

  13. Large Observatory for x-ray Timing (LOFT-P): a Probe-class mission concept study (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Alvarez, Laura; Baysinger, Michael; Becker, Chris; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Soren; Carson, Billy; Chapman, Jack; Dominguez, Alexandra; Fabisinski, Leo; Gangl, Bert; Garcia, Jay; Griffith, Christopher; Hernanz, Margarita; Hickman, Robert; Hopkins, Randall; Hui, Michelle; Ingram, Luster; Jenke, Peter; Korpela, Seppo; Maccarone, Tom; Michalska, Malgorzata; Pohl, Martin; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanne, Stephane; Schnell, Andrew; Stella, Luigi; van der Klis, Michiel; Watts, Anna; Winter, Berend; Zane, Silvia


    LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (6 m2, > 10x that of the highly successful Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). A sky monitor (2-50 keV) acts as a trigger for pointed observations, providing high duty cycle, high time resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, enabling multi-wavelength and multimessenger studies. A probe-class mission concept would employ lightweight collimator technology and large-area solid-state detectors, segmented into pixels or strips, technologies which have been recently greatly advanced during the ESA M3 Phase A study of LOFT. Given the large community interested in LOFT (>800 supporters*, the scientific productivity of this mission is expected to be very high, similar to or greater than RXTE ( 2000 refereed publications). We describe the results of a study, recently completed by the MSFC Advanced Concepts Office, that demonstrates that such a mission is feasible within a NASA probe-class mission budget.

  14. Mission Overview and Initial Observation Results of the X-Ray Pulsar Navigation-I Satellite


    Xinyuan Zhang; Ping Shuai; Liangwei Huang; Shaolong Chen; Lihong Xu


    The newly launched X-ray pulsar navigation-I (XPNAV-1) is an experimental satellite of China that is designed for X-ray pulsar observation. This paper presents the initial observation results and aims to recover the Crab pulsar’s pulse profile to verify the X-ray instrument’s capability of observing pulsars in space. With the grazing-incidence focusing type instrument working at the soft X-ray band (0.5–10 keV), up to 162 segments of observations of the Crab pulsar are fulfilled, and more tha...

  15. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li


    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  16. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey


    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  17. Remote Sensing of Grassland Biophysical Parameters in the Context of the Sentinel-2 Satellite Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sakowska


    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of the Sentinel-2 satellite for monitoring the seasonal changes in grassland total canopy chlorophyll content (CCC, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FAPAR, and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed only by its photosynthesizing components (GFAPAR. Reflectance observations were collected on a continuous basis during growing seasons by means of a newly developed ASD-WhiteRef system. Two models using Sentinel-2 simulated data (linear regression-vegetation indices (VIs approach and multiple regression (MR reflectance approach were tested to estimate vegetation biophysical parameters. To assess whether the use of full solar spectrum reflectance data is able to provide an added value in CCC and GFAPAR estimation accuracy, a third model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR and the ASD-WhiteRef reflectance data was tested. The results showed that FAPAR remained quite stable during the reproduction and senescence stages, and no significant relationships between FAPAR and VIs were found. On the other hand, GFAPAR showed clearer seasonal trends. The comparison of the three models revealed no significant differences in the accuracies of CCC and GFAPAR predictions and demonstrated a strong contribution of SWIR bands to the explained variability of investigated parameters. The promising results highlight the potential of the Sentinel-2 satellite for retrieving biophysical parameters from space.

  18. Digital-beamforming array antenna technologies for future ocean-observing satellite missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iupikov, Oleg A.; Ivashina, Marianna V.; Cappellin, Cecilia


    Existing passive microwave radiometers that are used for ocean observations are limited in spatial resolution and geographic coverage, due to the limitations of traditional antenna technologies using mechanically-scanning reflectors and horn-type feeds. Future ocean observation missions call...... for new solutions, such as digitally-beamforming array feeds (DBAFs) as well as stationary and more complex reflectors. Our studies demonstrate that DBAFs can overcome the physically fundamental limitations of traditional horn feeds, and are capable of meeting all the challenging requirements for the next...

  19. The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission: design, execution, and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob


    Full Text Available The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008 and western Canada (June–July 2008. Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1 influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2 boreal forest fires, (3 aerosol radiative forcing, and (4 chemical processes. The June–July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California (ARCTAS-CARB focused on (1 improving state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2 providing observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with a detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with an extensive aerosol and radiometric payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft data augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train. The spring phase (ARCTAS-A revealed pervasive Asian pollution throughout the Arctic as well as significant European pollution below 2 km. Unusually large Siberian fires in April 2008 caused high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and also affected ozone. Satellite observations of BrO column hotspots were found not to be related to Arctic boundary layer events but instead to tropopause depressions, suggesting the presence of elevated inorganic bromine (5–10 pptv in the lower stratosphere. Fresh fire plumes from Canada and California sampled during the summer phase (ARCTAS-B indicated low NOx emission factors from the fires, rapid conversion of NOx to PAN, no significant secondary aerosol production, and no significant ozone enhancements except when mixed with urban pollution.

  20. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project (United States)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Tom


    The Space Technology 5(ST5) payload was successfully carried into orbit on an OSC Pegasus XL launch vehicle, which was carried aloft and dropped from the OSC Lockheed L-1011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base March 22,2006, at 9:03 am Eastern time, 6:03 am Pacific time. In order to reach the completion of the development and successful launch of ST 5, the systems integration and test(I&T) team determined that a different approach was required to meet the project requirements rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The ST5 payload, part of NASA's New Millennium Program headquartered at JPL, consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) and the Pegasus Support Structure (PSS), the system that connected the spacecrafts to the launch vehicle and deployed the spacecrafts into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. ST5 was a technology demonstration payload, intended to test six (6) new technologies for potential use for future space flights along with demonstrating the ability of small satellites to perform quality science. The main technology was a science grade magnetometer designed to take measurements of the earth's magnetic field. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with integration and environmental testing occurring in the Bldg. 7-1 0-15-29. The three spacecraft were integrated and tested by the same I&T team. The I&T Manager determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform the three I&T spacecraft activities in series used standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all

  1. A miniature, low-power scientific fluxgate magnetometer: A stepping-stone to cube-satellite constellation missions (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Mann, I. R.; Ciurzynski, M.; Barona, D.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J. R.; Pakhotin, I. P.; Kale, A.; Bruner, B.; Nokes, C. D. A.; Cupido, C.; Haluza-DeLay, T.; Elliott, D. G.; Milling, D. K.


    Difficulty in making low noise magnetic measurements is a significant challenge to the use of cube-satellite (CubeSat) platforms for scientific constellation class missions to study the magnetosphere. Sufficient resolution is required to resolve three-dimensional spatiotemporal structures of the magnetic field variations accompanying both waves and current systems of the nonuniform plasmas controlling dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This paper describes the design, validation, and test of a flight-ready, miniature, low-mass, low-power, and low-magnetic noise boom-mounted fluxgate magnetometer for CubeSat applications. The miniature instrument achieves a magnetic noise floor of 150-200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, consumes 400 mW of power, has a mass of 121 g (sensor and boom), stows on the hull, and deploys on a 60 cm boom from a three-unit CubeSat reducing the noise from the onboard reaction wheel to less than 1.5 nT at the sensor. The instrument's capabilities will be demonstrated and validated in space in late 2016 following the launch of the University of Alberta Ex-Alta 1 CubeSat, part of the QB50 constellation mission. We illustrate the potential scientific returns and utility of using a CubeSats carrying such fluxgate magnetometers to constitute a magnetospheric constellation using example data from the low-Earth orbit European Space Agency Swarm mission. Swarm data reveal significant changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the magnetic fields in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, even when the spacecraft are separated by only approximately 10 s along track and approximately 1.4° in longitude.

  2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 4: Mission peculiar spacecraft segment and module specifications (United States)


    The specifications for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) peculiar spacecraft segment and associated subsystems and modules are presented. The specifications considered include the following: (1) wideband communications subsystem module, (2) mission peculiar software, (3) hydrazine propulsion subsystem module, (4) solar array assembly, and (5) the scanning spectral radiometer.

  3. Mission Overview and Initial Observation Results of the X-Ray Pulsar Navigation-I Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyuan Zhang


    Full Text Available The newly launched X-ray pulsar navigation-I (XPNAV-1 is an experimental satellite of China that is designed for X-ray pulsar observation. This paper presents the initial observation results and aims to recover the Crab pulsar’s pulse profile to verify the X-ray instrument’s capability of observing pulsars in space. With the grazing-incidence focusing type instrument working at the soft X-ray band (0.5–10 keV, up to 162 segments of observations of the Crab pulsar are fulfilled, and more than 5 million X-ray events are recorded. Arrival times of photons are corrected to the solar system barycentre, and the 33 ms pulse period is sought out for Crab. Epoch folding of all the corrected photon times generates the refined pulse profile of Crab. The characteristic two-peak profile proves that the Crab pulsar has been clearly seen, so that the conclusion is made that XPNAV-1’s goal of being capable of observing pulsars is achieved.

  4. Testing solar panels for small-size satellites: the UPMSAT-2 mission (United States)

    Roibás-Millán, E.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Jiménez-Mateos, A. G.; Pindado, S.


    At present, the development of small-size satellites by universities, companies and research institutions has become usual practice, and is spreading rapidly. In this kind of project cost plays a significant role. One of the main areas are the assembly, integration and test (AIT) plans, which carry an associated cost for simulating environmental conditions. For instance, in the power subsystems test and, in particular, in the testing of solar panels, the irradiance and temperature conditions might be optimum so the performance of the system can be shown next to real operational conditions. To reproduce the environmental conditions in terms of irradiance, solar simulators are usually used, which carries an associated increase in cost for testing the equipment. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative and inexpensive way to perform AIT plans on spacecraft power subsystems, from a testing campaign performed using outdoor clean-sky conditions and an isolation system to protect the panels. A post-process of the measured data is therefore needed, taking into account the conditions in which the test has been accomplished. The I–V characteristics obtained are compared with a theoretical 1-diode/2-resistor equivalent electric circuit, achieving enough precision based solely on the manufacturer’s data.

  5. Asteroid Retrieval Mission Concept - Trailblazing Our Future in Space and Helping to Protect Us from Earth Impactors (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Brohpy, John R.; Merrill, Raymond G.


    The Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) is a robotic mission concept with the goal of returning a small (7 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), or part of a large NEA, to a safe, stable orbit in cislunar space using a 50 kW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) robotic spacecraft (40 kW available to the electric propulsion system) and currently available technologies. The mass of the asteroidal material returned from this mission is anticipated to be up to 1,000 metric tons, depending on the orbit of the target NEA and the thrust-to-weight and control authority of the SEP spacecraft. Even larger masses could be returned in the future as technological capability and operational experience improve. The use of high-power solar electric propulsion is the key enabling technology for this mission concept, and is beneficial or enabling for a variety of space missions and architectures where high-efficiency, low-thrust transfers are applicable. Many of the ARM operations and technologies could also be applicable to, or help inform, planetary defense efforts. These include the operational approaches and systems associated with the NEA approach, rendezvous, and station-keeping mission phases utilizing a low-thrust, high-power SEP spacecraft, along with interacting with, capturing, maneuvering, and processing the massive amounts of material associated with this mission. Additionally, the processed materials themselves (e.g., high-specific impulse chemical propellants) could potentially be used for planetary defense efforts. Finally, a ubiquitous asteroid retrieval and resource extraction infrastructure could provide the foundation of an on call planetary defense system, where a SEP fleet capable of propelling large masses could deliver payloads to deflect or disrupt a confirmed impactor in an efficient and timely manner.

  6. The Saturn PRobe Interior and aTmosphere Explorer (SPRITE) Mission Concept (United States)

    Atkinson, David H.; Simon, Amy; Banfield, Don


    The proposed NASA New Frontiers Saturn PRobe Interior and aTmosphere Explorer (SPRITE) mission would measure the abundance of helium and the other noble gases, elemental and isotopic abundances, the clouds, dynamics, and processes within Saturn's troposphere. In situ measurements of Saturn's atmosphere by SPRITE would provide a significantly improved context for understanding the results from the Galileo Jupiter probe, and the formation and evolution of the gas giant planets, resulting in a paradigm shift in our understanding of the formation, evolution, and ultimately the present day structure of the solar system. The proposed SPRITE concept carries an instrument payload to measure Saturn's atmospheric structure, dynamics, composition, chemistry, and clouds to at least 10 bars. A Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer measures noble gases and noble gas isotopes to accuracies that exceed the Galileo probe measurements at Jupiter and allows for discrimination between competing theories of giant planet formation, evolution, and possible migration. Of particular importance are measurements of helium, key to understanding Saturn's thermal evolution. A Tunable Laser Spectrometer measures molecular abundances and isotope ratios to determine the chemical structure of Saturn's atmosphere, and disequilibrium species such as PH3 and CO which can be used to predict Saturn's deep water abundance. An Atmospheric Structure Instrument provides the pressure/temperature profile of Saturn's atmosphere to determine the altitude profile of static stability, and when combined with cloud measurements from the SPRITE Nephelometer, would elucidate processes that determine the location and structure of Saturn's multiple cloud layers. Coupled with the measurement of atmospheric vertical velocities from the Atmospheric Structure Instrument, a Doppler Wind Experiment provides a measure of the 3-dimensional dynamics of the Saturn atmosphere, including the profile of zonal winds with depth and vertical

  7. Magnetometer Data in the Classroom as a part of the NASA THEMIS Satellite Mission (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Bean, J.; Walker, A.


    The NASA-funded THEMIS mission was designed to determine the onset time and location of magnetic substorms of Earth's space environment, a prerequisite to understanding space weather. THEMIS is an acronym for Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms. he Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) project was the flagship, formal education component of the E/PO program. With the placement of magnetometers in the proximity of rural schools throughout the country, middle and high school teachers along with their students benefited from the opportunity to work with 'real-time' data and participated in hands-on space science activities. Particular attention was paid to placing the magnetometer stations at schools in rural communities whose students were traditionally underserved and underrepresented in the sciences. The project offered to the teachers of these students long-term professional development opportunities that centered around THEMIS-related space science and the magnetometer data. The THEMIS E/PO final evaluation report for the main phase of the THEMIS mission covered the period from 2003-2009, describing the impact of this program such as this program placed magnetometers sites at 13 rural, underserved schools/communities, two-fifths of which are on tribal lands; and provided intensive professional development for 20 teachers from 2004 through 2009. A core group of eight teachers estimated reaching more than 2,720 students with THEMIS-related materials/ideas. 75% of these students are minorities in science. Core teachers provided evidence of the project's positive impact on students' attitudes toward science and their choices for courses that position them for STEM-related careers. Core teachers reported sharing THEMIS-related materials/ideas with 275 colleagues. The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer featured the Petersburg, Alaska site potentially reaching more than 5 million viewers in two airings, according to Nielsen

  8. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program-electromagnetic systems compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K A; Grant, W B; Morrison, E L; Juroshek, J R


    The EMC analysis addressed only the direct effects of electromagnetic emissions from the SPS on other technological systems. Emissions were defined quite broadly, including not only those from the microwave system, but also thermal blackbody emission and scattered sunlight from the satellite. The analysis is based on the design for an SPS as described in the Reference System Report and some quantitative conclusions, e.g., ranges from rectenna sites at which effects are expected are specific to that design. The methodology and qualitative conclusions, however, apply to an SPS concept using microwave power transmission. Quantitative conclusions have been obtained parametrically and can be adjusted as SPS designs change. The electromagnetic environment that the Reference System would produce, and in which other systems would have to function, is described. As an early part of the EMC Assessment, the problems expected for a hypothetical rectenna site, in the Mojave Desert of southern California, were analyzed in detail. This effort provided an initial quantitative indication of the scope of potential EMC problems and indicated the importance of EMC considerations in rectenna site selection. The results of this analysis are presented. The effects of SPS microwave emissions on important categories of electronic systems and equipment are summarized, with many examples of test results and demonstrated techniques for mitigation of problems encountered. SPS effects on other satellite systems are presented. Astronomical research frequently involves measurement of extremely low levels of electromagnetic radiation and is thus very susceptible to interference. The concerns of both radio astronomy with microwave emissions from SPS and optical astronomy with sunlight scattered from SPS spacecraft are discussed. Summaries of mitigation techniques, cost estimates, and conclusions are presented. (WHK)

  9. The effect of proton radiation on the EMCCD for a low Earth orbit satellite mission (United States)

    Smith, Ken; Daigle, Olivier; Scott, Alan; Piche, Louis; Hudson, Danya


    We report on the proton radiation effects on a 1k x 1k e2v EMCCD utilized in the Nüvü EM N2 1024 camera. Radiation testing was performed at the TRIUMF Proton Irradiation Facility in Canada, where the e2v CCD201-20 EMCCD received a 105 MeV proton fluence up to 5.2x109 protons/cm2, emulating a 1 year's radiation dose of solar protons in low earth orbit with nominal shielding that would be expected from a small or microsatellite. The primary space-based application is for Space Situational Awareness (SSA), where a small telescope images faint orbiting Resident Space Objects (RSOs) on the EMCCD, resulting in faint streaks at the photon level of signal in the images. Of particular concern is the effect of proton radiation on low level CTE, where very low level signals could be severely impaired if not lost. Although other groups have reported on the characteristics of irradiated EMCCDs, their CTE results are not portable to this application. To understand the real impact of proton irradiation the device must be tested under realistic operating conditions with representative backgrounds, clock periods, and signal levels. Testing was performed both in the laboratory and under a night sky on the ground in order to emulate a complex star background environment containing RSOs. The degradation is presented and mitigation techniques are proposed. As compared to conventional CCDs, the EMCCD with high gain allows faint and moving RSOs to be detected with a relatively small telescope aperture, at improved signal to noise ratio at high frame rates. This allows the satellite platform to take sharp images immediately upon slewing to the target without the need for complex and relatively slow attitude stabilization systems.

  10. A series of small scientific satellite with flexible standard bus (United States)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Sawai, Syujiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Fukuda, Seisuke; Kitade, Kenji


    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has a plan to develop the small satellite standard bus for various scientific missions and disaster monitoring missions. The satellite bus is a class of 250-400 kg mass with three-axis control capability of 0.02∘ accuracy. The science missions include X-ray astronomy missions, planetary telescope missions, and magnetosphere atmosphere missions. In order to adapt the wide range of mission requirements, the satellite bus has to be provided with flexibility. The concepts of modularization, reusability, and product line are applied to the standard bus system. This paper describes the characteristics of the small satellite standard bus which will be firstly launched in 2011.

  11. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission - An Assessment of Swath Altimetry Measurements of River Hydrodynamics (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Chul-Jung, Hahn; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Lee, Hyongki


    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, scheduled for launch in 2020 with development commencing in 2015, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations, which will allow for the estimation of river and floodplain flows via the water surface slope. In this paper, we characterize the measurements which may be obtained from SWOT and illustrate how they may be used to derive estimates of river discharge. In particular, we show (i) the spatia-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT, (ii) the errors which maybe expected in swath altimetry measurements of the terrestrial surface water, and (iii) the impacts such errors may have on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge, We illustrate this through a "virtual mission" study for a approximately 300 km reach of the central Amazon river, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to the SWOT spatia-temporal sampling scheme (orbit with 78 degree inclination, 22 day repeat and 140 km swath width) to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. Water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT were thereby obtained. Using these measurements, estimates of river slope and discharge were derived and compared to those which may be obtained without error, and those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. It was found that discharge can be reproduced highly accurately from the water height, without knowledge of the detailed channel bathymetry using a modified Manning's equation, if friction, depth, width and slope are known. Increasing reach length was found to be an effective method to reduce systematic height error in SWOT measurements.

  12. Uncontrolled re-entry of satellite parts after finishing their mission in LEO: Titanium alloy degradation by thermite reaction energy (United States)

    Monogarov, K. A.; Pivkina, A. N.; Grishin, L. I.; Frolov, Yu. V.; Dilhan, D.


    Analytical and experimental studies conducted at Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics for investigating the use of pyrotechnic compositions, i.e., thermites, to reduce the risk of the fall of thermally stable parts of deorbiting end-of-life LEO satellites on the Earth are described. The main idea was the use of passive heating during uncontrolled re-entry to ignite thermite composition, fixed on the titanium surface, with the subsequent combustion energy release to be sufficient to perforate the titanium cover. It is supposed, that thus destructed satellite parts will lose their streamline shape, and will burn out being aerodynamically heated during further descending in atmosphere (patent FR2975080). On the base of thermodynamic calculations the most promising thermite compositions have been selected for the experimental phase. The unique test facilities have been developed for the testing of the efficiency of thermite charges to perforate the titanium TA6V cover of 0.8 mm thickness under temperature/pressure conditions duplicated the uncontrolled re-entry of titanium tank after its mission on LEO. Experiments with the programmed laser heating inside the vacuum chamber revealed the only efficient thermite composition among preliminary selected ones to be Al/Co3O4. Experimental searching of the optimal aluminum powder between spherical and flaked nano- and micron-sized ones revealed the possibility to adjust the necessary ignition delay time, according to the titanium cover temperature dependency on deorbiting time. For the titanium tank the maximum temperature is 1100 °C at altitude 68 km and pressure 60 Pa. Under these conditions Al/Co3O4 formulations with nano-Al spherical particles provide the ignition time to be 13.3 s, and ignition temperature as low as 592±5 °C, whereas compositions with the micron-sized spherical Al powder reveal these values to be much higher, i.e., 26.3 s and 869±5 °C, respectively. The analytical and experimental studies described

  13. Education and Public Outreach for the PICASSO-CENA Satellite-Based Research Mission: K-12 Students Use Sun Photometers to Assist Scientists in Validating Atmospheric Data (United States)

    Robinson, D. Q.


    Hampton University, a historically black university, is leading the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) portion of the PICASSO-CENA satellite-based research mission. Currently scheduled for launch in 2004, PICASSO-CENA will use LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging), to study earth's atmosphere. The PICASSO-CENA Outreach program works with scientists, teachers, and students to better understand the effects of clouds and aerosols on earth's atmosphere. This program actively involves students nationwide in NASA research by having them obtain sun photometer measurements from their schools and homes for comparison with data collected by the PICASSO-CENA mission. Students collect data from their classroom ground observations and report the data via the Internet. Scientists will use the data from the PICASSO-CENA research and the student ground-truthing observations to improve predications about climatic change. The two-band passive remote sensing sun photometer is designed for student use as a stand alone instrument to study atmospheric turbidity or in conjunction with satellite data to provide ground-truthing. The instrument will collect measurements of column optical depth from the ground level. These measurements will not only give the students an appreciation for atmospheric turbidity, but will also provide quantitative correlative information to the PICASSO-CENA mission on ground-level optical depth. Student data obtained in this manner will be sufficiently accurate for scientists to use as ground truthing. Thus, students will have the opportunity to be involved with a NASA satellite-based research mission.

  14. Soil Analysis Micro-Mission Concepts Derived from the MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, S. D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.


    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatic environment, and arrays of material patches to study abrasion and adhesion. Heritage will be all-important for low cost micro-missions, and adaptations of instruments developed for the Pathfinder, '98 and '01 Landers should be strong contenders for '03 flights. This talk has three objectives: (1) Familiarize the audience with MECA instrument capabilities; (2) present concepts for stand-alone and/or mobile versions of MECA instruments; and (3) broaden the context of the MECA instruments from human exploration to a comprehensive scientific survey of Mars. Due to time limitations, emphasis will be on the chemistry and microscopy experiments. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors in MECA's wet-chemistry laboratory will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil's corrosive potential, and experiments will include cyclic voltammetry and anodic stripping. For experiments beyond 2001, enhancements could allow multiple use of the cells (for mobile experiments) and reagent addition (for quantitative mineralogical and exobiological analysis). MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in an actively focused, controlled illumination environment to image particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Careful selection of substrates allows controlled experiments in adhesion, abrasion, hardness, aggregation, magnetic and other properties. Special tools allow primitive manipulation (brushing and scraping) of samples

  15. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert


    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  16. Storyboard for the Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions (United States)

    Antonsen, Eric; Hailey, Melinda; Reyes, David; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle


    This storyboard conceptualizes one scenario of an integrated medical system during a Mars exploration mission. All content is for illustrative purposes only and neither defines nor implies system design requirement.

  17. Multi-CubeSat Deployment Strategies: How Different Satellite Deployment Schemes Affect Satellite Separation and Detection for Various Types of Constellations and Missions (United States)


    velocity vector relative to the velocity vector of the control satellite ) 3 3. Location of deployment within the orbit (argument of latitude of a circular... orbit ) 4. Delay time between deployment of individual satellites in a given constellation More detail on the methodology of this investigation is...deployed during a single launch. While deploying multiple satellites at once is advantageous as it allows for many CubeSats to be inserted into orbit

  18. Mission design of a Pioneer Jupiter Orbiter (United States)

    Friedman, L. D.; Nunamaker, R. R.


    The Mission analysis and design work performed in order to define a Pioneer mission to orbit Jupiter is described. This work arose from the interaction with a science advisory 'Mission Definition' team and led to the present mission concept. Building on the previous Jupiter Orbiter-Satellite Tour development at JPL a magnetospheric survey mission concept is developed. The geometric control of orbits which then provide extensive local time coverage of the Jovian system is analyzed and merged with the various science and program objectives. The result is a 'flower-orbit' mission design, yielding three large apoapse excursions at various local times and many interior orbits whose shape and orientation is under continual modification. This orbit design, together with a first orbit defined by delivery of an atmospheric probe, yields a mission of high scientific interest.

  19. Assimilation of satellite data to optimize large-scale hydrological model parameters: a case study for the SWOT mission (United States)

    Pedinotti, V.; Boone, A.; Ricci, S.; Biancamaria, S.; Mognard, N.


    During the last few decades, satellite measurements have been widely used to study the continental water cycle, especially in regions where in situ measurements are not readily available. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will deliver maps of water surface elevation (WSE) with an unprecedented resolution and provide observation of rivers wider than 100 m and water surface areas greater than approximately 250 x 250 m over continental surfaces between 78° S and 78° N. This study aims to investigate the potential of SWOT data for parameter optimization for large-scale river routing models. The method consists in applying a data assimilation approach, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm, to correct the Manning roughness coefficients of the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere)-TRIP (Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) continental hydrologic system. Parameters such as the Manning coefficient, used within such models to describe water basin characteristics, are generally derived from geomorphological relationships, which leads to significant errors at reach and large scales. The current study focuses on the Niger Basin, a transboundary river. Since the SWOT observations are not available yet and also to assess the proposed assimilation method, the study is carried out under the framework of an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE). It is assumed that modeling errors are only due to uncertainties in the Manning coefficient. The true Manning coefficients are then supposed to be known and are used to generate synthetic SWOT observations over the period 2002-2003. The impact of the assimilation system on the Niger Basin hydrological cycle is then quantified. The optimization of the Manning coefficient using the EKF (extended Kalman filter) algorithm over an 18-month period led to a significant improvement of the river water levels. The relative bias of the water level is globally improved (a 30

  20. The 2 Pi Charged Particles Analyzer: All-Sky Camera Concept and Development for Space Missions (United States)

    Vaisberg, O.; Berthellier, J.-J.; Moore, T.; Avanov, L.; Leblanc, F.; Leblanc, F.; Moiseev, P.; Moiseenko, D.; Becker, J.; Collier, M.; hide


    Increasing the temporal resolution and instant coverage of velocity space of space plasma measurements is one of the key issues for experimentalists. Today, the top-hat plasma analyzer appears to be the favorite solution due to its relative simplicity and the possibility to extend its application by adding a mass-analysis section and an electrostatic angular scanner. Similarly, great success has been achieved in MMS mission using such multiple top-hat analyzers to achieve unprecedented temporal resolution. An instantaneous angular coverage of charged particles measurements is an alternative approach to pursuing the goal of high time resolution. This was done with 4-D Fast Omnidirectional Nonscanning Energy Mass Analyzer and, to a lesser extent, by DYMIO instruments for Mars-96 and with the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer instrument for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging mission. In this paper we describe, along with precursors, a plasma analyzer with a 2 electrostatic mirror that was developed originally for the Phobos-Soil mission with a follow-up in the frame of the BepiColombo mission and is under development for future Russian missions. Different versions of instrument are discussed along with their advantages and drawbacks.

  1. The variable nature of convection in the tropics and subtropics: A legacy of 16?years of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite


    Houze, Robert A.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Zuluaga, Manuel D.; Brodzik, Stella R.


    Abstract For over 16?years, the Precipitation Radar of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite detected the three?dimensional structure of significantly precipitating clouds in the tropics and subtropics. This paper reviews and synthesizes studies using the TRMM radar data to present a global picture of the variation of convection throughout low latitudes. The multiyear data set shows convection varying not only in amount but also in its very nature across the oceans, contine...

  2. Iodine Satellite (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James


    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  3. Big Deployables in Small Satellites


    Davis, Bruce; Francis, William; Goff, Jonathan; Cross, Michael; Copel, Daniel


    The concept of utilizing small satellites to perform big mission objectives has grown from a distant idea to a demonstrated reality. One of the challenges in using small-satellite platforms for high-value missions is the packaging of long and large surface-area devices such as antennae, solar arrays and sensor positioning booms. One possible enabling technology is the slit-tube, or a deployable “tape-measure” boom which can be flattened and rolled into a coil achieving a high volumetric packa...

  4. Assimilation of satellite data to optimize large scale hydrological model parameters: a case study for the SWOT mission (United States)

    Pedinotti, V.; Boone, A.; Ricci, S.; Biancamaria, S.; Mognard, N.


    During the last few decades, satellite measurements have been widely used to study the continental water cycle, especially in regions where in situ measurements are not readily available. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will deliver maps of water surface elevation (WSE) with an unprecedented resolution and provide observation of rivers wider than 100 m and water surface areas greater than approximately 250 m × 250 m over continental surfaces between 78° S and 78° N. This study aims to investigate the potential of SWOT data for parameter optimization for large scale river routing models which are typically employed in Land Surface Models (LSM) for global scale applications. The method consists in applying a data assimilation approach, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm, to correct the Manning roughness coefficients of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrologic System. Indeed, parameters such as the Manning coefficient, used within such models to describe water basin characteristics, are generally derived from geomorphological relationships, which might have locally significant errors. The current study focuses on the Niger basin, a trans-boundary river, which is the main source of fresh water for all the riparian countries. In addition, geopolitical issues in this region can restrict the exchange of hydrological data, so that SWOT should help improve this situation by making hydrological data freely available. In a previous study, the model was first evaluated against in-situ and satellite derived data sets within the framework of the international African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project. Since the SWOT observations are not available yet and also to assess the proposed assimilation method, the study is carried out under the framework of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). It is assumed that modeling errors are only due to uncertainties in the Manning coefficient. The true Manning

  5. Investigation of ice particle habits to be used for ice cloud remote sensing for the GCOM-C satellite mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Letu


    Full Text Available In this study, various ice particle habits are investigated in conjunction with inferring the optical properties of ice clouds for use in the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate (GCOM-C satellite programme. We develop a database of the single-scattering properties of five ice habit models: plates, columns, droxtals, bullet rosettes, and Voronoi. The database is based on the specification of the Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI sensor on board the GCOM-C satellite, which is scheduled to be launched in 2017 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. A combination of the finite-difference time-domain method, the geometric optics integral equation technique, and the geometric optics method is applied to compute the single-scattering properties of the selected ice particle habits at 36 wavelengths, from the visible to the infrared spectral regions. This covers the SGLI channels for the size parameter, which is defined as a single-particle radius of an equivalent volume sphere, ranging between 6 and 9000 µm. The database includes the extinction efficiency, absorption efficiency, average geometrical cross section, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, size parameter of a volume-equivalent sphere, maximum distance from the centre of mass, particle volume, and six nonzero elements of the scattering phase matrix. The characteristics of calculated extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor of the five ice particle habits are compared. Furthermore, size-integrated bulk scattering properties for the five ice particle habit models are calculated from the single-scattering database and microphysical data. Using the five ice particle habit models, the optical thickness and spherical albedo of ice clouds are retrieved from the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances-3 (POLDER-3 measurements, recorded on board the Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with

  6. Optimization of Instrument Requirements for NASAs GEO-CAPE Coastal Mission Concept Based On Sensor Capability And Cost Studies (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio


    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEOCAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). GEO-CAPE is currently in pre-formulation (pre- Phase) A with no established launch date. NASA continues to support science and engineering studies to reduce mission risk. Instrument design lab (IDL) studies were commissioned in 2014 to design and cost two implementations for geostationary ocean color instruments (1) Wide-Angle Spectrometer (WAS) and (2) Filter Radiometer (FR) and (3) a cost scaling study to compare the costs for implementing different science performance requirements.

  7. Concept of developmental peace missions: implications for the military and civilians

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gueli, RJ


    Full Text Available , it will demand the unity of effort of the diverse military and civilian actors involved in a mission. Thirdly, it will demand establishing dedicated institutions at the national, regional, and/or continental levels to improve coordination and planning among...

  8. Technique for Geolocation of EMI Emitters by O3B Satellites (United States)


    electronic warfare GEO geosynchronous orbit GHz gigahertz GPS Global Positioning System HEO highly elliptical orbit HTS high throughput satellite Hz...altitude MEO medium Earth orbit SATCOM satellite communications SIGINT signals intelligence SMAD Space Mission Analysis and Design STK Systems Tool...having a basic understanding of satellite communications (SATCOM) and orbital mechanics, as the underlying concepts used in techniques for geolocation of

  9. Erratum: A space weather mission concept: Observatories of the solar corona and active regions (oscar) (Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate (2015) 5 (A4) DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2015003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow


    In this erratum we acknowledge EASCO as one of the inspirational mission concepts that helped the development of our original mission concept OSCAR. It was brought to our attention that our original paper failed to acknowledge the mission concept EASCO, which was originally laid out in Gopalswamy...

  10. Satellite power system. Concept Development and Evaluation Program, Volume 6: construction and operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, H.; Jenkins, L.M.


    The construction, operation, and maintenance requirements for a solar power satellite, including the space and ground systems, are reviewed. The basic construction guidelines are explained, and construction location options are discussed. The space construction tasks, equipment, and base configurations are discussed together with the operations required to place a solar power satellite in geosynchronous orbit. A rectenna construction technique is explained, and operation with the grid is defined. Maintenance requirements are summarized for the entire system. Key technology issues required for solar power satellite construction operations are defined.

  11. Rockwell International art concept view on proposed Shuttle payloads (United States)


    Rockwell International art concept view on proposed Shuttle payloads. View is of the Solar Max Mission. The shuttle is in orbit with the remote manipulator system (RMS) grappling the satellite into place.

  12. Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation (United States)

    Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio


    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.

  13. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  14. Early Formulation Model-centric Engineering on NASA's Europa Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Bayer, Todd; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, Ivair; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; hide


    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter and Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter missions were formulated using current state-of-the-art MBSE facilities: - JPL's TeamX, Rapid Mission Architecting - ESA's Concurrent Design Facility - APL's ACE Concurrent Engineering Facility. When JEO became an official "pre-project" in Sep 2010, we had already developed a strong partnership with JPL's Integrated Model Centric Engineering (IMCE) initiative; decided to apply Architecting and SysML-based MBSE from the beginning, begun laying these foundations to support work in Phase A. Release of Planetary Science Decadal Survey and FY12 President's Budget in March 2011 changed the landscape. JEO reverted to being a pre-phase A study. A conscious choice was made to continue application of MBSE on the Europa Study, refocused for early formulation. This presentation describes the approach, results, and lessons.

  15. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept (United States)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.


    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

  16. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept (United States)

    Kuhl. Christopher A.


    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  17. Mission Systems Engineering (MSE) for the Cosmic Evolution Through UV Spectroscopy (CETUS) Space Telescope Concept (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.


    The basic objectives of the CETUS mission are to significantly improve our understanding of the evolution of galaxies at a redshift (z) of approximately 1 and to meet the cost constraints (1$B) for a NASA Probe-Class mission. What makes these galaxies so interesting is that their light, which has taken about 7 billion years to reach us, comes from a time when star-formation in the observable universe peaked, and the processes behind this peaking are far from well understood. To accomplish its science goals, CETUS needs to get UV spectra of 105 of these galaxies. To help meet its cost constraints, CETUS will only observe galaxies for which VIS spectra are already available, which means that CETUS has to survey a specific portion of the sky. The combination of the CETUS measurement goals and costs constraints strongly influence the design of virtually every aspect of the mission starting from the telescope and instruments, through to orbit and launch vehicle selection, and including the design of most of the SC Bus sub-systems, such as structure, ACS, power, communications, and thermal control.

  18. Gossamer-1: Mission concept and technology for a controlled deployment of gossamer spacecraft (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric; Spietz, Peter; Sproewitz, Tom; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hillebrandt, Martin; Hobbie, Catherin; Ruffer, Michael; Straubel, Marco; Tóth, Norbert; Zander, Martin


    Gossamer structures for innovative space applications, such as solar sails, require technology that allows their controlled and thereby safe deployment. Before employing such technology for a dedicated science mission, it is desirable, if not necessary, to demonstrate its reliability with a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six or higher. The aim of the work presented here is to provide reliable technology that enables the controlled deployment and verification of its functionality with various laboratory tests, thereby qualifying the hardware for a first demonstration in low Earth orbit (LEO). The development was made in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This paper provides an overview of the Gossamer-1 mission and hardware development. The system is designed based on the requirements of a technology demonstration mission. The design rests on a crossed boom configuration with triangular sail segments. Employing engineering models, all aspects of the deployment were tested under ambient environment. Several components were also subjected to environmental qualification testing. An innovative stowing and deployment strategy for a controlled deployment, as well as the designs of the bus system, mechanisms and electronics are described. The tests conducted provide insights into the deployment process and allow a mechanical characterization of that deployment process, in particular the measurement of the deployment forces. Deployment on system level could be successfully demonstrated to be robust and controllable. The deployment technology is on TRL four approaching level five, with a qualification model for environmental testing currently being built.

  19. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements (United States)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.


    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  20. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M R


    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  1. VERITAS: A Mission Concept for the High Resolution Topographic Mapping and Imaging of Venus (United States)

    Hensley, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Pollard, B.


    Magellan, a NASA mission to Venus in the early 1990's, mapped nearly the entire surface of Venus with an S-band (12 cm) synthetic aperture radar and microwave radiometer and made radar altimeter measurements of the topography. These measurements revolutionized our understanding of the geomorphology, geology and geophysical processes that have shaped the evolution of the surface of Venus. The Magellan spacecraft had an elliptical orbit with an apoapsis of approximately 8000 km and a periapsis of 257 km and an orbital inclination of 86°. In this way the radar was able to collect long strips of data approximately 10000 km in length running north to south with altitudes varying from 3000 km to 257 km. During the remainder of the orbit the collected data was down linked to earth. The SAR mode operated in burst mode fashion whereby it transmitted a small string of pulses up to a couple of hundred pulses in length followed by a quiescent period when the radar ceased transmission and allowed interleaved operation of the altimeter and radiometer modes. This mode of operation allowed for a significant reduction in downlinked SAR imaging data at the expense of azimuth (i.e. along-track) resolution. However, the lack of finer resolution imagery and topography of the surface than that obtained by the Magellan mission has hampered the definitive answer to key questions concerning the processes and evolution of the surface of Venus. The Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR Topography And Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Mission is a proposed mission to Venus designed to obtain high resolution imagery and topography of the surface using an X-band radar configured as a single pass radar interferometer coupled with a multispectral NIR emissivity mapping capability. VERITAS would map surface topography with a spatial resolution of 250 m and 5 m vertical accuracy and generate radar imagery with 30 m spatial resolution. These capabilities represent an order of magnitude or better improvement

  2. The Magnetic INduction Ocean Sounder (MINOS) Concept Mission: Exploring Small Ocean Worlds With Nanosatellites (United States)

    Steuer, C. J.


    Nanosatellite capabilities continue to steadily increase, showcasing ongoing advancement in key systems including GNC, communications, and power utilization. With focused high impact payloads, these small spacecraft can produce extraordinarily valuable planetary science datasets previously only retrievable by large, expensive, flagship science missions. The new capabilities provided by these nano-class spacecraft, in conjunction with, or even in lieu of, more traditional large monolithic spacecraft, can clear the way for a paradigm shift in the logistics and architecture of planetary science missions. Key near term targets for this technology are the icy moons of the outer solar system where advances in propulsion technology coupled with the low mass of nanosatellites and the shallow gravity wells of the moons allow for orbital capture. As part of a JPL funded study, the authors investigated the feasibility of placing a nanosatellite with magnetometer payload in Europa orbit to enhance and compliment the upcoming flagship mission to Europa through multi-frequency magnetic induction sounding. The study concluded that the enhanced dataset provided by coordinated observation between flagship, in Jovian orbit, and nanosatellite, in Europa orbit, using a fluxgate magnetometer of Rosetta heritage, would enable a more complete understanding of Europa's induction response by providing synchronous datasets between the Jovian plasma torus and the induced magnetosphere of Europa. We propose that these Magnetic INduction Ocean Sounders or MINOS spacecraft can play a similar role for all of the icy moons of the Jovian and Saturnian systems, providing close proximity multi-period magnetic induction sounding to compliment plasma suites and ice penetrating radar while setting the stage for alternative payloads and enhanced exploration of these potentially habitable worlds.

  3. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow


    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...

  4. The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology: A Mission Concept Study for NASA's Einstein Inflation Probe (United States)


    When we began our study we sought to answer five fundamental implementation questions: 1) can foregrounds be measured and subtracted to a sufficiently low level?; 2) can systematic errors be controlled?; 3) can we develop optics with sufficiently large throughput, low polarization, and frequency coverage from 30 to 300 GHz?; 4) is there a technical path to realizing the sensitivity and systematic error requirements?; and 5) what are the specific mission architecture parameters, including cost? Detailed answers to these questions are contained in this report.

  5. The Venera-D Mission Concept: Evaluation by a Joint Science Definition Team of a Means for the Comprehensive Scientific Exploration of Venus (United States)

    Senske, D.; Zasova, L. V.; Economou, T.; Eismont, N.; Esposito, L. W.; Gerasimov, M.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Ivanov, M.; Jessup, K. L.; Korablev, O.; Tibor, K.; Limaye, S. S.; Martynov, A.; Ocampo, A.


    Located in the same part of the solar system and formed out of the same protoplanetary material, Venus is Earth's twin. Although these siblings have nearly the same size, mass, and density, the climate of Venus, fueled by a massive CO2 atmosphere has an enormous greenhouse effect with a surface pressure of 90 atm. and a temperature of 470°C. Shrouded in clouds of sulfuric acid, the surface lacks water and has been sculpted by volcanism and deformed by faulting and folding forming rifts and belts of mountains. The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field suggests the planet's interior structure may be different than that of the earth. The study of Venus will aid in better understanding our own world and the possible future evolution of our climate. In particular, the instability of our climate and the increase in amount of greenhouse gases-can our climate be slowly going in Venus' direction? Despite the advancement in understanding achieved from previous and ongoing missions, the key questions concerning the origin and evolution of Venus and its climate cannot be solved by observations from orbit alone. Direct measurements in the atmosphere and on the surface are required. In this regard, a Joint Science Definition Team (JSDT) chartered by NASA and IKI/Roscosmos has been studying a concept for the comprehensive investigation of Venus that would consist of an orbiter (>3 yr. of operation) and a lander (2 hrs. on the surface). The scientific goals of the concept are tied closely to the key objectives established by VEXAG and the NASA Planetary Decadal Survey and include: investigation of the thermal structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere and clouds, abundances and isotopic ratios of the light and noble gases; study of the thermal balance, dynamics, and super-rotation of the atmosphere; determination of the surface mineralogy and elemental composition including key radioactive isotopes; study of potential current volcanic and electrical activity; and study of

  6. Satellite Power Systems (SPS): Concept development and evaluation program: Preliminary assessment (United States)


    A preliminary assessment of a potential Satellite Power System (SPS) is provided. The assessment includes discussion of technical and economic feasibility; the effects of microwave power transmission beams on biological, ecological, and electromagnetic systems; the impact of SPS construction, deployment, and operations on the biosphere and on society; and the merits of SPS compared to other future energy alternatives.

  7. Satellite Ocean Biology: Past, Present, Future (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.


    Since 1978 when the first satellite ocean color proof-of-concept sensor, the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner, was launched, much progress has been made in refining the basic measurement concept and expanding the research applications of global satellite time series of biological and optical properties such as chlorophyll-a concentrations. The seminar will review the fundamentals of satellite ocean color measurements (sensor design considerations, on-orbit calibration, atmospheric corrections, and bio-optical algorithms), scientific results from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) missions, and the goals of future NASA missions such as PACE, the Aerosol, Cloud, Ecology (ACE), and Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) missions.

  8. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.


    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  9. Arctic sea level change over the past 2 decades from GRACE gradiometry and multi-mission satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. B.; Stenseng, L.; Sørensen, C. S.


    The Arctic is still an extremely challenging region for theuse of remote sensing for sea level studies. Despite the availability of 20 years of altimetry, only very limited sea level observations exist in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation is cha...... and new estimates of large scale sea level changes based on satellite data and perform an estimation of the fresh waterstorage increase over the last decade using temporal gravity changes from the GRACE satellite....

  10. Low Thrust Mission Trajectories to Near Earth Asteroids (United States)

    Saripalli, Pratik; Cardiff, Eric


    The discovery of 2016 HO3 and its classification as a quasi-satellite has sparked a stronger interest towards Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs). This work presents low-thrust low-power mission designs to various NEAs using an EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA). A global trajectory optimizer (EMTG) was used to generate mission solutions to a select 13 NEAs using a 200 watt BHT-200 thruster as a proof of concept. The missions presented here demonstrate that a low-cost electric propulsion ESPA mission to NEAs is a feasible concept for many asteroids.

  11. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System: concept development and evaluation program - effects of ionospheric heating on telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The microwave power beam that is associated with the operation of the Satellite Power System (SPS) will provide a continuous source of power density into the earth's ionosphere. As currently conceptualized, the power density at the center of the beam would be 23 mW/cm/sup 2/. This power density may be of sufficient magnitude to give rise to changes in the structure of the ionosphere and to increases in the electron temperature in the ionosphere. The work described in this report was undertaken to assess the degree to which the ionosphere and ionospheric-dependent telecommunication systems would be impacted by the passage of the Satellite Power System microwave power beam. The program of study utilized resources from Government, industry, and universities in order to conduct theoretical and experimental investigations that relate to the operational scenario surrounding the Satellite Power System concept. The results of the numerous investigations that were undertaken are summarized in this document and areas in which further study is required are pointed out.

  12. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment (United States)


    A concept for a more intuitive and graphically based Computation (Comp) Builder was developed. The Graphical Comp Builder Prototype was developed, which is an X Window based graphical tool that allows the user to build Comps using graphical symbols. Investigation was conducted to determine the availability and suitability of the Ada programming language for the development of future control center type software. The Space Station Freedom Project identified Ada as the desirable programming language for the development of Space Station Control Center software systems.

  13. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results (United States)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.


    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  14. Space Mission Concept for a Nuclear-Powered Airplane for Saturn's Moon Titan (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.


    Saturn's large moon Titan is one of the most interesting places in the solar system. It's the only moon with a significant atmosphere. With a temperature of around 90K, the methane in that atmosphere plays the same role that water does in Earth's atmosphere. Titan has methane clouds, methane rainfall, methane rivers, and methane lakes and seas as seen by the Cassini spacecraft. Future Titan exploration will require a more aggressive vehicle in order to follow up on Cassini's discoveries. I will present the motivation and design for a robotic `drone' aircraft mission to Titan: AVIATR, the Aerial Vehicle for In situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance. This platform makes sense because with 4 x Earth's air density and only 17 its gravity, flying at Titan is easier than any place else in the solar system. From AVIATR we could acquire images and near-infrared spectroscopy of the surface, search for waves in liquids, and measure winds and atmospheric properties directly, which would dramatically advance our understanding of this enigmatic, frigid moon.

  15. A Cloud and Precipitation Radar System Concept for the ACE Mission (United States)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.; Epp, L.; Jamnejad, V.; Perez, R.; Prata, A.; Samoska, L.; Long, E; Fang, H.; Esteban-Fernandez, D.; hide


    One of the instruments recommended for deployment on the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) mission is a new advanced cloud profiling radar. In this paper, we describe such a radar design, called ACERAD, which has 35- and 94-GHz channels, each having Doppler and dual-polarization capabilities. ACERAD will scan at Ka-band and will be nadir-looking at W-band. To get a swath of 25-30 km, considered the minimum useful for Ka-band, ACERAD needs to scan at least 2 degrees off nadir; this is at least 20 beamwidths, which is quite large for a typical parabolic reflector. This problem is being solved with a Dragonian design; a scaled prototype of the antenna is being fabricated and will be tested on an antenna range. ACERAD also uses a quasi-optical transmission line at W-band to connect the transmitter to the antenna and antenna to the receiver. A design for this has been completed and is being laboratory tested. This paper describes the current ACERAD design and status.

  16. GN and C Subsystem Concept for Safe Precision Landing of the Proposed Lunar MARE Robotic Science Mission (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Johnson, Andrew E.; Anderson, F. Scott; Condon, Gerald L.; Nguyen, Louis H.; Olansen, Jon B.; Devolites, Jennifer L.; Harris, William J.; Hines, Glenn D.; Lee, David E.; hide


    The Lunar MARE (Moon Age and Regolith Explorer) Discovery Mission concept targets delivery of a science payload to the lunar surface for sample collection and dating. The mission science is within a 100-meter radius region of smooth lunar maria terrain near Aristarchus crater. The location has several small, sharp craters and rocks that present landing hazards to the spacecraft. For successful delivery of the science payload to the surface, the vehicle Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem requires safe and precise landing capability, so design infuses the NASA Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) and a gimbaled, throttleable LOX/LCH4 main engine. The ALHAT system implemented for Lunar MARE is a specialization of prototype technologies in work within NASA for the past two decades, including a passive optical Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) sensor, a Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor, and a Lidar-based Hazard Detection (HD) sensor. The landing descent profile is from a retrograde orbit over lighted terrain with landing near lunar dawn. The GN&C subsystem with ALHAT capabilities will deliver the science payload to the lunar surface within a 20-meter landing ellipse of the target location and at a site having greater than 99% safety probability, which minimizes risk to safe landing and delivery of the MARE science payload to the intended terrain region.

  17. Small is Beautiful — Technology Trends in the Satellite Industry and Their Implications for Planetary Science Missions (United States)

    Freeman, A.


    It’s an exciting time in the space business - new technologies being developed under the ‘NewSpace’ umbrella have some profound implications for planetary science missions over the next three decades.

  18. Development of an ice crystal scattering database for the global change observation mission/second generation global imager satellite mission: investigating the refractive index grid system and potential retrieval error. (United States)

    Letu, Husi; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Matsui, Takashi N


    Computing time and retrieval error of the effective particle radius are important considerations when developing an ice crystal scattering database to be used in radiative transfer simulation and satellite remote sensing retrieval. Therefore, the light scattering database should be optimized based on the specifications of the satellite sensor. In this study, the grid system of the complex refractive index in the 1.6 μm (SW3) channel of the Global Change Observation Mission/Second Generation Global Imager satellite sensor is investigated for optimizing the ice crystal scattering database. This grid system is separated into twelve patterns according to the step size of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index. Specifically, the LIght Scattering solver Applicable to particles of arbitrary Shape/Geometrical-Optics Approximation technique is used to simulate the scattering of light by randomly oriented large hexagonal ice crystals. The difference of radiance with different step size of the refractive index is calculated from the developed light scattering database using the radiative transfer (R-STAR) solver. The results indicated that the step size of the real part is a significant factor in difference of radiance.

  19. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission (United States)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.


    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  20. A Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Science (United States)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; hide


    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  1. Conceptual design of a crewed reusable space transportation system aimed at parabolic flights: stakeholder analysis, mission concept selection, and spacecraft architecture definition (United States)

    Fusaro, Roberta; Viola, Nicole; Fenoglio, Franco; Santoro, Francesco


    This paper proposes a methodology to derive architectures and operational concepts for future earth-to-orbit and sub-orbital transportation systems. In particular, at first, it describes the activity flow, methods, and tools leading to the generation of a wide range of alternative solutions to meet the established goal. Subsequently, the methodology allows selecting a small number of feasible options among which the optimal solution can be found. For the sake of clarity, the first part of the paper describes the methodology from a theoretical point of view, while the second part proposes the selection of mission concepts and of a proper transportation system aimed at sub-orbital parabolic flights. Starting from a detailed analysis of the stakeholders and their needs, the major objectives of the mission have been derived. Then, following a system engineering approach, functional analysis tools as well as concept of operations techniques allowed generating a very high number of possible ways to accomplish the envisaged goals. After a preliminary pruning activity, aimed at defining the feasibility of these concepts, more detailed analyses have been carried out. Going on through the procedure, the designer should move from qualitative to quantitative evaluations, and for this reason, to support the trade-off analysis, an ad-hoc built-in mission simulation software has been exploited. This support tool aims at estimating major mission drivers (mass, heat loads, manoeuverability, earth visibility, and volumetric efficiency) as well as proving the feasibility of the concepts. Other crucial and multi-domain mission drivers, such as complexity, innovation level, and safety have been evaluated through the other appropriate analyses. Eventually, one single mission concept has been selected and detailed in terms of layout, systems, and sub-systems, highlighting also logistic, safety, and maintainability aspects.

  2. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  3. Orbit Determination (OD) Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission and for the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission Concept (United States)

    Marr, Greg C.


    The Triana spacecraft was designed to be launched by the Space Shuttle. The nominal Triana mission orbit will be a Sun-Earth L1 libration point orbit. Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination (OD) error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana mission from the first correction maneuver through approximately launch plus 6 months. Results are also presented for the science data collection phase of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission concept with momentum unloading thrust perturbations during the tracking arc. The Triana analysis includes extensive analysis of an initial short arc orbit determination solution and results using both Deep Space Network (DSN) and commercial Universal Space Network (USN) statistics. These results could be utilized in support of future Sun-Earth libration point missions.

  4. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field (United States)

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  5. OpenSAT, An Open Source Based Satellite Design Data Architecture with API Design and Management Plugins Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite design encompasses a multitude of steps from concept to flight. Mission specification to flight can take several years, depending on the scope,...

  6. Sampling analysis for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System mission based on orbital coverage and cloud variability (United States)

    Harrison, E. F.; Gibson, G. G.; Minnis, P.


    The reported study represents an extension of an investigation by Harrison et al. (1976). Based on the results of sampling studies, two 98 deg inclined orbits coupled with a 56 deg inclination orbit appear to satisfy the science requirements on both regional and zonal scales. The NOAA sun-synchronous satellites in the TIROS-N series could adequately cover the high latitudes and a satellite having an inclination of 56 deg could provide sampling in the mid and low latitude areas where variations in radiation energetics are most dynamic. Attention is given to studies of time and space coverage, zonal evaluations, a regional analysis, and statistics describing the regional variations of cloud cover. A table is presented with data concerning the uncertainty of monthly mean reflected irradiance due to cloud variability for selected northern hemisphere regions.

  7. Temporal aliasing effects on future gravity satellite missions and their assessment – Lessons from the ESA-SC4MGV project (United States)

    Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland; Visser, Pieter; Weigelt, Matthias; Iran-Pour, Siavash; Murböck, Michael; Gruber, Thomas; Texeira da Encarnação, Joao; Sneeuw, Nico; Tonetti, Stefania; Christian, Siemes; van den IJssel, Jose; Cornara, Stefania; van Dam, Tonie; Cesare, Stefano; Haagmans, Roger


    Temporal aliasing is expected to add up to the error budget of future gravity satellite missions of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) type in such a way, that it could act as a constraining factor on their way to achieve the expected accuracy that new generation sensors could provide. Within the scope of the ESA-SC4MGV project, we investigate the impact of temporal aliasing on future gravity satellite missions as well as methods for its minimization. This is achieved on the one hand by optimizing the choice for the orbital configuration, and on the other by optimizing the gravity field retrieval techniques accordingly. In this study we investigate the contribution of all error sources to the error budget and prove that temporal aliasing errors are one of the biggest contributors. We explore the advantages of using two in-line pairs in reducing temporal aliasing errors. For this purpose, the optimized orbit constellation consisting of two in-line pairs of a Bender type configuration is used as our "baseline" scenario. Using the "baseline" scenario, we investigate gravity field processing methods that lead in a reduction of the temporal aliasing errors. As a first step we apply the so-called "Wiese" approach, which suggests co-estimating low resolution gravity fields at short time intervals in order to directly estimate the short-term signals that alias into the combined solution. We demonstrate the ability of the "Wiese" approach to minimize temporal aliasing errors for our "baseline" scenario. Moreover, we fine-tune the "Wiese" parameterization options such as the duration and the resolution of the gravity field solutions estimated at high frequency, in order to maximize the effectiveness of the method at reducing the temporal aliasing effects with respect to our chosen Bender constellation. As a step forward, we experiment with alternative parameterizations that combine low and medium spatial resolution gravity fields at different time intervals

  8. Feasibility of Single and Dual Satellite Systems to Enable Continuous Communication Capability to a Manned Mars Mission (United States)


    times. Following Kepler’s publication of his three laws, Isaac Newton proved Kepler’s laws adhered to his, then new, concept of gravity. To illustrate...gravity, Newton described the motions of an apple from a tree and the moon around the earth as adhering “To the same natural effects,” and further...Mathematica, Newton described his own three laws of motion, and more importantly, defined the concept of universal gravitation, which ultimately provided

  9. Unattended network operations technology assessment study. Technical support for defining advanced satellite systems concepts (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Holdridge, Mark; Odubiyi, Jide; Jaworski, Allan; Morgan, Herbert K.


    The results are summarized of an unattended network operations technology assessment study for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The scope of the work included: (1) identified possible enhancements due to the proposed Mars communications network; (2) identified network operations on Mars; (3) performed a technology assessment of possible supporting technologies based on current and future approaches to network operations; and (4) developed a plan for the testing and development of these technologies. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) addition of a third Mars Relay Satellite (MRS) and MRS cross link capabilities will enhance the network's fault tolerance capabilities through improved connectivity; (2) network functions can be divided into the six basic ISO network functional groups; (3) distributed artificial intelligence technologies will augment more traditional network management technologies to form the technological infrastructure of a virtually unattended network; and (4) a great effort is required to bring the current network technology levels for manned space communications up to the level needed for an automated fault tolerance Mars communications network.

  10. The Design Concept of the First Mobile Satellite Laser Ranging System (ARGO-M in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo


    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI launched the development project of two satellite laser ranging (SLR systems in early 2008 after the government fund approval of the SLR systems in 2007. One mobile SLR system and one permanent SLR station will be developed with the completion of the project. The main objectives of these systems will be focused on the Space Geodetic researches. A system requirement review was held in the second half of the same year. Through the following system design review meeting and other design reviews, many unsolved technical and engineering issues would be discussed and resolved. However, the design of the mobile SLR system is a corner stone of whole project. The noticeable characteristics of Korea’s first SLR system are 1 use of light weight main mirror, 2 design of compact optical assembly, 3 use of KHz laser pulse, 4 use of commercial laser generator, 5 remote operation capability, 6 automatic tracking, 7 state of art operation system, etc. In this paper, the major user requirement and pre-defined specification are presented and discussed.

  11. Feasibility of single and dual satellite systems to enable continuous communication capability to a manned Mars mission


    Gladem, Jennifer


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s current proposed timeline for an interplanetary expedition is circa 2030. A manned Mars mission involves many complex requirements for communication with significant challenges including implementation, signal limitations, orbit requirements, and Earth-Sun-Mars occlusion. This analysis is focused on the potential advantages and disadvantages of potential orbits for maintaining communi...

  12. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 4: Solar electric propulsion vehicle (United States)


    This document presents the solar electric propulsion (SEP) concept design developed as part of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the SEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities, and costs.

  13. Cibola flight experiment satellite (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart


    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  14. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  15. Oceanic Weather Decision Support for Unmanned Global Hawk Science Missions into Hurricanes with Tailored Satellite Derived Products (United States)

    Feltz, Wayne; Griffin, Sarah; Velden, Christopher; Zipser, Ed; Cecil, Daniel; Braun, Scott


    The purpose of this presentation is to identify in-flight hazards to high-altitude aircraft, namely the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk was used during Septembers 2012-2016 as part of two NASA funded Hurricane Sentinel-3 field campaigns to over-fly hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. This talk identifies the cause of severe turbulence experienced over Hurricane Emily (2005) and how a combination of NOAA funded GOES-R algorithm derived cloud top heights/tropical overshooting tops using GOES-13/SEVIRI imager radiances, and lightning information are used to identify areas of potential turbulence for near real-time navigation decision support. Several examples will demonstrate how the Global Hawk pilots remotely received and used real-time satellite derived cloud and lightning detection information to keep the aircraft safely above clouds and avoid regions of potential turbulence.

  16. A New Class of Advanced Accuracy Satellite Instrumentation (AASI) for the CLARREO Mission: Interferometer Test-bed Tradestudies and Selection (United States)

    Taylor, J. K.; Revercomb, H. E.; Grandmont, F. J.; Buijs, H.; Gero, P. J.; Best, F. A.; Tobin, D. C.; Knuteson, R. O.; Laporte, D. D.


    NASA has selected CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory), a climate mission recommended by the 2007 Decadal Survey of the US National Research Council, as a potential new start in 2010. CLARREO will measure spectrally resolved radiance from the earth and atmospheric bending of GPS signals related to atmospheric structure (refractivity) as benchmark measurements of long-term climate change trends. CLARREO will provide more complete spectral and time-of-day coverage and will fly basic physical standards to eliminate the need to assume on-board reference stability. Therefore, the spectral radiances from this mission will also serve as benchmarks to propagate a highly accurate calibration to other space-borne IR instruments. Technology development and risk reduction for the CLARREO mission is being conducted at the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The objective of this work is to develop and demonstrate the technology necessary to measure IR spectrally resolved radiances (3 - 50 micrometers) with ultra high accuracy (change and a solid basis for improving climate model forecasts. The proposed work (University of Wisconsin-Madison and Harvard University) was selected for the 2007 NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) and will develop four primary technologies to assure SI traceability on-orbit and demonstrate the ultra high accuracy measurement capability required for CLARREO: (1) On-orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS), a high emissivity blackbody source that uses multiple miniature phase-change cells to provide a revolutionary on-orbit standard with absolute temperature accuracy proven over a wide range of temperatures, (2) On-orbit Cavity Emissivity Modules (OCEMs), providing a source (quantum cascade laser, QCL, or “Heated Halo”) to measure any change in the cavity emissivity of the OARS, (3) On-orbit Spectral Response Module (OSRM), a source for spectral response measurements using a

  17. On the Relative Stability of CERES Reflected Shortwave and MISR and MODIS Visible Radiance Measurements During the Terra Satellite Mission (United States)

    Corbett, J. G.; Loeb, N. G.


    Fifteen years of visible, near-infrared, and broadband shortwave radiance measurements from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on board NASA's Terra satellite are analyzed in order to assess their long-term relative stability for climate purposes. A regression-based approach between CERES, MODIS, and MISR (An camera only) reflectances is used to calculate the bias between the different reflectances relative to a reference year. When compared to the CERES shortwave broadband reflectance, relative drift between the MISR narrowbands is within 1%/decade. Compared to the CERES shortwave reflectance, the MODIS narrowband reflectances show a relative drift of less than -1.33%/decade. When compared to MISR, the MODIS reflectances show a relative drift of between -0.36%/decade and -2.66%/decade. We show that the CERES Terra SW measurements are stable over the time period relative to CERES Aqua. Using this as evidence that CERES Terra may be absolutely stable, we suggest that the CERES, MISR, and MODIS instruments meet the radiometric stability goals for climate applications set out in Ohring et al. (2005).

  18. Global Terrestrial Water Cycle Mapping and Science Results from the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Satellite Mission (United States)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; You, T. H.


    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015 and started science data acquisition at the beginning of April, 2015. The science data acquisition with the radiometer now covers nearly a one-year-and-half period. The coincident active L-band and passive L-band measurements cover only two months in Summer 2015 due to the radar instrument malfunction. In this presentation we report on the SMAP global L-band radiometry, the capability to detect and, where possible, mitigate Radio-Frequency Interference, and exploit the radiometer over-sampling to enhance data resolution. The global surface soil moisture inferred from the L-band brightness temperature fields are used to estimate water cycle characteristics over land surfaces. The focus of the data analyses has been on finding the linkages between the water, energy and carbon cycles over land. The data are also used to infer vegetation characteristics, ocean surface salinity, ocean surface winds, and sea ice thickness. The model value-added data products are used to estimate root-zone soil moisture and land surface water, energy and carbon fluxes.

  19. Merging aerosol optical depth data from multiple satellite missions to view agricultural biomass burning in Central and East China (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Xu, H.; Mei, L.; Guang, J.; Guo, J.; Li, Y.; Hou, T.; Li, C.; Yang, L.; He, X.


    Agricultural biomass burning (ABB) in Central and East China occurs every year from May to October and peaks in June. The biomass burning event in June 2007 was very strong. During the period from 26 May to 16 June 2007, ABB occurred mainly in Anhui, Henan, Jiangsu and Shandong provinces. A comprehensive set of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, produced by a merger of AOD product data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MIRS), is used to study the spatial and temporal distribution of agricultural biomass aerosols in Central and East China combining with ground observations from both AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and China Aerosol Remote Sensing NETwork (CARSNET) measurements. We compared merged AOD data with single-sensor single-algorithm AOD data (MODIS Dark Target AOD data, MODIS Deep Blue AOD data, SRAP-MODIS AOD data and MISR AOD data). In this comparison, we found merged AOD products can improve the quality of AOD products from single-sensor single-algorithm data sets by expanding the spatial coverage of the study area and keeping the statistical confidence in AOD parameters. There existed high correlation (0.8479) between the merged AOD data and AERONET measurements. Our merged AOD data make use of synergetic information conveyed in all of the available satellite data. The merged AOD data were used for the analysis of the biomass burning event from 26 May to 16 June 2007 together with meteorological data. The merged AOD products and the ground observations from China suggest that biomass burning in Central and East China has had great impact on AOD over China. Influenced by this ABB, the highest AOD value in Beijing on 12 June 2007 reached 5.71.

  20. Propagation of Satelite Rainfall Products uncertainties in hydrological applications : Examples in West-Africa in the framework of the Megha-Tropiques Satellite Mission (United States)

    Casse, C.; Gosset, M.; Peugeot, C.; Boone, A.; Pedinotti, V.


    The use of satellite based rainfall in research or operational Hydrological application is becoming more and more frequent. This is specially true in the Tropics where ground based gauge (or radar) network are generally scarce and often degrading. Member of the GPM constellation, the new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere contributes to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of MT rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them in the end user models ? Another important question is how to choose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This talk will present on going investigations and perspectives on this subject, with examples from the Megha_tropiques Ground validation sites in West Africa. The CNRM model Surfex-ISBA/TRIP has been set up to simulate the hydrological behavior of the Niger River. This modeling set up is being used to study the predictability of Niger Floods events in the city of Niamey and the performances of satellite rainfall products as forcing for such predictions. One of the interesting feature of the Niger outflow in Niamey is its double peak : a first peak attributed to 'local' rainfall falling in small to medium size basins situated in the region of Niamey, and a second peak linked to the rainfall falling in the upper par of the river, and slowly propagating through the river towards Niamey. The performances of rainfall products are found to differ between the wetter/upper part of the basin, and the local/sahelian areas. Both academic tests with artificially biased or 'perturbed' rainfield and actual

  1. Does the GPM mission improve the systematic error component in satellite rainfall estimates over TRMM? An evaluation at a pan-India scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beria


    Full Text Available The last couple of decades have seen the outburst of a number of satellite-based precipitation products with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM as the most widely used for hydrologic applications. Transition of TRMM into the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM promises enhanced spatio-temporal resolution along with upgrades to sensors and rainfall estimation techniques. The dependence of systematic error components in rainfall estimates of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG, and their variation with climatology and topography, was evaluated over 86 basins in India for year 2014 and compared with the corresponding (2014 and retrospective (1998–2013 TRMM estimates. IMERG outperformed TRMM for all rainfall intensities across a majority of Indian basins, with significant improvement in low rainfall estimates showing smaller negative biases in 75 out of 86 basins. Low rainfall estimates in TRMM showed a systematic dependence on basin climatology, with significant overprediction in semi-arid basins, which gradually improved in the higher rainfall basins. Medium and high rainfall estimates of TRMM exhibited a strong dependence on basin topography, with declining skill in higher elevation basins. The systematic dependence of error components on basin climatology and topography was reduced in IMERG, especially in terms of topography. Rainfall-runoff modeling using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model over two flood-prone basins (Mahanadi and Wainganga revealed that improvement in rainfall estimates in IMERG did not translate into improvement in runoff simulations. More studies are required over basins in different hydroclimatic zones to evaluate the hydrologic significance of IMERG.

  2. Does the GPM mission improve the systematic error component in satellite rainfall estimates over TRMM? An evaluation at a pan-India scale (United States)

    Beria, Harsh; Nanda, Trushnamayee; Singh Bisht, Deepak; Chatterjee, Chandranath


    The last couple of decades have seen the outburst of a number of satellite-based precipitation products with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) as the most widely used for hydrologic applications. Transition of TRMM into the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) promises enhanced spatio-temporal resolution along with upgrades to sensors and rainfall estimation techniques. The dependence of systematic error components in rainfall estimates of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), and their variation with climatology and topography, was evaluated over 86 basins in India for year 2014 and compared with the corresponding (2014) and retrospective (1998-2013) TRMM estimates. IMERG outperformed TRMM for all rainfall intensities across a majority of Indian basins, with significant improvement in low rainfall estimates showing smaller negative biases in 75 out of 86 basins. Low rainfall estimates in TRMM showed a systematic dependence on basin climatology, with significant overprediction in semi-arid basins, which gradually improved in the higher rainfall basins. Medium and high rainfall estimates of TRMM exhibited a strong dependence on basin topography, with declining skill in higher elevation basins. The systematic dependence of error components on basin climatology and topography was reduced in IMERG, especially in terms of topography. Rainfall-runoff modeling using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model over two flood-prone basins (Mahanadi and Wainganga) revealed that improvement in rainfall estimates in IMERG did not translate into improvement in runoff simulations. More studies are required over basins in different hydroclimatic zones to evaluate the hydrologic significance of IMERG.

  3. A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid


    The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

  4. The Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI): A Mission Concept to Investigate ISS Charging and Wake Effects (United States)

    Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.


    The complex interaction between the International Space Station (ISS) and the surrounding plasma environment often generates unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include extravehicular activity (EVA) safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, especially those driven by space weather, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. Space environment data collected in real-time (or near-real time) can be used operationally for both real-time alarms and data sources in assimilative models to predict environmental conditions important for operational planning. Fixed space weather instruments mounted to the ISS can be used for monitoring the ambient space environment, but knowing whether or not (or to what extent) the ISS affects the measurements themselves requires adequate space situational awareness (SSA) local to the ISS. This paper presents a mission concept to use a suite of plasma instruments mounted at the end of the ISS robotic arm to systematically explore the interaction between the Space Station structure and its surrounding environment. The Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) would be deployed and operated on the ISS Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) for long-term "survey mode" observations and the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for short-term "campaign mode" observations. Specific areas of investigation include: 1) ISS frame and surface charging during perturbations of the local ISS space environment, 2) calibration of the ISS Floating Point Measurement Unit (FPMU), 3) long baseline measurements of ambient ionospheric electric potential structures, 4) electromotive force-induced currents within large structures moving through a magnetized plasma, and 5) wake-induced ion waves in both

  5. Global Characterization of CO2 Column Retrievals from Shortwave-Infrared Satellite Observations of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Miller


    Full Text Available The global characteristics of retrievals of the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, from shortwave infrared observations has been studied using the expected measurement performance of the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2 mission. This study focuses on XCO2 retrieval precision and averaging kernels and their sensitivity to key parameters such as solar zenith angle (SZA, surface pressure, surface type and aerosol optical depth (AOD, for both nadir and sunglint observing modes. Realistic simulations have been carried out and the single sounding retrieval errors for XCO2 have been derived from the formal retrieval error covariance matrix under the assumption that the retrieval has converged to the correct answer and that the forward model can adequately describe the measurement. Thus, the retrieval errors presented in this study represent an estimate of the retrieval precision. For nadir observations, we find single-sounding retrieval errors with values typically less than 1 part per million (ppm over most land surfaces for SZAs less than 70° and up to 2.5 ppm for larger SZAs. Larger errors are found over snow/ice and ocean surfaces due to their low albedo in the spectral regions of the CO2 absorption bands and, for ocean, also in the O2 A band. For sunglint observations, errors over the ocean are significantly smaller than in nadir mode with values in the range of 0.3 to 0.6 ppm for small SZAs which can decrease to values as small as 0.15 for the largest SZAs. The vertical sensitivity of the retrieval that is represented by the column averaging kernel peaks near the surface and exhibits values near unity throughout most of the troposphere for most anticipated scenes. Nadir observations over dark ocean or snow/ice surfaces and observations with large AOD and large SZA show a decreased sensitivity to near-surface CO2. All simulations are carried out for a mid-latitude summer atmospheric profile, a given aerosol type and

  6. The Mothership Mission Architecture (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.


    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  7. The Noble Train of Artillery: A Study Comparison of Current Doctrinal Concepts of the Mission Command Philosophy in History (United States)


    Storage ( JSTOR ) database also assisted me in researching many different journal articles both dealing with Mission Command and Knox’s background...This was the single best database . Finally, it is worth noting that there are no sources which dealt directly with the doctrinal comparison of Knox’s

  8. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment. (United States)


    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  9. Radiative Transfer Through Clouds and Its Applications in Support of the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Mission (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander


    The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, which contain enough ice to raise sea level by about 7 and 60 m, respectively, are losing mass at an increasing rate. To acquire continuous information of the cryosphere, after the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-2010), NASA is actively planning for the ICESat-2 mission. Both ICESat and ICESat-2 are space-borne lidar altimetry systems. The systems measure the time of flight of the arriving photons that are reflected by the surface to deduce the elevation of the underlying terrain. As one of NASA's top priority missions, ICESat-2 is scheduled to launch in 2016. One of the major science goals of ICESat-2 is to quantify the ice sheet mass balance to determine its contributions to the sea level change and its impacts on ocean circulation (Abdalati et al. 2010). Compared to ICESat, which operates at 40 Hz and records the reflected laser energy as a waveform, the significantly improved ICESat-2 lidar employs a 532 nm micro-pulse photon counting system that operates at a high frequency of 10kHz with single photon detectability (Yang et al. 2012). To achieve its science goals, ICESat-2 requires the ability of detecting the elevation change with an accuracy of 0.2 cm/year over the entire ice sheet. Since every photon emitted by the lidar system will travel through the atmosphere, clouds can certainly affect the flight time of the arriving photons. Forward scattering by cloud particles increases the photon path length, thus resulting in biases in ice sheet elevation measurements known as atmospheric path delay (Duta et al. 2001, Yang et al. 2010, 2011). To ensure the accuracy of ICESat-2 surface elevation measurements, it is critical to understand how clouds would affect the travel time of arriving photons. In this talk, we will first present a framework that simulates the behavior of a space-borne 532 mn micro-pulse photon counting lidar in cloudy and clear atmospheres. To investigate the process of laser

  10. The FLEX satellite mission - Measuring and understanding the local and global dynamics of sun-induced fluorescence, photosynthesis and vegetation stress (United States)

    Rascher, U.; Colombo, R.; Damm, A.; Drusch, M.; Goulas, Y.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Nedbal, L.; Pinto, F.; Rossini, M.; Schickling, A.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Tol, C. V. D.; Verhoef, W.


    In the past years, several activities were underway to evaluate the information content of the sun-induced fluorescence signal to be used to quantify actual rates of photosynthesis and plant stresses. In November 2015 FLEX was selected as the 8th Earth Explorer mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). FLEX will be launched in 2022 and will fly in tandem with Sentinel-3 providing complementary measurements with a close temporal collocation of a few seconds.This tandem mission concept will provide measurements at a spectral and spatial resolution enabling the retrieval and interpretation of the full chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum emitted by the terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission will cover the spectral range from 500 to 780 nm with a high spectral resolution around the oxygen absorption bands. FLEX will have a spatial resolution of 300 meters and will provide a global map every month. This will allow for the first time to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of vegetation fluorescence on this scale in the course of the seasons. We present several validated maps of sun-induced fluorescence, employing the novel airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. HyPlant has an unprecedented spectral resolution, which allows for the first time quantifying sun-induced fluorescence emission in physical units that exploits solar and atmospheric absorption bands. Maps of sun-induced fluorescence show a large spatial variability between different vegetation types, which complement classical remote sensing approaches. Different crop types largely differ in emitting fluorescence that additionally changes within the seasonal cycle and are related to the seasonal activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery. Additionally, we show examples how fluorescence can track acute environmental stresses and can be used to improve our forward modelling of actual photosynthesis.We will review and summarize the current knowledge how sun-induced fluorescence can serve as an

  11. Reference mission 3B ascent trajectory. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation (United States)

    Kuhn, A. E.


    Mission 3B is designed as a payload retrieval mission with both shuttle launch and orbiter landing to take place at the western test range. The mission is designed for direct rendezvous with a passive satellite in a 100 NMI circular orbit with an inclination of 104 degrees. The ascent portion of mission 3B is described as well as the trajectory simulation.

  12. Cg/Stability Map for the Reference H Cycle 3 Supersonic Transport Concept Along the High Speed Research Baseline Mission Profile (United States)

    Giesy, Daniel P.; Christhilf, David M.


    A comparison is made between the results of trimming a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concept along a reference mission profile using two trim modes. One mode uses the stabilator. The other mode uses fore and aft placement of the center of gravity. A comparison is make of the throttle settings (cruise segments) or the total acceleration (ascent and descent segments) and of the drag coefficient. The comparative stability of trimming using the two modes is also assessed by comparing the stability margins and the placement of the lateral and longitudinal eigenvalues.

  13. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited) (United States)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.


    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  14. The variable nature of convection in the tropics and subtropics: A legacy of 16 years of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Zuluaga, Manuel D.; Brodzik, Stella R.


    Abstract For over 16 years, the Precipitation Radar of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite detected the three‐dimensional structure of significantly precipitating clouds in the tropics and subtropics. This paper reviews and synthesizes studies using the TRMM radar data to present a global picture of the variation of convection throughout low latitudes. The multiyear data set shows convection varying not only in amount but also in its very nature across the oceans, continents, islands, and mountain ranges of the tropics and subtropics. Shallow isolated raining clouds are overwhelmingly an oceanic phenomenon. Extremely deep and intense convective elements occur almost exclusively over land. Upscale growth of convection into mesoscale systems takes a variety of forms. Oceanic cloud systems generally have less intense embedded convection but can form very wide stratiform regions. Continental mesoscale systems often have more intense embedded convection. Some of the most intense convective cells and mesoscale systems occur near the great mountain ranges of low latitudes. The Maritime Continent and Amazonia exhibit convective clouds with maritime characteristics although they are partially or wholly land. Convective systems containing broad stratiform areas manifest most strongly over oceans. The stratiform precipitation occurs in various forms. Often it occurs as quasi‐uniform precipitation with strong melting layers connected with intense convection. In monsoons and the Intertropical Convergence Zone, it takes the form of closely packed weak convective elements. Where fronts extend into the subtropics, broad stratiform regions are larger and have lower and sloping melting layers related to the baroclinic origin of the precipitation. PMID:27668295

  15. Cryogenic propellant thermal control system design considerations, analyses, and concepts applied to a Mars human exploration mission (United States)

    Plachta, David W.; Tucker, Stephen; Hoffman, David J.


    This paper analyzes, defines, and sizes cryogenic storage thermal control systems that meet the requirements of future NASA Mars human exploration missions. The design issues of this system include the projection of the existing Multilayer Insulation data base for cryogenic storage to much thicker (10 cm or more) insulation systems, the unknown heat leak from mechanical interfaces, and the thermal and structural performance effects of the large tank sizes required for a Mars mission. Acknowledging these unknown effects, heat loss projections are made based on extrapolation of the existing data base. The results indicate that hydrogen, methane, and oxygen are feasible propellants, and that the best suited thermal control sytems are 'thick' MLI, thermodynamic vent sytems, cryocoolers, and vacuum jackets.

  16. Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept (United States)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Zarchi, Kerry; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.


    Part of NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program is the development of the tradespace to support the design of a family of multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) to meet a wide range of mission requirements. An integrated tool called the Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE tool is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. Part of M-SAPE's application required the development of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) to determine the vehicle's required Thermal Protection System (TPS) for safe Earth entry. For this analysis, the heat shield was assumed to be made of a constant thickness TPS. This resulting MERs will then e used to determine the pre-flight mass of the TPS. Two Mers have been developed for the vehicle forebaody. One MER was developed for PICA and the other consisting of Carbon Phenolic atop an Advanced Carbon-Carbon composition. For the the backshell, MERs have been developed for SIRCA, Acusil II, and LI-900. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed in this poster.

  17. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils


    satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results...

  18. On the concepts of a highly integrated payload suite for use in future planetary missions: The example of the BepiColombo Mercury planetary orbiter (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Collon, M.; Montella, J.; Buis, E. J.; Beijersbergen, M.; Erd, C.; Falkner, P.; Schulz, R.; Peacock, A.


    Future low resource payload concepts will need to be developed from the viewpoint of a standard integrated payload suite where resources are dramatically reduced through high levels of integration and resource sharing. The study of this approach, its gains together with its limitations was the key objective of this work. The highly compact integration of a specific payload suite was carried out during a reassessment of the technical realisation of all instruments required to form part of the BepiColombo planetary orbiter payload (MPO) for the exploration of Mercury. A study of the heritage of other instruments developed for other missions such as Mars Express and ROSETTA was the precursor to enable identification of typical resource drivers and related problems or technology requirements. Innovative technologies aboard SMART-1 or other technology demonstration reference missions were also taken into account for their potential in miniaturisation without sacrificing performance. In the specific example of the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) the resource reduction by a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS) was addressed. Here we give a review on the basic concept and a comparison to the classical approach.

  19. Commonality of flight control systems for support of European telecommunications missions (United States)

    Debatin, Kurt


    This paper is concerned with the presentation of mission-independent software systems that provide a common software platform to ground data systems for mission operations. The objectives of such common software platforms are to reduce the cost of the development of mission-dedicated software systems and to increase the level of reliability of the ground data systems for mission operations. In accordance with this objective, the Multi-Satellite Support System (MSSS) was developed at the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Between 1975 and 1992, the MSSS provided support to 16 European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among them very demanding science missions such as GEOS, EXOSAT, and Giotto. The successful support of these missions proved the validity of the MSSS concept with its extended mission-independent platform. This paper describes the MSSS concept and focuses on the wide use of MSSS as a flight control system for geosynchronous telecommunications satellites. Reference is made to more than 15 telecommunications missions that are operated from Western Europe using flight control systems with an underlying MSSS concept, demonstrating the benefits of a commonly used software platform. Finally, the paper outlines the design of the new generation of flight control systems, which is being developed at ESOC for this decade, following a period of more than 15 years of MSSS support.

  20. The GNSS polarimetric radio-occultation technique to sense precipitation events: a new concept to be tested aboard PAZ Low Earth Satellite (United States)

    Tomás, Sergio; Oliveras, Santi; Cardellach, Estel; Rius, Antonio


    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation (ROHP) experiment, to be conducted aboard the Spanish PAZ satellite, consists of a radio occultation (RO) mission provided with dual-polarization capabilities. The research with polarimetric RO data has the goal of assessing the capabilities and limitations of this technique to infer profiles of heavy precipitation. The technique aims to provide vertical profiles of precipitation simultaneously to the vertical profiles of thermodynamic parameters (standard RO products) perfectly collocated both in space and time. If successful, the polarimetric RO will represent the first technique able to provide these complementary information on precipitation. This is a relevant input for studies on heavy and violent rainfall events, which being poorly represented by the current-generation of Numerical Weather Prediction and General Circulation Models appear to be difficult to forecast on all time-scales. The Low Earth Orbiter hosting this experiment, to be launched in 2013, will orbit at 500 km altitude in a near-Polar orbit. The Radio Occulation payload includes a RO GNSS receiver and a dual polarization (H/V) limb oriented antenna to capture the signals of setting GNSS transmitters. NOAA and UCAR participate in the ground-segment of the radiometric experiment to enable near-real time dissemination of the level-1 standard RO products. The space-based GNSS RO technique scans the atmosphere vertically at fine resolution (close to 300 meter in the troposphere) by precisely measure the delay between a GNSS transmitter and a GNSS receiver aboard a Low Earth Orbiter, when the former is setting below or rising above the Earth limb. The standard, thermodynamical, products are extracted from the excess delay induced by the atmosphere at different layers. This presentation will not focus on this well-established application, but a novel concept using polarimetry to also retrieve rain information. The precipitation-measurement principle is

  1. Alternating Magnetic Field Forces for Satellite Formation Flying (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.; Starr, Stnaley O.


    Selected future space missions, such as large aperture telescopes and multi-component interferometers, will require the precise positioning of a number of isolated satellites, yet many of the suggested approaches for providing satellites positioning forces have serious limitations. In this paper we propose a new approach, capable of providing both position and orientation forces, that resolves or alleviates many of these problems. We show that by using alternating fields and currents that finely-controlled forces can be induced on the satellites, which can be individually selected through frequency allocation. We also show, through analysis and experiment, that near field operation is feasible and can provide sufficient force and the necessary degrees of freedom to accurately position and orient small satellites relative to one another. In particular, the case of a telescope with a large number of free mirrors is developed to provide an example of the concept. We. also discuss the far field extension of this concept.

  2. Status of the GRACE Follow-On Mission (United States)

    Flechtner, Frank; Watkins, Mike; Morton, Phil; Webb, Frank; Massmann, Franz-Heinrich; Grunwaldt, Ludwig


    GRACE Follow-On, a joint US/German satellite mission to extend the critical global mass flux data records from the GRACE mission, continues to mature and advance on both sides of the Atlantic. In early January 2012, GRACE-FO was advanced by NASA to Phase A following the successful Mission Concept Review in late October, 2011. The transition into Phase B happened in September 2012 following a successful System Requirements and Mission Definition Review in July 2012. In January 2014 the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was conducted, transition into phase C was planned for February 2014. The current launch date is August 2017. The presentation will focus on the project status after the PDR of major spacecraft systems, science payloads (microwave ranging system, GNSS receiver, and accelerometer), a demonstration payload (laser ranging interferometer), mission operations, launch services and the science data system.

  3. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects (United States)


    Potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS) are discussed. A detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation is provided followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system.

  4. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).

  5. Embedded model control GNC for the Next Generation Gravity Mission (United States)

    Colangelo, Luigi; Massotti, Luca; Canuto, Enrico; Novara, Carlo


    A Next Generation Gravity Mission (NGGM) concept for measuring the Earth's variable gravity field has been recently proposed by ESA. The mission objective consists in measuring the temporal variations of the Earth gravity field over a long-time span, with very high spatial and temporal resolutions. This paper focuses on the guidance, navigation and control (GNC) design for the science phase of the NGGM mission. NGGM will consist of a two-satellite long-distance formation like GRACE, where each satellite will be controlled to be drag-free like GOCE. Satellite-to-satellite distance variations, encoding gravity anomalies, will be measured by laser interferometry. The formation satellites, distant up to 200 km, will fly in a quasi-polar orbit at an Earth altitude between 300 and 450 km. Orbit and formation control counteract bias and drift of the residual drag-free accelerations, in order to reach orbit/formation long-term stability. Drag-free control allows the formation to fly counteracting the atmospheric drag, ideally subject only to gravity. Orbit and formation control, designed through the innovative Integrated Formation Control (IFC), have been integrated into a unique control system, aiming at stabilizing the formation triangle consisting of satellites and Earth Center of Masses. In addition, both spacecraft must align their control axis to the satellite-to-satellite line (SSL) with micro-radian accuracy. This is made possible by specific optical sensors and the inter-satellite laser interferometer, capable of materializing the SSL. Such sensors allow each satellite to pursue an autonomous alignment after a suitable acquisition procedure. Pointing control is severely constrained by the angular drag-free control, which must ideally zero the angular acceleration vector, in the science frequency band. The control unit has been designed according to the Embedded Model Control methodology and is organized in a hierarchical way, where the drag-free control plays the

  6. Analysis of Satellite Communication as a Method to Meet Information Exchange Requirements for the Enhanced Company Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senn, Matthew A; Turner, James D


    .... To address this emerging threat, the Marine Corps is developing the Enhanced Company (EC) concept, with the aim of providing the company commander with the tools necessary to make isolated decisions in an increasingly complex battlefield...

  7. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites (United States)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert


    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  8. A Lunar Mission to Create a Constellation of Space Solar Power Satellites as a Precursor to Industrial Establishment, Resource Extraction, and Colonization (United States)

    Bergsrud, C. M.; Straub, J.


    This paper provides an overview of a system of space solar power satellites (SSPSs) to service lunar science, mining and manufacturing operations. The SSPS system will provide power to enable a new paradigm of lunar and Moon-based exploration.

  9. Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height models using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... The mission goal of an absolute vertical accuracy within 16 m (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m was achieved based on ground validation of SRTM data through various studies using global positioning system (GPS...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) onboard Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GDS2 Version -The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) is a well calibrated passive microwave radiometer, similar to the Special Sensor...

  11. Study of satellite microminiaturization technology (United States)

    Obara, Hiroaki; Oomura, Katsutoshi


    The characteristics, objectives, and missions, such as those for message relaying, low orbit broadcasting, monitoring and warning, scientific observation and space environment monitoring, planet exploration, and technology development of microminiature satellites are outlined. An overview of the study of satellite microminiaturization technologies for communication, information processing, sensing for navigation and observation missions, power supply, actuators, structure and thermal control, and overall system is presented.

  12. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano


    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  13. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R. [and others


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project`s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies.

  14. Concept and analytical basis for revistas - A fast, flexible computer/graphic system for generating periodic satellite coverage patterns (United States)

    King, J. C.


    The generation of satellite coverage patterns is facilitated by three basic strategies: use of a simplified physical model, permitting rapid closed-form calculation; separation of earth rotation and nodal precession from initial geometric analyses; and use of symmetries to construct traces of indefinite length by repetitive transposition of basic one-quadrant elements. The complete coverage patterns generated consist of a basic nadir trace plus a number of associated off-nadir traces, one for each sensor swath edge to be delineated. Each trace is generated by transposing one or two of the basic quadrant elements into a circle on a nonrotating earth model sphere, after which the circle is expanded into the actual 'helical' pattern by adding rotational displacements to the longitude coordinates. The procedure adapts to the important periodic coverage cases by direct insertion of the characteristic integers N and R (days and orbital revolutions, respectively, per coverage period).

  15. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; hide


    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  16. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.


    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  17. Satellites, Plasmas and Law: The Role of TeleCourt in Changing Conceptions of Justice and Authority in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenebe Beyene


    Full Text Available An ambitious experiment in the ICT and justice sector is underway in Ethiopia. As part of an effort to improve service delivery and the responsiveness of the state, the Ethiopian government has created 'TeleCourt,' a system that allows trials to take place between remote areas and regional or federal courts through videoconferencing and a satellite Internet connection. This article is the first to analyze how TeleCourt operates, with a particular focus on the perspectives of end-users, those who have had first-hand experience of how 'justice at a distance' actually works. The findings suggest general satisfaction with the savings - both in terms of financial burden and time costs that are often incurred when travelling to trials - which TeleCourt allows. As the system improves ways to provide justice to the grassroots, in line with the government's commitment towards peasants, this must also be considered in the context of the Ethiopian government's growing efforts to use law to curb political dissent. This is indicative of a broader tendency of selectively adopting and reshaping ICTs and extending them to the poorest people in Ethiopia in order to support the functioning of the state, while other uses of ICTs that are seen as potentially destabilizing are discouraged or forbidden.

  18. Detection of Rossby Waves in Multi-Parameters in Multi-Mission Satellite Observations and HYCOM Simulations in the Indian Ocean (United States)


    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION...mission developed by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina (Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, CONAE), which is planned for launch in May

  19. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.


    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  20. The potential of satellite radar altimetry in flood forecasting: concept and implementation for the Niger-Benue river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pandey


    Full Text Available Flood forecasting in the downstream part of any hydrological basin is extremely difficult due to the lack of basin-wide hydrological information in near real-time and the absence of a data-sharing treaty among the transboundary nations. The accuracy of forecasts emerging from a hydrological model could be compromised without prior knowledge of the day-to-day flow regulation at different locations upstream of the Niger and Benue rivers. Only satellite altimeter monitoring allows us to identify the actual river levels upstream that reflect the human intervention at that location. This is critical for making accurate downstream forecasts. This present study aims to demonstrate the capability of altimeter-based flood forecasting along the Niger-Benue River in Nigeria. The study includes the comparison of decadal (at every 10 days from Jason-2 or monthly (at every 35 days from Envisat/AltiKa observations from 2002 to 2014, with historical in situ measurements from 1990 to 2012. The water level obtained from these sources shows a good correlation (0.7–0.9. After validation of hydrological parameters obtained from two sources, a quantitative relation (rating curve of upstream water level and downstream discharge is derived. This relation is then adopted for calculation of discharge at observation points, which is used to propagate the flow downstream at a desired location using a hydraulic river model. Results from this study from Jason-2 shows a promising correlation (R2 ≥ 90% with a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of more than 0.70 with 5~days ahead of downstream flow prediction over the Benue stream.

  1. The potential of satellite radar altimetry in flood forecasting: concept and implementation for the Niger-Benue river basin (United States)

    Pandey, R.; Amarnath, G.


    Flood forecasting in the downstream part of any hydrological basin is extremely difficult due to the lack of basin-wide hydrological information in near real-time and the absence of a data-sharing treaty among the transboundary nations. The accuracy of forecasts emerging from a hydrological model could be compromised without prior knowledge of the day-to-day flow regulation at different locations upstream of the Niger and Benue rivers. Only satellite altimeter monitoring allows us to identify the actual river levels upstream that reflect the human intervention at that location. This is critical for making accurate downstream forecasts. This present study aims to demonstrate the capability of altimeter-based flood forecasting along the Niger-Benue River in Nigeria. The study includes the comparison of decadal (at every 10 days from Jason-2) or monthly (at every 35 days from Envisat/AltiKa) observations from 2002 to 2014, with historical in situ measurements from 1990 to 2012. The water level obtained from these sources shows a good correlation (0.7-0.9). After validation of hydrological parameters obtained from two sources, a quantitative relation (rating curve) of upstream water level and downstream discharge is derived. This relation is then adopted for calculation of discharge at observation points, which is used to propagate the flow downstream at a desired location using a hydraulic river model. Results from this study from Jason-2 shows a promising correlation (R2 ≥ 90% with a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of more than 0.70) with 5~days ahead of downstream flow prediction over the Benue stream.

  2. The MICROSTAR electrostatic accelerometer for the GRASP Mission (United States)

    Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Liorzou, Francoise; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Perrot, Eddy


    The Geodetic Reference Antenna in Space (GRASP) is a micro satellite mission concept dedicated to the enhancement of all the space geodetic techniques, and promising revolutionary improvements to the definition of the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). GRASP collocates GPS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS sensors on a dedicated spacecraft in order to establish precise and stable ties between the key geodetic techniques used to define and disseminate the TRF. GRASP also offers a space-based reference antenna for the present and future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The integration of an ultra sensitive accelerometer at the Center of mass of the satellite can provide not only improvement of the Precise Orbit Determination (POD) by the accurate measurement of the non-gravitational force acting on the surface of the satellite but also by the possibility to calibrate with an accuracy better than 100 µm the change in the position of the Satellite Center of Mass as it is performed in the GRACE mission and to determine the precise motion of the antennas assuming some rigid structure between them and the accelerometer as it is done between the star sensor, the optical cube assembly of satellite laser ranging system and the accelerometer in the GRACE-Follow On mission. The proposed accelerometer is miniaturized version of the electrostatic accelerometers developed for the Earth gravity missions CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and GRACE-FO. He has 3 sensitive axes thanks to a cubic proof-mass and provides the 3 linear accelerations and the 3 angular accelerations about its 3 orthogonal axes. He is called MICROSTAR and its foreseen performance is a linear acceleration noise lower than 10-11 ms-2/Hz1/2 into a measurement bandwidth between 10-3 Hz and 0.1 Hz.

  3. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tactical Satellites, High-Altitude Long-Endurance Airships, and High and Medium Altitude Unmanned Aerial Systems for ISR and Communication Missions (United States)


    months. Hidden webs of connections between people and facilities will be revealed.൩ ISIS would be CONUS based and deploy to an operational theater...or can monitor the area around these satellites for debris or other natural or man-made threats. ANGELS is similar to a 2005 Air Force XSS -11...114 Spot Image - Ikonos, September 5, 2008 < web /en/183-ikonos.php>. 83 c. High

  4. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status (United States)

    Hou, Arthur


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational microwave sensors. The GPM concept centers on the deployment of a Core Spacecraft in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit at 65 degrees inclination carrying a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer (GMI) with high-frequency capabilities to serve as a precipitation physics observatory and calibration standard for the constellation radiometers. The baseline GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise conical-scanning microwave imagers (e.g., GMI, SSMIS, AMSR, MIS, MADRAS, GPM-Brazil) augmented with cross-track microwave temperature/humidity sounders (e.g., MHS, ATMS) over land. In addition to the Core Satellite, the GPM Mission will contribute a second GMI to be flown in a low-inclination (approximately 40 deg.) non-Sun-synchronous orbit to improve near real-time monitoring of hurricanes. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals aimed at (1) advancing the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional partners in satellite constellation and ground validation activities. Within the framework of the inter-governmental Group ob Earth Observations (GEO) and Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), GPM has been identified as a cornerstone for the Precipitation Constellation (PC) being developed under the auspices of Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in 2013, followed by the launch of the GPM Low-Inclination Observatory in

  5. Flight demonstration of formation flying capabilities for future missions (NEAT Pathfinder)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delpech, M.; Malbet, F.; Karlsson, T.


    by the NEAT and microNEAT mission concepts. The experiment consisted in performing the type of formation maneuvers required to point the two-satellite axis to a celestial target and maintain it fixed during the observation period. Achieving inertial pointing for a LEO formation represented a new challenge...... given the numerous constraints from propellant usage to star tracker blinding. The paper presents the experiment objectives in relation with the NEAT/microNEAT mission concept, describes its main design features along with the guidance and control algorithms evolutions and discusses the results in terms...

  6. A new star tracker concept for satellite attitude determination based on a multi-purpose panoramic camera (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele; Pernechele, Claudio; Dionisio, Cesare


    This paper presents an innovative algorithm developed for attitude determination of a space platform. The algorithm exploits images taken from a multi-purpose panoramic camera equipped with hyper-hemispheric lens and used as star tracker. The sensor architecture is also original since state-of-the-art star trackers accurately image as many stars as possible within a narrow- or medium-size field-of-view, while the considered sensor observes an extremely large portion of the celestial sphere but its observation capabilities are limited by the features of the optical system. The proposed original approach combines algorithmic concepts, like template matching and point cloud registration, inherited from the computer vision and robotic research fields, to carry out star identification. The final aim is to provide a robust and reliable initial attitude solution (lost-in-space mode), with a satisfactory accuracy level in view of the multi-purpose functionality of the sensor and considering its limitations in terms of resolution and sensitivity. Performance evaluation is carried out within a simulation environment in which the panoramic camera operation is realistically reproduced, including perturbations in the imaged star pattern. Results show that the presented algorithm is able to estimate attitude with accuracy better than 1° with a success rate around 98% evaluated by densely covering the entire space of the parameters representing the camera pointing in the inertial space.

  7. Mission operations management (United States)

    Rocco, David A.


    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  8. The role of onboard intelligence and of orbital servicing in the increase of satellite lifetime (United States)

    Cougnet, P. C.; Sotta, J. P.


    The continued increase in satellite lifetime is now or is going to become critical with respect to the maintenance of system reliability and the risk of mission obsolescence. Resource to redundant equipment becomes more and more penalizing particularly because of the limited capacities of the launch methods. Futhermore, the classic satellite concept does not permit avoiding mission obsolescence or long duration life. To remedy these problems, two possible complementary methods are presented. One involves the use of satellite onboard intelligence to enable better management of its configuration and platform subsystems in order to assure a high level of availability to he satellite. The other solution is orbital servicing which permits periodic adjustment of reliability and platform autonomy as well as the eventual exchange of the payload. This solution calls for new techniques: rendezvous, assembling, and the space robot.

  9. Microscope - A space mission to test the equivalence principle (United States)

    List, Meike; Selig, Hanns; Bremer, Stefanie; Lämmerzahl, Claus


    MICROSCOPE is a ESA/CNES space mission for testing the validity of the weak equivalence principle. The mission's goal is to determine the Eötvös parameter η with an accuracy of 10-15. The French space agency CNES is responsible for designing the satellite which is developed and produced within the Myriade series. The satellite's payload T-SAGE (Twin Space Accelerometer for Gravitation Experimentation) consists of two high-precision capacitive differential accelerometers and is developed and built by the French institute ONERA. As a member of the MICROSCOPE performance team, the German department ZARM performs free fall tests of the MICROSCOPE differential accelerometers at the Bremen drop tower. The project's concepts and current results of the free fall tests are shortly presented.

  10. Sentinel-2 mission status (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca


    The SENTINEL-2 mission is the European Multispectral Imaging Mission for the Copernicus joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The SENTINEL-2 mission includes 13-spectral band multispectral optical imager with different resolution (down to 10 m) and a swath width of 290km. It provides very short revisit times and rapid product delivery. The mission is composed of a constellation of two satellite units, SENTINEL-2A and SENTINEL-2B, sharing the same orbital plane and featuring a short repeat cycle of 5 days at the equator optimized to mitigate the impact of clouds for science and applications. SENTINEL-2 enables exploitation for a variety of land and coastal applications such as agriculture, forestry, land cover and land cover change, urban mapping, emergency, as well as inland water, ice, glaciers and also coastal zone and closed seas applications. Following the launch of the Sentinel-2A in June 2015 and successful operations and data delivery since December 2015, the Sentinel-2B satellite is set for launch in March 2017. The full operation capacity is foreseen after the in-orbit commissioning phase of the Sentinel-2B unit in early summer 2017. The objective of the talk is to provide information about the mission status, and the way to achieve full operational capacity with 2 satellites.

  11. Toward lean satellites reliability improvement using HORYU-IV project as case study (United States)

    Faure, Pauline; Tanaka, Atomu; Cho, Mengu


    Lean satellite programs are programs in which the satellite development philosophy is driven by fast delivery and low cost. Though this concept offers the possibility to develop and fly risky missions without jeopardizing a space program, most of these satellites suffer infant mortality and fail to achieve their mission minimum success. Lean satellites with high infant mortality rate indicate that testing prior to launch is insufficient. In this study, the authors monitored failures occurring during the development of the lean satellite HORYU-IV to identify the evolution of the cumulative number of failures against cumulative testing time. Moreover, the sub-systems driving the failures depending on the different development phases were identified. The results showed that half to 2/3 of the failures are discovered during the early stage of testing. Moreover, when the mean time before failure was calculated, it appeared that for any development phase considered, a new failure appears on average every 20 h of testing. Simulations were also performed and it showed that for an initial testing time of 50 h, reliability after 1 month launch can be improved by nearly 6 times as compared to an initial testing time of 20 h. Through this work, the authors aim at providing a qualitative reference for lean satellites developers to better help them manage resources to develop lean satellites following a fast delivery and low cost philosophy while ensuring sufficient reliability to achieve mission minimum success.

  12. Operation of the Radio Occultation Mission in KOMPSAT-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoo Choi


    Full Text Available Korea multi-purpose satellite-5 (KOMPSAT-5 is a low earth orbit (LEO satellite scheduled to be launched in 2010. To satisfy the precision orbit determination (POD requirement for a high resolution synthetic aperture radar image of KOMPSAT-5, KOMPSAT-5 has atmosphere occultation POD (AOPOD system which consists of a space-borne dual frequency global positioning system (GPS receiver and a laser retro reflector array. A space-borne dual frequency GPS receiver on a LEO satellite provides position data for the POD and radio occultation data for scientific applications. This paper describes an overview of AOPOD system and operation concepts of the radio occultation mission in KOMPSAT-5. We showed AOPOD system satisfies the requirements of KOMPSAT-5 in performance and stability.

  13. Interest of the MICROSTAR Accelerometer to improve the GRASP Mission. (United States)

    Perrot, E.; Lebat, V.; Foulon, B.; Christophe, B.; Liorzou, F.; Huynh, P. A.


    The Geodetic Reference Antenna in Space (GRASP) is a micro satellite mission concept proposed by JPL to improve the definition of the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). GRASP collocates GPS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS sensors on a dedicated spacecraft in order to establish precise and stable ties between the key geodetic techniques used to define and disseminate the TRF. GRASP also offers a space-based reference antenna for the present and future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). By taking advantage of the new testing possibilities offer by the catapult facility at the ZARM drop tower, the ONERA's space accelerometer team proposes an up-dated version, called MICROSTAR, of its ultra sensitive electrostatic accelerometers which have contributed to the success of the last Earth's gravity missions GRACE and GOCE. Built around a cubic proof-mass, it provides the 3 linear accelerations with a resolution better than 10-11 ms-2/Hz1/2 into a measurement bandwidth between 10-3 Hz and 0.1 Hz and the 3 angular accelerations about its 3 orthogonal axes with 5´10-10 rad.s-2/Hz1/2 resolution. Integrated at the centre of mass of the satellite, MICROSTAR improves the Precise Orbit Determination (POD) by accurate measurement of the non-gravitational force acting on the satellite. It offers also the possibility to calibrate the change in the position of the satellite center of mass with an accuracy better than 100 μm as demonstrated in the GRACE mission. Assuming a sufficiently rigid structure between the antennas and the accelerometer, its data can participate to reach the mission objective of 1 mm precision for the TRF position.

  14. A Conceptual Design for a Small Deployer Satellite (United States)

    Zumbo, S.


    In the last few years, the space scientific and industrial communities have demonstrated a renewed interest for small missions based on new categories of space platforms: micro &nano satellites. The cost reduction w.r.t. larger satellite missions, the shorter time from concept to launch, the risk distribution and the possibility to use this kind of bus both for stand-alone projects and as complementary to larger programs, are key factors that make this new kind of technology suitable for a wide range of space related activities. In particular it is now possible to conceive new mission philosophy implying the realisation of micro satellite constellations, with S/C flying in close formation to form a network of distributed sensors either for near-real time telecommunication or Earth remote sensing and disaster monitoring systems or physics and astronomical researches for Earth-Sun dynamics and high energy radiation studies. At the same time micro satellite are becoming important test- beds for new technologies that will eventually be used on larger missions, with relevant spin-offs potentialities towards other industrial fields. The foreseen social and economical direct benefits, the reduced mission costs and the possibility even for a small skilled team to manage all the project, represent very attractive arguments for universities and research institutes to invest funds and human resources to get first order technical and theoretical skills in the field of micro satellite design, with important influences on the training programs of motivated students that are directly involved in all the project's phases. In consideration of these space market important new trends and of the academic benefits that could be guaranteed by undertaking a micro satellite mission project, basing on its long space activities heritage, University of Rome "La Sapienza" - Aerospace and Astronautics Department, with the support of the Italian Space Agency, Alenia Spazio and of important

  15. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  16. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  17. The CETUS Probe Mission Concept 1.5m Optical Telescope Assembly: A high A-Omega approach for ultraviolet astrophysics (United States)

    Hull, Anthony; Heap, Sara; Woodruff, Robert; Mehle, Greg; Tomic, Matt; Dodson, Kelly; Burge, Jim; Lewis, Ben; Valente, Martin; Kendrick, Stephen E.; Purves, Lloyd; Danchi, William


    We describe the 1.5-m Cosmic Evolution Through Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (CETUS) Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), a Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA), providing a large usable focus, which permits non-shared locations for several Ultraviolet (UV) instruments. NASA has selected CETUS as a Probe Mission Concept for consideration by The Decadal Survey ASTRO2020. CETUS will fly in a L2 halo orbit and typically be pointing between 85 degrees and 135 degrees from the sun, and looking at galaxies at redshifts between z=1 and z=2. However, the CETUS payload also will be able to rapidly slew to sun angles between 85 degrees and 180 degrees to reach objects of opportunity, an example of which is a neutron star merger event. CETUS thermal stability starts with lightweighted ZERODUR® mirrors, that are an excellent thermal match to a metering structure of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) M55J. This basic passive athermalization approach will be supplemented with controlled heaters, especially at metallic mounts, composite terminations and mechanisms. After launch, solid body metering errors will be optimized by an actuated hexapod in the secondary mirror assembly (SMA). Thus the CETUS telescope can respond to any pointing induced change in solar view factors. Contamination is managed by commissioning heaters radiating to each mirror surface, and a capping shutter over the telescope aperture. The instruments include a wide-field-of-view (WFoV) multi-object spectrometer (MOS), and a complimentary WFoV camera, as well as high-resolution point source Echelle spectrometers (R~40,000). They do not require that the OTA deliver diffraction limited performance over the extent of the instrument wavelength range (115nm to 400nm). The camera and spectrometer each cover a field of view of ~ 1000 arcsec by ~ 1000 arcsec compared to ~ 150 arcsec by ~ 150 arcsec for WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Thus, the AW (etendue) factor for CETUS is ~700 m^2-arcmin^2, compared to the AW

  18. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.


    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  19. Hybrid Atom Electrostatic System for Satellite Geodesy (United States)

    Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Liorzou, Françoise; Lebat, Vincent; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno


    The subject of this poster comes within the framework of new concepts identification and development for future satellite gravity missions, in continuation of previously launched space missions CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and ongoing and prospective studies like NGGM, GRACE 2 or E-GRASP. We were here more focused on the inertial sensors that complete the payload of such satellites. The clearly identified instruments for space accelerometry are based on the electrostatic technology developed for many years by ONERA and that offer a high level of performance and a high degree of maturity for space applications. On the other hand, a new generation of sensors based on cold atom interferometry (AI) is emerging and seems very promising in this context. These atomic instruments have already demonstrated on ground impressive results, especially with the development of state-of-the-art gravimeters, and should reach their full potential only in space, where the microgravity environment allows long interaction times. Each of these two types of instruments presents their own advantages which are, for the electrostatic sensors (ES), their demonstrated short term sensitivity and their high TRL, and for AI, amongst others, the absolute nature of the measurement and therefore no need for calibration processes. These two technologies seem in some aspects very complementary and a hybrid sensor bringing together all their assets could be the opportunity to take a big step in this context of gravity space missions. We present here the first experimental association on ground of an electrostatic accelerometer and an atomic accelerometer and underline the interest of calibrating the ES instrument with the AI. Some technical methods using the ES proof-mass as the Raman Mirror seem very promising to remove rotation effects of the satellite on the AI signal. We propose a roadmap to explore further in details and more rigorously this attractive hybridization scheme in order to assess its potential

  20. Framework Concept for Satellite Operations (United States)


    details are available, or in a Gantt chart. Running procedures behave as focusSuite component instances. As an example, focusSuite locks the...s.orbitFile.xsd 1.3 03/09/18 ORBITML--> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3. org /2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified"> <xs:include

  1. Dream missions space colonies, nuclear spacecraft and other possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    van Pelt, Michel


    This book takes the reader on a journey through the history of extremely ambitious, large and complex space missions that never happened. What were the dreams and expectations of the visionaries behind these plans, and why were they not successful in bringing their projects to reality thus far? As spaceflight development progressed, new technologies and ideas led to pushing the boundaries of engineering and technology though still grounded in real scientific possibilities. Examples are space colonies, nuclear-propelled interplanetary spacecraft, space telescopes consisting of multiple satellites and canon launch systems. Each project described in this book says something about the dreams and expectations of their time, and their demise was often linked to an important change in the cultural, political and social state of the world. For each mission or spacecraft concept, the following will be covered: • Description of the design. • Overview of the history of the concept and the people involved. • Why it...

  2. Dramatic and long-term lake level changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Cryosat-2 altimeter: validation and augmentation by results from repeat altimeter missions and satellite imagery (United States)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Huang, YongRuei; Cheng, Ys; Shen, WenBin; Pan, Yuanjin


    The mean elevation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) exceeds 4000 m. Lake levels in the QTP are less affected by human activities than elsewhere, and may better reflect the state of contemporary climate change. Here ground-based lake level measurements are rare. Repeat altimeter missions, particularly those from the TOPEX and ERS series of altimetry, have provided long-term lake level observations in the QTP, but their large cross-track distances allow only few lakes to be monitored. In contrast, the Cryosat-2 altimeter, equipped with the new sensor SIRAL (interferometric/ synthetic aperture radar altimeter), provides a much better ranging accuracy and a finer spatial coverage than these repeated missions, and can detect water level changes over a large number of lakes in the QTP. In this study, Cryosat-2 data are used to determine lake level changes over 75˚E-100˚E and 28˚N-37.5˚N, where Cryosat-2 covers 60 lakes and SARAL/ AltiKa covers 32 lakes from 2013 to 2016. Over a lake, Cryosat-2 in different cycles can pass through different spots of the lake, making the numbers of observations non-uniform and requiring corrections for lake slopes. Four cases are investigated to cope with these situations: (1) neglecting inconsistency in data volume and lake slopes (2) considering data volume, (3) considering lake slopes only, and (4) considering both data volume and lake slopes. The CRYOSAT-2 result is then compared with the result from the SARAL to determine the best case. Because Cryosat-2 is available from 2010 to 2016, Jason-2 data are used to fill gaps between the time series of Cryosat-2 and ICESat (2003-2009) to obtain >10 years of lake level series. The Cryosat-2 result shows dramatic lake level rises in Lakes Kusai, Zhuoaihu and Salt in 2011 caused by floods. Landsat satellite imagery assists the determination and interpretation of such rises.

  3. Development of On-Orbit Servicing Concepts, Technology Option and Roadmap (Part I) - Commercial Aspects (United States)

    Grover, D.; Jacobs, S.; Abbasi, V.; Cree, D.; Daae, M.; Hay, J.; He, W.; Huang, X.; Jun, Z.; Kearney, S.; Kuwahara, T.; Lenzi, F.; Mirahmetoglu, H.; Morley, S.; Otani, M.; Pastena, M.; Pinni, M.; Schwartz, J.; Shala, K.; Shi, J.-F.; Singh Khorai, J.; Steinkellner, M.; Treat, D.; Ulrich, S.; Verheyden, P.; Wang, X. Y.; Weeden, C.

    On-Orbit Servicing has the potential to completely reshape the satellite industry, but for the technology to become common- place, the commercial benefits must be apparent. This paper first examines the economics of servicing missions, demonstrat- ing the potential financial gains possible through viable de-orbiter and life extension concepts, as well as a component exchange service in Geostationary Orbit. The system trades and the resulting architecture are presented, and an economically viable mission concept is discussed. The analysis uses current commercial satellite revenue generation and capital expenditure statistics, and for the analysis of the exchange service, assumes a landscape 20 years in the future where satellite design incorporates some levels of standardization. The system design costs and pricing points necessary to make the exchange mission economically viable are calculated. The findings of this paper are that On-Orbit Servicing missions, including life extension missions in the near future and component exchange services in the mid-term are economically viable possibilities and could be pursued by satellite operators or private companies.

  4. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  5. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  6. High-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning with LOFT. White Paper in Support of the Mission Concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marisaldi, M.; Smith, D. M.; Brandt, Søren

    . The mission also features a Wide Field Monitor (WFM), which in the 2–50 keV range simultaneously observes more than a third of the sky at any time, detecting objects down to mCrab fluxes and providing data with excellent timing and spectral resolution. Additionally, the mission is equipped with an on......-board alert system for the detection and rapid broadcasting to the ground of celestial bright and fast outbursts of X-rays (particularly, Gamma-ray Bursts). This paper is one of twelve White Papers that illustrate the unique potential of LOFT as an X-ray observatory in a variety of astrophysical fields...

  7. Mission Design and Simulation Considerations for ADReS-A (United States)

    Peters, S.; Förstner, R.; Fiedler, H.


    Space debris in general has become a major problem for modern space activities. Guidelines to mitigate the threat have been recommended, better prediction models are developed and an advanced observation of objects orbiting Earth is in progress. And still - without the implementation of active debris removal (ADR), the number of debris in space will exponentially increase. To support the ongoing research on ADR-missions, this paper presents the updated mission design of ADReS-A (Autonomous Debris Removal Satellite - #A) - one possible concept for the multiple active removal of large debris in Low Earth orbit, in this case especially of rocket bodies of the SL-8-type. ADReS-A as chaser satellite is supported by at least 5 de-orbit kits, allowing for the same number of targets to be removed. While ADReS-A is conceived for handling of the target, the kit's task is the controlled re-entry of the designated rocket body. The presented mission design forms the basis for the simulation environment in progress. The simulation shall serve as testbed to test multiple scenarios in terms of approach and abort optimization or different tumbling modes of the target. The ultimate goal is the test of autonomous behaviors of the spacecraft in case of unforeseen failures during the approach phase. Considerations to create a simulation for the described mission are presented and discussed. A first visualization of pre-calculated aboard trajectories can be found at the end of this paper.

  8. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond) (United States)

    Thome, Kurt; Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren


    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASAs long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASAs international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations.

  9. Internet Technology for Future Space Missions (United States)

    Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor); Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith


    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  10. The Hinode Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Takashi


    The Solar-B satellite was launched in 2006 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), and was renamed Hinode ('sunrise' in Japanese). Hinode carries three instruments: the X-ray telescope (XRT), the EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). These instruments were developed by ISAS/JAXA in cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan as domestic partner, and NASA and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) as international partners. ESA and the Norwegian Space Center have been providing a downlink station. The Hinode (Solar-B) Mission gives a comprehensive description of the Hinode mission and its instruments onboard. This book is most useful for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in the field of solar physics, astronomy, and space instrumentation. This is the only book that carefully describes the details of the Hinode mission; it is richly illustrated with full-color ima...

  11. STS-95 Mission Insignia (United States)


    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  12. Galileo mission planning for Low Gain Antenna based operations (United States)

    Gershman, R.; Buxbaum, K. L.; Ludwinski, J. M.; Paczkowski, B. G.


    The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the mission planning process being developed as part of this redesign. Principal topics include a brief description of the new mission concept and anticipated science return (these have been covered more extensively in earlier papers), identification of key drivers on the mission planning process, a description of the process and its implementation schedule, a discussion of the application of automated mission planning tool to the process, and a status report on mission planning work to date. Galileo enhancements include extensive reprogramming of on-board computers and substantial hard ware and software upgrades for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The principal mode of operation will be onboard recording of science data followed by extended playback periods. A variety of techniques will be used to compress and edit the data both before recording and during playback. A highly-compressed real-time science data stream will also be important. The telemetry rate will be increased using advanced coding techniques and advanced receivers. Galileo mission planning for orbital operations now involves partitioning of several scarce resources. Particularly difficult are division of the telemetry among the many users (eleven instruments, radio science, engineering monitoring, and navigation) and allocation of space on the tape recorder at each of the ten satellite encounters. The planning process is complicated by uncertainty in forecast performance of the DSN modifications and the non-deterministic nature of the new data compression schemes. Key mission planning steps include

  13. Autonomous Attitude Determination and Control System for the Ørsted Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Wisniewski, Rafal; Blanke, M.


    The Ørsted Satellite mission imposes comparatively high requirements on autonomy of the attitude control system.......The Ørsted Satellite mission imposes comparatively high requirements on autonomy of the attitude control system....

  14. Overview of the Gaia Mission (United States)

    Perryman, M. A. C.


    The overall goals and organisation of the Gaia mission are described: the role of the scientific community in the project; the organisation, structure, and goals of the scientific working groups; their interaction and influence on the satellite and payload design; the overall project schedule; the organisation and overall approach to the challenges of the data analysis; and the mission data products and their estimated release dates. Some of the potential for education and outreach activities are noted.

  15. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.


    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  16. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P.


    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  17. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.


    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been used for station-keeping of geostationary communications satellites since the 1980s. Solar electric propulsion has also benefitted from success on NASA Science Missions such as Deep Space One and Dawn. The xenon propellant loads for these applications have been in the 100s of kilograms range. Recent studies performed for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have demonstrated that SEP is critically enabling for both near-term and future exploration architectures. The high payoff for both human and science exploration missions and technology investment from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) are providing the necessary convergence and impetus for a 30-kilowatt-class SEP mission. Multiple 30-50- kilowatt Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP TDM) concepts have been developed based on the maturing electric propulsion and solar array technologies by STMD with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). Xenon is the optimal propellant for the existing state-of-the-art electric propulsion systems considering efficiency, storability, and contamination potential. NASA mission concepts developed and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30-kilowatt-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100s of kilograms up to 10,000 kilograms. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper will provide updated information on the xenon market relative to previous papers that discussed xenon production relative to NASA mission needs. The paper will discuss the various approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 metric tons of xenon propellant to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for larger NASA missions requiring 100s of metric tons of xenon will be discussed.

  18. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program (CDEP). [Microwave and non-microwave health and ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, A.R.


    In the satellite power system (SPS), satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted to electricity. This SPS environmental assessment considers the microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and effects on electromagnetic systems. No environmental problem has been identified that would preclude the continued study of SPS technology. To increase the certainty of the assessment, some research has been initiated and long-term research is being planned.

  19. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly (United States)

    Hanley, G.


    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  20. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) (United States)


    resistant communications for high priority military ground, sea, and air assets. The system consists of four satellites in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit that...submarine terminals, and airborne terminals. The mission control segment controls satellites on orbit , monitors satellite health, and provides...Schriever Air Force Base (AFB). Due to the proprietary nature of the AEHF Space Satellite (on- orbit ) Segment, this segment is not considered core and the

  1. The SSETI-express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, N.

    provides a description of the organisation behind the project and the mission of the satellite. Further it provides a technical overview of both the space segment and the ground segment together with key lessons learnt from the process of building a student satellite with widely distributed teams.......In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year....... The project is an initiative under the ESA Education Department and the Student Space Exploration and Technology Initiative (SSETI)[3], an European student organisation. The satellite is currently scheduled for launch on the 30th of June 2005 atop a "Cosmos" launch vehicle from Plesetsk in Russia. This paper...

  2. The SSETI-Express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, Neil


    provides a description of the organisation behind the project and the mission of the satellite. Further it provides a technical overview of both the space segment and the ground segment together with key lessons learnt from the process of building a student satellite with widely distributed teams.......In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year....... The project is an initiative under the ESA Education Department and the Student Space Exploration and Technology Initiative (SSETI)[3], an European student organisation. The satellite is currently scheduled for launch on the 30th of June 2005 atop a "Cosmos" launch vehicle from Plesetsk in Russia. This paper...

  3. Cassini Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Robert (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)


    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  4. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Telemetry, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122599) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  5. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Ancillary Files, 2015- (NCEI Accession 0122596) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  6. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Orbital Information, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122598) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  7. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Auxiliary Files, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122597) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  8. High energy universe – Satellite missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in plasmas of temperatures larger than millions of degree Kelvin. At these temperatures, ... The gamma ray bursts have been recognized to be the biggest explosions since the Big. Bang [1]. They generate a ... distortions caused by the strong gravitational effects and reveal to us the conditions around black holes. Accretion ...

  9. Compact SAR and Small Satellite Solutions for Earth Observation (United States)

    LaRosa, M.; L'Abbate, M.


    Requirements for near and short term mission applications (Observation and Reconnaissance, SIGINT, Early Warning, Meteorology,..) are increasingly calling for spacecraft operational responsiveness, flexible configuration, lower cost satellite constellations and flying formations, to improve both the temporal performance of observation systems (revisit, response time) and the remote sensing techniques (distributed sensors, arrays, cooperative sensors). In answer to these users' needs, leading actors in Space Systems for EO are involved in development of Small and Microsatellites solutions. Thales Alenia Space (TAS) has started the "COMPACT-SAR" project to develop a SAR satellite characterized by low cost and reduced mass while providing, at the same time, high image quality in terms of resolution, swath size, and radiometric performance. Compact SAR will embark a X-band SAR based on a deployable reflector antenna fed by an active phased array feed. This concept allows high performance, providing capability of electronic beam steering both in azimuth and elevation planes, improving operational performance over a purely mechanically steered SAR system. Instrument provides both STRIPMAP and SPOTLIGHT modes, and thanks to very high gain antenna, can also provide a real maritime surveillance mode based on a patented Low PRF radar mode. Further developments are in progress considering missions based on Microsatellites technology, which can provide effective solutions for different user needs, such as Operational responsiveness, low cost constellations, distributed observation concept, flying formations, and can be conceived for applications in the field of Observation, Atmosphere sensing, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR), Signal Intelligence. To satisfy these requirements, flexibility of small platforms is a key driver and especially new miniaturization technologies able to optimize the performance. An overview new micros-satellite (based on NIMBUS

  10. The Global Precipitation Mission (United States)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian


    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  11. Satellite reconnaissance (United States)

    Deloor, G. P.


    The potential of the observation equipment in remote sensing satellites is described. United States meteorology, land use and oceanography satellites and the major US Earth observation programs are listed. Imaging satellite systems are described such as: visible light and near infrared, thermal IR window, and microwave window. It is concluded that a geometrical resolution between 10 and 40 m can be expected. In order to reduce the data flow from the satellite system the input side of the system (the object-sensor interaction) has to be known. Satellites with synthetic aperture radar are increasingly important, but satellites can never fully replace observations with aircraft and drones.

  12. Nanosatellite missions - the future (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Kuschnig, R.; Wenger, M.; Romano, P.


    In the beginning, nanosatellite projects were focused on educational aspects. In the meantime, the technology matured and now allows to test, demonstrate and validate new systems, operational procedures and services in space at low cost and within much shorter timescales than traditional space endeavors. The number of spacecraft developed and launched has been increasing exponentially in the last years. The constellation of BRITE nanosatellites is demonstrating impressively that demanding scientific requirements can be met with small, low-cost satellites. Industry and space agencies are now embracing small satellite technology. Particularly in the USA, companies have been established to provide commercial services based on CubeSats. The approach is in general different from traditional space projects with their strict product/quality assurance and documentation requirements. The paper gives an overview of nanosatellite missions in different areas of application. Based on lessons learnt from the BRITE mission and recent developments at TU Graz (in particular the implementation of the OPS-SAT nanosatellite for ESA), enhanced technical possibilities for a future astronomy mission after BRITE will be discussed. Powerful on-board computers will allow on-board data pre-processing. A state-of-the-art telemetry system with high data rates would facilitate interference-free operations and increase science data return.

  13. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 1: Orbit/launch vehicle trade-off studies and recommendations (United States)


    A summary of the constraints and requirements on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS-A) orbit and launch vehicle analysis is presented. The propulsion system (hydrazine) and the launch vehicle (Delta 2910) selected for EOS-A are examined. The rationale for the selection of the recommended orbital altitude of 418 nautical miles is explained. The original analysis was based on the EOS-A mission with the Thematic Mapper and the High Resolution Pointable Imager. The impact of the revised mission model is analyzed to show how the new mission model affects the previously defined propulsion system, launch vehicle, and orbit. A table is provided to show all aspects of the EOS multiple mission concepts. The subjects considered include the following: (1) mission orbit analysis, (2) spacecraft parametric performance analysis, (3) launch system performance analysis, and (4) orbits/launch vehicle selection.

  14. Single-satellite global positioning system (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander V.; Leonov, Vladislav A.; Mitkin, Alexander S.; Nasyrov, Alexander F.; Ponomarenko, Andreu D.; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Sysoev, Valentin K.


    A new concept of a global positioning support system, based on only one satellite, was offered. Unlike all other GPS and GLONASS satellite systems that are in use, within the offered modification, all metrological support is provided by on-board measurements, which means, that it does not need any ground support of coordinate measurements or orbital characteristics of the satellite system. The cosmic-based angle-measuring instrument measures the arcs lengths between the measured ground-points, that are marked with light beacons, and navigation stars. Each measurement takes approximately 0.04 s, with the precision of 1 mm in recalculation to ground-relations. Long series of arc measurements between different objects on the ground and in the sky enable the solution of both determination of geodesic coordinates of the measured points and position of the spacecraft during the measuring process by using geodesic equation methods. In addition, it enables the qualification of the geopotential guaranties. The offered scheme will be used for the determination of the frame of selenocentric coordinates during the "Luna-Globe" and "Luna-Resource" missions for precise navigation of landing modules and maybe will be used for precise gridding of the Martian surface.

  15. Radiation analysis for manned missions to the Jupiter system. (United States)

    De Angelis, G; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W


    An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interference in Cellular Satellite Systems


    Kilic, Ozlem; Zaghloul, Amir I.


    Co-channel beam interference in multi-beam satellite communications systems was investigated particularly for the downlink. Concept of frequency reuse was explained and the role of satellite antenna size and pattern was examined. Conventional spot beam coverage and its impact on determining the antenna size on board was discussed.

  17. A Novel Technique to Compute the Revisit Time of Satellites and Its Application in Remote Sensing Satellite Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Luo


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel technique to compute the revisit time of satellites within repeat ground tracks. Different from the repeat cycle which only depends on the orbit, the revisit time is relevant to the payload of the satellite as well, such as the tilt angle and swath width. The technique is discussed using the Bezout equation and takes the gravitational second zonal harmonic into consideration. The concept of subcycles is defined in a general way and the general concept of “small” offset is replaced by a multiple of the minimum interval on equator when analyzing the revisit time of remote sensing satellites. This technique requires simple calculations with high efficiency. At last, this technique is used to design remote sensing satellites with desired revisit time and minimum tilt angle. When the side-lap, the range of altitude, and desired revisit time are determined, a lot of orbit solutions which meet the mission requirements will be obtained fast. Among all solutions, designers can quickly find out the optimal orbits. Through various case studies, the calculation technique is successfully demonstrated.

  18. POPSAT: A candidate satellite system for solid Earth applications and sciences. Preliminary feasibility study. Volume 1: Summary (United States)

    Achtermann, E.; Denzinger, W.; Enslin, K.; Gilg, W.; Granzow, M.; Lippner, G.; Munder, J.; Ockert, R.; Popken, L.; Reffel, H.


    A solid-Earth satellite system performance analyses, and related tasks such as microwave tracking system definition and error assessments, gravitational and nongravitational disturbance forces and their modeling accuracies are summarized. System performance simulations demonstrate that mission requirements can be fulfilled. The most cost effective launch would be a shared launch into sun-synchronous orbit and injection with a bipropellant stage into the final orbit of 7000 km altitude. This design baseline with more stringent mass constraints led to a low mass design. The minimum achievable satellite mass of POPSAT is 550 kg. A data management concept was tailored to the POPSAT system, and a satellite design compatible with the low mass constraint was conceived. Accommodation of a LASSO derived Time Synchronization Experiment was investigated and is found to need thorough review of the mission objectives and scenario. A development program was set up and all elements related to the POPSAT system were identified and costed.

  19. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  20. The Ballerina experiment on the Romer mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian


    The Romer mission has recently been approved as the next mission within the Danish Small Satellite Program. The scientific payload will consist of two separate experiments, the MONS and the Ballerina payloads. The primary objective of Ballerina is to provide accurate, real-time positions relayed...

  1. Ultra-Sensitive Electrostatic Accelerometers and Future Fundamental Physics Missions (United States)

    Touboul, Pierre; Christophe, Bruno; Rodrigues, M.; Marque, Jean-Pierre; Foulon, Bernard

    System beyond Saturn. Based on the same instrument, the scientific return will be enlarged by the better performance achievable on a dedicated satellite and by the larger distance to the Sun. Fly by gravitational effects will also be carefully observed. At last, gravitational sensors take advantage of similar instrument concept, configuration and technologies to achieve pure free inertial masses, references of the LISA mission interferometer for the observation of gravity waves.

  2. Power system design and in orbit performance of Algeria's first micro satellite Alsat-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekhti, Mohammed [Centre National des Techniques Spatiales, BP13, Arzew 31200 (Algeria); Sweeting, M.N. [Centre for Satellite Engineering Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    On the 28th November 2002, Algeria's first enhanced micro satellite was launched into a 686 km low earth orbit onboard a Cosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk. The spacecraft was designed, manufactured and launched as a technology transfer programme between the National Centre of Space Techniques (CNTS) Algeria and Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom in the timescale of 18 months. This paper will describe the design and in orbit performance of the mission power system, stressing the decisions taken in order to meet the mission requirements within the 18 months, concept to launch programme. Most of the design and construction techniques used in the production of the Alsat-1 power system were based on SSTL heritage over the years. It will be shown how off the shelf components either for the generation or storage of the onboard energy can be applied successfully to such missions. (author)

  3. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L


    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  4. First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data (United States)

    Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.


    Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface

  5. Iodine Satellite (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  6. LARES Mission: Separation and Retention Subsystem (United States)

    Bursi, Alessandro; Camilli, Pierluigi; Piredda, Claudio; Babini, Gianni; Mangraviti, Elio


    As part of the Lares (LAser RElativity Satellite) mission, an all-Italian scientific mission launched with the Vega maiden flight in February 2012, a mechanical separation and retention subsystem (SSEP) has been developed to retain the LARES satellite during launch and release it in the final orbit. The design flow was based on the identification of the driving requirements and critical areas to guide the trade-off, design, analysis and test activities. In particular, the SSEP had to face very high environmental loads and to minimize the contact areas with the satellite that had a spherical shape. The test activity overview is provided.

  7. Developing Integral Review: IR Editors Reflect on Meta-theory, the Concept of “Integral,” Submission Acceptance Criteria, our Mission, and more.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Volckmann


    Full Text Available Over the past three years our journey as editors of Integral Review has been full of rich learning. The processes of providing authors with feedback, going over reviews of articles as well as writing ourselves have all contributed to our growth. The primary forum for this learning has been the many conversations amongst us to deal with the various issues that arise in publishing IR. Our intention in this brief piece is to share some of our reflections on this learning journey with you. These will take the form of contributions/reflections from individual editors, allowing us to share with you the particular issues we feel of value in this process. By writing these short pieces, we aim to provide additional resources for understanding how IR works. While we have guidelines and criteria for submissions on our website, it seems that narrative voices from individuals may add some flesh to them. Relating how we perceive issues around writing for an “integral” journal offers a supplement for engaging these criteria, and will hopefully bring them to life. As well, we hope that our writing provides insights into how and what we think about issues relevant to IR’s mission. These pieces reflect the unique voices we have as editors of Integral Review, and demonstrate some of the thinking and passions behind this journal.

  8. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts: White paper in support of the mission concept of the large observatory for X-ray timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    in' t Zand, J. J.M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (The Netherlands); Malone, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Altamirano, D. [Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, D. R. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Brown, E. F. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Cavecchi, Y. [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (The Netherlands); Chakrabarty, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Chenevez, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Cumming, A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Degenaar, N. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Falanga, M. [International Space Science Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Galloway, D. K. [Monash Univ., VIC (Australia); Heger, A. [Monash Univ., VIC (Australia); Jose, J. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Keek, L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Linares, M. [Univ. de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mahmoodifar, S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mendez, M. [Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (The Netherlands); Miller, M. C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Paerels, F. B. S. [Columbia Astrophysics Lab., New York, NY (United States); Poutanen, J. [Univ. of Turku, Piikkio (Finland); Rozanska, A. [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Schatz, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University; Serino, M. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN); Strohmayer, T. E. [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Suleimanov, V. F. [Univ. Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany); Thielemann, F. -K. [Univ. Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Watts, A. L. [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (The Netherlands); Weinberg, N. N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Woosley, S. E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Yu, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China); Zhang, S. [Institute of High-Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zingale, M. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)


    The Large Area Detector (LAD) on the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing ( LOFT ), with a 8.5 m 2 photon- collecting area in the 2–30 keV bandpass at CCD-class spectral resolving power (λ/Δλ = 10 – 100), is designed for optimum performance on bright X-ray sources. Thus, it is well-suited to study thermonuclear X-ray bursts from Galactic neutron stars. These bursts will typically yield 2 x 105 photon detections per second in the LAD, which is at least 15 times more than with any other instrument past, current or anticipated. The Wide Field Monitor (WFM) foreseen for LOFT uniquely combines 2–50 keV imaging with large (30%) prompt sky coverage. This will enable the detection of tens of thousands of thermonuclear X-ray bursts during a 3-yr mission, including tens of superbursts. Both numbers are similar or more than the current database gathered in 50 years of X-ray astronomy.

  9. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E


    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  10. Hipparcos: mission accomplished (United States)


    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  11. Athena Mission Status (United States)

    Lumb, D.


    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  12. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S


    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  13. Introductory remarks to the mission and system aspects session (United States)

    Bonnefoy, Rene; Schuyer, M.


    A brief history of the measurement of Earth potential fields is presented. The scientific objectives of the Aristoteles mission are summarized. Cooperation between NASA and ESA in developing the Aristoteles mission constraints are presented in tabular form. Correspondence between major mission and technical constraints is discussed. Program status of the Aristoteles mission and the mission baseline are described. The planned configuration of the Aristoteles satellite is shown in diagrammatic form.

  14. Future Satellite Gravimetry and Earth Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob


    Currently, a first generation of dedicated satellite missions for the precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity field is in orbit (CHAMP, GRACE, and soon GOCE). The gravity data from these satellite missions provide us with very new information on the dynamics of planet Earth. In particular, on the mass distribution in the Earth’s interior, the entire water cycle (ocean circulation, ice mass balance, continental water masses, and atmosphere), and on changes in the mass distribution. The results are fascinating, but still rough with respect to spatial and temporal resolution. Technical progress in satellite-to-satellite tracking and in gravity gradiometry will allow more detailed results in the future. In this special issue, Earth scientists develop visions of future applications based on follow-on high-precision satellite gravimetry missions.

  15. The JAWSAT Mission: Final Report and Lessons Learned


    Smith, J.; Richards, D.; Wood, M.; Sharp, G; Clapp, W


    One Stop Satellite Solutions and the Center for Aerospace Technology recently completed the JAWSAT mission. This was the first flight of the Minotaur launch vehicle and the first time eleven separate micro and pico satellites were placed into orbit with one launch. The JAWSAT project required both new technical designs as well as new programmatic ways of conducting a space mission. Main stream, large satellite, methods were not adequate. Technical lessons learned on this project range from ne...

  16. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  17. Study of miniature and microminiature satellite technology (United States)

    Kaneko, Kazuhisa


    An overview of the study on miniaturized satellite missions for the purpose of communication, broadcasting, earth observation, space environment utilization, global positioning, lunar exploration, solar-terrestrial science observation, and astronomical observation is presented. The results from examination of documents and periodicals of technologies expected to be usable for satellite miniaturization is outlined by subsystem, such as orbit and attitude control, electric power, communication, thermal control, and other subsystems. Technical measures for upgrading heat radiation and solar battery efficiencies, and antenna gain are proposed. The results of the study of super-miniature satellite system model (low orbit data relay satellite system for earth observation satellite to process many data) are outlined.

  18. Return to Europa: Overview of the Jupiter Europa orbiter mission (United States)

    Clark, K.; Boldt, J.; Greeley, R.; Hand, K.; Jun, I.; Lock, R.; Pappalardo, R.; van Houten, T.; Yan, T.