Sample records for satellite link case

  1. Inter-satellite links for satellite autonomous integrity monitoring (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Irma; García-Serrano, Cristina; Catalán Catalán, Carlos; García, Alvaro Mozo; Tavella, Patrizia; Galleani, Lorenzo; Amarillo, Francisco


    A new integrity monitoring mechanisms to be implemented on-board on a GNSS taking advantage of inter-satellite links has been introduced. This is based on accurate range and Doppler measurements not affected neither by atmospheric delays nor ground local degradation (multipath and interference). By a linear combination of the Inter-Satellite Links Observables, appropriate observables for both satellite orbits and clock monitoring are obtained and by the proposed algorithms it is possible to reduce the time-to-alarm and the probability of undetected satellite anomalies.Several test cases have been run to assess the performances of the new orbit and clock monitoring algorithms in front of a complete scenario (satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-ground links) and in a satellite-only scenario. The results of this experimentation campaign demonstrate that the Orbit Monitoring Algorithm is able to detect orbital feared events when the position error at the worst user location is still under acceptable limits. For instance, an unplanned manoeuvre in the along-track direction is detected (with a probability of false alarm equals to 5 × 10-9) when the position error at the worst user location is 18 cm. The experimentation also reveals that the clock monitoring algorithm is able to detect phase jumps, frequency jumps and instability degradation on the clocks but the latency of detection as well as the detection performances strongly depends on the noise added by the clock measurement system.

  2. Linking Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature with Cholera: A Case Study for South Sudan (United States)

    Aldaach, H. S. V.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.


    A sudden onset of cholera in South Sudan, in April 2014 in Northern Bari in Juba town resulted in more than 400 cholera cases after four weeks of initial outbreak with a case of fatality rate of CFR 5.4%. The total number of reported cholera cases for the period of April to July, 2014 were 5,141 including 114 deaths. With the limited efficacy of cholera vaccines, it is necessary to develop mechanisms to predict cholera occurrence and thereafter devise intervention strategies for mitigating impacts of the disease. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and air temperature are related to epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. However, due to coarse resolution of both datasets, it is not possible to precisely locate the geographical location of disease. Here, using Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODIS sensors, we have developed an algorithm to identify regions susceptible for cholera. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance in South Sudan and were statistically sensitive to hydroclimatic anomalies of land surface and air temperature, and precipitation. Our results indicate significant spatial and temporal averaging required to infer usable information from LST over South Sudan. Preliminary results that geographically location of cholera outbreak was identifiable within 1km resolution of the LST data.

  3. Interference susceptibility measurements for an MSK satellite communication link (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Fujikawa, Gene


    The results are presented of measurements of the degradation of an MSK satellite link due to modulated and CW (unmodulated) interference. These measurements were made using a hardware based satellite communication link simulator at NASA-Lewis. The results indicate the amount of bit error rate degradation caused by CW interference as a function of frequency and power level, and the degradation caused by adjacent channel and cochannel modulated interference as a function of interference power level. Results were obtained for both the uplink case (including satellite nonlinearity) and the downlink case (linear channel).

  4. Inter-satellite links for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Castro, T.J.W.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan


    Realizing inter-satellite links is a must for ensuring the success of cubesat swarm missions. Nevertheless, it has hardly been considered until now. The communication systems for cubesats have to deal with a few peculiar demands regarding consumed power, geometry and throughput. Depending on the typ

  5. Inter-satellite links for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Castro, T.J.W.; Meijerink, A.; Bentum, M.J.


    Realizing inter-satellite links is a must for ensuring the success of cubesat swarm missions. Nevertheless, it has hardly been considered until now. The communication systems for cubesats have to deal with a few peculiar demands regarding consumed power, geometry and throughput. Depending on the typ

  6. Relativistic Time Transfer for Inter-Satellite Links (United States)

    Xie, Yi


    Inter-Satellite links (ISLs) will be an important technique for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in the future. Based on the principles of general relativity, the time transfer in an ISL is modeled and the algorithm for onboard computation is described. It is found, in general, satellites with circular orbits and identical semi-major axes can benefit inter-satellite time transfer by canceling out terms associated with the transformations between the proper times and the Geocentric Coordinate Time. For a GPS-like GNSS, the Shapiro delay is as large as 0.1 nano-second when the ISL passes at the limb of the Earth. However, in more realistic cases, this value will decrease to about 50 pico-second.

  7. LiAISON: Linked, Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new navigation technique known as LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation) may be used to propel the benefits of GPS to new orbits,...

  8. Dynamic Characteristics of Inter-Satellite Links in LEO Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 张乃通; 温萍萍


    To establish an efficient inter-satellite link (ISL) in an LEO network, the effect of geometric characteristics of ISL on the ISLs and the devices on the LEO satellite should be examined. Because of the continuous movement of the LEO satellite, the time-varying behaviours of the ISL's geometric charactersistics continuously change with the changes of the satellite's position on the orbit. These dynamic geometric characteristics of the ISLs are important for ISL's performance analyzing and the design of the devices on the LEO satellite. This paper describes dynamic geometric characteristics of ISL, analyzes the impact of these regulations on the tracking system of the satellite's antenna and the power adjusting system of the satellite's transmitter, with the Iridium system as an example.

  9. A satellite based telemetry link for a UAV application (United States)

    Bloise, Anthony


    The requirements for a satellite based communication facility to service the needs of the Geographical Information System (GIS) data collection community are addressed in this paper. GIS data is supplied in the form of video imagery at sub-television rates in one or more spectral bands / polarizations laced with a position correlated data stream. The limitations and vicissitudes of using a terrestrial based telecommunications link to collect GIS data are illustrated from actual mission scenarios. The expectations from a satellite based communications link by the geophysical data collection community concerning satellite architecture, operating bands, bandwidth, footprint agility, up link and down link hardware configurations on the UAV, the Mobile Control Vehicle and at the Central Command and Data Collection Facility comprise the principle issues discussed in the first section of this paper. The final section of the paper discusses satellite based communication links would have an increased volume and scope of services the GIS data collection community could make available to the GIS user community, and the price the data collection community could afford to pay for access to the communication satellite described in the paper.

  10. Dependent surveillance through an experimental satellite data link system (United States)

    Cobley, G. A.

    The development and testing of an experimental dependent aircraft-surveillance system using a satellite data link is reported. In this system, the aircraft position is determined onboard using GPS or inertial navigation, enclosed in a message block using a data-link system, and transmitted to an Inmarsat GEO communication satellites; the ground station receives and analyzes the data to keep constant track of the aircraft position. The hardware implementation and the results of demonstrations performed on flights from Iowa to Wisconsin and the North Atlantic are discussed, and diagrams and maps are provided.

  11. Satellite link augmentation of ground based packet switched data networks (United States)

    Farrell, J. B.; McLane, P. J.; Campbell, L. L.

    Use of satellite link augmentation to improve the performance of a packet switched data network is considered. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of two queues in series from the standpoint of time delay. A finite state machine model is used to aid the analysis. The results from the analysis are then used in a flow deviation routing algorithm. This algorithm is applied to study the performance improvement when satellite links are used to augment the Canadian DATAPAC network. The results are backed up by extensive simulations on a digital computer.

  12. A Review on Inter-satellite Link in Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication (United States)

    Arora, Heena; Goyal, Rakesh


    In this paper, inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) system is proposed, one of the imperative utilizations of free space optics/wireless space optics (FSO)/WSO innovation. IsOWC frameworks give a high bandwidth, small size, small weight, low power and minimal effort different option for present microwave satellite frameworks. Optical communications systems have evolved from lengthy fibers to powerful wireless system. This has hence resulted in the use of optical wireless communication system in space communications. As the quantity of satellites circling the Earth expands year by year, a system between the satellites gives a strategy to them to correspond with one another. This is vital for satellites to send data to each other furthermore to hand off the data starting with one satellite then onto the next satellite and after that to the ground stations. By utilizing laser satellite correspondence, the satellites can be joined with information rates up to a few Gbps. The system performance including bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance on an inter-satellite link was analyzed. Various issues such as bit rates, input power, wavelength and distance were presented in IsOWC.

  13. Autonomous satellite constellation orbit determination using the star sensor and inter-satellite links data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A method of autonomous orbit determination for a satellite constellation using a star sensor combined with inter satellite links(ISLs) is studied.Two types of simulated observation data,Three-Satellite Constellation ISLs and background stellar observations by a CCD star sensor,are first produced.Based on these data,an observation equation is built for the constellation joint autonomous orbit determination,in which the simulations are run.The accuracy of this method with different orbital determination models are analyzed and compared with regard to the effect of potential measurement errors.The results show that autonomous satellite constellation orbit determination using star sensor measurement and ISLs data is feasible.Finally,this paper arrives at several conclusions which contribute to extending this method to a more general satellite constellation.

  14. Effect of digital scrambling on satellite communication links (United States)

    Dessouky, K.


    Digital data scrambling has been considered for communication systems using NRZ symbol formats. The purpose is to increase the number of transitions in the data to improve the performance of the symbol synchronizer. This is accomplished without expanding the bandwidth but at the expense of increasing the data bit error rate (BER). Models for the scramblers/descramblers of practical interest are presented together with the appropriate link model. The effects of scrambling on the performance of coded and uncoded links are studied. The results are illustrated by application to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) links. Conclusions regarding the usefulness of scrambling are also given.

  15. ISDN - The case for satellites (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.; McDougal, Patrick J.


    The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) holds much promise for both suppliers and users of telecommunications in the near future. This article examines the role of satellites in this new ISDN environment and emphasizes several advantages of satellites in the ongoing evolution to an all-digital world. In specific, the role of Intelsat, the global satellite system, is discussed with emphasis on Intelsat's digital services which today can offer all the characteristics and standards of ISDN in a flexible, cost-efficient manner.

  16. Optimal link budget to maximize data receiving from remote sensing satellite at different ground stations (United States)

    Godse, Vinay V.; Rukmini, B.


    Earth observation satellite plays a significant role for global situation awareness. The earth observation satellite uses imaging payloads in RF and IR bands, which carry huge amount of data, needs to be transferred during visibility of satellite over the ground station. Location of ground station plays a very important role in communication with LEO satellites, as orbital speed of LEO satellite is much higher than earth rotation speed. It will be accessible for particular equatorial ground station for a very short duration. In this paper we want to maximize data receiving by optimizing link budget and receiving data at higher elevation links. Data receiving at multiple ground stations is preferred to counter less pass duration due to higher elevation links. Our approach is to calculate link budget for remote sensing satellite with a fixed power input and varying different minimum elevation angles to obtain maximum data. The minimum pass duration should be above 3 minutes for effective communication. We are proposing to start process of command handling as soon as satellite is visible to particular ground station with low elevation angle up to 5 degree and start receiving data at higher elevation angles to receive data with higher speed. Cartosat-2B LEO earth observation satellite is taken for the case study. Cartosat-2B will complete around 14 passes over equator in a day, out of which only 4-5 passes will be useful for near equator ground stations. Our aim is to receive data at higher elevation angles at higher speed and increase amount of data download, criteria being minimum pass duration of 3 minutes, which has been set for selecting minimum elevation angle.

  17. Satellite Beam Handover Strategy to Improve Return Link Resource Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Jang


    Full Text Available Mobile communication on the multi-beam satellite communication has attracted attention, since Digital Video Broadcasting – Return Channel Satellite (DVB-RCS has been successively implemented. In general, multi beam satellite employs uniform allocation of RF power and bandwidth to multi beams, since it is hard to predict the distribution of traffic requests and the arrival rate of new connection. This makes it difficult to satisfy the traffic requests in a beam. Thus, when an unpredictable event, such as a disaster, regional warfare and deteriorating weather conditions, occur in a special spot beam, many more terminals will require access to a special beam channel. This causes the special beam channel to be saturated, while adjacent beam channel resources are available. Thus, we propose a novel handover strategy to improve satellite return link resource utilization using load balancing handover. Simulation results shows the proposed handover algorithm outperforms conventional handover algorithms in terms of new connection block probability, handover block probability, return link resource utilization and capacity request block rate.

  18. Novel evaluation method of TCP performance over satellite links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lina; Gu Xuemai


    A novel and efficient method to evaluate the transmission control protocol (TCP) performance over satellite links is presented. A TCP module is divided into three functional blocks, namely data processing, congestion control and error control. The re-established TCP module is easy to update TCP congestion control strategy or error control strategy. With the proposed analysis approach, the interactions between different congestion control and error control mechanisms, as well as the performance of various combination protocols in satellite environments have been investigated. Simulation results obtained through a series of experiments have shown that SNACK-based error control strategy can perform well with any other congestion control strategy. The best performance can be achieved by TCP New Reno congestion control strategy and SNACK-based error control strategy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Ezeh


    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major challenge to microwave satellite communication especially at frequencies above 10 GHz, causing unavailability of signals most of the time. Rain attenuation predictions have become one of the vital considerations while setting up a satellite communication link. In this study, rain attenuation models, cumulative distribution curves and other analytical tools for successful prediction of rain attenuation are presented. A three year Rain rate data was obtained from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET database in addition to experimental data. Of the three prediction models used in the study, Ajayi model gave the range of values closest to the experimental data. A correctional factor was determined as 1.0988 and used to modify the Ajayi model. This modification to Ajayi’s model enabled its rain attenuation values conform more closely to the experimental result.

  20. High-speed digital fiber optic links for satellite traffic (United States)

    Daryoush, A. S.; Ackerman, E.; Saedi, R.; Kunath, R. R.; Shalkhauser, K.


    Large aperture phased array antennas operating at millimeter wave frequencies are designed for space-based communications and imaging platforms. Array elements are comprised of active T/R modules which are linked to the central processing unit through high-speed fiber-optic networks. The system architecture satisfying system requirements at millimeter wave frequency is T/R level data mixing where data and frequency reference signals are distributed independently before mixing at the T/R modules. This paper demonstrates design procedures of a low loss high-speed fiber-optic link used for transmission of data signals over 600-900 MHz bandwidth inside satellite. The fiber-optic link is characterized for transmission of analog and digital data. A dynamic range of 79 dB/MHz was measured for analog data over the bandwidth. On the other hand, for bursted SMSK satellite traffic at 220 Mbps rates, BER of 2 x 10 to the -7th was measured for E(b)/N(o) of 14.3 dB.

  1. Optical intersatellite links - Application to commercial satellite communications (United States)

    Paul, D.; Faris, F.; Garlow, R.; Inukai, T.; Pontano, B.; Razdan, R.; Ganz, Aura; Caudill, L.


    Application of optical intersatellite links for commercial satellite communications services is addressed in this paper. The feasibility of commercialization centers around basic issues such as the need and derived benefits, implementation complexity and overall cost. In this paper, commercialization of optical ISLs is assessed in terms of the services provided, systems requirements and feasibility of appropriate technology. Both long- and short-range ISLs for GEO-GEO, GEO-LEO and LEO applications are considered. Impact of systems requirements on the payload design and use of advanced technology in reducing its mass, power, and volume requirements are discussed.

  2. High-speed analog fiber optic links for satellite communication (United States)

    Daryoush, A. S.; Herczfeld, P. R.; Kunath, R. R.


    Large-aperture phased array antennas operating at millimeter wave frequencies are designed for space-based communications and imaging. Array elements are comprised of active transmit/receive (T/R) modules which are linked to the central processing unit through a high-speed fiberoptic network. This paper demonstrates optical control of active modules for satellite communication at 24 GHz. An approach called T/R level data mixing, which utilizes fiberoptic transmission of a data signal to individual T/R modules to be upconverted by an optically synchronized local oscillator, is demonstrated at 24 GHz. A free-running HEMT oscillator, used as local oscillator at 24 GHz, is synchronized using indirect subharmonic optical injection locking over a locking range of 14 MHz. Results of data link performance over 500-1000 MHz is also reported in terms of gain-bandwidth, linearity and third-order intercept, sensitivity, and dynamic range.

  3. Single photon time transfer link model for GNSS satellites (United States)

    Vacek, Michael; Michalek, Vojtech; Peca, Marek; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef


    The importance of optical time transfer serving as a complement to traditional microwave links, has been attested for GNSSes and for scientific missions. Single photon time transfer (SPTT) is a process, allowing to compare (subtract) time readings of two distant clocks. Such a comparison may be then used to synchronize less accurate clock to a better reference, to perform clock characterization and calibration, to calculate mean time out of ensemble of several clocks, displaced in space. The single-photon time transfer is well established in field of space geodesy, being supported by passive retro-reflectors within space segment of five known GNSSes. A truly two-way, active terminals work aboard of Jason-2 (T2L2) - multiphoton operation, GNSS Beidou (Compass) - SPTT, and are going to be launched within recent ACES project (ELT) - SPTT, and GNSS GLONASS - multiphoton operation. However, there is still missing comprehensive theoretical model of two-way (using satellite receiver and retroreflector) SPTT link incorporating all crucial parameters of receiver (both ground and space segment receivers), transmitter, atmosphere effects on uplink and downlink path, influence of retroreflector. The input to calculation of SPTT link performance will be among others: link budget (distance, power, apertures, beam divergence, attenuation, scattering), propagating medium (atmosphere scintillation, beam wander, etc.), mutual Tx/Rx velocity, wavelength. The SPTT model will be evaluated without the properties of real components. These will be added in the further development. The ground-to-space SPTT link performance of typical scenarios are modeled. This work is a part of the ESA study "Comparison of optical time-transfer links."

  4. UAS CNPC Satellite Link Performance - Sharing Spectrum with Terrestrial Systems (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.


    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the National Airspace System, the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link connecting the ground-based pilot with the unmanned aircraft must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a potentially suitable allocation for radio line-of-sight (LOS), terrestrial based CNPC link at 5030-5091 MHz. For a beyond radio line-of-sight (BLOS), satellite-based CNPC link, aviation safety spectrum allocations are currently inadequate. Therefore, the 2015 WRC will consider the use of Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands to provide BLOS CNPC under Agenda Item 1.5. This agenda item requires studies to be conducted to allow for the consideration of how unmanned aircraft can employ FSS for BLOS CNPC while maintaining existing systems. Since there are terrestrial Fixed Service systems also using the same frequency bands under consideration in Agenda Item 1.5 one of the studies required considered spectrum sharing between earth stations on-board unmanned aircraft and Fixed Service station receivers. Studies carried out by NASA have concluded that such sharing is possible under parameters previously established by the International Telecommunications Union. As the preparation for WRC-15 has progressed, additional study parameters Agenda Item 1.5 have been proposed, and some studies using these parameters have been added. This paper examines the study results for the original parameters as well as results considering some of the more recently proposed parameters to provide insight into the complicated process of resolving WRC-15 Agenda Item 1.5 and achieving a solution for BLOS CNPC for unmanned aircraft.

  5. Satellite measurements of formaldehyde linked to shipping emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner


    Full Text Available International shipping is recognized as a pollution source of growing importance, in particular in the remote marine boundary layer. Nitrogen dioxide originating from ship emissions has previously been detected in satellite measurements. This study presents the first satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO linked to shipping emissions as derived from observations made by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME instrument.

    We analyzed enhanced HCHO tropospheric columns from shipping emissions over the Indian Ocean between Sri Lanka and Sumatra. This region offers good conditions in term of plume detection with the GOME instrument as all ship tracks follow a single narrow track in the same east-west direction as used for the GOME pixel scanning. The HCHO signal alone is weak but could be clearly seen in the high-pass filtered data. The line of enhanced HCHO in the Indian Ocean as seen in the 7-year composite of cloud free GOME observations clearly coincides with the distinct ship track corridor from Sri Lanka to Indonesia. The observed mean HCHO column enhancement over this shipping route is about 2.0×1015 molec/cm2.

    Compared to the simultaneously observed NO2 values over the shipping route, those of HCHO are substantially higher; also the HCHO peaks are found at larger distance from the ship routes. These findings indicate that direct emissions of HCHO or degradation of emitted NMHC cannot explain the observed enhanced HCHO values. One possible reason might be increased CH4 degradation due to enhanced OH concentrations related to the ship emissions, but this source is probably too weak to fully explain the observed values.

    The observed HCHO pattern also agrees qualitatively well with results from the coupled earth system model ECHAM5/MESSy applied to atmospheric chemistry (EMAC. However, the modelled HCHO values over the ship corridor are two times lower than in the

  6. Satellite co-locations as a link between SLR, GPS and Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (United States)

    Melachroinos, S. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Nicolas, J. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Wimert, J.; Radway, Y.


    The procedure applied for the determination of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) requires the combination of all four major techniques of Space Geodesy. This combination is only possibly realized by the introduction of the local-ties between co-located techniques. A local-tie is the lever arm vector between the marker points on the sites where two or more space geodesy instruments operate. The local ties are used as additional observations with proper variances. They are usually derived from local surveys using either classical geodesy or the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The Global Positioning System (GPS) plays a major role in the ITRF combination by linking together all the other three techniques SLR, DORIS and VLBI (Altamimi and Collilieux 2009). However, discrepancies between local ties and space geodesy estimates are well known although the reasons for these discrepancies are often not clear. These discrepancies could be either due to errors in local ties and in coordinate estimates or in both. In this study, we use the tracking to G05-35 and G06-36 and one LEO by SLR sites and their combined orbits, earth rotation parameters (ERPs) and station positions in order to establish space-based co-location ties on the stations. The LEO satellite used in this experiment is Jason-2, which carries both GPS and SLR. Therefore from the data-processing point of view the LEO satellite is used as a fast moving station (Thaller et al. 2011). Jason-2 is also equipped with DORIS, but it will be included into another combined analysis. Subsequently, we compare the consistency of our space-based co-locations to the ones from ITRF08 and SLRF08 - IGb08 solutions.

  7. An Investigation on Advantages of Utilizing Adaptive Bit Rate for LEO Satellite Link Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini


    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the advantages of using adaptive bit rate in the communication link of a LEO satellite. While doing the study, it is assumed that there is a communication subsystem on-board responsible for gathering the information sent by a number of ground user terminals. The subsystem which operates based on Store-and-Forward (SAF Scenario, contains two communication links, one for receiving data from user terminals (store case, and the other for forwarding the stored data to an Earth station (forward case. In fact, the current work aims to improve the volume of the data forwarded to Earth station. To this end, the Forward case bit rate is varied adaptively, and then by analyzing the power budget in a practical condition, the improvement achieved is evaluated. The results specifically obtained for a sample LEO satellite shows that utilizing adaptive bit rate instead of fixed bit rate can increase the daily data exchange up to about 100%.

  8. Integrated Cryogenic Satellite Communications Cross-Link Receiver Experiment (United States)

    Romanofsky, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Jackson, C. J.; Silver, A. H.; Javadi, H. H. S.


    An experiment has been devised which will validate, in space, a miniature, high-performance receiver. The receiver blends three complementary technologies; high temperature superconductivity (HTS), pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), and a miniature pulse tube cryogenic cooler. Specifically, an HTS band pass filter, InP MMIC low noise amplifier, HTS-sapphire resonator stabilized local oscillator (LO), and a miniature pulse tube cooler will be integrated into a complete 20 GHz receiver downconverter. This cooled downconverter will be interfaced with customized signal processing electronics and integrated onto the space shuttle's 'HitchHiker' carrier. A pseudorandom data sequence will be transmitted to the receiver, which is in low Earth orbit (LEO), via the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) on a 20 GHz carrier. The modulation format is QPSK and the data rate is 2.048 Mbps. The bit error rate (BER) will be measured in situ. The receiver is also equipped with a radiometer mode so that experiment success is not totally contingent upon the BER measurement. In this mode, the receiver uses the Earth and deep space as a hot and cold calibration source, respectively. The experiment closely simulates an actual cross-link scenario. Since the receiver performance depends on channel conditions, its true characteristics would be masked in a terrestrial measurement by atmospheric absorption and background radiation. Furthermore, the receiver's performance depends on its physical temperature, which is a sensitive function of platform environment, thermal design, and cryocooler performance. This empirical data is important for building confidence in the technology.

  9. Development and field testing of satellite-linked fluorometers for marine mammals (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset includes telemetry data related to the development and testing of an animal-borne satellite-linked fluorometer tag, used on northern fur seals and...

  10. Wildfire monitoring using satellite images, ontologies and linked geospatial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyzirakos, K.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Garbis, G.; Nikolaou, C.; Bereta, K.; Papoutsis, I.; Herekakis, T.; Michail, D.; Koubarakis, M.; Kontoes, C.


    Advances in remote sensing technologies have allowed us to send an ever-increasing number of satellites in orbit around Earth. As a result, Earth Observation data archives have been constantly increasing in size in the last few years, and have become a valuable source of data for many scientific and

  11. Terabit-per-Second Satellite Links: a Path Toward Ubiquitous Terahertz Communication (United States)

    Suen, Jonathan Y.


    Due to the demand for high-speed wireless communications, carrier frequencies have increased in the search for both available and wider bands. The millimeter-wave and terahertz bands (0.1-3 THz) are commonly believed to be impractical for all but short-range links due to severe attenuation by atmospheric water vapor. However, the field of submillimeter radio astronomy has demonstrated that this can be effectively mitigated by the construction of large aperture telescopes in very dry high-altitude locations, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Chilean Andes. Modeling has shown that Earth-satellite links in excess of 1 Tb per second can be achieved with a system patterned off observatories, since the loss of a satellite link from a dry location equals a sea-level path of only several kilometers. Despite advantages over optical satellite links, THz links have not been an area of active study. We review the technology and science necessary to develop a terabit-per-second THz satellite link and argue that a satellite link offers a good first step toward the development of ubiquitous THz communications.

  12. User RF requirements for a Ka-band data relay satellite link (United States)

    Copeland, David J.; Aleman, Roberto M.


    The user G/T and EIRP requirements were determined for a data relay satellite link consisting of a forward link to 360 Mbps at 23 GHz and a return link to 2 Gbps at 26.5 GHz. Hardware for this data link would be a modular expansion to the NASA Data Link Module. Calculations were based on a data relay satellite model of predetermined characteristics patterned after the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). The desired data rates could be achieved with a G/T of 21.7 dB/deg K (forward link) and an EIRP of 68.2 dBW (return link) for the user satellite. Hardware configurations meeting these requirements are discussed in terms of RF performance, efficiency, reliability, and modular flexibility. A planar array configuration emerges as the logical candidate for most NASA missions. Pertinent Ka-band technology and certain ongoing research efforts are reviewed. Areas of particular interest include new power device families, 0.25-micron low-noise HEMT technology, and fiber optic distribution and control of RF arrays.

  13. Linking oil production to surface subsidence from satellite radar interferometry (United States)

    Xu, Haibin; Dvorkin, Jack; Nur, Amos

    Land subsidence over the Belridge and Lost Hills oil fields, Southern California, was measured using spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). During the 105-day period between 11/5/95 and 2/17/96, the subsidence in the center of the Lost Hills field reached 15 cm. We assume that this surface subsidence resulted from the vertical shrinkage of the reservoir, which in turn was due to oil production and the resulting pore pressure drop. We model this mechanical effect using an elastic deformation theoretical solution with input constants taken from relevant experiments. The modeled surface deformation matches the InSAR measured values. This result indicates that it is possible, in principle, to monitor hydrocarbon production using satellite-based measurements of earth deformation.

  14. Utilizing Satellite Precipitation Products to Understand the Link Between Climate Variability and Malaria (United States)

    Maggioni, V.; Mousam, A.; Delamater, P. L.; Cash, B. A.; Quispe, A.


    Malaria is a public health threat to people globally leading to 198 million cases and 584,000 deaths annually. Outbreaks of vector borne diseases such as malaria can be significantly impacted by climate variables such as precipitation. For example, an increase in rainfall has the potential to create pools of water that can serve as breeding locations for mosquitos. Peru is a country that is currently controlling malaria, but has not been able to completely eliminate the disease. Despite the various initiatives in order to control malaria - including regional efforts to improve surveillance, early detection, prompt treatment, and vector management - malaria cases in Peru have risen between 2011 and 2014. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variability plays a fundamental role in malaria occurrence over a 12-year period (2003-2014) in Peru. When analyzing climate variability, it is important to obtain high-quality, high-resolution data for a time series long enough to draw conclusion about how climate variables have been and are changing. Remote sensing is a powerful tool for measuring and monitoring climate variables continuously in time and space. A widely used satellite-based precipitation product, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), available globally since 1998, was used to obtain 3-hourly data with a spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25°. The precipitation data was linked to weekly (2003-2014) malaria cases collected by health centers and available at a district level all over Peru to investigate the relationship between precipitation and the seasonal and annual variations in malaria incidence. Further studies will incorporate additional climate variables such as temperature, humidity, soil moisture, and surface pressure from remote sensing data products and climate models. Ultimately, this research will help us to understand if climate variability impacts malaria incidence

  15. Turbulent phase noise on asymmetric two-way ground-satellite coherent optical links (United States)

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter


    Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end-to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. Simulations make use of the reciprocity principle to estimate both down and up link performance from wave-optics propagation of descending plane waves. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterising the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock transfer.

  16. Requirements analysis and design for implementation of a satellite link for a local area computer network


    Lorentzen, Richard B.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to provide naval computer students with a basic knowledge on Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) satellite technology and to define the hardware and software requirements at the interface between a VSAT and a Local Area Network (LAN). By restricting a computer network to terrestrial links, a vast amount of knowledge is not accessed because either the terrestrial links can't access the information or the...

  17. The provision of spectrum for feeder links of non-geostationary mobile satellites (United States)

    Bowen, Robert R.


    The possibility of sharing spectrum in the 30/20 GHz band between geostationary fixed-satellite systems and feeder-links of low-earth orbit (LEO) mobile-satellite systems is addressed, taking into account that International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Radio Regulation 2613 would be a factor in such sharing. Interference into each network in both the uplink at 30 GHz and the downlink at 20 GHz is considered. It is determined that if sharing were to take place the mobile-satellite may have to cease transmission often for intervals up to 10 seconds, may have to use high-gain tracking antennas on its spacecraft, and may find it an advantage to use code-division multiple access. An alternate solution suggested is to designate a band 50 to 100 MHz wide at 28 and 18 GHz to be used primarily for feeder links to LEO systems.

  18. Link Performance Analysis for a Proposed Future Architecture of the Air Force Satellite Control Network (United States)


    data to update the known location of their spacecraft. This, of course , differs from the way STK and, in turn, the AFSCN LP obtains spacecraft...Dynamic System - A Divide and Conquer Approach. Espoo, Finland: IEEE. Cuevas, E. G., & Rehwinkel, C. A. SPOCS : A System to Measure Satellite Link

  19. Simulation and Analysis of Autonomous Time Synchronization Based on Asynchronism Two-way Inter-satellite Link (United States)

    Fang, L.; Yang, X. H.; Sun, B. Q.; Qin, W. J.; Kong, Y.


    The measurement of the inter-satellite link is one of the key techniques in the autonomous operation of satellite navigation system. Based on the asynchronism inter-satellite two-way measurement mode in GPS constellation, the reduction formula of the inter-satellite time synchronization is built in this paper. Moreover, the corrective method of main systematic errors is proposed. Inter-satellite two-way time synchronization is simulated on the basis of IGS (International GNSS Service) precise ephemeris. The impacts of the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range, the initial orbit, and the main systematic errors on satellite time synchronization are analyzed. Furthermore, the broadcast clock error of each satellite is calculated by the ``centralized'' inter-satellite autonomous time synchronization. Simulation results show that the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range and the initial orbit have little impact on the satellite clock errors, and thus they needn't be taken into account. The errors caused by the relativistic effect and the asymmetry of path travel have large impact on the satellite clock errors. These should be corrected with theoretical formula. Compared with the IGS precise clock error, the root mean square of the broadcast clock error of each satellite is about 0.4 ns.

  20. Inter-satellite links: A versatile tool for geodesy and planetary and interplanetary navigation (United States)

    Schlicht, Anja; Hugentobler, Urs; Hauk, Markus; Murböck, Michael; Pail, Roland


    With the use of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking gravity field recovery made a big step forward. Based on this technique the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission delivers monthly gravity field with high precision, allowing to measure effects in Earth water storage basins and variations in ice mass in Greenland and Antarctica from space. GRACE is using a Ka-band inter-satellite ranging technique, GRACE Follow-On will in addition test optical ranging. In fundamental physics high-precision optical inter-satellite tracking will be used to detect gravitational waves in space, as a first step LISA Pathfinder was launched recently. Inter-satellite links are not only used for ranging, also data transfer in space is based on such links. ESA's European Data Relay System will be established in up-coming years to collect data from the low orbiting Sentinel satellites and transfer the high data rate to ground. The same link may be used for ranging, data transfer and time transfer, a functionality that is discussed for next generation Galileo satellites. But to exploit this synergy a common concept for all three tasks has to be developed. In this paper we show that with inter-satellite ranging techniques with µm accuracy the limited accuracy of GNSS based orbit determination of low Earth orbiters (LEO), which is due to the limitations of one-way microwave tracking (unsynchronized clocks, phase center variations and offsets of the sending and receiving antennas) can be overcome. In the ESA study GETRIS the following question is answered: How can a highly accurate and precise GEO-based two-way ranging method support GNSS tracking? The reduction of systematic errors in LEO precise orbit determination (POD) by exploiting the synergy between ranging, data- and time-transfer is assessed in a concept consisting of precise two-way GEO-LEO tracking (as used for data transfer) and an ultra-stable oscillator on-board of the geostationary satellite (GEO

  1. Study of LEO-SAT microwave link for broad-band mobile satellite communication system (United States)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko


    In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.

  2. Analysis of broadcasting satellite service feeder link power control and polarization (United States)

    Sullivan, T. M.


    Statistical analyses of carrier to interference power ratios (C/Is) were performed in assessing 17.5 GHz feeder links using (1) fixed power and power control, and (2) orthogonal linear and orthogonal circular polarizations. The analysis methods and attenuation/depolarization data base were based on CCIR findings to the greatest possible extent. Feeder links using adaptive power control were found to neither cause or suffer significant C/I degradation relative to that for fixed power feeder links having similar or less stringent availability objectives. The C/Is for sharing between orthogonal linearly polarized feeder links were found to be significantly higher than those for circular polarization only in links to nominally colocated satellites from nominally colocated Earth stations in high attenuation environments.


    Manning, R. M.


    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal


    Manning, R. M.


    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  5. The Availability of Space Service for Inter-Satellite Links in Navigation Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Tang


    Full Text Available Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS are widely used in low Earth orbit (LEO satellite navigation; however, their availability is poor for users in medium Earth orbits (MEO, and high Earth orbits (HEO. With the increasing demand for navigation from MEO and HEO users, the inadequate coverage of GNSS has emerged. Inter-satellite links (ISLs are used for ranging and communication between navigation satellites and can also serve space users that are outside the navigation constellation. This paper aims to summarize their application method and analyze their service performance. The mathematical model of visibility is proposed and then the availability of time division ISLs is analyzed based on global grid points. The BeiDou navigation constellation is used as an example for numerical simulation. Simulation results show that the availability can be enhanced by scheduling more satellites and larger beams, while the presence of more users lowers the availability. The availability of navigation signals will be strengthened when combined with the signals from the ISLs. ISLs can improve the space service volume (SSV of navigation constellations, and are therefore a promising method for navigation in MEO/HEO spacecraft.

  6. The Availability of Space Service for Inter-Satellite Links in Navigation Constellations. (United States)

    Tang, Yinyin; Wang, Yueke; Chen, Jianyun


    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used in low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite navigation; however, their availability is poor for users in medium Earth orbits (MEO), and high Earth orbits (HEO). With the increasing demand for navigation from MEO and HEO users, the inadequate coverage of GNSS has emerged. Inter-satellite links (ISLs) are used for ranging and communication between navigation satellites and can also serve space users that are outside the navigation constellation. This paper aims to summarize their application method and analyze their service performance. The mathematical model of visibility is proposed and then the availability of time division ISLs is analyzed based on global grid points. The BeiDou navigation constellation is used as an example for numerical simulation. Simulation results show that the availability can be enhanced by scheduling more satellites and larger beams, while the presence of more users lowers the availability. The availability of navigation signals will be strengthened when combined with the signals from the ISLs. ISLs can improve the space service volume (SSV) of navigation constellations, and are therefore a promising method for navigation in MEO/HEO spacecraft.

  7. Some effects of Space Weather in a 4GHz communication satellite link over the Brazilian Region (United States)

    Soares, A.

    This work concerns a study of some effects of Space Weather in a C-band Satellite Link between Rio de Janeiro (22o57'S, 43o11'W) and Vitoria (20o10SS, 40o10SW), in the SouthEast of Brazil, from October 2000 to nowadays. An automatic acquisition system was developed to register the spectrum of the used frequencies and, since January 2002, this system has also registered the data corruption over a known information embedded in the link. As a result of this monitoring now we can know some useful things about the interference caused by geophisical phenomena like Plasma Bubbles.

  8. The scientific case for magnetic field satellites (United States)

    Backus, George E. (Editor); Benton, Edward R.; Harrison, Christopher G. A.; Heirtzler, James R.


    To make full use of modern magnetic data and the paleomagnetic record, we must greatly improve our understanding of how the geodynamo system works. It is clearly nonlinear, probably chaotic, and its dimensionless parameters cannot yet be reproduced on a laboratory scale. It is accessible only to theory and to measurements made at and above the earth's surface. These measurements include essentially all geophysical types. Gravity and seismology give evidence for undulations in the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and for temperature variations in the lower mantle which can affect core convection and hence the dynamo. VLBI measurements of the variations in the Chandler wobble and length of day are affected by, among other things, the electromagnetic and mechanical transfer of angular momentum across the CMB. Finally, measurements of the vector magnetic field, its intensity, or its direction, give the most direct access to the core dynamo and the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle. The 120 gauss coefficients of degrees up to 10 probably come from the core, with only modest interference by mantle conductivity and crustal magnetization. By contrast, only three angular accelerations enter the problem of angular momentum transfer across the CMB. Satellite measurements of the vector magnetic field are uniquely able to provide the spatial coverage required for extrapolation to the CMB, and to isolate and measure certain magnetic signals which to the student of the geodynamo represent noise, but which are of great interest elsewhere in geophysics. Here, these claims are justified and the mission parameters likely to be scientifically most useful for observing the geodynamo system are described.

  9. Phase Compensation Sensor for Ranging Consistency in Inter-Satellite Links of Navigation Constellation (United States)

    Meng, Zhijun; Yang, Jun; Guo, Xiye; Hu, Mei


    The performance of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) can be enhanced significantly by introducing the inter-satellite links (ISL) of a navigation constellation. In particular, the improvement of the position, velocity, and time accuracy, and the realization of autonomous functions require the ISL distance measurement data as the original input. For building a high-performance ISL, the ranging consistency between navigation satellites becomes a crucial problem to be addressed. Considering the frequency aging drift and the relativistic effect of the navigation satellite, the frequency and phase adjustment (FPA) instructions for the 10.23 MHz must be injected from the ground station to ensure the time synchronization of the navigation constellation. Moreover, the uncertainty of the initial phase each time the onboard clock equipment boots also results in a pseudo-range offset. In this Ref., we focus on the influence of the frequency and phase characteristics of the onboard clock equipment on the ranging consistency of the ISL and propose a phase compensation sensor design method for the phase offset. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method not only realized a phase compensation for the pseudo-range jitter, but, when the 1 PPS (1 pulse per second) falls in the 10.23 MHz skip area, also overcomes the problem of compensating the ambiguous phase by directly tracking the 10.23 MHz to ensure consistency in the ranging. PMID:28245572

  10. Design and Evaluation of 10-Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link for Improved Performance (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Nagpal, Shaina


    Inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) systems can be chosen over existing microwave satellite systems for deploying in space in the future due to their high bandwidth, small size, light weight, low power and low cost. However, the IsOWC system suffers from various attenuations due to weather conditions, turbulence or scintillations which limit its performance and decreases its availability. So, in order to improve the performance, IsOWC system using directly modulated laser source is proposed in this work. The system is designed and evaluated to be suitable for high data rate transmissions up to 10 Gbps. The performance of the system is investigated in order to reduce the cost and complexity of link and improving the quality of information signal. Further the proposed IsOWC system is analysed using BER analyser, power meter and oscilloscope Visualizer.

  11. Networks systems and operations. [wideband communication techniques for data links with satellites (United States)


    The application of wideband communication techniques for data links with satellites is discussed. A diagram of the demand assigned voice communications system is provided. The development of prototype integrated spacecraft paramps at S- and C-bands is described and the performance of space-qualified paramps is tabulated. The characteristics of a dual parabolic cylinder monopulse zoom antenna for use with the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) are analyzed. The development of a universally applicable transponder at S-band is reported. A block diagram of the major subassemblies of the S-band transponder is included. The technology aspects of network timing and synchronization of communication systems are to show the use of the Omega navigation system. The telemetry data compression system used during the Skylab program is evaluated.

  12. Orbital rotations of a satellite. Case study: GOCE (United States)

    Baur, O.; Grafarend, E. W.

    Considering a satellite orbit as a space curve in terms of Differential Geometry, we succeeded to merge orbital rotation and curvature/torsion by means of Cartan connection. Here we transform the Frenet frame of reference of the space curve to the Kepler frame of reference ("along track", "cross track", "quasi-radial") of the satellite orbit by means of Meusnier's Lemma. As a case study, we identify the spectrum of orbital rotation frequencies relative to a GOCE satellite configuration. In particular, we identify more than one rotational period. For a moving frame of reference of type Frenet, periods in the range of the time of revolution of the satellite as well as half the time of revolution appear, whereas even periods of a third the revolution time become visible for the Kepler frame of reference. We describe moving frame rotations with respect to the quasi-inertial frame of reference, namely the angular velocities around the base vectors, by means of curvature measures. This allows to calculate frame rotations by geometric orbit information only (GPS track), i.e. apart from gradiometer measurements. Among other things, we identify the angular velocity relative to the second base vector becoming strictly zero in case of the Frenet frame of reference.

  13. Time variable gravity retrieval and treatment of temporal aliasing using optical two-way links between GALILEO and LEO satellites (United States)

    Hauk, Markus; Pail, Roland; Murböck, Michael; Schlicht, Anja


    For the determination of temporal gravity fields satellite missions such as GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) or CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) were used in the last decade. These missions improved the knowledge of atmospheric, oceanic and tidal mass variations. The most limiting factor of temporal gravity retrieval quality is temporal aliasing due to the undersampling of high frequency signals, especially in the atmosphere and oceans. This kind of error causes the typical stripes in spatial representations of global gravity fields such as from GRACE. As part of the GETRIS (Geodesy and Time Reference in Space) mission, that aims to establish a geodetic reference station and precise time- and frequency reference in space by using optical two-way communication links between geostationary (GEO) and low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, a possible future gravity field mission can be set up. By expanding the GETRIS space segment to the global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) the optical two-way links also connect the GALILEO satellites among themselves and to LEO satellites. From these links between GALILEO and LEO satellites gravitational information can be extracted. In our simulations inter-satellite links between GALILEO and LEO satellites are used to determine temporal changes in the Earth's gravitational field. One of the main goals of this work is to find a suitable constellation together with the best analysis method to reduce temporal aliasing errors. Concerning non-tidal aliasing, it could be shown that the co-estimation of short-period long-wavelength gravity field signals, the so-called Wiese approach, is a powerful method for aliasing reduction (Wiese et al. 2013). By means of a closed loop mission simulator using inter-satellite observations as acceleration differences along the line-of-sight, different mission scenarios for GALILEO-LEO inter-satellite links and different functional models like the Wiese approach are analysed.

  14. A Mobile Communications Space Link Between the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Bondyopadhyay, P.; Shaw, Roland


    A communications experiment is described as a link between the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Breadboarding for this experiment has led to two items with potential for commercial application: a 1-Watt Ka-band amplifier and a Ka-band, circularly polarized microstrip antenna. Results of the hybrid Ka-band amplifier show gain at 30 dB and a saturated output power of 28.5 dBm. A second version comprised of MMIC amplifiers is discussed. Test results of the microstrip antenna subarray show a gain of approximately 13 dB and excellent circular polarization.

  15. Phase Compensation Sensor for Ranging Consistency in Inter-Satellite Links of Navigation Constellation. (United States)

    Meng, Zhijun; Yang, Jun; Guo, Xiye; Hu, Mei


    Theperformanceoftheglobalnavigationsatellitesystem(GNSS)canbeenhancedsignificantly by introducing the inter-satellite links (ISL) of a navigation constellation. In particular, the improvement of the position, velocity, and time accuracy, and the realization of autonomous functions require the ISL distance measurement data as the original input. For building a high-performance ISL, the ranging consistency between navigation satellites becomes a crucial problem to be addressed. Considering the frequency aging drift and the relativistic effect of the navigation satellite, the frequency and phase adjustment (FPA) instructions for the 10.23 MHz must be injected from the ground station to ensure the time synchronization of the navigation constellation. Moreover, the uncertainty of the initial phase each time the onboard clock equipment boots also results in a pseudo-range offset. In this Ref., we focus on the influence of the frequency and phase characteristics of the onboard clock equipment on the ranging consistency of the ISL and propose a phase compensation sensor design method for the phase offset. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method not only realized a phase compensation for the pseudo-range jitter, but, when the 1 PPS (1 pulse per second) falls in the 10.23 MHz skip area, also overcomes the problem of compensating the ambiguous phase by directly tracking the 10.23 MHz to ensure consistency in the ranging.

  16. Adaptive Predistortions Based on Neural Networks Associated with Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm for Satellite Down Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roviras Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents adaptive predistortion techniques based on a feed-forward neural network (NN to linearize power amplifiers such as those used in satellite communications. Indeed, it presents the suitable NN structures which give the best performances for three satellite down links. The first link is a stationary memoryless travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA, the second one is a nonstationary memoryless TWT amplifier while the third is an amplifier with memory modeled by a memoryless amplifier followed by a linear filter. Equally important, it puts forward the studies concerning the application of different NN training algorithms in order to determine the most prefermant for adaptive predistortions. This comparison examined through computer simulation for 64 carriers and 16-QAM OFDM system, with a Saleh's TWT amplifier, is based on some quality measure (mean square error, the required training time to reach a particular quality level, and computation complexity. The chosen adaptive predistortions (NN structures associated with an adaptive algorithm have a low complexity, fast convergence, and best performance.

  17. Study on TT&C resources scheduling technique based on inter-satellite link (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosong; Bai, Jian; Zhang, Chunze; Gao, Huili


    The navigation constellation will have the capability of supporting Tracking Telemetry and Command (TT&C) operations by inter-satellite link (ISL). The ISL will become an important solution to reduce the shortage of ground TT&C resources. The problems need to be studied urgently in the field of space TT&C network resources scheduling management are how to determine the availability of ISL and how to allocate TT&C resources of ISL. The performance and scheduling constraints of navigation constellation's ISL are analyzed, and three utilization strategies of ISL to perform TT&C operations are proposed. The allocation of TT&C resources based on ISL falls into two successive phases. Firstly, master satellite determination equation is established by using 0-1 Programming model based on the availability matrix. Mathematical method is used to solve the equation to determine the master satellite and the topology of ISL. Secondly, Constraint Programming (CP) model is used to describe the ground TT&C resources scheduling problem with special requirements of TT&C operations based on master satellite, and a heuristic algorithm is designed to solve the CP model. The equations and algorithm are verified by simulation examples. The algorithm of TT&C resources scheduling based on ISL has realized the synthesized usage of both the ISL and ground resources on TT&C field. This algorithm can improve TT&C supports of territorial ground TT&C network for global navigation constellation, and provides technical reference for the TT&C mission planning of global constellation by using ISL.

  18. Accurate Linking of Lake Erie Water Level with Shoreline Datum Using GPS Buoy and Satellite Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chien Cheng


    Full Text Available There is a need to accurately link the water level to the shoreline vertical datum for various applications including coastal management, lake/river/estuary/wetland hydrological or storm surge modeling/forecasting. Coastal topography is historically surveyed and referenced to the predetermined vertical datum in terms of orthometric heights, or the heights above the geoid, which is poorly known in terms of accuracy and lack of adequate spatial resolution for coastal applications such as estuary or storm surge modeling. We demonstrate an accurate linking of the lake surface to a shoreline datum using satellite techniques, including GPS buoy and satellite altimetry, water level gauges, and local geoid and lake circulation models. The possible error sources are analyzed and an error budget is reported in this study. An innovated method to estimate geoid height near the water level gauge using a GPS buoy is proposed. It is found that at a 95% confidence interval, the method is consistent with the National Geodetic Survey GEOID03 geoid model. The lake surface represented using a lake circulation model provided by the Great Lakes Forecasting Systems is also verified with kriging based on the data (1999 - 2001 from the water level gauge, and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter. Mean discrepancies of 2.7 and 7.2 cm are found with the data from the gauges around Lake Erie, and from the combination of the gauges and the altimeter, respectively. It reveals that the current dominant limitation of more accurate linking of water surface to shoreline is the insufficient knowledge of geoid in the current models. Further improvement is feasible through more accurate and higher resolution modeling of the lake geoid.

  19. Pointing and tracking errors due to localized deformation in inter-satellite laser communication links. (United States)

    Tan, Liying; Yang, Yuqiang; Ma, Jing; Yu, Jianjie


    Instead of Zernike polynomials, ellipse Gaussian model is proposed to represent localized wave-front deformation in researching pointing and tracking errors in inter-satellite laser communication links, which can simplify the calculation. It is shown that both pointing and tracking errors depend on the center deepness h, the radiuses a and b, and the distance d of the Gaussian distortion and change regularly as they increase. The maximum peak values of pointing and tracking errors always appear around h=0.2lambda. The influence of localized deformation is up to 0.7microrad for pointing error, and 0.5microrad for tracking error. To reduce the impact of localized deformation on pointing and tracking errors, the machining precision of optical devices, which should be more greater than 0.2?, is proposed. The principle of choosing the optical devices with localized deformation is presented, and the method that adjusts the pointing direction to compensate pointing and tracking errors is given. We hope the results can be used in the design of inter-satellite lasercom systems.

  20. CO2 laser as a possible candidate for optical transmitter in free-space satellite-ground-satellite laser communication: a case study (United States)

    Kumar, M. A.; Naik, Govind; Shenoy, N. V.; Rao, Mandavilli M.


    Terrestrial fiber optic communication systems handle most of the inter-continental communication systems today. However recent studies indicate that these links, in spite of their huge bandwidth will be saturated in the near future. Hence attempts are being made is augment and may be even replace these by inter satellite links (ISLs). Though high power laser diodes have been found to be suitable for ISLs, they are unfortunately inadequate for satellite-ground links (SGL and GSL) as they are not powerful enough. So we have to look for more powerful lasers for SGLs & GSLs. One possible candidate is the CO2 laser. It is a gas laser. It provides a number of advantages over other sources. They include high life time, high efficiency and stability. Besides it can generate a high power continuous wave and requires only radiative cooling. CO2 can provide a high bit rate and long range transmission with low bit error rate. Also CO2 laser is in near infra-red and hence the turbulence effects due to clouds is minimum. All these make CO2 laser a very economical choice. The use of optical communication in GSLs provides many advantages over radio links. Laser being a high energy source provides the advantage of greater bandwidth, smaller beam divergence angles, smaller antennae, greater security and a new spectrum. Lesser power consumption and smaller size make it more suitable for use in a satellite. The present paper deals with a case study of a CO2 laser based free space optical communication link by making the link budget analysis.

  1. Linking case management and community development. (United States)

    Austin, Carol D; McClelland, Robert W; Gursansky, Di


    Case management, in various forms, is now institutionalized as a core part of policy and programs designed to deliver home- and community-based services to older adults. The case management role, in theory, requires attention to both client and system goals, although in practice the system goals that have received most attention have been gatekeeping and resource allocation. While case managers have been admonished to find and develop resources in the community, this has primarily taken the form of including informal services in individual client care plans. What has been missing is focused attention to the potential of the community as a nurturing environment with the capacity to support older adults and their caregivers. Sustainable care for older adults cannot be achieved by formal service and family support alone. This article proposes the creation of linkages between case managers, who build the service arrangements for older people, and community developers, who are responsible for building community capacity and social capital. It is argued that this linkage is essential for establishing the foundations of a caring community with the capacity to support older people.

  2. Characterization of the CTS 12 and 14 GHz communications links - Preliminary measurements and evaluation. [Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.


    The Communications Link Characterization Experiment is designed to characterize the radio frequency links of the Communications Technology Satellite. The experiment is twofold: (1) it will study the natural characteristics in the CTS frequency bands (14 GHz uplink, and 12 GHz downlink) including attenuation and signal degradation due primarily to absorption and scattering induced by precipitation, and (2) it will perform environmental measurements for the characterization of man-made, earth-based signals which could interfere with the uplink frequency bands of the satellite.

  3. The Federated Satellite Systems paradigm: Concept and business case evaluation (United States)

    Golkar, Alessandro; Lluch i Cruz, Ignasi


    This paper defines the paradigm of Federated Satellite Systems (FSS) as a novel distributed space systems architecture. FSS are networks of spacecraft trading previously inefficiently allocated and unused resources such as downlink bandwidth, storage, processing power, and instrument time. FSS holds the promise to enhance cost-effectiveness, performance and reliability of existing and future space missions, by networking different missions and effectively creating a pool of resources to exchange between participants in the federation. This paper introduces and describes the FSS paradigm, and develops an approach integrating mission analysis and economic assessments to evaluate the feasibility of the business case of FSS. The approach is demonstrated on a case study on opportunities enabled by FSS to enhance space exploration programs, with particular reference to the International Space Station. The application of the proposed methodology shows that the FSS concept is potentially able to create large commercial markets of in-space resources, by providing the technical platform to offer the opportunity for spacecraft to share or make use of unused resources within their orbital neighborhood. It is shown how the concept is beneficial to satellite operators, space agencies, and other stakeholders of the space industry to more flexibly interoperate space systems as a portfolio of assets, allowing unprecedented collaboration among heterogeneous types of missions.

  4. First Case of Zika-Linked Glaucoma Diagnosed in Infant (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162294.html First Case of Zika-Linked Glaucoma Diagnosed in Infant Brazilian baby developed ... who developed glaucoma after being exposed to the Zika virus while in the womb has been reported ...

  5. Feasibility Analysis Of Free Space Earth To Satellite Optical Link In Tropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhanis Aida M. Nor


    Full Text Available Free Space Optics (FSO becomes a great attention because of the chances in transmitting data up to 2.5Gbps. There are a lot of advantages offered by FSO such as easily deployment with saving time and cost and no electromagnetic interference. In spite of the advantages, FSO has an uncontrolled drawback which is highly sensitive to atmospheric phenomena because uses air as tranmission medium. Current studies and researches are only focusing on FSO terrestrial link with short path length and based on data from temperate region. Therefore, this paper is aiming to provide feasibility analysis of FSO link from earth to satellite especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO based on atmospheric data in tropical region. The analysis will include the losses from geometrical attenuation, absorption, scintillation, haze attenuation, and rain attenuation. ABSTRAK: Ruang Bebas Optik (Free Space Optics (FSO mendapat perhatian kerana kebolehannya memancarkan data pada kelajuan tinggi. Di sebalik kelebihannya, FSO amat sensitif terhadap fenomena atmosfera kerana ia menggunakan udara sebagai perantara transmisi. Penyelidikan dan kajian terkini hanya memfokus kepada jalinan darat FSO dengan kepanjangan jarak pendek dan bergantung kepada kawasan tenang.  Oleh itu, kertas ini menyasarkan untuk memberikan analisis kebolehlaksanaan  jalinan FSO dari bumi ke satelit terutamanya Orbit Rendah Bumi (Low Earth Orbit (LEO bergantung kepada data atmosfera di kawasan tropika. Analisa termasuklah kehilangannya akibat pengecilan geometri, penyerapan, kelipan, pelemahan jerebu dan pelemahan hujan.KEYWORDS:  feasibility; Free Space Optics; availability; atmospheric attenuation; beam divergence angle; elevation angle


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 李建成


    在分析Walker星座构型以及星间链路分类、频率和准则的基础上,研究了24/3/2构型Walker星座星间链路的构建方法和链路可见性,计算和分析了所建立星间链路的方位角、仰角和距离(AER).研究结果表明,Walker星座可建立多条星间链路.%With the developments of satellite, radio communication, and computer technology, autonomous operation of satellite navigation system becomes more and more important. Inter -satellite Link (ISL) is a key technology. The Walker constellation structure, and its categories, frequencies and rules of inter-satellite links are introduced. Besides, the construction method and visibility of inter-satellite links of Walker constellation are analyzed and then, the azimuth, elevation, and range are computed as well. Study shows that multiple ISLs can be built in Walker constellation.

  7. Impact of turbulent phase noise on frequency transfer with asymmetric two-way ground-satellite coherent optical links (United States)

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter


    Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end- to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterizing the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show that Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock comparisons.

  8. Improvement of Ka-band satellite link availability for real-time IP-based video contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Berretta


    Full Text Available New High Throughput Satellite (HTS systems allow high throughput IP uplinks/contribution at Ka-band frequencies for relatively lower costs when compared to broadcasting satellite uplinks at Ku band. This technology offers an advantage for live video contribution from remote areas, where the terrestrial infrastructure may not be adequate. On the other hand, the Ka-band is more subject to impairments due to rain or bad weather. This paper addresses the target system specification and provides an optimized approach for the transmission of IP-based video flows through HTS commercial services operating at Ka-band frequencies. In particular, the focus of this study is on the service requirements and the propagation analysis that provide a reference architecture to improve the overall link availability. The approach proposed herein leads to the introduction of a new concept of live service contribution using pairs of small satellite antennas and cheap satellite terminals.

  9. Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a Space-Earth quantum communication link. (United States)

    Bonato, Cristian; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Jennewein, Thomas; Pernechele, Claudio; Villoresi, Paolo; Zeilinger, Anton


    In a Space quantum-cryptography experiment a satellite pointing system is needed to send single photons emitted by the source on the satellite to the polarization analysis apparatus on Earth. In this paper a simulation is presented regarding how the satellite pointing systems affect the polarization state of the single photons, to help designing a proper compensation system.

  10. Subcarrier phase recovery performance in bent-pipe mode of Shuttle data transmission. [on Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Ku-band return link (United States)

    Mckenzie, T. M.; Braun, W. R.


    The subcarrier phase recovery is analyzed for the bent-pipe mode of Space Shuttle detached-payload data transmission on the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ku-band return link. The high-power component of the subcarrier modulation is unrestored payload data, either at baseband or modulating another subcarrier. At the receiver a Costas loop recovers the subcarrier phase. To analyze its performance in the baseband case, we obtain the loop S-curve, the power spectral density of the equivalent noise process, and the loop phase error variance.

  11. Satellite Communication. (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985


    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  12. Minimization of outage probability of WiMAX link supported by laser link between a high-altitude platform and a satellite. (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi


    Various technologies for the implementation of a WiMAX (IEEE802.16) base station on board a high-altitude platform (HAP) are currently being researched. The network configuration under consideration includes a satellite, several HAPs, and subscribers on the ground. The WiMAX base station is positioned on the satellite and connects with the HAP via an analog RF over-laser communication (LC) link. The HAPs house a transparent transponder that converts the optic signal to a WiMAX RF signal and the reverse. The LC system consists of a laser transmitter and an optical receiver that need to be strictly aligned to achieve a line-of-sight link. However, mechanical vibration and electronic noise in the control system challenge the transmitter-receiver alignment and cause pointing errors. The outcome of pointing errors is fading of the received signal, which leads to impaired link performance. In this paper, we derive the value of laser transmitter gain that can minimize the outage probability of the WiMAX link. The results indicate that the optimum value of the laser transmitter gain is not a function of the pointing error statistics.

  13. Impact of turbulence on high-precision ground-satellite frequency transfer with two-way coherent optical links (United States)

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter


    Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study the impact of turbulence on coherent detection and the related phase noise that restricts time and frequency transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up- and downlink that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end-to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite kinematics. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterizing the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency and phase noise for different system parameters. We show that tip-tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the downlink and as a pre-compensation of the uplink. Besides, thanks to the large tilt angular correlation, the correction is shown to be efficient on uplink despite the point-ahead angle. Very good two-way compensation of turbulent effects is obtained even with the asymmetries. The two-way differential phase noise is reduced to 1 rad2 , with the best fractional frequency stability below 2 ×10-17 after 1-s averaging time.

  14. Satellite-linked locational, mapping, and diving of sea turtles in pelagic and coastal benthic habitats (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite telemetry determines migratory pathways to the foraging and nesting areas, degree of fixation on a foraging area, diving behaviors during the migrations,...

  15. Linking Satellites Via Earth "Hot Spots" and the Internet to Form Ad Hoc Constellations (United States)

    Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Grosvenor, Sandra; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix; Lee, Richard Q.; Romanofsky, Robert; Zaman, Afoz; Popovic, Zoya


    As more assets are placed in orbit, opportunities emerge to combine various sets of satellites in temporary constellations to perform collaborative image collections. Often, new operations concepts for a satellite or set of satellites emerge after launch. To the degree with which new space assets can be inexpensively and rapidly integrated into temporary or "ad hoc" constellations, will determine whether these new ideas will be implemented or not. On the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite, a New Millennium Program mission, a number of experiments were conducted and are being conducted to demonstrate various aspects of an architecture that, when taken as a whole, will enable progressive mission autonomy. In particular, the target architecture will use adaptive ground antenna arrays to form, as close as possible, the equivalent of wireless access points for low earth orbiting satellites. Coupled with various ground and flight software and the Internet. the architecture enables progressive mission autonomy. Thus, new collaborative sensing techniques can be implemented post-launch. This paper will outline the overall operations concept and highlight details of both the research effort being conducted in satellites. Keywords: collaborative remote sensing smart antennas, adaptive antenna arrays, sensor webs. ad hoc constellations, mission autonomy and

  16. Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles and Commercial Satellites: ’The Missing Link (United States)


    the 2nd Annual Space Policy and Architecture Symposium, Crystal City Marriot Hotel Arlington Va, 11 Feb 97, 2. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 General Thomas S... Marriot Hotel Arlington Va, 11 Feb 97. 2. Long, Mark. The 1992/1993 World Satellite Almanac. Mark Long. Third Edition. Winter Beach Florida: MLE INC

  17. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area andvolume (United States)

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L−1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and ...

  18. An exemplary case of a bromine explosion event linked to cyclone development in the Arctic (United States)

    Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kaleschke, L.; Strong, K.; Theys, N.; Weber, M.; Zhao, X.; Zien, A.


    Intense, cyclone-like shaped plumes of tropospheric bromine monoxide (BrO) are regularly observed by GOME-2 on board the MetOp-A satellite over Arctic sea ice in polar spring. These plumes are often transported by high-latitude cyclones, sometimes over several days despite the short atmospheric lifetime of BrO. However, only few studies have focused on the role of polar weather systems in the development, duration and transport of tropospheric BrO plumes during bromine explosion events. The latter are caused by an autocatalytic chemical chain reaction associated with tropospheric ozone depletion and initiated by the release of bromine from cold brine-covered ice or snow to the atmosphere. In this manuscript, a case study investigating a comma-shaped BrO plume which developed over the Beaufort Sea and was observed by GOME-2 for several days is presented. By making combined use of satellite data and numerical models, it is shown that the occurrence of the plume was closely linked to frontal lifting in a polar cyclone and that it most likely resided in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. In contrast to previous case studies, we demonstrate that the dry conveyor belt, a potentially bromine-rich stratospheric air stream which can complicate interpretation of satellite retrieved tropospheric BrO, is spatially separated from the observed BrO plume. It is concluded that weather conditions associated with the polar cyclone favoured the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.

  19. Comparison of the simulated performance of a VSAT satellite link with measurements (United States)

    Mwanakatwe, M.; Willis, M. J.; Evans, B. G.


    The transmisson performance of a Ka-band VSAT system (CODE) has been simulated to verify the systems design and to demonstrate the adequacy of the implementation margin and phase noise. A detailed simulation of phase noise effects on VSAT systems design is also presented. Hardware measurements and BOSS simulations for the test set-up show a good agreement for values of Eb/N0 up to 7dB. The simulated results indicate an increased error when the TWTA is operated in the nonlinear region, with the simulations indicating larger degradation than the measurement. The phase noise performance of the digital TRL modem is found to be consistently better than that of the simulated model. There appears to be closer agreement with the BOSS simulations than with the TOPSIM III simulations. The discrepancy between the TOPSIM III and BOSS phase noise simulations was only resolved by measurements taken using the Olympus satellite and BTI satellite simulator.

  20. Single Tree Vegetation Depth Estimation Tool for Satellite Services Link Design


    HASIRCI, Z.; Cavdar, I. H.; Ozturk, M


    Attenuation caused by tree shadowing is an important factor for describing the propagation channel of satellite services. Thus, vegetation effects should be determined by experimental studies or empirical formulations. In this study, tree types in the Black Sea Region of Turkey are classified based on their geometrical shapes into four groups such as conic, ellipsoid, spherical and hemispherical. The variations of the vegetation depth according to different tree shapes are calculated with ...

  1. Prediction Method for Rain Rate and Rain Propagation Attenuation for K-Band Satellite Communications Links in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baso Maruddani


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction method using hidden Markov model (HMM for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation for K-band satellite communication link at tropical area. As is well known, the K-band frequency is susceptible of being affected by atmospheric condition, especially in rainy condition. The wavelength of K-band frequency which approaches to the size of rain droplet causes the signal strength is easily attenuated and absorbed by the rain droplet. In order to keep the quality of system performance for K-band satellite communication link, therefore a special attention has to be paid for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation. Thus, a prediction method for rain rate and rain propagation attenuation based on HMM is developed to process the measurement data. The measured and predicted data are then compared with the ITU-R recommendation. From the result, it is shown that the measured and predicted data show similarity with the model of ITU-R P.837-5 recommendation for rain rate and the model of ITU-R P.618-10 recommendation for rain propagation attenuation. Meanwhile, statistical data for measured and predicted data such as fade duration and interfade duration have insignificant discrepancy with the model of ITU-R P.1623-1 recommendation.

  2. Linking biomedical engineering ethics case study approach and policy. (United States)

    Dibrell, William; Dobie, Elizabeth Ann


    In this paper we link bioengineering case study methods to the development of policy. The case study approach to ethics is an excellent way to show the complex nature of practical/moral reasoning. This approach can, however, lead to a kind of overwhelming complexity. The individual nature of each case makes it difficult to identify the most important information and difficult to see what moral considerations are most relevant. In order to make the overwhelming complexity less debilitating, we present a framework for moral decision making derived from suggestions made by W.D. Ross and Virginia Held. Ross articulates the multiple sources of morality and Held deepens the discussion by reminding us of the foundational importance of care and sympathy to our moral natures. We show how to use the notion of prima facie duty and discuss moral conflict. In doing this, we show how the framework, applied to cases, can be of assistance in helping us develop policies and codes of ethics with sufficient plasticity to be useful in the complex world of the bioengineer.

  3. Hysteresis effects in instantaneous frequency scaling of attenuation on 20 and 30 GHz satellite links (United States)

    Sweeney, D. G.; Pratt, T.; Bostian, C. W.


    It has been observed with 20/30 GHz satellite beacon measurements that the ratio of 30 GHz to 20 GHz attenuation changes during some fade events. This ratio displays a hysteresis effect. This effect can be explained by a change in the drop size distribution (DSD) during the event. However, it appears only above approximately 6-8 dB of attenuation at 20 GHz. Instantaneous frequency scaling of attenuation is being proposed as part of an algorithm for uplink power control (ULPC) and the dynamic range of such an algorithm must be appropriately limited to avoid the hysteresis.

  4. Rainfall measurements from cellular networks microwave links : an alternative ground reference for satellite validation and hydrology in Africa . (United States)

    Gosset, Marielle; cazenave, frederic; Zougmore, françois; Doumounia, Ali; kacou, Modeste


    In many part of the Tropics the ground based gauge networks are sparse, often degrading and accessing this data for monitoring rainfall or for validating satellite products is sometime difficult. Here, an alternative rainfall measuring technique is proposed and tested in West Africa. It is based on using commercial microwave links from cellular telephone networks to detect and quantify rainfall. Rainfall monitoring based on commercial terrestrial microwave links has been tested for the first time in Burkina Faso, in Sahel. The rainfall regime is characterized by intense rainfall intensities brought by mesoscale Convective systems (MCS), generated by deep organized convection. The region is subjected to drought as well as dramatic floods associated with the intense rainfall provided by a few MCSs. The hydrometeorological risk is increasing and need to be monitored. In collaboration with the national cellular phone operator, Telecel Faso, the attenuation on 29 km long microwave links operating at 7 GHz was monitored at 1s time rate for the monsoon season 2012. The time series of attenuation is transformed into rain rates and compared with rain gauge data. The method is successful in quantifying rainfall: 95% of the rainy days are detected. The correlation with the daily raingauge series is 0.8 and the season bias is 5%. The correlation at the 5 min time step within each event is also high. We will present the quantitative results, discuss the uncertainties and compare the time series and the 2D maps with those derived from a polarimetric radar. The results demonstrate the potential interest of exploiting national and regional wireless telecommunication networks to provide rainfall maps for various applications : urban hydrology, agro-hydrological risk monitoring, satellite validation and development of combined rainfall products. We will also present the outcome of the first international Rain Cell Africa workshop held in Ouagadougou early 2015.

  5. Do future commercial broadband communication satellites really need laser-communication intersatellite links (ISLs)? (United States)

    Freidell, James E.


    Large commercial satellite programs requiring ISLs are growing in number and maturing. An important segment of the commercial satellite market, and its ISL needs, is discussed in the paper. ISL value will increase as long-haul terrestrial backbones become increasingly congested. Providing interregional and intercontinental connectivity via ISL presents far lower cost and fewer problems than relying on terrestrial fiber-optic networks. To demonstrate this, a new metric is proposed which allows 'apples-to- apples' cost/performance comparisons between laser communications in GEO, LEO, and terrestrial fiber-optics. ISL requirements in to the next decade are predicted >= 50-100 Gb/s full duplex. Many attitudinal changes must be embraced among those who choose to focus on this new commercial business. Foremost among these is a preponderance to delivering fully acceptable hardware fast and at low cost, as opposed to merely designing such. Considerable attention must be given business considerations foreign to professionals who have spent time in the government or government contracting sectors. Successful ISL customers will come to recognize that ISLs are not commodity products. Failure to embrace these attitudes will nonetheless constitute decision to which the commercial market, and particularly the financial market, will appropriately respond.

  6. siRNAs from an X-linked satellite repeat promote X-chromosome recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Menon, Debashish U; Coarfa, Cristian; Xiao, Weimin; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Meller, Victoria H


    Highly differentiated sex chromosomes create a lethal imbalance in gene expression in one sex. To accommodate hemizygosity of the X chromosome in male fruit flies, expression of X-linked genes increases twofold. This is achieved by the male- specific lethal (MSL) complex, which modifies chromatin to increase expression. Mutations that disrupt the X localization of this complex decrease the expression of X-linked genes and reduce male survival. The mechanism that restricts the MSL complex to X chromatin is not understood. We recently reported that the siRNA pathway contributes to localization of the MSL complex, raising questions about the source of the siRNAs involved. The X-linked 1.688 g/cm(3) satellite related repeats (1.688(X) repeats) are restricted to the X chromosome and produce small RNA, making them an attractive candidate. We tested RNA from these repeats for a role in dosage compensation and found that ectopic expression of single-stranded RNAs from 1.688(X) repeats enhanced the male lethality of mutants with defective X recognition. In contrast, expression of double-stranded hairpin RNA from a 1.688(X) repeat generated abundant siRNA and dramatically increased male survival. Consistent with improved survival, X localization of the MSL complex was largely restored in these males. The striking distribution of 1.688(X) repeats, which are nearly exclusive to the X chromosome, suggests that these are cis-acting elements contributing to identification of X chromatin.

  7. Single Tree Vegetation Depth Estimation Tool for Satellite Services Link Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hasirci


    Full Text Available Attenuation caused by tree shadowing is an important factor for describing the propagation channel of satellite services. Thus, vegetation effects should be determined by experimental studies or empirical formulations. In this study, tree types in the Black Sea Region of Turkey are classified based on their geometrical shapes into four groups such as conic, ellipsoid, spherical and hemispherical. The variations of the vegetation depth according to different tree shapes are calculated with ray tracing method. It is showed that different geometrical shapes have different vegetation depths even if they have same foliage volume for different elevation angles. The proposed method is validated with the related literature in terms of average single tree attenuation. On the other hand, due to decrease system requirements (speed, memory usage etc. of ray tracing method, an artificial neural network is proposed as an alternative. A graphical user interface is created for the above processes in MATLAB environment named vegetation depth estimation tool (VdET.

  8. Analysis and Mitigation of Tropospheric Effects on Ka Band Satellite Signals and Estimation of Ergodic Capacity and Outage Probability for Terrestrial Links


    Enserink, Scott Warren


    The first part of this work covers the effect of the troposphere onKa band (20-30 GHz) satellite signals. The second part deals withthe estimation of the capacity and outage probability forterrestrial links when constrained to quadrature amplitudemodulations.The desire for higher data rates and the need for availablebandwidth has pushed satellite communications into the Ka band(20-30 GHz). At these higher carrier frequencies the effects ofscintillation and rain attenuation are increased. In...

  9. Demonstrative potential of multitemporal satellite imagery in documenting urban dynamics: generalisation from the Bucharest city case (United States)

    Aldea, Mihaela; Petrescu, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard; Iacoboaea, Cristina; Luca, Oana; Sercaianu, Mihai; Gaman, Florian


    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of multitemporal satellite imagery to be processed and used in documenting urban changes that took place over time, with limited resources involved and taking advantage of the opportunity to be able to use the satellite imagery available as open data. The possibilities to analyse and compare the written literature regarding the chronological evolution of a city with the patterns of Land Use/Land Cover obtained from the processing of satellite remotely sensed images of the respective scenery were investigated based upon a case study of a selected city. The extent of the prospects of using remote sensing based methods and multitemporal satellite imagery is also expressed as a result of this investigation.

  10. An Intermediate Frequency Acquisition Scheme for S-band Single Access Link of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A nonzero intermediate frequency (IF) likelihood acquisition scheme designed for S-band Single Access (SSA) link of China's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite S y stem (CTDRSS) is introduced. The received signal is downconv erted to IF, and then direct sampled in IF using a 1-bit A/D. After the digital i zation, the sampled data is detected using a hybrid likelihood acquisition schem e. Using this structure, large noise figure of the analog mixer or active filter s, amplitude and phase imbalance between low-frequency in-phase and quandratur e- phase channel can be avoided. An easy designing algorithm of the acquisition sch eme is also derived. The performance and algorithm are verified by computer simu lation.

  11. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian


    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low ( Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  12. Video Data Link Provides Television Pictures In Near Real Time Via Tactical Radio And Satellite Channels (United States)

    Hartman, Richard V.


    Advances in sophisticated algorithms and parallel VLSI processing have resulted in the capability for near real-time transmission of television pictures (optical and FLIR) via existing telephone lines, tactical radios, and military satellite channels. Concepts have been field demonstrated with production ready engineering development models using transform compression techniques. Preliminary design has been completed for packaging an existing command post version into a 20 pound 1/2 ATR enclosure for use on jeeps, backpacks, RPVs, helicopters, and reconnaissance aircraft. The system will also have a built-in error correction code 2 (ECC) unit, allowing operation via communicatons media exhibiting a bit error rate of 1 X 10-or better. In the past several years, two nearly simultaneous developments show promise of allowing the breakthrough needed to give the operational commander a practical means for obtaining pictorial information from the battlefield. And, he can obtain this information in near real time using available communications channels--his long sought after pictorial force multiplier: • High speed digital integrated circuitry that is affordable, and • An understanding of the practical applications of information theory. High speed digital integrated circuits allow an analog television picture to be nearly instantaneously converted to a digital serial bit stream so that it can be transmitted as rapidly or slowly as desired, depending on the available transmission channel bandwidth. Perhaps more importantly, digitizing the picture allows it to be stored and processed in a number of ways. Most typically, processing is performed to reduce the amount of data that must be transmitted, while still maintaining maximum picture quality. Reducing the amount of data that must be transmitted is important since it allows a narrower bandwidth in the scarce frequency spectrum to be used for transmission of pictures, or if only a narrow bandwidth is available, it

  13. Short-term prediction of rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links at EHF band (United States)

    de Montera, L.; Mallet, C.; Barthès, L.; Golé, P.


    This paper shows how nonlinear models originally developed in the finance field can be used to predict rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links operating at the Extremely High Frequencies band (EHF, 20 50 GHz). A common approach to solving this problem is to consider that the prediction error corresponds only to scintillations, whose variance is assumed to be constant. Nevertheless, this assumption does not seem to be realistic because of the heteroscedasticity of error time series: the variance of the prediction error is found to be time-varying and has to be modeled. Since rain attenuation time series behave similarly to certain stocks or foreign exchange rates, a switching ARIMA/GARCH model was implemented. The originality of this model is that not only the attenuation level, but also the error conditional distribution are predicted. It allows an accurate upper-bound of the future attenuation to be estimated in real time that minimizes the cost of Fade Mitigation Techniques (FMT) and therefore enables the communication system to reach a high percentage of availability. The performance of the switching ARIMA/GARCH model was estimated using a measurement database of the Olympus satellite 20/30 GHz beacons and this model is shown to outperform significantly other existing models. The model also includes frequency scaling from the downlink frequency to the uplink frequency. The attenuation effects (gases, clouds and rain) are first separated with a neural network and then scaled using specific scaling factors. As to the resulting uplink prediction error, the error contribution of the frequency scaling step is shown to be larger than that of the downlink prediction, indicating that further study should focus on improving the accuracy of the scaling factor.

  14. Short-term prediction of rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links at EHF band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Montera


    Full Text Available This paper shows how nonlinear models originally developed in the finance field can be used to predict rain attenuation level and volatility in Earth-to-Satellite links operating at the Extremely High Frequencies band (EHF, 20–50 GHz. A common approach to solving this problem is to consider that the prediction error corresponds only to scintillations, whose variance is assumed to be constant. Nevertheless, this assumption does not seem to be realistic because of the heteroscedasticity of error time series: the variance of the prediction error is found to be time-varying and has to be modeled. Since rain attenuation time series behave similarly to certain stocks or foreign exchange rates, a switching ARIMA/GARCH model was implemented. The originality of this model is that not only the attenuation level, but also the error conditional distribution are predicted. It allows an accurate upper-bound of the future attenuation to be estimated in real time that minimizes the cost of Fade Mitigation Techniques (FMT and therefore enables the communication system to reach a high percentage of availability. The performance of the switching ARIMA/GARCH model was estimated using a measurement database of the Olympus satellite 20/30 GHz beacons and this model is shown to outperform significantly other existing models.

    The model also includes frequency scaling from the downlink frequency to the uplink frequency. The attenuation effects (gases, clouds and rain are first separated with a neural network and then scaled using specific scaling factors. As to the resulting uplink prediction error, the error contribution of the frequency scaling step is shown to be larger than that of the downlink prediction, indicating that further study should focus on improving the accuracy of the scaling factor.

  15. 一种特殊星间链路的应用研究∗%Research on the Application of a Special Inter-satellite Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钦伟瑾; 韦沛; 杨旭海


    With the development of scientific research on the LEO (low earth orbit) satellites, their timing and positioning are increasingly prominent. In order to make full use of the existing BD (BeiDou) regional navigation system for the LEO satellites, this paper proposes to build a special inter-satellite-link between high-orbit and LEO satellites. And then we analyze the low-altitude service of this kind of links, including the coverage of timing/positioning, usability for navigation constellation, and the effect on usability when the satellite is invalid. Finally it draws some useful conclusions that the BD satellite system can provide service for the LEO satellites.%随着低轨卫星的科学研究逐渐深入,其定位和授时的需求也日益凸显。针对如何利用现有北斗区域系统为低轨卫星服务,提出在高轨卫星与低轨卫星间建立一种特殊链路。从授时定位覆盖比,导航星座可用性,以及卫星失效对导航星座可用性的影响3方面分析北斗区域系统服务性能,得出有益结论,为北斗天基系统服务低轨卫星提供支撑。

  16. Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016 (United States)

    ... Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016 ... despite the continued spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus. Researchers predicted 1,133 cases of microcephaly ...

  17. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  18. A case study in carbon management during the design process Satellite 3, Stansted Airport, UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterSHARRATT; CamiloDIAZ


    Set within the context of China''s growing need to develop a cleaner and more efficient energy supply infrastructure, this paper describes a procurement process for evaluating and reducing the carbon dioxide emissions arising from operational processes within buildings during the design stage when key decisions affecting long-term energy demand are often made but frequently not understood. The focus of the study is a case-study building, the 8275m2 two-storey arrivals/departures building, Satellite 3, at Stansted Airport, UK. The client set a challenging design performance target of a 20% net CO2 reduction below British Airways Authority''s (BAA) current most energy efficient building, Satellite 1, Stansted. This reduction was to be achieved without compromising the BAA corporate standards on passenger and staff comfort perceptions or appreciable increases in capital costs. The carbon assessment methodology involved the following stages:· Establish baseline CO2 footprint and target from real-time energy data for Satellite 1 of 103 kg CO2/m2/a.· Review of the ‘base-case'' building performance assessment for Satellite 3 using BAA''s standard specification criteria.· Assess the impact on energy demand and CO2 emissions of a number of variations to the ‘base-case'' design parameters ranging from solar shading, insulation levels to control systems and occupancy patterns.· Develop an evaluation methodology that iteratively balances capital cost and revenue expenditure with environmental benefits to enable informed choices to be made by the client on where the most ‘environmentally effective'' design responses lie. Outcomes:· A 23% net CO2 reduction by design was achieved at no additional capital cost.· Learning and environmental costs benefit methodology disseminated to the BAA supply chain and adopted at Gatwick and Heathrow Airports. ·CO2 is now a new key performance indicator for design efficiency within BAA.

  19. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  20. 相位噪声对8PSK卫星通信链路的影响%Effect of Phase Noise on Link of Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金贵; 许星辰


    研究了相位噪声对卫星通信链路传输性能的影响,给出了相位噪声的数字模拟方法,设计了卫星通信链路的基带等效仿真模型,结合8移相键控(8 Phase Shift Keying,8PSK)调制方式及低密度奇偶校验码(Low Density Parity Code,LDPC),仿真了相位噪声频谱特性对卫星通信链路传输性能所造成的恶化。仿真结果表明,当卫星通信链路的相位噪声特性变差时,会影响链路传输性能,甚至会出现误码平台。%With the effect of phase noise on transmission characteristics of the link of satellite communication researched,the numerical simulation means of phase noise is proposed,the base-band equivalent simulation model of satellite communication link is designed,and the effect of phase noise on transmission characteristics of the link of satellite communication is simulated with 8PSK modulation and LDPC error correction.The simulation results show that when the phase noise of the link of satellite communication is worse,the transmission characteristic is affected,and the error-floor is formed even.

  1. Propagation effects handbook for satellite systems design. A summary of propagation impairments on 10 to 100 GHz satellite links with techniques for system design (United States)

    Ippolito, Louis J.


    The NASA Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design provides a systematic compilation of the major propagation effects experienced on space-Earth paths in the 10 to 100 GHz frequency band region. It provides both a detailed description of the propagation phenomenon and a summary of the impact of the effect on the communications system design and performance. Chapter 2 through 5 describe the propagation effects, prediction models, and available experimental data bases. In Chapter 6, design techniques and prediction methods available for evaluating propagation effects on space-Earth communication systems are presented. Chapter 7 addresses the system design process and how the effects of propagation on system design and performance should be considered and how that can be mitigated. Examples of operational and planned Ku, Ka, and EHF satellite communications systems are given.

  2. Linking Satellite-Derived Fire Counts to Satellite-Derived Weather Data in Fire Prediction Models to Forecast Extreme Fires in Siberia (United States)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.


    Fire is the dominant disturbance that precipitates ecosystem change in boreal regions, and fire is largely under the control of weather and climate. Fire frequency, fire severity, area burned and fire season length are predicted to increase in boreal regions under climate change scenarios. Therefore to predict fire weather and ecosystem change, we must understand the factors that influence fire regimes and at what scale these are viable. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), developed by the Canadian Forestry Service, is used for this comparison, and it is calculated using local noon surface-level air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and daily (noon-noon) rainfall. The FWI assesses daily forest fire burning potential. Large-scale FWI are calculated at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) using NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) large-scale reanalysis and NASA Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data. The GEOS-4 reanalysis weather data are 3-hourly interpolated to 1-hourly data at a 1ox1o resolution and the GPCP precipitation data are also at 1ox1o resolution. In previous work focusing on the fire season in Siberia in 1999 and 2002, we have shown the combination of GEOS-4 weather data and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation data compares well to ground-based weather data when used as inputs for FWI calculation. The density and accuracy of Siberian surface station data can be limited, which leads to results that are not representative of the spatial reality. GEOS-4/GPCP-dervied FWI can serve to spatially enhance current and historic FWI, because these data are spatially and temporally consistency. The surface station and model reanalysis derived fire weather indices compared well spatially, temporally and quantitatively, and increased fire activity compares well with increasing FWI ratings. To continue our previous work, we statistically compare satellite-derived fire counts to FWI categories at

  3. Specification based formal testing: the EasyLink case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belinfante, Axel; Feenstra, Jan; Heerink, Lex; Vries, de René G.; Veen, J.P.


    Testing is, in most cases, a manual activity that is time consuming and error prone. Automation, however, can severely reduce the associated costs. In the project Cote de Resyste (COnformance TEsting of REactive SYSTEms) theory is being developed and a protoype tool is being built to support the aut

  4. Satellite remote sensing of Asian aerosols: a case study of clean, polluted and dust storm days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Lee


    Full Text Available Satellite-based aerosol observation is a useful tool for the estimation of microphysical and optical characteristics of aerosol during more than three decades. Until now, a lot of satellite remote sensing techniques have been developed for aerosol detection. In East Asian region, the role of satellite observation is quite important because aerosols originating from natural and man-made pollution in this region have been recognized as an important source for regional and global scale air pollution. However, it is still difficult to retrieve aerosol over land because of the complexity of the surface reflection and complex aerosol composition, in particular, aerosol absorption. In this study, aerosol retrievals using Look-up Table (LUT based method was applied to MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Level 1 (L1 calibrated reflectance data to retrieve aerosol optical thickness (AOT over East Asia. Three case studies show how the methodology works to identify those differences to obtain a better AOT retrieval. The comparison between the MODIS and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET shows better results when the suggested methodology using the cluster based LUTs is applied (linear slope=0.94, R=0.92 than when operational MODIS aerosol products are used (linear slope=0.78, R=0.87. In conclusion, the suggested methodology is shown to work well with aerosol models acquired by statistical clustering the observation data in East Asia.

  5. DVB-RCS return link radio resource management for broadband satellite systems using fade mitigation techniques at ka band



    Current Broadband Satellite systems supporting DVB-RCS at Ku band have static physical layer in order not to complicate their implementation. However at Ka band frequencies and above an adaptive physical layer wherein the physical layer parameters are dynamically modified on a per user basis is necessary to counteract atmospheric attenuation. Satellite Radio Resource Management (RRM) at the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer has become an important issue given the emphasis placed on Quality...

  6. Generating links to background knowledge: a case study using narrative radiology reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; de Rijke, M.; Sevenster, M.; van Ommering, R.; Qian, Y.; Berendt, B.; de Vries, A.; Fan, W.; Macdonald, C.; Ounis, I.; Ruthven, I.


    Automatically annotating texts with background information has recently received much attention. We conduct a case study in automatically generating links from narrative radiology reports to Wikipedia. Such links help users understand the medical terminology and thereby increase the value of the

  7. Generating Links to Background Knowledge: A Case Study in Annotating Radiology Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Rijke, M. de; Sevenster, M.; Ommering, R. van; Qian, Y.


    Automatically annotating texts with background information has recently received much attention. We conduct a case study in automatically generating links from narrative radiology reports to Wikipedia. Such links help users understand the medical terminology and thereby increase the value of the rep

  8. Monitoring soil wetness variations by means of satellite passive microwave observations: the HYDROPTIMET study cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lacava


    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an important component of the hydrological cycle. In the framework of modern flood warning systems, the knowledge of soil moisture is crucial, due to the influence on the soil response in terms of infiltration-runoff. Precipitation-runoff processes, in fact, are related to catchment's hydrological conditions before the precipitation. Thus, an estimation of these conditions is of significant importance to improve the reliability of flood warning systems. Combining such information with other weather-related satellite products (i.e. rain rate estimation might represent a useful exercise in order to improve our capability to handle (and possibly mitigate or prevent hydro-geological hazards. Remote sensing, in the last few years, has supported several techniques for soil moisture/wetness monitoring. Most of the satellite-based techniques use microwave data, thanks to the all-weather and all-time capability of these data, as well as to their high sensitivity to water content in the soil. On the other hand, microwave data are unfortunately highly affected by the presence of surface roughness or vegetation coverage within the instantaneous satellite field of view (IFOV. Those problems, consequently, strongly limit the efficiency and the reliability of traditional satellite techniques. Recently, using data coming from AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, flying aboard NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites, a new methodology for soil wetness estimation has been proposed. The proposed index, called Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI, developed by a multi-temporal analysis of AMSU records, seems able to reduce the problems related to vegetation and/or roughness effects. Such an approach has been tested, with promising results, on the analysis of some flooding events which occurred in Europe in the past. In this study, results achieved for the HYDROPTIMET test cases will be analysed and discussed in detail

  9. Monitoring linked epidemics: the case of tuberculosis and HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S Sánchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tight epidemiological coupling between HIV and its associated opportunistic infections leads to challenges and opportunities for disease surveillance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We review efforts of WHO and collaborating agencies to track and fight the TB/HIV co-epidemic, and discuss modeling--via mathematical, statistical, and computational approaches--as a means to identify disease indicators designed to integrate data from linked diseases in order to characterize how co-epidemics change in time and space. We present R(TB/HIV, an index comparing changes in TB incidence relative to HIV prevalence, and use it to identify those sub-Saharan African countries with outlier TB/HIV dynamics. R(TB/HIV can also be used to predict epidemiological trends, investigate the coherency of reported trends, and cross-check the anticipated impact of public health interventions. Identifying the cause(s responsible for anomalous R(TB/HIV values can reveal information crucial to the management of public health. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We frame our suggestions for integrating and analyzing co-epidemic data within the context of global disease monitoring. Used routinely, joint disease indicators such as R(TB/HIV could greatly enhance the monitoring and evaluation of public health programs.

  10. Global Satellite Mobile Communication Constellation System Space-based Inter-satellite-link TC&R Scheme%全球卫星移动通信星座天基星间链路测控方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨童; 吴雨翔; 李明峰


    针对全球卫星通信星座的测控问题,提出了利用静止轨道卫星作为天基测控网对低轨全球通信星座卫星进行测控的方案,在GEO轨道布置3颗地球静止轨道卫星,建立GEO轨道卫星与LEO星座卫星之间的星间链路来传输测控信息,再将这些信息转发至相应的地面测控站,分析了测控链路的传输指标,评估了星间测控链路的双向传输性能,最后通过仿真分析验证了采用3颗静止轨道卫星组成的天基测控网能够大幅拓展单纯依靠传统陆基测控网的测控可见弧段,其24h测控弧段覆盖率是后者的8倍,总测控时间比后者提升大约10倍.%A novel telemetry,control and ranging (TC&R) scheme was proposed,adopting space-based GEO satellites' inter-satellite-link(ISL).A space-based TC&R network was established by launching 3 GEO satellites,transmitting and receiving various signals through ISL between LEO and GEO satellites,and retransmitting signals to the ground facilities.The link performance,forward and return link budget capability,and the coverage area analysis were studied.The simulation results show that the GEO space-based TC&R beam,formed by 3 GEO satellites,is capable of creating a much wider coverage area than the ordinary terrestrial-based one,which remarkably extends the TC&R coverage area by 8 times during a 24-hour computing period,and the total TC&R mission performing time is almost 10 times in comparison with the ordinary scheme.

  11. [A case of Psychogenous Crisis, a Linking Psychiatric Pathology]. (United States)

    Esther, Perea C; Martín, Torres Z; Martín, Suárez J


    Psychogenous seizures described by Charcot, are an entity that can be difficult to distinguish from epileptic seizures. 70% of these patients have an underlying psychiatric diagnosis. We describe the case of a female patient who was diagnosed with seizures for several years, poly-medicated, and included in the epilepsy surgery protocol for refractory patients. During the evaluation, a psychogenous origin was discovered for such crises. We analyzed the clinical criteria and laboratory tests that allow us to approach the differential diagnosis between both entities. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of the Strong Scatter Theory to the Interpretation of Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements along Geostationary Satellite Links at VHF and L-band (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Basu, S.; Mackenzie, E.; Sheehan, R. E.


    In a previous work, we demonstrated that ionospheric turbulence parameters may be inferred from amplitude scintillations well into in the strong scatter regime [Carrano et al., International Journal of Geophysics, 2012]. This technique, called Iterative Parameter Estimation (IPE), uses the strong scatter theory and numerical inversion to estimate the parameters of an ionospheric phase screen (turbulent intensity, phase spectral index, and irregularity zonal drift) consistent with the observed scintillations. The optimal screen parameters are determined such that the theoretical intensity spectrum on the ground best matches the measured intensity spectrum in a least squares sense. We use this technique to interpret scintillation measurements collected during a campaign at Ascension Island (7.96°S, 14.41°W) in March 2000, led by Santimay Basu and his collaborators from Air Force Research Laboratory. Geostationary satellites broadcasting radio signals at VHF and L-band were monitored along nearly co-linear links, enabling a multi-frequency analysis of scintillations with the same propagation geometry. The VHF data were acquired using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction, which enabled direct measurement of the zonal irregularity drift. We show that IPE analysis of the VHF and L-Band scintillations, which exhibited very different statistics due to the wide frequency separation, yields similar estimates of the phase screen parameters that specify the disturbed ionospheric medium. This agreement provides confidence in our phase screen parameter estimates. It also suggests a technique for extrapolating scintillation measurements to frequencies other than those observed that is valid in the case of strong scatter. We find that IPE estimates of the zonal irregularity drift, made using scintillation observations along single space-to-ground link, are consistent with those measured independently using the spaced antenna technique. This encouraging result

  13. High altitude clouds impacts on the design of optical feeder link and optical ground station network for future broadband satellite services (United States)

    Poulenard, S.; Ruellan, M.; Roy, B.; Riédi, J.; Parol, F.; Rissons, A.


    Optical links at 1.55μm are envisaged to cope with the increasing capacity demand from geostationary telecom satellite operators without the need of Radio Frequency (RF) coordination. Due to clouds blockages, site diversity techniques based on a network of Optical Ground Stations (OGS) are necessary to reach the commonly required link availability (e.g. 99.9% over the year). Evaluation of the N Optical Ground Station Network (N-OGSN) availability is based on Clouds Masks (CMs) and depends on the clouds attenuation taken in the optical communication budget link. In particular, low attenuation of high semitransparent clouds (i.e. cirrus) could be incorporated into the budget link at the price of larger or more powerful optical terminals. In this paper, we present a method for the calibration of the attenuation at 1.55 μm of high semitransparent clouds. We perform OGS localization optimization in Europe and we find that the incorporation of thin cirrus attenuation in the budget link reduces by 20% the number of handover (i.e. switches OGS) and the handover rate. It is also shown that the minimum number of station required in Europe to reach 99.9% link availability is 10 to 11. When the zone of research is enlarged the Africa, this number is reduced to 3 to 4.

  14. Development and field-testing of the BENTO box: A new satellite-linked data collection system for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Fouch, M. J.


    Currently it is impossible to monitor all of Earth's hazardous volcanoes for precursory eruption signals, and it is particularly difficult to monitor volcanoes in remote regions. The primary constraint is the high cost of deploying monitoring instrumentation (e.g., seismometers, gas sensors), which includes the cost of reliable, high-resolution sensors, the cost of maintenance (including periodic travel to remote areas), and the cost/difficulty of developing remote data telemetry. We are developing an integrated monitoring system, the BENTO (Behar's ENvironmental Telemetry and Observation) box that will allow identification of restless volcanoes through widespread deployment of robust, lightweight, low-cost, easily deployable monitoring/telemetry systems. Ultimately, we expect that this strategy will lead to more efficient allocation of instrumentation and associated costs. BENTO boxes are portable, autonomous, self-contained data collection systems are designed for long-term operation (up to ~12 months) in remote environments. They use low-cost two-way communication through the commercial Iridium satellite network, and, depending on data types, can pre-process raw data onboard to obtain useful summary statistics for transmission through Iridium. BENTO boxes also have the ability to receive commands through Iridium, allowing, for example, remote adjustment of sampling rates, or requests for segments of raw data in cases where only summary statistics are routinely transmitted. Currently, BENTO boxes can measure weather parameters (e.g., windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, atmospheric pressure), volcanic gas (CO2, SO2, and halogens) concentrations, and seismicity. In the future, we plan to interface BENTO boxes with additional sensors such as atmospheric pressure/infrasound, tilt, GPS and temperature. We are currently field-testing 'BENTO 1' boxes equipped with gas and meteorological sensors ('BENTO 1') at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua; Kilauea Volcano, Hawai

  15. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 3: A stochastic rain fade control algorithm for satellite link power via non linear Markow filtering theory (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.


    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on Earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above 30/20 GHz Ka band, i.e., rain attenuation, cloud and/or clear air scintillation, etc., combined with the need to counter such degradations after the small link margins have been exceeded, necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory.

  16. Determination of gravitational potential distribution over a geocentric quasi- sphere based on links between GRACE- and GNSS-type satellites (United States)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin


    We provide a formulation of determining the Earth's gravitational potential distribution over a geocentric quasi-sphere (QS) that is constructed by a GRACE-type satellite (GTS), based on frequency signal transmission between the GTS and a cluster of GNSS satellites (CGS). By emitting and receiving frequency signals between the GTS and a GNSS satellite, we can determine the gravitational potential at the GTS orbit. For a near-polar GTS with height about 350 km above the geoid, we choose sufficient GNSS satellites to determine the gravitational potential at the GTS position. Simulation results show that the accuracy of the determined gravitational potential distribution over the QS can achieve centimeter level if (1) the accuracy of the given potentials at GDSs is about 1 cm level, and (2) optical atomic clocks with instability of 1*10E-18 are available. Our final purpose is to determine the Earth's external gravity field based on the potential distribution on the QS. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733301 and 2013CB733305) and NSFCs (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061)

  17. Evaluating Satellite Products for Precipitation Estimation in Mountain Regions: A Case Study for Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarendra Lakhankar


    Full Text Available Precipitation in mountain regions is often highly variable and poorly observed, limiting abilities to manage water resource challenges. Here, we evaluate remote sensing and ground station-based gridded precipitation products over Nepal against weather station precipitation observations on a monthly timescale. We find that the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B-43 precipitation product exhibits little mean bias and reasonable skill in giving precipitation over Nepal. Compared to station observations, the TRMM precipitation product showed an overall Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.49, which is similar to the skill of the gridded station-based product Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE. The other satellite precipitation products considered (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP, the Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS were less skillful, as judged by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, and, on average, substantially underestimated precipitation compared to station observations, despite their, in some cases, higher nominal spatial resolution compared to TRMM. None of the products fully captured the dependence of mean precipitation on elevation seen in the station observations. Overall, the TRMM product is promising for use in water resources applications.

  18. Assessment of Satellite-based Precipitation Products (TRMM) in Hydrologic Modeling: Case Studies from Northern Morocco (United States)

    EL kadiri, R.; Milewski, A.; Durham, M.


    Precipitation is the most important forcing parameter in hydrological modeling, yet it is largely unknown in the arid Middle East. We assessed the magnitude, probability of detection, and false alarm rates of various rainfall satellite products (e.g., TRMM, RFE2.0) compared to in situ gauge data (~79 stations) across the Our Er Rbia, Sebou, and Melouya Watersheds in Northern Morocco. Precipitation over the area is relatively high with an average of ~400mm/year according to TRMM (1998-2008). The existing gauges indicate that the average annual precipitation across the Tadla and Coastal Plains region is 260mm/year and 390mm/year across the Atlas Mountains. Following the assessment of satellite products against in situ gauge data, we evaluated the effects (e.g., runoff and recharge amounts) of using satellite driven hydrologic models using SWAT. Specifically, we performed a four-fold exercise: (1) The first stage focused on the analysis of the rainfall products; (2) the second stage involved the construction of a rainfall-runoff model using gauge data; (3) the third stage entailed the calibration of the model against flow gauges and/or dams storage variability, and (4) model simulation using satellite based rainfall products using the calibrated parameters from the initial simulation. Results suggest the TRMM V7 has a much better correlation with the field data over the Oum Er Rbia watershed. The Correlation E (Nash-Suncliffe coefficient) has a positive value of 0.5, while the correlation coefficient of TRMM V6 vs. gauges data is a negative value of -0.25. This first order evaluation of the TRMM V7 shows the new algorithm has partially overcame the underestimation effect in the semi-arid environments. However, more research needs to be done to increase the usability of TRMM V7 in hydrologic models. Low correlations are most likely a result of the following: (1) snow at the high elevations in the Oum Er Rbia watershed, (2) the ocean effect on TRMM measurements along

  19. Performance of a 16-ary DEQAM modem employing a baseband or RF predistorter over a regenerative satellite link (United States)

    Cheung, S. W.; Aghvami, A. H.


    The application of 16-ary differentially encoded quadrature amplitude modulation (16-ary-DEQAM) signals to a regenerative satellite system is discussed. Four different bandwidths of the transmitted signal were tested together with different levels of output back-off in the high-power amplifier (HPA) at the transmitter. It is shown that the performance is improved when the predistortion of the 16-ary DEQAM signal is used to reduce the nonlinear distortion of the HPA.

  20. Linking satellite ICT application businesses with regional innovation centers and investors: The EC “INVESaT” project (United States)

    Ghiron, Florence; Kreisel, Joerg


    In the sector of information and communication technologies (ICT), whether in the USA, Japan, or Europe, innovative services are already in use, based on large-scale space-based infrastructure investments. Such systems are e.g. earth observation, telecommunication, and navigation, timing and positioning satellites. In combination with the advent of powerful handheld terminals and the demand for ubiquitous services, it is expected that info-mobility applications will reveal new sources of business in the years ahead, using in particular the Earth observation and future GALILEO systems to position any feature or user anywhere in the world within a few meter accuracy. Hence, satellite-based capabilities provide new and unique opportunities for economic stimulation and development. Many incubators and innovation centers in Europe have already grasped this growth potential. Yet, for many European players business growth appears below expectations compared to developments in the USA following the launch of GPS (Global Positioning System). Europe still has to overcome intrinsic barriers to seize these new business opportunities faster and with more visible economic impact by leveraging on SMEs and regional innovation centers to expand the commercial utilization of satellite capabilities and mobilization of appropriate financial resources. The paper elaborates on the INVESat project (funded by the EuropeInnova—European Commission), which aims at bridging the gap between Innovative enterprises and financial In VEstors in the emerging markets of SaTellite applications. The critical success factors required to stimulate and support more efficiently investments in this bread of innovative services will also be highlighted.

  1. Developing a Satellite Based Automatic System for Crop Monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift Valley, A Case Study (United States)

    Lucciani, Roberto; Laneve, Giovanni; Jahjah, Munzer; Mito, Collins


    The crop growth stage represents essential information for agricultural areas management. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a tool based on remotely sensed satellite (Landsat 8) imagery, capable of automatically classify crop fields and how much resolution enhancement based on pan-sharpening techniques and phenological information extraction, useful to create decision rules that allow to identify semantic class to assign to an object, can effectively support the classification process. Moreover we investigate the opportunity to extract vegetation health status information from remotely sensed assessment of the equivalent water thickness (EWT). Our case study is the Kenya's Great Rift valley, in this area a ground truth campaign was conducted during August 2015 in order to collect crop fields GPS measurements, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll samples.

  2. Novel satellite transport protocol with on-board spoofing proxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiong; Cao Zhigang; Wang Jinglin


    As a result of the exponential growing rate of worldwide Internet usage, satellite systems are required to support broadband Internet applications. The transmission control protocol (TCP) which is widely used in the Internet, performs very well on wired networks. However, in the case of satellite channels, due to the delay and transmission errors, TCP performance degrades significantly and bandwidth of satellite links can not be fully utilized. To improve the TCP performance, a new idea of placing a TCP spoofing proxy in the satellite is considered. A Novel Satellite Transport Protocol (NSTP) which takes advantage of the special properties of the satellite channel is also proposed. By using simulation, as compared with traditional TCPs, the on-board spoofing proxy integrated with the special transport protocol can significantly enhance throughput performance on the high BER satellite link, the time needed to transfer files and the bandwidth used in reverse path are sharply reduced.

  3. Exploring genotype concordance in epidemiologically linked cases of tuberculosis in New York City. (United States)

    Robbins, R S; Perri, B R; Ahuja, S D; Anger, H A; Sullivan Meissner, J; Shashkina, E; Kreiswirth, B N; Proops, D C


    Comparing genotype results of tuberculosis (TB) isolates from individuals diagnosed with TB can support or refute transmission; however, these conclusions are based upon the criteria used to define a genotype match. We used a genotype-match definition which allowed for variation in IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to support transmission between epidemiologically linked persons. Contacts of individuals with infectious TB (index cases) diagnosed in New York City from 1997 to 2003 who subsequently developed TB (contact cases) from 1997 to 2007 were identified. For each contact case and index case (case-pair), isolate genotypes (spoligotype and RFLP results) were evaluated. Isolates from case-pairs were classified as exact or non-exact genotype match. Genotypes from non-exact match case-pairs were reviewed at the genotyping laboratory to determine if the isolates met the near-genotype-match criteria (exactly matching spoligotype and similar RFLP banding patterns). Of 118 case-pairs identified, isolates from 83 (70%) had exactly matching genotypes and 14 (12%) had nearly matching genotypes (supporting transmission), while the remaining 21 (18%) case-pairs had discordant genotypes (refuting transmission). Using identical genotype-match criteria for isolates from case-pairs epidemiologically linked through contact investigation may lead to underestimation of transmission. TB programmes should consider the value of expanding genotype-match criteria to more accurately assess transmission between such cases.

  4. Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies (United States)

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.


    Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues

  5. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from epidemiologically linked case pairs. (United States)

    Bennett, Diane E; Onorato, Ida M; Ellis, Barbara A; Crawford, Jack T; Schable, Barbara; Byers, Robert; Kammerer, J Steve; Braden, Christopher R


    DNA fingerprinting was used to evaluate epidemiologically linked case pairs found during routine tuberculosis (TB) contact investigations in seven sentinel sites from 1996 to 2000. Transmission was confirmed when the DNA fingerprints of source and secondary cases matched. Of 538 case pairs identified, 156 (29%) did not have matching fingerprints. Case pairs from the same household were no more likely to have confirmed transmission than those linked elsewhere. Case pairs with unconfirmed transmission were more likely to include a smear-negative source case (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) or a foreign-born secondary case (OR 3.4) and less likely to include a secondary case <15 years old (OR 0.3). Our study suggests that contact investigations should focus not only on the household but also on all settings frequented by an index case. Foreign-born persons with TB may have been infected previously in high-prevalence countries; screening and preventive measures recommended by the Institute of Medicine could prevent TB reactivation in these cases.

  6. Capabilities and uncertainties of aircraft measurements for the validation of satellite precipitation products – a virtual case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lammert


    Full Text Available Remote sensing sensors on board of research aircraft provide detailed measurements of clouds and precipitation which can be used as reference data to validate satellite products. Such satellite derived precipitation data using passive microwave radiometers with a resolution of typically 50×50km2$50\\times50\\,\\text{km}^2$ stands against high spatial and temporal resolved airborne measurements, but only along a chosen line. This paper focuses on analysis on the uncertainty arising from the different spatial resolution and coverage. Therefore we use a perfect model approach, with a high resolved forecast model yielding perfect virtual aircraft and satellite observations. The mean precipitation and standard deviation per satellite box were estimated with a Gaussian approach. The comparison of the mean values shows a high correlation of 0.92, but a very wide spread. As criterion to define good agreement between satellite mean and reference, we choose a deviation of one standard deviation of the virtual aircraft as threshold. Considering flight tracks in the range of 50 km (one overflight, the perfect agreement of satellite and aircraft observations is only detected in 65 % of the cases. To increase this low reliability the precipitation distributions of the virtual aircraft were fitted by a gamma density function. Using the same quality criterion, the usage of gamma density fit yields an improvement of the Aircraft reliability up to 80 %.

  7. Satellite theory (United States)

    Kozai, Y.


    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  8. Using Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Major Lakes; Case Study Lake Hamun (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Islam, R.; Bah, A.; AghaKouchak, A.


    Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes would provide invaluable information for policy-makers and local people. As part of a comprehensive study, we aim to monitor the land-cover/ land-use changes in the world's major lakes using satellite observations. As a case study, Hamun Lake which is a pluvial Lake, also known as shallow Lake, located on the south-east of Iran and adjacent to Afghanistan, and Pakistan borders is investigated. The Lake is the main source of resources (agriculture, fishing and hunting) for the people around it and politically important in the region since it is shared among three different countries. The purpose of the research is to find the Lake's area from 1972 to 2015 and to see if any drought or water resources management has affected the lake. Analyzing satellites imagery from Landsat shows that the area of the Lake changes seasonally and intra-annually. Significant seasonal effects are found in 1975,1977, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2009 and 2011, as well as, substantial amount of shallow water is found throughout the years. The precipitation records as well as drought historical records are studied for the lake's basin. Meteorological studies suggest that the drought, decrease of rainfalls in the province and the improper management of the Lake have caused environmental, economic and geographical consequences. The results reveal that lake has experienced at least two prolong dryings since 1972 which drought cannot solely be blamed as main forcing factor.Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes

  9. Cadastral Resurvey using High Resolution Satellite Ortho Image - challenges: A case study in Odisha, India (United States)

    Parida, P. K.; Sanabada, M. K.; Tripathi, S.


    Advancements in satellite sensor technology enabling capturing of geometrically accurate images of earth's surface coupled with DGPS/ETS and GIS technology holds the capability of large scale mapping of land resources at cadastral level. High Resolution Satellite Images depict field bunds distinctly. Thus plot parcels are to be delineated from cloud free ortho-images and obscured/difficult areas are to be surveyed using DGPS and ETS. The vector datasets thus derived through RS/DGPS/ETS survey are to be integrated in GIS environment to generate the base cadastral vector datasets for further settlement/title confirmation activities. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the efficacy of a hybrid methodology employed in Pitambarpur Sasana village under Digapahandi Tahasil of Ganjam district, as a pilot project, particularly in Odisha scenario where the land parcel size is very small. One of the significant observations of the study is matching of Cadastral map area i.e. 315.454 Acres, the image map area i.e. 314.887 Acres and RoR area i.e. 313.815 Acre. It was revealed that 79 % of plots derived by high-tech survey method show acceptable level of accuracy despite the fact that the mode of area measurement by ground and automated method has significant variability. The variations are more in case of Government lands, Temple/Trust lands, Common Property Resources and plots near to river/nalas etc. The study indicates that the adopted technology can be extended to other districts and cadastral resurvey and updating work can be done for larger areas of the country using this methodology.

  10. Linking theories of change and observed reality: the Shea value chain partnership case in Burkina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, S.; Wijk, van J.; Vellema, S.


    This case study found out how a public-private partnership in Burkina Faso helped female shea nut producers to link up with the cosmetic industry. Empirical data collected from October-December 2011 revealed that the shea value chain partnership between a international shea processing company, a dev

  11. Space communication link propagation data for selected cities within the multiple beam and steerable antenna coverage areas of the advanced communications technology satellite (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.


    Rain attenuation propagation data for 68 cities within the coverage area of the multiple beam and steerable antennas of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. These data provide the necessary data base for purposes of communication link power budgeting and rain attenuation mitigation controller design. These propagation parameters are derived by applying the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model to these 68 locations. The propagation parameters enumerated in tabular form for each location are as follows: (1) physical description of the link and location (e.g., latitude, longitude, antenna elevation angle, etc.), link availability versus attenuation margin (also in graphical form), fading time across fade depths of 3, 5, 8, and 15 dB versus fade duration, and required fade control response time for controller availabilities of 99.999, 99.99, 99.9, and 99 percent versus sub-threshold attenuation levels. The data for these specific locations can be taken to be representative of regions near these locations.

  12. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the dynamic characteristics of rain fading channel for satellite-to-Earth links at Ka-band (United States)

    Yao, Hongchao; Wang, Huali


    Modeling of rain fading channel dynamics is essential to the real-time prediction of link availability for Ka-band satellite communication system under rain attenuation impairment, and can validate fade mitigation techniques (FMT) such as adaptive transmission and diversity. The mechanism of dynamic rain attenuation model based on time-series generator is firstly concerned in this paper. We further provide a scheme and implementation of real-time simulator for dynamic rain fading channels based on Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation method and general Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA) device. Finally, the impact of adaptive modulation fade countermeasures (AMFC) in the different state of rain attenuation is evaluated with simulation results.

  13. Semantic technologies and linked data for the Italian PA: the case of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gangemi


    Full Text Available Governmental data are being published in many countries, providing an unprecedented opportunity to create innovative services and to increase societal awareness about administration dynamics. In particular, semantic technologies for linked data production and exploitation prove to be ideal for managing identity and interoperability of administrative entities and data. This paper presents the current state of art, and evolution scenarios of these technologies, with reference to several case studies, including two of them from the Italian context: CNR's Semantic Scout, and DigitPA's Linked Open IPA.

  14. Flood modelling with global precipitation measurement (GPM) satellite rainfall data: a case study of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India (United States)

    Sai Krishna, V. V.; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Kamal


    Urban expansion, water bodies and climate change are inextricably linked with each other. The macro and micro level climate changes are leading to extreme precipitation events which have severe consequences on flooding in urban areas. Flood simulations shall be helpful in demarcation of flooded areas and effective flood planning and preparedness. The temporal availability of satellite rainfall data at varying spatial scale of 0.10 to 0.50 is helpful in near real time flood simulations. The present research aims at analysing stream flow and runoff to monitor flood condition using satellite rainfall data in a hydrologic model. The satellite rainfall data used in the research was NASA's Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG), which is available at 30 minutes temporal resolution. Landsat data was used for mapping the water bodies in the study area. Land use land cover (LULC) data was prepared using Landsat 8 data with maximum likelihood technique that was provided as an input to the HEC-HMS hydrological model. The research was applied to one of the urbanized cities of India, viz. Dehradun, which is the capital of Uttarakhand State. The research helped in identifying the flood vulnerability at the basin level on the basis of the runoff and various socio economic parameters using multi criteria analysis.

  15. The determinations of remote sensing satellite data delivery service quality: A positivistic case study in Chinese context (United States)

    Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Tan, Qiaoqiao; Li, Yijun


    With the development of remote sensing technology, remote-sensing satellite has been widely used in many aspects of national construction. Big data with different standards and massive users with different needs, make the satellite data delivery service to be a complex giant system. How to deliver remote-sensing satellite data efficiently and effectively is a big challenge. Based on customer service theory, this paper proposes a hierarchy conceptual model for examining the determinations of remote-sensing satellite data delivery service quality in the Chinese context. Three main dimensions: service expectation, service perception and service environment, and 8 sub-dimensions are included in the model. Large amount of first-hand data on the remote-sensing satellite data delivery service have been obtained through field research, semi-structured questionnaire and focused interview. A positivist case study is conducted to validate and develop the proposed model, as well as to investigate the service status and related influence mechanisms. Findings from the analysis demonstrate the explanatory validity of the model, and provide potentially helpful insights for future practice.

  16. Nanosar-case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.; Sundaramoorthy, P.; Gill, E.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.


    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite's payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially

  17. Nanosar-case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.; Sundaramoorthy, P.; Gill, E.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.


    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite's payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially ruli

  18. A H∞/μ solution for microvibration mitigation in satellites: A case study (United States)

    Preda, Valentin; Cieslak, Jérôme; Henry, David; Bennani, Samir; Falcoz, Alexandre


    The research work presented in this paper focuses on the development of a mixed active-passive microvibration mitigation solution capable of attenuating the transmitted vibrations generated by reaction wheels to a satellite structure. A representative benchmark provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Airbus Defence and Space, serves as a support for testing the proposed solution. The paper also covers modeling and design issues as well as a deep analysis of the solution within the H∞ / μ setting. Especially, an uncertainty modeling strategy is proposed to extract a Linear Fractional Transformation (LFT) model. Insight is naturally provided into various dynamical interactions between the plant elements such as bearing and isolator flexibility, gyroscopic effects, actuator dynamics and feedback-loop delays. The design of the mitigation solution is formulated into the H∞ / μ framework leading to a robust H∞ control strategy capable of achieving exemplary active attenuation performance across a wide range of reaction wheel speeds. A systematic analysis procedure based on the structured singular value μ is used to assess and demonstrate the robust stability and robust performance of the microvibration mitigation strategy. The proposed analysis method is also shown to be a powerful and reliable solution to identify worst-case scenarios without relying on traditional Monte Carlo campaigns. Time domain simulations based on a nonlinear high-fidelity industrial simulator are included as a validation step.

  19. Linking Satellite Remote Sensing Based Environmental Predictors to Disease: AN Application to the Spatiotemporal Modelling of Schistosomiasis in Ghana (United States)

    Wrable, M.; Liss, A.; Kulinkina, A.; Koch, M.; Biritwum, N. K.; Ofosu, A.; Kosinski, K. C.; Gute, D. M.; Naumova, E. N.


    90% of the worldwide schistosomiasis burden falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Control efforts are often based on infrequent, small-scale health surveys, which are expensive and logistically difficult to conduct. Use of satellite imagery to predictively model infectious disease transmission has great potential for public health applications. Transmission of schistosomiasis requires specific environmental conditions to sustain freshwater snails, however has unknown seasonality, and is difficult to study due to a long lag between infection and clinical symptoms. To overcome this, we employed a comprehensive 8-year time-series built from remote sensing feeds. The purely environmental predictor variables: accumulated precipitation, land surface temperature, vegetative growth indices, and climate zones created from a novel climate regionalization technique, were regressed against 8 years of national surveillance data in Ghana. All data were aggregated temporally into monthly observations, and spatially at the level of administrative districts. The result of an initial mixed effects model had 41% explained variance overall. Stratification by climate zone brought the R2 as high as 50% for major zones and as high as 59% for minor zones. This can lead to a predictive risk model used to develop a decision support framework to design treatment schemes and direct scarce resources to areas with the highest risk of infection. This framework can be applied to diseases sensitive to climate or to locations where remote sensing would be better suited than health surveys.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wrable


    Full Text Available 90% of the worldwide schistosomiasis burden falls on sub-Saharan Africa. Control efforts are often based on infrequent, small-scale health surveys, which are expensive and logistically difficult to conduct. Use of satellite imagery to predictively model infectious disease transmission has great potential for public health applications. Transmission of schistosomiasis requires specific environmental conditions to sustain freshwater snails, however has unknown seasonality, and is difficult to study due to a long lag between infection and clinical symptoms. To overcome this, we employed a comprehensive 8-year time-series built from remote sensing feeds. The purely environmental predictor variables: accumulated precipitation, land surface temperature, vegetative growth indices, and climate zones created from a novel climate regionalization technique, were regressed against 8 years of national surveillance data in Ghana. All data were aggregated temporally into monthly observations, and spatially at the level of administrative districts. The result of an initial mixed effects model had 41% explained variance overall. Stratification by climate zone brought the R2 as high as 50% for major zones and as high as 59% for minor zones. This can lead to a predictive risk model used to develop a decision support framework to design treatment schemes and direct scarce resources to areas with the highest risk of infection. This framework can be applied to diseases sensitive to climate or to locations where remote sensing would be better suited than health surveys.

  1. Toward lean satellites reliability improvement using HORYU-IV project as case study (United States)

    Faure, Pauline; Tanaka, Atomu; Cho, Mengu


    Lean satellite programs are programs in which the satellite development philosophy is driven by fast delivery and low cost. Though this concept offers the possibility to develop and fly risky missions without jeopardizing a space program, most of these satellites suffer infant mortality and fail to achieve their mission minimum success. Lean satellites with high infant mortality rate indicate that testing prior to launch is insufficient. In this study, the authors monitored failures occurring during the development of the lean satellite HORYU-IV to identify the evolution of the cumulative number of failures against cumulative testing time. Moreover, the sub-systems driving the failures depending on the different development phases were identified. The results showed that half to 2/3 of the failures are discovered during the early stage of testing. Moreover, when the mean time before failure was calculated, it appeared that for any development phase considered, a new failure appears on average every 20 h of testing. Simulations were also performed and it showed that for an initial testing time of 50 h, reliability after 1 month launch can be improved by nearly 6 times as compared to an initial testing time of 20 h. Through this work, the authors aim at providing a qualitative reference for lean satellites developers to better help them manage resources to develop lean satellites following a fast delivery and low cost philosophy while ensuring sufficient reliability to achieve mission minimum success.

  2. 具有星间链路的导航星座重构研究%Research on Reconfiguration of Navigation Constellation with Inter-satellite Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程竟爽; 何善宝; 林益明; 谢军


    针对具有星间链路的导航星座在卫星节点或链路失效情况下的重构优化设计问题,提出了一种基于遗传算法的设计方法.首先,根据导航星座的功能需求与设计约束,建立了星座综合重构优化设计模型.其次,提出了基于遗传算法的综合优化设计方法,并根据问题特性对遗传算法的具体操作进行了修改.最后,应用该方法对Walker 24/3/2构型星座及网状星间网络在节点和链路混合故障模式下的重构进行了优化设计.结果表明,基于该方法重构后的星座与网络拓扑性能能够得到一定程度的改善,证明了方法的可行性.%An approach based on genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the optimal reconfiguration problem of navigation constellation with inter-satellite links when node or link failure has occurred.Firstly,a design model is established based on the requirements and constraints of navigation constellation.Secondly,the integrated optimization method based on genetic algorithm is developed and the practical operators are modified to adapt to characteristics of the problem.Finally,the approach is applied to the optimal reconfiguration of a mesh-shaped satellite network in the Walker 24/3/2 constellation under a mixed node and link failures.Results have shown that the constellation and topology performance after reconfiguration based on this method can be improved,thus the feasibility of the method is proved.

  3. Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan


    Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

  4. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin


    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  5. 国外激光链路中继卫星系统的发展与启示%Development and enlightenment of data-relay satellite systems using laser links abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程洪玮; 陈二虎


    Laser link data-relay satellite system refers to the satellite system that utilizes laser beam as transmission medium, and relays high rate data of low earth orbit (LEO) information acquisition satellites. Foreign countries have carried out a number of inter-satellite and satellite-ground laser communication experiments. Communication technology has been developed to phase modulation/coherent demodulation from intensity modulation/direct detection, and the communication rate has sped up to 5.6 Gbps. Satellite laser communication is developed towards higher rate, networking applications, terminal miniaturization, and terminal lightweight now. Based on systematical analysis of the typical inter-satellite and satellite-ground laser communication experiments and the development plan of data-relay satellite systems in countries as Europe, Japan and the United States, the development trend of the laser link data-relay satellite system was disaussed, and some enlightenments to construct China's laser link data-relay satellite system were summarized.%激光链路中继卫星系统是指以激光波束为媒介,为低轨信息获取类卫星提供高速数据传输服务的卫星系统.国外已开展了多次星问、星地激光通信实验,已由强度调制/直接探测通信体制过渡到相位调制/相干解调通信体制,通信速率可达5.6 Gbps.卫星激光通信正向更高通信速率、组网应用、终端小型化、轻量化方向发展.在系统分析欧洲、日本、美国等国家典型星间、星地激光通信实验和中继卫星发展计划的基础上,讨论了激光链路中继卫星系统的发展趋势,总结得到对发展我国激光链路中继卫星系统的若干启示.

  6. X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita: a case report and ethical dilemma. (United States)

    Ismail, Heba M; Rincon, Marielisa


    Our objective is to present the first case report of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita in a child conceived by a donated egg and which also presented atypically, with initial mineralocorticoid deficiency. Case report with literature review. A late preterm fraternal twin male, conceived by in vitro fertilization of donated eggs, presented shortly after birth with feeding intolerance, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia. Testing revealed a low aldosterone level, high plasma renin activity, normal cortisol level, and normal 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. He was diagnosed with 18-hydroxylase deficiency based on low 18-hydroxycorticosterone levels and was treated with mineralocorticoid successfully for 17 months. At age 18 months, he presented with dehydration secondary to herpetic gingivostomatitis and was found to be hypoglycemic, hyponatremic, hyperkalemic, and acidotic, with a low serum cortisol level. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test revealed low levels of all adrenal cortex products, with an elevated ACTH level. He was started on glucocorticoids. Genetic testing confirmed X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). His asymptomatic fraternal twin underwent genetic testing and the results were negative. The fertility center records indicated that the mother had donated eggs to other families, but none of the children were known to have this disorder. The egg donor was informed but did not pursue genetic testing. We report a case of X-linked AHC presenting in the context of extraordinary ethical considerations. Our case raises a question unique to the era of assisted reproduction: should routine genetic screening of gamete donors be done for rare but potentially life-threatening conditions?

  7. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia. (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga


    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values.

  8. Satellite remote sensing of Asian aerosols: a case study of clean, polluted, and Asian dust storm days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Lee


    Full Text Available In East Asia, satellite observation is important because aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources have been recognized as a major source of regional and global air pollution. However, retrieving aerosols properties from satellite observations over land can be difficult because of the surface reflection, complex aerosol composition, and aerosol absorption. In this study, a new aerosol retrieval method called as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite aerosol retrieval (MSTAR was developed and applied to three different aerosol event cases over East Asia. MSTAR uses a separation technique that can distinguish aerosol reflectance from top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance. The aerosol optical thickness (AOT was determined by comparing this aerosol reflectance with pre-calculated values. Three case studies show how the methodology identifies discrepancies between measured and calculated values to retrieve more accurate AOT. The comparison between MODIS and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET showed improvement using the suggested methodology with the cluster-based look-up-tables (LUTs (linear slope = 0.94, R = 0.92 than using operational MODIS collection 5 aerosol products (linear slope = 0.78, R = 0.87. In conclusion, the suggested methodology is shown to work well with aerosol models acquired by statistical clustering of the observation data in East Asia.

  9. Updating Object for GIS Database Information Using High Resolution Satellite Images: a Case Study Zonguldak (United States)

    Alkan, M.; Arca, D.; Bayik, Ç.; Marangoz, A. M.


    Nowadays Geographic Information Systems (GIS) uses Remote Sensing (RS) data for a lot of applications. One of the application areas is the updating of the GIS database using high resolution imagery. In this context high resolution satellite imagery data is very important for many applications areas today's and future. And also, high resolution satellite imagery data will be used in many applications for different purposes. Information systems needs to high resolution imagery data for updating. Updating is very important component for the any of the GIS systems. One of this area will be updated and kept alive GIS database information. High resolution satellite imagery is used with different data base which serve map information via internet and different aims of information systems applications in future topographic and cartographic information systems will very important in our country in this sense use of the satellite images will be unavoidable. In this study explain to how is acquired to satellite images and how is use this images in information systems for object and roads. Firstly, pan-sharpened two of the IKONOS's images have been produced by fusion of high resolution PAN and MS images using PCI Geomatica v9.1 software package. Automatic object extraction has been made using eCognition v4.0.6. On the other hand, these objects have been manually digitized from high resolution images using ArcGIS v9.3. software package. Application section of in this study, satellite images data will be compared each other and GIS objects and road database. It is also determined which data is useful in Geographic Information Systems. Finally, this article explains that integration of remote sensing technology and GIS applications.

  10. Validation of PV performance models using satellite-based irradiance measurements : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Parkins, Andrew (Clean Power Research); Perez, Richard (University at Albany)


    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance models are relied upon to provide accurate predictions of energy production for proposed and existing PV systems under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Ground based meteorological measurements are only available from a relatively small number of locations. In contrast, satellite-based radiation and weather data (e.g., SUNY database) are becoming increasingly available for most locations in North America, Europe, and Asia on a 10 x 10 km grid or better. This paper presents a study of how PV performance model results are affected when satellite-based weather data is used in place of ground-based measurements.

  11. An improved satellite link scheme with beam restriction for the navigation constellation%考虑波束限制的改进导航星座星间链路方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 杨龙; 徐波; 谢廷峰


    导航卫星星座系统由于卫星间的相对运动使卫星的相互可见关系不断变化,这给链路选择带来了挑战.本文研究具有同轨及异轨星间链路的导航星座网络,综合考虑星间链路状态,通过比较最短路径方案和K短路径方案,提出了一种考虑波束限制的适用于导航卫星星座的星间链路优化方案,并进行仿真研究,最后得出了有用的结果.%In navigation satellite constellation system, the visibility relationship between satellites changes continuously because of the continual movement of satellite, which makes the link selection to be a big challenge. This study considers the navigation satellite constellation that has inter-ISL and intra-ISL, and takes satellite-link states into comprehensive consideration. Through the comparison of the shortest path scheme and K-shortest path scheme, a kind of ISL scheme with beam restriction for navigation constellation is proposed, and the simulation is done to show the effectiveness of supposed scheme. Finally this paper draws some useful conclusions.

  12. Quantifying dwarf satellites through gravitational imaging: the case of SDSSJ120602.09+514229.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegetti, Simona; Czoske, Oliver; Koopmans, Léon V. E.


    SDSSJ120602.09+514229.5 is a gravitational lens system formed by a group of galaxies at redshift zFG = 0.422 lensing a bright background galaxy at redshift zBG = 2.001. The main peculiarity of this system is the presence of a luminous satellite near the Einstein radius, which slightly deforms the gi

  13. Quantifying dwarf satellites through gravitational imaging : The case of SDSS J120602.09+514229.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegetti, Simona; Czoske, Oliver; Koopmans, Léon V. E.


    SDSS J120602.09+514229.5 is a gravitational lens system formed by a group of galaxies at redshift z(FG) = 0.422 lensing a bright background galaxy at redshift z(BG) = 2.001. The main peculiarity of this system is the presence of a luminous satellite near the Einstein radius, which slightly deforms t

  14. An Object Model for Integrating Diverse Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Union Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu


    Full Text Available In the Earth Observation sensor web environment, the rapid, accurate, and unified discovery of diverse remote sensing satellite sensors, and their association to yield an integrated solution for a comprehensive response to specific emergency tasks pose considerable challenges. In this study, we propose a remote sensing satellite sensor object model, based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Model Language. The proposed model comprises a set of sensor resource objects. Each object consists of identification, state of resource attribute, and resource method. We implement the proposed attribute state description by applying it to different remote sensors. A real application, involving the observation of floods at the Yangtze River in China, is undertaken. Results indicate that the sensor inquirer can accurately discover qualified satellite sensors in an accurate and unified manner. By implementing the proposed union operation among the retrieved sensors, the inquirer can further determine how the selected sensors can collaboratively complete a specific observation requirement. Therefore, the proposed model provides a reliable foundation for sharing and integrating multiple remote sensing satellite sensors and their observations.

  15. Simultaneous optical and satellite observations of auroras in the mantle: Case study (United States)

    Safargaleev, V. V.; Mitrofanov, V. M.; Roldugin, A. V.


    The all-sky camera data obtained in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen Archipelago) are compared with specific features of electron and ion precipitations on the DMSP F18 satellite during its flight within the camera field of view on December 15, 2012. Before arriving at the cusp from the mantle side, the satellite detects two outbursts of precipitating particles. The burst of mantle precipitations far from the cusp is observed simultaneously in both ionic and electronic components. In the ionosphere related to the satellite, no auroras are detected, which is likely due to the low intensity of the flux of precipitating electrons and their low energy (80 eV). Near the cusp, a more intensive burst of precipitations of higher-energy electrons (140 eV) is accompanied by an almost complete "locking" of ions. This burst of mantle precipitations is related to the faint luminous structure in the ionosphere. The ion locking is indicative of the accelerating potential difference in the force tube, which is based on the glowing region. The luminous structure is an element of the so-called "polewar moving auroral forms," which is related in the literature to the reconnection in the daytime magnetopause. The possible relation of the observed phenomena to the reconnected magnetic force tubes, which drift from the cusp in the antisolar direction, is also confirmed by the dispersion of ionic precipitations, i.e., an increase in ion energy as the satellite approaches to the cusp.

  16. NanoSAR – Case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.S.; Sundaramoorthy, P.P.; Gill, E.K.A.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.


    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite’s payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially

  17. Initializing HYSPLIT with satellite observations of volcanic ash: A case study of the 2008 Kasatochi eruption (United States)

    Crawford, Alice M.; Stunder, Barbara J. B.; Ngan, Fong; Pavolonis, Michael J.


    The current work focuses on improving volcanic ash forecasts by integrating satellite observations of ash into the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model, HYSPLIT. The accuracy of HYSPLIT output is dependent on the accuracy of the initialization: the initial position, size distribution, and amount of ash as a function of time. Satellite observations from passive infrared, IR, sensors are used both to construct the initialization term and for verification. Space-based lidar observations are used for further verification. We compare model output produced using different initializations for the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi in the Aleutian Islands. Simple source terms, such as a uniform vertical line or cylindrical source above the vent, are compared to initializations derived from satellite measurements of position, mass loading, effective radius, and height of the downwind ash cloud. Using satellite measurements of column mass loading of ash to constrain the source term produces better long-term predictions than using an empirical equation relating mass eruption rate and plume height above the vent. Even though some quantities, such as the cloud thickness, must be estimated, initializations which release particles at the position of the observed ash cloud produce model output which is comparable to or better than the model output produced with source terms located above and around the vent. Space-based lidar data, passive IR retrievals of ash cloud top height, and model output agree well with each other, and all suggest that the Kasatochi ash cloud evolved into a complex three-dimensional structure.

  18. Bias adjustment of satellite-based precipitation estimation using gauge observations: A case study in Chile (United States)

    Yang, Zhongwen; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Xu, Xinyi; Braithwaite, Dan; Verbist, Koen M. J.


    Satellite-based precipitation estimates (SPEs) are promising alternative precipitation data for climatic and hydrological applications, especially for regions where ground-based observations are limited. However, existing satellite-based rainfall estimations are subject to systematic biases. This study aims to adjust the biases in the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) rainfall data over Chile, using gauge observations as reference. A novel bias adjustment framework, termed QM-GW, is proposed based on the nonparametric quantile mapping approach and a Gaussian weighting interpolation scheme. The PERSIANN-CCS precipitation estimates (daily, 0.04°×0.04°) over Chile are adjusted for the period of 2009-2014. The historical data (satellite and gauge) for 2009-2013 are used to calibrate the methodology; nonparametric cumulative distribution functions of satellite and gauge observations are estimated at every 1°×1° box region. One year (2014) of gauge data was used for validation. The results show that the biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data are effectively reduced. The spatial patterns of adjusted satellite rainfall show high consistency to the gauge observations, with reduced root-mean-square errors and mean biases. The systematic biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation time series, at both monthly and daily scales, are removed. The extended validation also verifies that the proposed approach can be applied to adjust SPEs into the future, without further need for ground-based measurements. This study serves as a valuable reference for the bias adjustment of existing SPEs using gauge observations worldwide.

  19. Defining disease phenotypes using national linked electronic health records: a case study of atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine I Morley

    Full Text Available National electronic health records (EHR are increasingly used for research but identifying disease cases is challenging due to differences in information captured between sources (e.g. primary and secondary care. Our objective was to provide a transparent, reproducible model for integrating these data using atrial fibrillation (AF, a chronic condition diagnosed and managed in multiple ways in different healthcare settings, as a case study.Potentially relevant codes for AF screening, diagnosis, and management were identified in four coding systems: Read (primary care diagnoses and procedures, British National Formulary (BNF; primary care prescriptions, ICD-10 (secondary care diagnoses and OPCS-4 (secondary care procedures. From these we developed a phenotype algorithm via expert review and analysis of linked EHR data from 1998 to 2010 for a cohort of 2.14 million UK patients aged ≥ 30 years. The cohort was also used to evaluate the phenotype by examining associations between incident AF and known risk factors.The phenotype algorithm incorporated 286 codes: 201 Read, 63 BNF, 18 ICD-10, and four OPCS-4. Incident AF diagnoses were recorded for 72,793 patients, but only 39.6% (N = 28,795 were recorded in primary care and secondary care. An additional 7,468 potential cases were inferred from data on treatment and pre-existing conditions. The proportion of cases identified from each source differed by diagnosis age; inferred diagnoses contributed a greater proportion of younger cases (≤ 60 years, while older patients (≥ 80 years were mainly diagnosed in SC. Associations of risk factors (hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure with incident AF defined using different EHR sources were comparable in magnitude to those from traditional consented cohorts.A single EHR source is not sufficient to identify all patients, nor will it provide a representative sample. Combining multiple data sources and integrating information on treatment and

  20. Using ATM over SATCOM links (United States)

    Comparetto, Gary M.


    The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol is studied from the standpoint of determining what limitations, if any, exist in using it over satellite links. It is concluded that, while there is nothing intrinsic about ATM that would generally preclude its use over satellite links, there are, however, several intrinsic characteristics of satellite links, as well as some satellite system configuration-specific issues, that must be taken into account.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko


    Full Text Available In modern times, in the country many remote areas are characterized by low density of weather stations, which reduces the accuracy of synoptic forecasts for territories remoted from the weather stations. In this regard, the use of thermal infrared satellite images for simulation of some climatic parameters is considered by the authors as a promising area of science. The article presents the results of comparing the land surface temperature values calculated from Landsat satellites images and ground-measured air temperature values. For the considered seasons the indicators are characterized by a pronounced linear relationship with a high correlation coefficient.

  2. Comparing regional modeling (CHIMERE) and satellite observations of aerosols (PARASOL): Methodology and case study over Mexico (United States)

    Stromatas, Stavros


    S. Stromatas (1), S. Turquety (1), H. Chepfer (1), L. Menut (1), B. Bessagnet (2), JC Pere (2), D. Tanré (3) . (1) Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, CNRS/IPSL, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, (2) INERIS, Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Parc technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte, FRANCE, (3) Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique/CNRS Univ. des Sciences et Tech. de Lille, 59650 - Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. Atmospheric suspended particles (aerosols) have significant radiative and environmental impacts, affecting human health, visibility and climate. Therefore, they are regulated by air quality standards worldwide, and monitored by regional observation networks. Satellite observations vastly improve the horizontal and temporal coverage, providing daily distributions. Aerosols are currently estimated using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals, a quantitative measure of the extinction of solar radiation by aerosol scattering and absorption between the point of observation and the top of the atmosphere. Even though remarkable progresses in aerosol modeling by chemistry-transport models (CTM) and measurement experiments have been made in recent years, there is still a significant divergence between the modeled and observed results. However, AOD retrievals from satellites remains a highly challenging task mostly because it depends on a variety of different parameters such as cloud contamination, surface reflectance contributions and a priori assumptions on aerosol types, each one of them incorporating its own difficulties. Therefore, comparisons between CTM and observations are often difficult to interpret. In this presentation, we will discuss comparisons between regional modeling (CHIMERE CTM) over Mexico and satellite observations obtained by the POLDER instrument embarked on PARASOL micro-satellite. After a comparison of the model AOD with the retrieved L2 AOD, we will present an alternative

  3. H-- Filtering Algorithms Case Study GPS-Based Satellite Orbit Determination (United States)

    Kuang, Jinlu; Tan, Soonhie

    In this paper the new Hfiltering algorithms for the design of navigation systems for autonomous LEO satellite is introduced. The nominal orbit (i.e., position and velocity) is computed by integrating the classical orbital differential equations of the LEO satellite by using the 7th-8th order Runge- Kutta algorithms. The perturbations due to the atmospheric drag force, the lunar-solar attraction and the solar radiation pressure are included together with the Earth gravity model (EGM-96). The spherical harmonic coefficients of the EGM-96 are considered up to 72 for the order and degree. By way of the MATLAB GPSoft software, the simulated pseudo ranges between the user LEO satellite and the visible GPS satellites are generated when given the appropriate angle of mask. The effects of the thermal noises, tropospheric refraction, ionospheric refraction, and multipath of the antenna are also compensated numerically in the simulated pseudo ranges. The dynamic Position-Velocity (PV) model is obtained by modeling the velocity as nearly constant being the white noise process. To further accommodate acceleration in the process model, the Position-Velocity-Acceleration (PVA) model is investigated by assuming the acceleration to be the Gaussian- Markov process. The state vector for the PV model becomes 8-dimensional (3-states for positions, 3-states for velocities, 1-state for range (clock) bias error, 1-state for range (clock) drift error). The state vector for the PV model becomes 11-dimensional with the addition of three more acceleration states. Three filtering approaches are used to smooth the orbit solution based upon the GPS pseudo range observables. The numerical simulation shows that the observed orbit root-mean-square errors of 60 meters by using the least squares adjustment method are improved to be less than 5 meters within 16 hours of tracking time by using the Hfiltering algorithms. The results are compared with the ones obtained by using the Extended Kalman

  4. Acute corneal hydrops during pregnancy with spontaneous resolution after corneal cross-linking for keratoconus: a case report. (United States)

    Stock, Ricardo Alexandre; Thumé, Thaís; Bonamigo, Elcio Luiz


    Keratoconus may progress to acute corneal hydrops even after cross-linking. In some cases, keratoconus progresses during pregnancy. In this report, we present a case of a patient with increased anterior stromal resistance after cross-linking that would favor nonprogression of keratoconus during pregnancy. We report that cross-linking is likely to have had a protective effect in a white pregnant patient with acute corneal hydrops who showed rapid improvement, as documented by corneal topography. Improvement occurred within 8 days, whereas up to 250 days are reported in the literature. No keratoconus progression occurred in the 20-month follow-up period. Cross-linking failed to prevent the occurrence of acute corneal hydrops after rupture of Descemet's membrane but most likely helped to accelerate the resolution of the condition. Corneal hardening resulting from cross-linking may have also contributed to stabilizing keratoconus during pregnancy.

  5. 箭载共形相控阵卫星数据链通信仿真研究%The communication simulation of data link between satellite and rocket-borne conformal phased array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾国奇; 李思吟; 韦志棉; 饶赣新


    Using the relay satellite as a communications relay, the rocket and the relay satellite are within mutual sight during the whole launch of the launch vehicle. Without any shelter, uninterrupted measurement and control can be achieved on the launch vehicle. In this paper, the transmission losses of the data link between satellite and rocket-borne conformal phased array satellite were analyzed, such as free-space attenuation, atmospheric attenuation, flame attenuation, polarization decay, antenna pointing error loss, and attenuation induced by rain. And the safety margin of the data link between satellite and rocket-borne conformal phased array satellite is simulated during the rocket flight in the S-band.%利用中继星作为通信中继,在运载火箭发射的全程中火箭与中继星都视线可见,不存在遮挡,可以实现对运载火箭的不间断测控.文章对运载火箭共形相控阵卫星数据链传输过程中的自由空间衰减、大气衰减、火焰衰减、极化衰减、天线指向误差损耗、雨衰等进行了分析,并对火箭飞行过程中,S波段箭载共形相控阵卫星数据链的安全裕度进行了仿真.

  6. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal power control and rain fade software test plan, version 1.0 (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.


    The Power Control and Rain Fade Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software automatically controls the LET uplink power to compensate for signal fades. Besides power augmentation, the C&PM Software system is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, control of the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload, and data display. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 is a programmer's guide to the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Power Control and Rain Fade Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Power Control and Rain Fade Test Plan provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software using a predetermined signal fade event. The Test Plan also provides a means to demonstrate the capability of the software.

  7. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hastedt


    Full Text Available This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average achievement scores from the latter can be linked to the international metric. In addition to raising issues associated with different testing conditions, administrative procedures, and the like, this approach also poses psychometric challenges. This paper endeavors to shed some light on the effects that can be expected, the linkage errors in particular, by countries using this practice. The ILSA selected for this simulation study was IEA TIMSS 2011, and the three countries used as the national assessment cases were Botswana, Honduras, and Tunisia, all of which participated in TIMSS 2011. The items selected as items common to the simulated national tests and the international test came from the Grade 4 TIMSS 2011 mathematics items that IEA released into the public domain after completion of this assessment. The findings of the current study show that linkage errors seemed to achieve acceptable levels if 30 or more items were used for the linkage, although the errors were still significantly higher compared to the TIMSS' cutoffs. Comparison of the estimated country averages based on the simulated national surveys and the averages based on the international TIMSS assessment revealed only one instance across the three countries of the estimates approaching parity. Also, the percentages of students in these countries who actually reached the defined benchmarks on the TIMSS achievement scale differed significantly from the results based on TIMSS and the results for the simulated national assessments. As a conclusion, we advise against using groups of released items from international assessments in national

  8. Linking Time and Space Scales in Distributed Hydrological Modelling - a case study for the VIC model (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; Torfs, Paul; Zappa, Massimiliano; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    One of the famous paradoxes of the Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (~450 BC) is the one with the arrow: If one shoots an arrow, and cuts its motion into such small time steps that at every step the arrow is standing still, the arrow is motionless, because a concatenation of non-moving parts does not create motion. Nowadays, this reasoning can be refuted easily, because we know that motion is a change in space over time, which thus by definition depends on both time and space. If one disregards time by cutting it into infinite small steps, motion is also excluded. This example shows that time and space are linked and therefore hard to evaluate separately. As hydrologists we want to understand and predict the motion of water, which means we have to look both in space and in time. In hydrological models we can account for space by using spatially explicit models. With increasing computational power and increased data availability from e.g. satellites, it has become easier to apply models at a higher spatial resolution. Increasing the resolution of hydrological models is also labelled as one of the 'Grand Challenges' in hydrology by Wood et al. (2011) and Bierkens et al. (2014), who call for global modelling at hyperresolution (~1 km and smaller). A literature survey on 242 peer-viewed articles in which the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was used, showed that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has decreased over the past 17 years: From 0.5 to 2 degrees when the model was just developed, to 1/8 and even 1/32 degree nowadays. On the other hand the literature survey showed that the time step at which the model is calibrated and/or validated remained the same over the last 17 years; mainly daily or monthly. Klemeš (1983) stresses the fact that space and time scales are connected, and therefore downscaling the spatial scale would also imply downscaling of the temporal scale. Is it worth the effort of downscaling your model from 1 degree to 1

  9. Time-Use Patterns and Sustainable Urban Form: A Case Study to Explore Potential Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edeltraud Haselsteiner


    Full Text Available Linking time use of the inhabitants of a city with their energy consumption and urban form is an approach which allows integration of the social dimension into research on sustainable urban development. While much has been written about the planning of cities and its implications for human social life, the question of the relationship between time-use patterns and urban form remains underexplored. This is all the more astonishing as time-use statistics offer a unique tool for analysing socio-economic changes regarding family and household structures, gender relations, working hours, recreational behaviour and consumption patterns. Furthermore, spatial planning plays a significant role in establishing time structures. With this paper we aim to explore the possibility of using the time-use data of an urban population to find links between individual time-use patterns and urban form. We describe a case study in Vienna where we addressed time use and mobility of citizens in a participatory approach to jointly develop an integrated socio-ecological model of urban time-use patterns and energy consumption.

  10. Communication satellite technology trends (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis


    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  11. X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Presenting with Secondary Hemophagocytic Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ozturk


    Full Text Available Introduction. Coincidence of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA and secondary hemophagocytic syndrome (sHS is atypical. Both diseases are rare and pathogenesis of the latter one is not clearly known. Case Presentation. A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed both with XLA and sHS. However, in his history, he did not have severe and recurrent infections. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK gene mutation was present (c.1581_1584delTTTG. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, coincidence of XLA and sHS had not been reported in the literature before. Conclusion. Patients with XLA are extremely vulnerable to recurrent bacterial infections. The diagnosis of XLA with sHS at any time of life is both an interesting and challenging situation without history of recurrent bacterial infections.

  12. Linking international student mobility to skilled migration: the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosneaga, Ana


    agenda for solidifying the country’s position as a knowledge society. Looking at the Danish case, this paper illustrates the policy areas as well as the central issues that come to the fore when a host country seeks to link international student mobility and skilled migration. The discussion provides...... of internationalisation of higher education by harmonising diverse institutional structures. At the same time states are also in competition to attract and retain international students as future knowledge workers. Denmark is one of such countries where internationalisation of higher education stands high on the national...... an insight into some of the key challenges surrounding the internationalisation of higher education in the quest for highly skilled labour in the context of knowledge economy....

  13. X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias in an Egyptian baby: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia is a rare developmental disorder of the human adrenal cortex and is caused by deletion or mutation of the dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region of the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1 gene. Most affected children present with failure to thrive, salt wasting and hypoglycemic convulsions in the first months of life. Hypospadias affects approximately one in 250 live male births. Mutations in the mastermind-like domain-containing 1 (MAMLD1 gene have been implicated as one of the causes of hypospadias in children. To the best of our knowledge, an association between congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to a DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due to mutation of the MAMLD1 gene has not previously been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 35-day-old male Egyptian baby was referred to our institution for the evaluation of a two-week history of recurrent vomiting associated with electrolyte imbalance. On examination, our patient was found to have hypotension and dehydration. A genital examination showed distal penile hypospadias with chordee and normal testes. He had hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Endocrinological investigations revealed low levels of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and aldosterone, with a high level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. A provisional diagnosis of congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias was made. A molecular genetics study confirmed the diagnosis of X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutations and hypospadias due to MAMLD1 mutation. He was started on hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone treatment. After three weeks of treatment, his symptoms improved and his blood sugar, sodium, potassium and cortisol levels normalized. Conclusions We report the case of an Egyptian baby with an association of congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due

  14. Selective linking from social platforms to university websites: a case study of the Spanish academic system

    CERN Document Server

    Orduna-Malea, Enrique


    Mention indicators have frequently been used in Webometric studies because they provide a powerful tool for determining the degree of visibility and impact of web resources. Among mention indicators, hypertextual links were a central part of many studies until Yahoo discontinued the linkdomain command in 2011. Selective links constitute a variant of external links where both the source and target of the link can be selected. This paper intends to study the influence of social platforms (measured through the number of selective external links) on academic environments, in order to ascertain both the percentage that they constitute and whether some of them can be used as substitutes of total external links. For this purpose, 141 URLs belonging to 76 Spanish universities were compiled in 2010 (before Yahoo! stopped their link services), and the number of links from 13 selected social platforms to these universities were calculated. Results confirm a good correlation between total external links and links that co...

  15. Gold Minerogenetic Prognosis Using Satellite Data: Case Study of Paishanlou Gold Mine, Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malogo J M Kongola; Wang Ende


    The major scientific goal of using satellite data for mineral prospecting in the study area was two-fold: (a) mapping geology, faults and fractures that localize ore deposits; (b) recognizing hydrothermally altered rocks by interpreting their spectral signatures. The lithology, properties, and geological relations of the rocks were key to understanding such varied phenomena as convection, melting and transport mechanisms, rock deformation and alteration, the sources of magnetic anomalies, and the hydrothermal circulation and formation of gold deposits. Satellite data were enhanced using the following techniques: band combinations, ratios, directional sharpening filtering, Laplacian transform, spatial convolution, and density slicing. By mapping a larger area, the Paishanlou Gold Mine was discovered to be located within an accommodation zone, with three significant populations of faults having bearings of 95, 145, and 180 degrees. Faults bearing 145 degrees make up the faults of the main shear zone. The faults bearing 180 degrees have large sinistral offsets, typically 1.5 km, and form a synthetic-antithetic set with the faults bearing 145 degrees, which have dextral displacements of tens of meters. In the Landsat ETM+ image composed of bands 7-4-2 RGB, gneiss rocks were clearly seen as red purple, and granitic and plagioclase bodies in pale brown/pink. The strongest alteration signature in the image was found along the detachment fault antiform located closest to the mine and the plutons responsible for the Paishanlou gold mineralization. Satellite image interpretation coupled with field surveys led to the identification of iron mineral composites, hydrothermally altered areas, fractures, and an accommodation zone. These anomalies finally resulted in the discovery of three new gold-mineralized sites.

  16. Optimization of post-classification processing of high-resolution satellite image: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Rencai; DONG; Jiajia; WU; Gang; DENG; Hongbing


    The application of remote sensing monitoring techniques plays a crucial role in evaluating and governing the vast amount of ecological construction projects in China. However, extracting information of ecological engineering target through high-resolution satellite image is arduous due to the unique topography and complicated spatial pattern on the Loess Plateau of China. As a result, enhancing classification accuracy is a huge challenge to high-resolution image processing techniques. Image processing techniques have a definitive effect on image properties and the selection of different parameters may change the final classification accuracy during post-classification processing. The common method of eliminating noise and smoothing image is majority filtering. However, the filter function may modify the original classified image and the final accuracy. The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and accurate post-processing technique for acquiring information of soil and water conservation engineering, on the Loess Plateau of China, using SPOT image with 2.5 rn resolution. We argue that it is vital to optimize satellite image filtering parameters for special areas and purposes, which focus on monitoring ecological construction projects. We want to know how image filtering influences final classified results and which filtering kernel is optimum. The study design used a series of window sizes to filter the original classified image, and then assess the accuracy of each output map and image quality. We measured the relationship between filtering window size and classification accuracy, and optimized the post-processing techniques of SPOT5satellite images. We conclude that (1) smoothing with the majority filter is sensitive to the information accuracy of soil and water conservation engineering, and (2) for SPOT5 2.5 m image, the 5×5 pixel majority filter is most suitable kernel for extracting information of ecological construction sites in the Loess Plateau of

  17. Gastric adenocarcinoma in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and HIV: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joud Hajjar


    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is an X-linked inherited disease usually caused by a germline mutation in the BTK gene leading to Bruton’s tyrosine kinase deficiency, which results in the impaired development of B-lymphocytes and a subsequent lack of immunoglobulin production. Patients with XLA have an increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, and multiple case reports have been published regarding an association between XLA and gastrointestinal (GI malignancy. Here, we describe a case of a 25-year-old man with XLA and HIV, who developed gastric adenocarcinoma. Previously reported cases of XLA and GI malignancy are also reviewed and summarized.

  18. Estimating boundary currents from satellite altimetry: A case study for the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; Birol, F.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    in our area (Chelton et al., 1998). We can see that the other dynamical effects not accounted for by the linear theory tend to spread the coastal trapping of the energy in the offshore direction. About 200 km off the coast, the power of the annual... by means of a 3.notdef.g0002 filter, where .notdef.g0002 is the standard deviation of the original along track record. One value of .notdef.g0002 is computed per satellite cycle and per corrective parameter, so as to account for the natural temporal...

  19. Satellites for Commonwealth Education: Some Policy Issues. Case Studies: AUSSAT, Australia; Knowledge Network, Canada; INSAT, India; University of the South Pacific; University of the West Indies. (United States)

    Bates, A. W.

    This report presents case studies on the use of satellites for education in five Commonwealth countries: Australia, Canada, India, Fiji, and Jamaica. Information provided in each of the case studies includes geography, production, the distribution system, regulation and management, and costs. Additional information given for the Australian…

  20. Linking Formal and Non-Formal Learning in Science Education – A Reflection from Two Cases in Ireland and Germany


    Garner, Nicole; Hayes, Sarah M.; Eilks, Ingo


    This paper discusses two cases of linking formal and non-formal learning in science education. The cases concern science education in the Irish Transition Year, a facultative year between lower and upper secondary education, and a non-formal laboratory learning environment for lower and upper secondary school students in a German university. Both cases are described, compared and jointly reflected on non-formal education’s potential and limitations for supporting formal science learning.

  1. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger


    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  2. Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Rowlands, Gwilym; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Metsamaa, Liisa; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip


    We propose a framework for spatially estimating a proxy for coral reef resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of coral reef habitat were obtained using the commercial QuickBird satellite, and freely available imagery (NASA, Google Earth). Principles of coral reef ecology, field observation, and remote observations, were combined to devise mapped indices. These capture important and accessible components of coral reef resilience. Indices are divided between factors known to stress corals, and factors incorporating properties of the reef landscape that resist stress or promote coral growth. The first-basis for a remote sensed resilience index (RSRI), an estimate of expected reef resilience, is proposed. Developed for the Red Sea, the framework of our analysis is flexible and with minimal adaptation, could be extended to other reef regions. We aim to stimulate discussion as to use of remote sensing to do more than simply deliver habitat maps of coral reefs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case Study Examining Egypt, Nigeria, and Venezuela and their Flaring Behavior Utilizing VIIRS Satellite Data (United States)

    Englander, J. G.; Austin, A. T.; Brandt, A. R.


    The need to quantify flaring by oil and gas fields is receiving more scrutiny, as there has been scientific and regulatory interest in quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of oil and gas production. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has developed a method to track flaring activity using a Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite.[1] This reports data on the average size, power, and light intensity of each flare. However, outside of some small studies, the flaring intensity has generally been estimated at the country level.[2]While informative, country-level assessments cannot provide guidance about the sustainability of particular crude streams or products produced. In this work we generate detailed oil-field-level flaring intensities for a number of global oilfield operations. We do this by merging the VIIRS dataset with global oilfield atlases and other spatial data sources. Joining these datasets together with production data allows us to provide better estimates for the GHG intensity of flaring at the field level for these countries.[3]First, we compute flaring intensities at the field level for 75 global oil fields representing approximately 25% of global production. In addition, we examine in detail three oil producing countries known to have high rates of flaring: Egypt, Nigeria, and Venezuela. For these countries we compute the flaring rate for all fields in the country and explore within-and between-country variation. The countries' fields will be analyzed to determine the correlation of flare activity to a certain field type, crude type, region, or production method. [1] Cao, C. "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)." NOAA NPP VIIRS. NOAA, 2013. Web. 30 July 2016. [2] Elvidge, C. D. et al., "A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data," Energies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 595-622, Aug. 2009. [3] World Energy Atlas. 6th ed. London: Petroleum Economist, 2011. Print.

  4. Evaluating the Road Safety Design through High Resolution Satellite Image: A Case Study of Karachi Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Salman


    Full Text Available Humanity is suffering from numerous natural, technological and health related hazards. Urban Road crash is one of the growing health issues these days in both developed and developing countries. Pakistan stands 1st in Asia and 48th in the world in this regard. Similarly, the metropolitan city of Pakistan, Karachi; ranks fourth in the list. Various reasons are responsible for these crashes in Karachi. Around 34% of crashes in the city were accounted due to errors in road geometry. In this study use of high resolution satellite imagery made it possible for identifying geometrical errors at the U-turns on major arteries of the city. It was also recognized that most of the U-turns were built on the fastest lane of the roads with average distance of 1.1 Km apart, are marked as vulnerable for considerable number of severe injury and fatal crashes. Moreover, inlet wall of all median U-turns were found broken, suggested that the car crash had occurred at least once. To cross check this observation, nearly 120 U-turns were surveyed and marked on the satellite imagery based on convenience. Trained professionals interviewed the people working/living nearby the U-turns. Out of 120 U-turns studied, 72.5% were without wall/median and 27.5% were with wall/median. Average number of people got injured or died due to crashes were statistically significant (p<0.05 between the above mentioned types of U-turns. In order to reduce geometrical errors use of RS (Remote Sensing and GIS (Geographical Information System techniques are strongly suggested to be incorporated while planning road design in the city. This would certainly save the resources particularly the lives of the people.

  5. Sensitivity of a Floodplain Hydrodynamic Model to Satellite-Based DEM Scale and Accuracy: Case Study—The Atchafalaya Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Chul Jung


    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics of low-lying riverine floodplains and wetlands play a critical role in hydrology and ecosystem processes. Because small topographic features affect floodplain storage and flow velocity, a hydrodynamic model setup of these regions imposes more stringent requirements on the input Digital Elevation Model (DEM compared to upland regions with comparatively high slopes. This current study provides a systematic approach to evaluate the required relative vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of current and future satellite-based altimeters within the context of DEM requirements for 2-D floodplain hydrodynamic models. A case study is presented for the Atchafalaya Basin with a model domain of 1190 km2. The approach analyzes the sensitivity of modeled floodplain water elevation and velocity to typical satellite-based DEM grid-box scale and vertical error, using a previously calibrated version of the physically-based flood inundation model (LISFLOOD-ACC. Results indicate a trade-off relationship between DEM relative vertical error and grid-box size. Higher resolution models are the most sensitive to vertical accuracy, but the impact diminishes at coarser resolutions because of spatial averaging. The results provide guidance to engineers and scientists when defining the observation scales of future altimetry missions such as the   Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT mission from the perspective of numerical modeling requirements for large floodplains of O[103] km2 and greater.

  6. Object-Based Greenhouse Horticultural Crop Identification from Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery: A Case Study in Almeria, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Aguilar


    Full Text Available Greenhouse detection and mapping via remote sensing is a complex task, which has already been addressed in numerous studies. In this research, the innovative goal relies on the identification of greenhouse horticultural crops that were growing under plastic coverings on 30 September 2013. To this end, object-based image analysis (OBIA and a decision tree classifier (DT were applied to a set consisting of eight Landsat 8 OLI images collected from May to November 2013. Moreover, a single WorldView-2 satellite image acquired on 30 September 2013, was also used as a data source. In this approach, basic spectral information, textural features and several vegetation indices (VIs derived from Landsat 8 and WorldView-2 multi-temporal satellite data were computed on previously segmented image objects in order to identify four of the most popular autumn crops cultivated under greenhouse in Almería, Spain (i.e., tomato, pepper, cucumber and aubergine. The best classification accuracy (81.3% overall accuracy was achieved by using the full set of Landsat 8 time series. These results were considered good in the case of tomato and pepper crops, being significantly worse for cucumber and aubergine. These results were hardly improved by adding the information of the WorldView-2 image. The most important information for correct classification of different crops under greenhouses was related to the greenhouse management practices and not the spectral properties of the crops themselves.

  7. The method of atmospheric correction for coastal case 2 water of Beijing-1 micro-satellite with MODIS (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Jitang


    Accurate atmospheric correction is an important and essential process in ocean color remote sensing because the influence of atmosphere account for the main part of signals received by sensors. Traditional methods usually depend on in-situ measured parameters of atmosphere and could not be applied in operational system. In this paper, MODIS products synchronize with Beijing-1 micro-satellite image were used to extract the parameters of atmosphere. we chose a marine space of clean water far away from the coast in MODIS image and used the products include MOD02, MOD03 and MOD07 to calculate the aerosol radiance of near-infrared bands of MODIS which were used to extrapolate the aerosol radiances of each band of Beijing-1 micro-satellite. Brought the results into radioactive transfer equation and fulfilled atmosphere correction. We found this method can enhanced the detail information of water body, especially to case 2 water. We compared the correction results with original image and the results from 6S model; its effect was consistent well with real conditions and better than 6S model. All these indicated that this method is feasible to atmospheric correction of turbid coastal waters and expands the application of multi-spectral sensors in ocean color remote sensing.

  8. Cultures in orbit: Satellite technologies, global media and local practice (United States)

    Parks, Lisa Ann

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, satellite technologies have had a profound impact upon cultures around the world. "Cultures in Orbit" examines these seemingly disembodied, distant relay machines in relation to situated social and cultural processes on earth. Drawing upon a range of materials including NASA and UNESCO documents, international satellite television broadcasts, satellite 'development' projects, documentary and science fiction films, remote sensing images, broadcast news footage, World Wide Web sites, and popular press articles I delineate and analyze a series of satellite mediascapes. "Cultures in Orbit" analyzes uses of satellites for live television relay, surveillance, archaeology and astronomy. The project examines such satellite media as the first live global satellite television program Our World, Elvis' Aloha from Hawaii concert, Aboriginal Australian satellite programs, and Star TV's Asian music videos. In addition, the project explores reconnaissance images of mass graves in Bosnia, archaeological satellite maps of Cleopatra's underwater palace in Egypt, and Hubble Space Telescope images. These case studies are linked by a theoretical discussion of the satellite's involvement in shifting definitions of time, space, vision, knowledge and history. The satellite fosters an aesthetic of global realism predicated on instantaneous transnational connections. It reorders linear chronologies by revealing traces of the ancient past on the earth's surface and by searching in deep space for the "edge of time." On earth, the satellite is used to modernize and develop "primitive" societies. Satellites have produced new electronic spaces of international exchange, but they also generate strategic maps that advance Western political and cultural hegemony. By technologizing human vision, the satellite also extends the epistemologies of the visible, the historical and the real. It allows us to see artifacts and activities on earth from new vantage points

  9. Analysis on Connectivity of Inter-Orbit-Links in a MEO/LEO Double-Layer Satellite Network%MEO/LEO双层卫星网络中层间链路的连接度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振永; 李集林; 郭庆; 顾学迈


    作为未来卫星移动通信系统的一个重要的研究方向,提出了一种由MEO卫星和LEO卫星共同组成的双层卫星网络(Double-Layer Satellite Network,DLSN),以更好为用户提供多媒体服务.作为多层卫星网络的一个重要的研究内容,连接不同高度上卫星的层间链路(Inter-Orbit-Links,IOLs)的特性对于整个DLSN网络的性能会有很大的影响.根据所设计的多层卫星网络的星座参数,通过对层间链路几何特性的研究,分析了多层卫星网络中MEO卫星与LEO卫星的连接度性能.采用计算机仿真的方法,给出了层间链路连接度的特性.结果表明,为了提高网络性能,在多层卫星网络中应按照一定参数有选择的建立层间链路,而不是简单的采用视距可见原则建立层间链路.%As an important scheme of future global mobile satellite communication systems to provide multimedia service, a Double-Layer Satellite Network (DLSN) with MEO satellites and LEO satellites is proposed.The Inter-Orbit-Links (IOLs) between layers is an essential factor, which affects the performances of the DLSN systems. Considering certain constellation parameters, the geometric characteristics of IOLs are described and the connectivity of MEO satellites and LEO satellites in the DLSN is analyzed. By computer simulation, the results show that IOLs should be selectively established according to certain parameters rather than the simple in-sight principle.

  10. The Value of Linking Mitigation and Adaptation: A Case Study of Bangladesh (United States)

    Ayers, Jessica M.; Huq, Saleemul


    There are two principal strategies for managing climate change risks: mitigation and adaptation. Until recently, mitigation and adaptation have been considered separately in both climate change science and policy. Mitigation has been treated as an issue for developed countries, which hold the greatest responsibility for climate change, while adaptation is seen as a priority for the South, where mitigative capacity is low and vulnerability is high. This conceptual divide has hindered progress against the achievement of the fundamental sustainable development challenges of climate change. Recent attention to exploring the synergies between mitigation and adaptation suggests that an integrated approach could go some way to bridging the gap between the development and adaptation priorities of the South and the need to achieve global engagement in mitigation. These issues are explored through a case study analysis of climate change policy and practice in Bangladesh. Using the example of waste-to-compost projects, a mitigation-adaptation-development nexus is demonstrated, as projects contribute to mitigation through reducing methane emissions; adaptation through soil improvement in drought-prone areas; and sustainable development, because poverty is exacerbated when climate change reduces the flows of ecosystem services. Further, linking adaptation to mitigation makes mitigation action more relevant to policymakers in Bangladesh, increasing engagement in the international climate change agenda in preparation for a post-Kyoto global strategy. This case study strengthens the argument that while combining mitigation and adaptation is not a magic bullet for climate policy, synergies, particularly at the project level, can contribute to the sustainable development goals of climate change and are worth exploring.

  11. Using R for analysing spatio-temporal datasets: a satellite-based precipitation case study (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio


    Increasing computer power and the availability of remote-sensing data measuring different environmental variables has led to unprecedented opportunities for Earth sciences in recent decades. However, dealing with hundred or thousands of files, usually in different vectorial and raster formats and measured with different temporal frequencies, impose high computation challenges to take full advantage of all the available data. R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics which includes several functions for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display, which are particularly well suited for Earth sciences. In this work I describe how R was used to exhaustively evaluate seven state-of-the-art satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRE) products (TMPA 3B42v7, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH, PERSIANN-CDR, PERSIAN-CCS-adj, MSWEPv1.1 and PGFv3) over the complex topography and diverse climatic gradients of Chile. First, built-in functions were used to automatically download the satellite-images in different raster formats and spatial resolutions and to clip them into the Chilean spatial extent if necessary. Second, the raster package was used to read, plot, and conduct an exploratory data analysis in selected files of each SRE product, in order to detect unexpected problems (rotated spatial domains, order or variables in NetCDF files, etc). Third, raster was used along with the hydroTSM package to aggregate SRE files into different temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, annual). Finally, the hydroTSM and hydroGOF packages were used to carry out a point-to-pixel comparison between precipitation time series measured at 366 stations and the corresponding grid cell of each SRE. The modified Kling-Gupta index of model performance was used to identify possible sources of systematic errors in each SRE, while five categorical indices (PC, POD, FAR, ETS, fBIAS) were used to assess the ability of each SRE to correctly identify different precipitation intensities

  12. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.


    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  13. Ocean acidification: Linking science to management solutions using the Great Barrier Reef as a case study. (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Baird, Mark; Beeden, Roger; Byrne, Maria; Collier, Catherine; Dove, Sophie; Fabricius, Katharina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Kelly, Ryan P; Lough, Janice; Mongin, Mathieu; Munday, Philip L; Pears, Rachel J; Russell, Bayden D; Tilbrook, Bronte; Abal, Eva


    Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean acidification. While our understanding of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems is growing, gaps remain that limit our ability to translate scientific knowledge into management action. To guide solution-based research, we review the current knowledge of ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs alongside management needs and priorities. We use the world's largest continuous reef system, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), as a case study. We integrate scientific knowledge gained from a variety of approaches (e.g., laboratory studies, field observations, and ecosystem modelling) and scales (e.g., cell, organism, ecosystem) that underpin a systems-level understanding of how ocean acidification is likely to impact the GBR and associated goods and services. We then discuss local and regional management options that may be effective to help mitigate the effects of ocean acidification on the GBR, with likely application to other coral reef systems. We develop a research framework for linking solution-based ocean acidification research to practical management options. The framework assists in identifying effective and cost-efficient options for supporting ecosystem resilience. The framework enables on-the-ground OA management to be the focus, while not losing sight of CO2 mitigation as the ultimate solution.

  14. The link in Linking (United States)

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian


    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106

  15. Real time deforestation detection using ann and satellite images the Amazon rainforest study case

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes Kehl, Thiago; Roberto Veronez, Maurício; Cesar Cazella, Silvio


    The foremost aim of the present study was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to select the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrices to determine the degree of success of the network. A spectrum-temporal analysis of the study area was done on 57 images from May 20 to July 15, 2003 using the trained neural network. The analysis enabled verification of quality of the implemented neural network classification and also aided in understanding the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, thereby highlighting the vast potential of neural networks for image classification. However, the complex task of detection of predatory actions at the beginning, i.e., generation of consistent alarms, instead of false alarms has not bee...

  16. Using Satellite Data for Environmental Impact Analysis in Economic Growth: the Case of Mongolia (United States)

    Tungalag, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Ochirkhuyag, L.; Oyunjargal, J.


    The Mongolian economy is based on the primary and secondary economic sectors of agriculture and industry. In addition, minerals and mining become a key sector of its economy. The main mining resources are gold, copper, coal, fluorspar and steel. However, the environment and green economy is one of the big problems among most of the countries and especially for countries like Mongolia where the mining is major part of economy; it is a number one problem. The research of the work tested how environmental elements effect to current Mongolian economic growth, which is growing economy because of mining sector. The study of economic growth but the starting point for any study of economic growth is the neoclassical growth model emphasizing the role of capital accumulation. The growth is analysed either in terms of models with exogenous saving rates (the Solow-Swan model), or models where consumption and hence savings are determined by optimizing individuals. These are the so-called optimal growth or Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans. The study extends the Solow model and the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, including environmental elements which are satellite data determine to degraded land and vegetation value from 1995 to 2013. In contrast, we can see the degraded land area increases from 1995 (4856 m2) to 2013 (10478 m2) and vegetation value decrease at same time. A description of the methodology of the study conducted follows together with the data collected and econometric estimations and calibration with environmental elements.

  17. Object-oriented industrial solid waste identification using HJ satellite imagery: a case study of phosphogypsum (United States)

    Fu, Zhuo; Shen, Wenming; Xiao, Rulin; Xiong, Wencheng; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Baisong


    The increasing volume of industrial solid wastes presents a critical problem for the global environment. In the detection and monitoring of these industrial solid wastes, the traditional field methods are generally expensive and time consuming. With the advantages of quick observations taken at a large area, remote sensing provides an effective means for detecting and monitoring the industrial solid wastes in a large scale. In this paper, we employ an object-oriented method for detecting the industrial solid waste from HJ satellite imagery. We select phosphogypsum which is a typical industrial solid waste as our target. Our study area is located in Fuquan in Guizhou province of China. The object oriented method we adopted consists of the following steps: 1) Multiresolution segmentation method is adopted to segment the remote sensing images for obtaining the object-based images. 2) Build the feature knowledge set of the object types. 3) Detect the industrial solid wastes based on the object-oriented decision tree rule set. We analyze the heterogeneity in features of different objects. According to the feature heterogeneity, an object-oriented decision tree rule set is then built for aiding the identification of industrial solid waste. Then, based on this decision tree rule set, the industrial solid waste can be identified automatically from remote sensing images. Finally, the identified results are validated using ground survey data. Experiments and results indicate that the object-oriented method provides an effective method for detecting industrial solid wastes.



    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.


    An equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate linked subsidies for non-price export promotion for US cotton. Study results show that an increase in promotion expenditure increased the dollar value and producer welfare of cotton growers. The gross gain to the domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked subsidy scheme was positive. These evidences support exchange rate linked subsidies for US cotton export promotion.

  19. Optimization of Optically Preamplified Inter-Satellite Microwave Photonics Links with Two Radio-Frequency Signals Input%两路输入前置光放大星间微波光子链路优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子行; 赵尚弘; 赵辉; 李勇军; 楚兴春; 蒋炜; 侯睿; 王翔; 赵顾颢


    考虑到星间微波光子链路传输损耗大且多路微波信号之间交调干扰严重,利用前置光放大来提高链路的信号噪声失真比RSNDR.建立了两路输入前置光放大星间微波光子链路模型,推导出了RSNDR的解析表达式.通过优化马赫-曾德尔调制器的直流偏置相移,使得在给定输入射频信号功率条件下RSNDR最大,并进一步分析了前置光放大器参数对最优直流偏置相移和RSNDR的影响.仿真结果表明,前置光放大改变了影响RSNDR的主要因素,使信号放大的倍数大于噪声和三阶交调(IM3)放大的倍数,从而提高了链路的RSNDR.当前置光放大器增益为20 dB、噪声系数为3 dB时,最优的RSNDR比不加前置光放大器时提高24 dB.前置光放大器增益和噪声系数对最优的RSNDR影响很大,而对最优的直流偏置相移几乎无影响.%An optical preamplifier is utilized to improve the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio .RSNDR of inter-satellite microwave photonics links considering the large signal losses in distant propagation and serious deterioration caused by inter-modulation distortion. An optically preamplified inter-satellite microwave photonics links model with two radio-frequency (RF) signals input is established and an analytical expression of .RSNDR is derived. The direct current (DC) bias phase shift of modulator can be optimized so as to maximize the .RSNDR given the desired input RF signal power, and the effects of the optical preamplifier parameters on the optimum DC bias phase shift and .RSNDR are also examined. Simulation results show that the most limitative factors degrading the .RSNDR are changed, and the fundamental power is seen to increase more compared with the power of third-order intermodulation (IM3) plus noise due to optical preamplifier. Thus, .RSNDR can be improved with respect to the case of non-optical preamplifier. For the preamplifier gain of 20 dB and noise figure of 3 dB, an improvement of about

  20. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.


    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  1. Crop classification using multi-temporal HJ satellite images: case study in Kashgar, Xinjiang (United States)

    Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Li


    The HJ satellite constellation, characterized as high temporal resolution (4 day revisit frequency), has high potential to obtain cloud-free images covering all cruel periods for crop classification during growing season. In this paper, three HJ images (in May, July and September) were acquired, the performances of different multi-spectral HJ CCD data combinations for crop classification in Kashgar, Xinjiang were estimated using library for Support Vector Machine (LIBSVM), and ground reference data obtained in 2011 field work were used as training and validation samples. The result showed that multi-temporal HJ data has a potential to classify crops with an overall classification accuracy of 93.77%. Among the three time periods utilized in this research, the image acquired in July achieved the highest overall accuracy (86.98%) because all summer crops were under dense canopy closure. Cotton could be accurately extracted in May image (both user and produce accuracy are above 90%) because of its lower canopy closure compared with spring, the rotate crop (wheat_maize) and winter crop (wheat) at the time period. Then, the July and September combination performed as good as that of all threetime- period combination, which indicated that images obtained at cruel time periods are enough to identify crops, and the additional images improve little on classification accuracy. In addition, multi-temporal NDVI in cruel time periods of the growing season is testified efficient to classify crops with significant phenonlogical variances since they achieved similar overall accuracy to that of multi-temporal multi-spectral combination.

  2. Satellite observations of aerosol transport from East Asia to the Arctic: three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Di Pierro


    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of aerosols obtained with the CALIOP lidar onboard CALIPSO are used in conjunction with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model to document three aerosol export events from East Asia to the Arctic that occurred in the year 2007. During each of these events CALIOP sampled the pollution plumes multiple times over periods of five to seven days. Meridional transport to the Arctic was rapid, taking 3–4 days and was accompanied by net diabatic heating of ~5 °C/day and precipitation in its ascending stage. Once in the Arctic transport was nearly isentropic with slow subsidence and radiative cooling at a rate of 1–1.5 °C/day. We find close agreement between modeled and observed plume in terms of length, altitude, thickness and, within the measurement uncertainties, extinction coefficient. In one event the satellite algorithm misclassifies the aerosol layer as ice clouds as a result of the relatively high depolarization ratio (0.06, likely caused by a somewhat high dust component in the aerosol mixture. The misclassification is more severe at daytime (67% of layers are misclassified than at nighttime (32%. The two most intense export events occurred in early spring within a three-week time span and are strongly related to a persisting blocking anticyclone that was located in the NW Pacific. Using 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies of these two events along with several others in 2007–2009 we develop a meteorological index that captures 40–60% of the variance of Asian transport events to the Arctic in winter and spring.

  3. Mapping queries to the Linking Open Data cloud: a case study using DBpedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.


    We introduce the task of mapping search engine queries to DBpedia, a major linking hub in the Linking Open Data cloud. We propose and compare various methods for addressing this task, using a mixture of information retrieval and machine learning techniques. Specifically, we present a supervised mach

  4. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  5. X-linked agammaglobulinemia diagnosed late in life: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common variable immune deficiency (CVID, one of the most common primary immunodeficiency diseases presents in adults, whereas X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA, an inherited humoral immunodeficiency, is usually diagnosed early in life after maternal Igs have waned. However, there have been several reports in the world literature in which individuals have either had a delay in onset of symptoms or have been misdiagnosed with CVID and then later found to have mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK yielding a reclassification as adult-onset variants of XLA. The typical finding of absent B cells should suggest XLA rather than CVID and may be a sensitive test to detect this condition, leading to the more specific test (Btk mutational analysis. Further confirmation may be by mutational analyses. Methods The records of 2 patients were reviewed and appropriate clinical data collected. BTK mutational analysis was carried out to investigate the suspicion of adult-presentation of XLA. A review of the world literature on delayed diagnosis of XLA and mild or "leaky" phenotype was performed. Results 2 patients previously diagnosed with CVID associated with virtual absence of CD19+ B cells were reclassified as having a delayed diagnosis and adult-presentation of XLA. Patient 1, a 64 yr old male with recurrent sinobronchial infections had a low level of serum IgG of 360 mg/dl (normal 736–1900, IgA Patient 2, a 46 yr old male with recurrent sinopulmonary infections had low IgG of 260 mg/dl, low IgA Conclusion These two cases represent an unusual adult-presentation of XLA, a humoral immunodeficiency usually diagnosed in childhood and the need to further investigate a suspicion of XLA in adult males with CVID particularly those associated with low to absent CD19+ B cells. A diagnosis of XLA can have significant implications including family counseling, detecting female carriers, and early intervention and treatment of affected male

  6. Delayed repair in a case of forearm fascial muscle herniation using non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix. (United States)

    Hartmann, Christoph E A; Branford, Olivier A; Floyd, David


    The options for treatment of symptomatic muscle herniation in the limbs traditionally include fasciotomy, direct repair, tendon weave graft (palmaris longus), fascial graft (tensor fascia lata), and synthetic mesh (prolene). A recent case report has described the use of acellular cadaveric dermal matrix to reconstruct fascial defects in 2 cases. We describe the use of Strattice, a non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix, as a fascial underlay graft in a case of symptomatic upper limb muscle herniation. We propose that Strattice has the advantages over cadaveric dermal matrices in terms of avoiding the use of human donor tissue. It has suitable tensile properties to be used for reconstructing fascial defects.

  7. Diagnostic/prognostic molecular cytogenetic follow-up applied in satellited marker cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Anderson, S.


    Special caution needs to be exercised in offering a good prognosis in Prader-Willi probe negative 15-derived marker cases, since it is clear that phenotypic effects can still be associated with the apparent presence of proximal sequences. We have had two postnatal cases in this category, one which was inherited from an unaffected paternal (non-mosaic) carrier, possibly demonstrating imprinting effects. Familial studies are continuing in this case. Although the D22/S9 locus appears diagnostic of cateye syndrome (CES), the dual specificity of the 14/22 centromeric probe leaves the possibility of a poor prognosis 14 derivation when the CES probe is negative. Therefore, it is imperative that proximal long arm 13, 14, 21 and more proximal 15 FISH probes be implemented so that a phenotypically correlated database may indicate the proper FISH probes necessary for accurate prognosis. Bisatellited markers is which a bipartite centromeric probe signal was found were considered to be higher risk than those with the single signal in counseling.

  8. A three-year-old boy with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakan Nedim


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy leads to demyelination of the nervous system, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of long-chain fatty acids. Most young patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy develop seizures and progressive neurologic deficits, and die within the first two decades of life. Congenital or acquired disorders of the respiratory system have not been previously described in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Case presentation A 3-year-old Arabic boy from Yemen presented with discoloration of the mucous membranes and nail beds, which were considered cyanoses due to methemoglobinemia. He also had shortness of breath, fatigue, emesis and dehydration episodes for which he was admitted to our hospital. Chest radiograph and chest computed tomography scans showed congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation. A few weeks before the removal of the malformation, he had a significant episode of hypotension and hypoglycemia. This development required further in-hospital evaluation that led to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and the initiation of treatment with corticosteroids. One year later, he developed seizures and loss of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging of his head showed diffuse demyelination secondary to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. He was treated with anti-seizure and anti-oxidants, and was referred for bone marrow transplant evaluation. Conclusion The presence of adrenal insufficiency, neurologic deficits and seizures are common manifestations of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The association of congenital lung disease with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy or Addison's disease has not been described previously.

  9. Case study: development of a SANDF tactical data link network enabling capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, CJ


    Full Text Available In the scope of Tactical Data Links (TDL), the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) started the journey to establish a national TDL capability with the commencement of their national Strategic Defence Procurement Packages (SDPP) in 1999...

  10. Using high resolution satellite multi-temporal interferometry for landslide hazard detection in tropical environments: the case of Haiti (United States)

    Wasowski, Janusz; Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa; Piard, Boby Emmanuel; Mondesir, Philemon


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) is one of the most promising satellite-based remote sensing techniques for fostering new opportunities in landslide hazard detection and assessment. MTI is attractive because it can provide very precise quantitative information on slow slope displacements of the ground surface over huge areas with limited vegetation cover. Although MTI is a mature technique, we are only beginning to realize the benefits of the high-resolution imagery that is currently acquired by the new generation radar satellites (e.g., COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X). In this work we demonstrate the potential of high resolution X-band MTI for wide-area detection of slope instability hazards even in tropical environments that are typically very harsh (eg. coherence loss) for differential interferometry applications. This is done by presenting an example from the island of Haiti, a tropical region characterized by dense and rapidly growing vegetation, as well as by significant climatic variability (two rainy seasons) with intense precipitation events. Despite the unfavorable setting, MTI processing of nearly 100 COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) mages (2011-2013) resulted in the identification of numerous radar targets even in some rural (inhabited) areas thanks to the high resolution (3 m) of CSK radar imagery, the adoption of a patch wise processing SPINUA approach and the presence of many man-made structures dispersed in heavily vegetated terrain. In particular, the density of the targets resulted suitable for the detection of some deep-seated and shallower landslides, as well as localized, very slow slope deformations. The interpretation and widespread exploitation of high resolution MTI data was facilitated by Google EarthTM tools with the associated high resolution optical imagery. Furthermore, our reconnaissance in situ checks confirmed that MTI results provided useful information on landslides and marginally stable slopes that can represent a

  11. Linking the Presence of Surfactant Associated Bacteria on the Sea Surface and in the Near Surface Layer of the Ocean to Satellite Imagery (United States)

    Hamilton, Bryan; Dean, Cayla; Kurata, Naoko; Soloviev, Alex; Tartar, Aurelien; Shivji, Mahmood; Perrie, William; Lehner, Susanne


    Several genera of bacteria residing on the sea surface and in the near-surface layer of the ocean have been found to be involved in the production and decay of surfactants. Under low wind speed conditions, these surfactants can suppress short gravity capillary waves at the sea surface and form natural sea slicks. These features can be observed with both airborne and satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR). We have developed a new method for sampling the sea surface microlayer that has reduced contamination from the boat and during lab handling of samples. Using this new method, a series of experiments have been conducted to establish a connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the upper layer of the ocean and sea slicks. DNA analysis of in situ samples taken during a RADARSAT-2 satellite overpass in the Straits of Florida during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill showed a higher abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial genera in the slick area as compared to the non-slick area. These genera were found to be more abundant in the subsurface water samples collected as compared to samples taken from the sea surface. The experiment was repeated in the Straits of Florida in September 2013 and was coordinated with TerraSAR-X satellite overpasses. The observations suggest that the surfactants contributing to sea slick formation are produced by marine bacteria in the organic matter-rich water column and move to the sea surface by diffusion or advection. Thus, within a range of wind-wave conditions, the organic materials present in the water column (such as dissolved oil spills) can be monitored with SAR satellite imagery. In situ sampling was also performed in the Gulf of Mexico in December 2013 during RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X satellite overpasses. Areas near natural oil seeps identified from archived TerraSAR-X imagery were targeted for in situ sampling. A number of samples from this location have been analyzed to determine the

  12. Parameterizing atmosphere-land surface exchange for climate models with satellite data: A case study for the Southern Great Plains CART site (United States)

    Gao, W.

    High-resolution satellite data provide detailed, quantitative descriptions of land surface characteristics over large areas so that objective scale linkage becomes feasible. With the aid of satellite data, researchers examined the linearity of processes scaled up from 30 m to 15 km. If the phenomenon is scale invariant, then the aggregated value of a function or flux is equivalent to the function computed from aggregated values of controlling variables. The linear relation may be realistic for limited land areas having no large surface contrasts to cause significant horizontal exchange. However, for areas with sharp surface contrasts, horizontal exchange and different dynamics in the atmospheric boundary may induce nonlinear interactions, such as at interfaces of land-water, forest-farm land, and irrigated crops-desert steppe. The linear approach, however, represents the simplest scenario and is useful for developing an effective scheme for incorporating subgrid land surface processes into large-scale models. Our studies focus on coupling satellite data and ground measurements with a satellite-data-driven land surface model to parameterize surface fluxes for large-scale climate models. In this case study, we used surface spectral reflectance data from satellite remote sensing to characterize spatial and temporal changes in vegetation and associated surface parameters in an area of about 350 x 400 km covering the southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  13. Automatic Classification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery - a Case Study for Urban Areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Maas, A.; Alrajhi, M.; Alobeid, A.; Heipke, C.


    Updating topographic geospatial databases is often performed based on current remotely sensed images. To automatically extract the object information (labels) from the images, supervised classifiers are being employed. Decisions to be taken in this process concern the definition of the classes which should be recognised, the features to describe each class and the training data necessary in the learning part of classification. With a view to large scale topographic databases for fast developing urban areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia we conducted a case study, which investigated the following two questions: (a) which set of features is best suitable for the classification?; (b) what is the added value of height information, e.g. derived from stereo imagery? Using stereoscopic GeoEye and Ikonos satellite data we investigate these two questions based on our research on label tolerant classification using logistic regression and partly incorrect training data. We show that in between five and ten features can be recommended to obtain a stable solution, that height information consistently yields an improved overall classification accuracy of about 5%, and that label noise can be successfully modelled and thus only marginally influences the classification results.

  14. Evaluating a satellite-based seasonal evapotranspiration product and identifying its relationship with other satellite-derived products and crop yield: A case study for Ethiopia (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Senay, Gabriel B.; Berhan, Getachew; Regassa, Teshome; Beyene, Shimelis


    Satellite-derived evapotranspiration anomalies and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are currently used for African agricultural drought monitoring and food security status assessment. In this study, a process to evaluate satellite-derived evapotranspiration (ETa) products with a geospatial statistical exploratory technique that uses NDVI, satellite-derived rainfall estimate (RFE), and crop yield data has been developed. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ETa using the NDVI and RFE, and identify a relationship between the ETa and Ethiopia’s cereal crop (i.e., teff, sorghum, corn/maize, barley, and wheat) yields during the main rainy season. Since crop production is one of the main factors affecting food security, the evaluation of remote sensing-based seasonal ETa was done to identify the appropriateness of this tool as a proxy for monitoring vegetation condition in drought vulnerable and food insecure areas to support decision makers. The results of this study showed that the comparison between seasonal ETa and RFE produced strong correlation (R2 > 0.99) for all 41 crop growing zones in Ethiopia. The results of the spatial regression analyses of seasonal ETa and NDVI using Ordinary Least Squares and Geographically Weighted Regression showed relatively weak yearly spatial relationships (R2 cropping zones. However, for each individual crop zones, the correlation between NDVI and ETa ranged between 0.3 and 0.84 for about 44% of the cropping zones. Similarly, for each individual crop zones, the correlation (R2) between the seasonal ETa anomaly and de-trended cereal crop yield was between 0.4 and 0.82 for 76% (31 out of 41) of the crop growing zones. The preliminary results indicated that the ETa products have a good predictive potential for these 31 identified zones in Ethiopia. Decision makers may potentially use ETa products for monitoring cereal crop yields and

  15. The Management of “Coats' Response” in a Patient with X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa—A Case Report


    Shveta Bansal; Niladri Saha; Woon, W. H.


    The management of exudative retinal detachment in Coats disease can be very difficult with variable results. A case is presented of a 12 year old boy who was diagnosed with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa with an associated “Coat's Response”. The patient had a marked reduction in his left visual acuity due to intragel and subhyaloid haemorrhage as well as exudative retinal detachment. This was managed successfully with vitrectomy and endolaser, resulting in clearance of the haemorrhage and flat...

  16. How translators can improve multilingual terminology in a link: teaching case study examples



    El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en describir un método para enriquecer y mejorar la terminología multilingüe del traductor intérprete de textos especializados en diversas disciplinas desde un único link. El método consiste en utilizar lenguajes controlados, especialmente tesauros con tecnología linked open data en el contexto de la web semántica. Esta tecnología permite que cada concepto sea identificado de forma unívoca con una URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), utilizando el lenguaje S...

  17. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia linked CSF1R mutation: Report of four Korean cases. (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Hun; Na, Duk L; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Hwang, Sun Jae; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young Min; Shin, Myung-Jun; Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Yoon, Uicheul; Park, Do Youn; Jung, Dae Soo; Ahn, Jae Woo; Sung, Suk; Huh, Gi Yeong


    We describe detailed clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), linked to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutations in four Korean cases. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings were obtained by direct evaluation and from previous medical records. The genetic analysis of the CSF1R gene was done in two autopsy-confirmed ALSP cases and two cases where ALSP was suspected based on the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics. We identified two known mutations: c.2342C>T (p.A781V) in one autopsy-proven HDLS and clinically ALSP-suspected case and c.2345G>A (p.R782H) in another autopsy-proven POLD case. We also found a novel mutation (c.2296A>G; p.M766V) in a patient presenting with hand tremor, stuttering and hesitant speech, and abnormal behavior whose father died from a possible diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented ALSP-linked CSF1R mutation in Korea and supports the suggestion that HDLS and POLD, with pathological characteristics that are somewhat different but which are caused by CSF1R mutations, are the same spectrum of disease, ALSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Linking HR strategy, e-HR goals, architectures, and outcomes: a model and case study evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddington, Martin; Martin, Graeme; Bondarouk, T.V.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, H.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Looise, J.C.; Looise, Jan C.


    Building on our earlier model of the links between HR strategy, e-HR goals, architectures, and outcomes, we illustrate the relationship between some of these elements with data from three global organizations. In doing so, we aim to help academics and practitioners understand this increasingly

  19. Linking small scale farmers in China with the international markets; A case of apple export chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Qiu, H.Q.; Huang, Z.R.


    This study demonstrates that the Chinese apple export chains are highly coordinated through ongoing long term loyal network relationships and vertical integration. Various chain governance mechanisms were formed and link small-scale apple farmers in China with export markets. These institutional inn

  20. Far-field correlation of bidirectional tracking beams due to wave-front deformation in inter-satellites optical communication links. (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Zhongtian; Ma, Jing; Wu, Feng; Tan, Liying


    In some applications of optical communication systems, such as inter-satellites optical communication, the correlation of the bidirectional tracking beams changes in far-field as a result of wave-front deformation. Far-field correlation model with wave-front deformation on tracking stability is established. Far-field correlation function and factor have been obtained. Combining with parameters of typical laser communication systems, the model is corrected. It shows that deformation pointing-tracking errors θ(A) and θ(B), far-field correlation factor δ depend on RMS of deformation error rms, which decline with a increasing rms including Tilt and Coma. The principle of adjusting far-field correlation factor with wave-front deformation to compensate deformation pointing-tracking errors has been given, through which the deformation pointing-tracking error is reduced to 18.12″ (Azimuth) and 17.65″ (Elevation). Work above possesses significant reference value on optimization design in inter-satellites optical communication.

  1. Branch-point stoichiometry can generate weak links in metabolism: the case of glycine biosynthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enrique Meléndez-Hevia; Patricia D E Paz-Lugo


    Although the metabolic network permits conversion between almost any pair of metabolites, this versatility fails at certain sites because of chemical constraints (kinetic, thermodynamic and stoichiometric) that seriously restrict particular conversions. We call these sites weak links in metabolism, as they can interfere harmfully with management of matter and energy if the network as a whole does not include adequate safeguards. A critical weak link is created in glycine biosynthesis by the stoichiometry of the reaction catalyzed by glycine hydroxymethyltransferase (EC, which converts serine into glycine plus one C1 unit: this produces an absolute dependence of the glycine production flux on the utilization of C1 units for other metabolic pathways that do not work coordinately with glycine use. It may not be possible, therefore, to ensure that glycine is always synthesized in sufficient quantities to meet optimal metabolic requirements.

  2. Integrating linked open data in mobile augmented reality applications - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Vert


    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a model and implement a prototype that integrates user-generated linked open data and open government data in a mobile augmented reality tourism application that works in the browser of the mobile device. We present some challenges met in this endeavour and solutions to overcome them, as well as propose further issues that should be addressed by research in this field.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Dima


    Full Text Available The paper tries to offer empirical evidence on the link between economic growth, globalisation phenomenon and education level of population in the Romanian economy. Using time series for 1990-2011 in a regression model, we found a positive validated correlation between globalisation and economic growth, globalisation and education and, economic growth and education. For globalisation measurement the KOF index of globalisation was used.

  4. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.


    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Research on the standards of indicators associated with maintain time in bidirectional beam tracking in inter-satellites optical communication links. (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan; Wu, Feng; Tan, Liying; Guo, Pengzhen; Ma, Jing


    We report on a novel technology for high-speed inter-satellites optical communication by bidirectional beam tracking. By establishing the relation between the compensation effect and the parameters of response time and overshoot situation, the stability can be well compensated simply by the control system. Thus the relation between compensation effect and maintain time can be predicted from ground tests, and the certain evaluation standard could be established to meet the requirements of system. The other critical factors, such as signal-to-noise ratio and pointing angle error, have also been considered to improve the stability. The general approach can provide us a powerful path to overcome the performance limitation of bidirectional beam tracking, which can be expected to be widely applied in Free Space optics communications in future.

  6. The business case: The missing link between information technology benefits and organisational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick


    Full Text Available Purpose: Business cases are an integral part of information technology (IT projects, providingthe linkage between the organisational strategies and the promised benefits. Most majorproject management standards and methodologies make reference to the business case andits intended usage.Problem investigated: The success of IT projects is measured based on the benefits they deliver; anecdotal evidence states that IT projects fail at an alarming rate. The benefits are promised in the business case and should be delivered. This study focuses on whether there is a gap between theory and practice with regard to the way that organisations use the business case to approve, manage and track the promised benefits throughout an IT project.Methodology: This article reports on exploratory research that was initiated to establish the current practice of business case application. Four research questions were developed based on an extensive literature review to support or debunk the anecdotal evidence. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather evidence from organisations based on these research questions.Findings: The results suggest that organisations make use of business cases for various reasons and mostly in line with theory. There are, however, aspects that need to be addressed, such as the linkage between the business case and the harvesting of promised benefits.Value of research: This article confirms the theoretical aspects of the business case but highlights some deviations from practice. Organisations need to be more vigilant in the management of the business case to ensure the tracking and realisation of promised benefits. 

  7. Re-analysis of epidemiologically linked tuberculosis cases not supported by IS6110-RFLP-based genotyping. (United States)

    Martín, A; Iñigo, J; Chaves, F; Herranz, M; Ruiz-Serrano, M J; Palenque, E; Bouza, E; García de Viedma, D


    Tuberculosis microepidemics are considered as such when a proven epidemiological link is identified between the cases. However, some studies have found microepidemics that were not supported by genotyping data. In a cross-sectional study, 44 linked pairs from 33 microepidemics identified during a 5-year period in Madrid, Spain were analysed to evaluate whether the epidemiological findings were consistent with the molecular analysis by IS6110-RFLP. Twelve pairs (27.3%) were not initially confirmed by molecular typing, and a refined re-analysis was performed to identify the reasons for the discrepancies. The possible causes were as follows: (i) laboratory errors or cross-contamination events, (ii) undetected clonally complex infections, and (iii) lack of refinement in the genotyping analysis that could be clarified by applying second-line fingerprinting tools. One discrepant pair was caused by laboratory error. No discrepant pairs were the result of incorrect assignment of genotypes due to clonally complex infections. The application of spoligotyping, MIRU-15 and RFLP enabled the establishment of matching shared genotypes in four linked pairs initially considered as discrepant; therefore, the percentage of discrepant pairs was reduced from 27.3% to 15.9% (7/44). However, in the remaining seven pairs, second-line fingerprinting identified differences with at least two of the three genotyping tools applied. This finding alerts us to the need to (i) refine as much as possible the molecular analysis to establish more accurate identification of truly discrepant cases, and (ii) broaden the search for epidemiological links to include non-conventional contexts outside the household or work/school settings.

  8. Publishing Life Science Data as Linked Open Data: the Case Study of miRBase

    CERN Document Server

    Dalamagas, Theodore; Papastefanatos, George; Stavrakas, Yannis; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G


    This paper presents our Linked Open Data (LOD) infrastructures for genomic and experimental data related to microRNA biomolecules. Legacy data from two well-known microRNA databases with experimental data and observations, as well as change and version information about microRNA entities, are fused and exported as LOD. Our LOD server assists biologists to explore biological entities and their evolution, and provides a SPARQL endpoint for applications and services to query historical miRNA data and track changes, their causes and effects.

  9. Links between education, employment and quality of life. The case of Romania


    Mirela Ionela ACELEANU


    The field of quality of life is highly discussed in the literature, both in terms of the components of the quality of life and the development of indicators on quality of life in different countries. The quality of life is influenced by many factors, both individually and regionally and globally. The paper aims to present different ways of analyzing the quality of life and to highlight the link between education, employment and quality of life, in Romania and in general. Studies have shown th...

  10. The Market Effect of a Food Scare: The Case of Genetically Modified StarLink Corn



    Genetic modification of crops has revolutionized food production, but it remains controversial due to food safety concerns. A recent food safety scare provides a natural experiment on the market's willingness to accept an increase in perceived risk from genetically modified (GM) food. We analyze the market impact of contamination of the U.S. food-corn supply by a GM variety called StarLink. We find that the contamination led to a 6.8 percent discount in corn prices and that the suppression...

  11. South-east Asian Zika virus strain linked to cluster of cases in Singapore, August 2016. (United States)

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Mak, Tze-Minn; Ng, Yi-Kai; Phuah, Shiau-Pheng; Huber, Roland G; Marzinek, Jan K; Holdbrook, Daniel A; Lee, Raphael Tc; Cui, Lin; Lin, Raymond Tp


    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an ongoing global public health emergency with 70 countries and territories reporting evidence of ZIKV transmission since 2015. On 27 August 2016, Singapore reported its first case of local ZIKV transmission and identified an ongoing cluster. Here, we report the genome sequences of ZIKV strains from two cases and find through phylogenetic analysis that these strains form an earlier branch distinct from the recent large outbreak in the Americas. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  12. The business case: The missing link between information technology benefits and organisational strategies


    Carl Marnewick


    Purpose: Business cases are an integral part of information technology (IT) projects, providingthe linkage between the organisational strategies and the promised benefits. Most majorproject management standards and methodologies make reference to the business case andits intended usage.Problem investigated: The success of IT projects is measured based on the benefits they deliver; anecdotal evidence states that IT projects fail at an alarming rate. The benefits are promised in the business ca...

  13. Human and feline invasive cervical resorptions: the missing link?--Presentation of four cases. (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas; Schawalder, Peter; Ackermann, Mathias; Bosshardt, Dieter D


    This report describes 4 patients presenting with multiple teeth affected by invasive cervical resorption (ICR). The cases came to our attention between 2006 and 2008; previously, no cases of multiple ICR (mICR) had been reported in Switzerland. Characteristics common to all 4 cases included progression of disease over time, similar clinical and radiographic appearance of lesions, and obscure etiology. The histologically assessed teeth showed a similar pattern of tooth destruction, with resorptive lesions being confined to the cervical region. Howship's lacunae and multinucleated, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive odontoclasts were detected. None of the teeth presented with internal resorption. The positive pulp sensitivity corresponded to the histologic findings, indicating that the pulp tissue resisted degradation even in advanced stages of resorptive lesions. Although mICR is rare in humans, a similar disease known as feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL) is common in domestic, captive, and wild cats. The etiology of FORL, like that of mICR, remains largely unknown. Because FORL has been associated with feline viruses, we asked our mICR patients whether they had had contact with cats, and interestingly, all patients reported having had direct (2 cases) or indirect (2 cases) contact. In addition, blood samples were taken from all patients for neutralization testing of feline herpes virus type 1 (FeHV-1). Indeed, the sera obtained were able to neutralize (2 cases) or partly inhibit (2 cases) replication of FeHV-1, indicating transmission of feline viruses to humans. Future studies on mICR (and FORL) should evaluate the possible role of a (feline) virus as an etiologic (co-)factor in this disease.

  14. Network Performance Evaluation of Abis Interface over DVB-S2 in the GSM over Satellite Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Musabekov


    Full Text Available This paper deals with establishing a GSM link over Satellite. Abis interface, which is defined between Base Transceiver Station (BTS and Base Station Controller (BSC, in a GSM network is considered here to be routed over the Satellite. The satellite link enables a quick and cost-effective GSM link in meagerly populated areas. A different scenario comparison was done to understand the impact of Satellite environment on network availability comparing to terrestrial scenario. We have implemented an Abis interface over DVB S2 in NS2 and evaluated the performance over the high delay and loss satellite channel. Network performance was evaluated with respect to Satellite channel delay and DVB S2 encapsulation efficiency under different amount of user traffic and compared with the terrestrial scenario. The results clearly showed an increased amount of SDCCH and TCH channels required in the case of satellite scenario for the same amount of traffic in comparison to conventional terrestrial scenario. We have optimized the parameters based on the simulation results. Link budget estimation considering DVB-S2 platform was done to find satellite bandwidth and cost requirements for different network setups.

  15. Object-based Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Retrievals: A Case Study of the Summer Season over CONUS (United States)

    Li, J.; Xu, P.


    Satellite precipitation retrievals that have high spatial and temporal resolutions are suitable for various applications, such as hydrologic modeling and watershed management. Many validation studies have been established to understand the strengths and limitations of these satellite precipitation retrievals. In this study, an object-based validation approach is adopted to evaluate several satellite precipitation retrievals focusing on the spatial and geometric patterns of precipitation. This object-based validation approach identifies precipitation objects using an image processing technique referred to as watershed transform. Several object attributes are diagnosed and analyzed based on the distance measurement. Three object-based verification scores are summarized to determine the overall performances of satellite precipitation retrievals. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) were evaluated using the object-based approach. The NOAA stage IV MPE multi-sensor composite rain analysis was utilized as the ground observations. The comparative assessments were conducted at 0.25° by 0.25° on a daily scale in the summer season of 2014 over the continental United States (CONUS). The results suggest that IMERG possesses the similar spatial pattern of local-scale precipitation areas against stage IV observations. In addition, IMERG depicts the sizes and locations of precipitation areas more accurately against stage IV.

  16. The Link between National Foreign Policy and the Performance of a Country in the European Union: The Polish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaminska


    Full Text Available This article examines the link between the adaptation of national executives and diplomats to the EU and the capacity of a state to influence EU foreign policy outcomes. It argues that, in the case of Poland, the politicization of the domestic administrative structures before 2004 constrained the ability of the state to impact on the EU’s external agenda after the enlargement. It also claims that a rapid adaptation to the EU occurred only after the Polish accession to the EU, as the will to influence the EU’s policy towards Eastern Europe was a main driver for changes in the national diplomacy.

  17. Linking Earth Observations and Models to Societal Information Needs: The Case of Coastal Flooding (United States)

    Buzzanga, B. A.; Plag, H. P.


    Coastal flooding is expected to increase in many areas due to sea level rise (SLR). Many societal applications such as emergency planning and designing public services depend on information on how the flooding spectrum may change as a result of SLR. To identify the societal information needs a conceptual model is needed that identifies the key stakeholders, applications, and information and observation needs. In the context of the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), which is implemented by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), the Socio-Economic and Environmental Information Needs Knowledge Base (SEE-IN KB) is developed as part of the GEOSS Knowledge Base. A core function of the SEE-IN KB is to facilitate the linkage of societal information needs to observations, models, information and knowledge. To achieve this, the SEE-IN KB collects information on objects such as user types, observational requirements, societal goals, models, and datasets. Comprehensive information concerning the interconnections between instances of these objects is used to capture the connectivity and to establish a conceptual model as a network of networks. The captured connectivity can be used in searches to allow users to discover products and services for their information needs, and providers to search for users and applications benefiting from their products. It also allows to answer "What if?" questions and supports knowledge creation. We have used the SEE-IN KB to develop a conceptual model capturing the stakeholders in coastal flooding and their information needs, and to link these elements to objects. We show how the knowledge base enables the transition of scientific data to useable information by connecting individuals such as city managers to flood maps. Within the knowledge base, these same users can request information that improves their ability to make specific planning decisions. These needs are linked to entities within research

  18. A cluster of three cases of trichinellosis linked to bear meat consumption in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Yera, Hélène; Dahane, Naïma


    We report here three cases of trichinellosis due to polar bear meat consumption in East Greenland. In the past 20 years, 31 cases of trichinellosis have been reported in French travellers to the Arctic (North Quebec, Nunavut and Greenland) who consumed undercooked meat from black, brown, or polar...... bears. If local communities are increasingly becoming aware of the risk of trichinellosis, travellers visiting regions where bear meat is consumed should be informed of the risk of eating raw or non-heat-processed meats....

  19. Novel High-Speed Polarization Source for Decoy-State BB84 Quantum Key Distribution over Free Space and Satellite Links

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhizhong; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Higgins, Brendon L; Gigov, Nikolay; MacDonald, Allison; Hübel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas


    To implement the BB84 decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over a lossy ground-satellite quantum uplink requires a source that has high repetition rate of short laser pulses, long term stability, and no phase correlations between pulses. We present a new type of telecom optical polarization and amplitude modulator, based on a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, coupled to a polarization-preserving sum-frequency generation (SFG) optical setup, generating 532 nm photons with modulated polarization and amplitude states. The weak coherent pulses produced by SFG meet the challenging requirements for long range QKD, featuring a high clock rate of 76 MHz, pico-second pulse width, phase randomization, and 98% polarization visibility for all states. Successful QKD has been demonstrated using this apparatus with full system stability up to 160 minutes and channel losses as high 57 dB [Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 84, p.062326]. We present the design and simulation of the hardware through the Muelle...

  20. The Conflicting Link between Institutionalized Participation and Trust: the Case of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lanau


    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between trust and institutionalized participation. Trust is defined as a subjective expectation about the world that can be disappointed. It is assumed to be related to time, authority, and knowledge. Further, it allows for a retrospective evaluation. In light of this definition, we first analyze the links between participation and trust in established relations between public authorities and citizens in liberal democracies. Next, we examine how institutionalized participation is currently conceived as an efficient tool for overcoming citizens' mistrust of political authorities and institutions. Finally, we argue that participation does not assuage that mistrust, but transforms the nature of the relationship between authorities and citizens, giving rise to what might be characterized as a "government of mistrust".

  1. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric


    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  2. Implementation of Link-based DMS Supporting ISO 9001 QMS: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kacmar


    Full Text Available Document Management System supporting ISO 9001 Quality Management System is a typical application of Document Management it the enterprise environment. In order to be effective and sustainable it has to be implemented by taking into consideration organization’s own environment and culture. The article reviwes the ISO 9001 requirements on Document Management and available articles dealing with implementation of DMS. It uses a proposed methodology for the implementation of DMS supporting ISO 9001 on the real life example of an enterprise organization. Resulting link-based DMS suports the management of documents from various document storage systems and enable users to use either original sources or to access a central list of all documents.

  3. Making the links: do we connect climate change with health? A qualitative case study from Canada. (United States)

    Cardwell, Francesca S; Elliott, Susan J


    Climate change has been described as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. Typically framed as an environmental issue, some suggest this view has contributed to public ambivalence and hence a lack of public engagement. The lack of understanding of climate change as a significant environmental health risk on the part of the lay public represents a significant barrier to behaviour change. We therefore need to think about reframing the impact of climate change from an environmental to a health issue. This paper builds on calls for increased understanding of the public's views of human health risks associated with climate change, focusing on facilitators and barriers to behaviour change. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 22) with residents of the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario were conducted between August 2010 and January 2011. Topics included individual and community health, climate change, and facilitators and barriers to behaviour change. Few participants recognized the role of the environment in the context of either individual and community health. When asked about health concerns specific to their community, however, environmental issues were mentioned frequently. Health effects as possible impacts of global environmental change were mentioned by 77% of participants when prompted, but this link was not described in great detail or within the context of impacting their communities or themselves. Participants were willing to act in environmentally friendly ways, and possible incentives to undertake behaviour change such as decreasing cost were described. Health co-benefits were not identified as incentives to engaging in mitigative or adaptive behaviours. The results support recent calls for reframing the impact of climate change from an environmental to a public health issue in order to increase public engagement in adaptive and mitigative behaviour change. While previous research has touched on public awareness of the

  4. Linking Reform-Oriented Experiences to Teacher Identity: The Case of an Elementary Mathematics Teacher (United States)

    Jong, Cindy


    Novice teachers often have difficulty transferring what they learn in teacher education programs to classroom practice. This is especially true for elementary school teachers who are expected to teach mathematics with reform-oriented methods. The purpose of this longitudinal case study was to examine the experience of one novice elementary school…

  5. Realising the Value of Linked Data to Health Economic Analyses of Cancer Care: A Case Study of Cancer 2015. (United States)

    Lorgelly, Paula K; Doble, Brett; Knott, Rachel J


    There is a growing appetite for large complex databases that integrate a range of personal, socio-demographic, health, genetic and financial information on individuals. It has been argued that 'Big Data' will provide the necessary catalyst to advance both biomedical research and health economics and outcomes research. However, it is important that we do not succumb to being data rich but information poor. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of building Big Data, analysing Big Data and making appropriate inferences in order to advance cancer care, using Cancer 2015 (a prospective, longitudinal, genomic cohort study in Victoria, Australia) as a case study. Cancer 2015 has been linked to State and Commonwealth reimbursement databases that have known limitations. This partly reflects the funding arrangements in Australia, a country with both public and private provision, including public funding of private healthcare, and partly the legislative frameworks that govern data linkage. Additionally, linkage is not without time delays and, as such, achieving a contemporaneous database is challenging. Despite these limitations, there is clear value in using linked data and creating Big Data. This paper describes the linked Cancer 2015 dataset, discusses estimation issues given the nature of the data and presents panel regression results that allow us to make possible inferences regarding which patient, disease, genomic and treatment characteristics explain variation in health expenditure.

  6. Forest fires detection in Indonesia using satellite Himawari-8 (case study: Sumatera and Kalimantan on august-october 2015) (United States)

    Fatkhuroyan; Wati, Trinah; Panjaitan, Andersen


    Forest fires in Indonesia are serious problem affecting widely in material losses, health and environment. Himawari-8 as one of meteorological satellites with high resolution 0,5 km x 0,5 km can be used for forest fire monitoring and detection. Combination between 3, 4 and 6 channels using Sataid (Satellite Animation and Interactive Diagnosis) software will visualize forest fire in the study site. Monitoring which used Himawari-8 data on August, September and October 2015 can detect the distribution of smoke and the extents of forest fire in Sumatera and Kalimantan. The result showed the extent of forest fire can be identified for anticipation in the next step.

  7. A method to calculate zero-signature satellite laser ranging normal points for millimeter geodesy - a case study with Ajisai (United States)

    Kucharski, Daniel; Kirchner, Georg; Otsubo, Toshimichi; Koidl, Franz


    High repetition-rate satellite laser ranging (SLR) offers new possibilities for the post-processing of the range measurements. We analyze 11 years of kHz SLR passes of the geodetic satellite Ajisai delivered by Graz SLR station (Austria) in order to improve the accuracy and precision of the principal SLR data product - normal points. The normal points are calculated by three different methods: 1) the range residuals accepted by the standard 2.5 sigma filter, 2) the range residuals accepted by the leading edge filter and 3) the range residuals given by the single corner cube reflector (CCR) panels of Ajisai.

  8. Merging of airborne gravity and gravity derived from satellite altimetry: Test cases along the coast of greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Tscherning, C.C.


    for the use of gravity data especially, when computing geoid models in coastal regions. The presence of reliable marine gravity data for independent control offers an opportunity to study procedures for the merging of airborne and satellite data around Greenland. Two different merging techniques, both based...... on collocation, are investigated in this paper. Collocation offers a way of combining the individual airborne gravity observation with either the residual geoid observations derived from satellite altimetry or with gravity derived from these data using the inverse Stokes method implemented by Fast Fourier...

  9. Sub-basin-scale sea level budgets from satellite altimetry, Argo floats and satellite gravimetry: a case study in the North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Kleinherenbrink, Marcel; Riva, Riccardo; Sun, Yu


    In this study, for the first time, an attempt is made to close the sea level budget on a sub-basin scale in terms of trend and amplitude of the annual cycle. We also compare the residual time series after removing the trend, the semiannual and the annual signals. To obtain errors for altimetry and Argo, full variance-covariance matrices are computed using correlation functions and their errors are fully propagated. For altimetry, we apply a geographically dependent intermission bias [Ablain et al.(2015)], which leads to differences in trends up to 0.8 mm yr-1. Since Argo float measurements are non-homogeneously spaced, steric sea levels are first objectively interpolated onto a grid before averaging. For the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), gravity fields full variance-covariance matrices are used to propagate errors and statistically filter the gravity fields. We use four different filtered gravity field solutions and determine which post-processing strategy is best for budget closure. As a reference, the standard 96 degree Dense Decorrelation Kernel-5 (DDK5)-filtered Center for Space Research (CSR) solution is used to compute the mass component (MC). A comparison is made with two anisotropic Wiener-filtered CSR solutions up to degree and order 60 and 96 and a Wiener-filtered 90 degree ITSG solution. Budgets are computed for 10 polygons in the North Atlantic Ocean, defined in a way that the error on the trend of the MC plus steric sea level remains within 1 mm yr-1. Using the anisotropic Wiener filter on CSR gravity fields expanded up to spherical harmonic degree 96, it is possible to close the sea level budget in 9 of 10 sub-basins in terms of trend. Wiener-filtered Institute of Theoretical geodesy and Satellite Geodesy (ITSG) and the standard DDK5-filtered CSR solutions also close the trend budget if a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) correction error of 10-20 % is applied; however, the performance of the DDK5-filtered solution strongly depends

  10. Linking patient satisfaction with nursing care: the case of care rationing - a correlational study. (United States)

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Andreou, Panayiota; Tsangari, Haritini; Merkouris, Anastasios


    Implicit rationing of nursing care is the withholding of or failure to carry out all necessary nursing measures due to lack of resources. There is evidence supporting a link between rationing of nursing care, nurses' perceptions of their professional environment, negative patient outcomes, and placing patient safety at risk. The aims of the study were: a) To explore whether patient satisfaction is linked to nurse-reported rationing of nursing care and to nurses' perceptions of their practice environment while adjusting for patient and nurse characteristics. b) To identify the threshold score of rationing by comparing the level of patient satisfaction factors across rationing levels. A descriptive, correlational design was employed. Participants in this study included 352 patients and 318 nurses from ten medical and surgical units of five general hospitals. Three measurement instruments were used: the BERNCA scale for rationing of care, the RPPE scale to explore nurses' perceptions of their work environment and the Patient Satisfaction scale to assess the level of patient satisfaction with nursing care. The statistical analysis included the use of Kendall's correlation coefficient to explore a possible relationship between the variables and multiple regression analysis to assess the effects of implicit rationing of nursing care together with organizational characteristics on patient satisfaction. The mean score of implicit rationing of nursing care was 0.83 (SD = 0.52, range = 0-3), the overall mean of RPPE was 2.76 (SD = 0.32, range = 1.28 - 3.69) and the two scales were significantly correlated (τ = -0.234, p < 0.001). The regression analysis showed that care rationing and work environment were related to patient satisfaction, even after controlling for nurse and patient characteristics. The results from the adjusted regression models showed that even at the lowest level of rationing (i.e. 0.5) patients indicated low satisfaction. The

  11. Prenatal sex determination in suspicious cases of X-linked recessive diseases by the amelogenin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Rahimi


    Conclusion: Sex detection of fetus before delivery in the first trimester of pregnancy, will prevent babies with abnormalities being born. It can also be used in detection of recessive sex related diseases in In Vitro Fertilization cases for sex detection and to transfer female fetus to the mother. Our optimized molecular detection system was designed on the basis of amelogenin gene, which can determine the sex in blood, chorionic villi, and single cell in vitro fertilization with high sensitivity and specificity.

  12. An unfolding case with a linked OSCE: a curriculum in inpatient geriatric medicine. (United States)

    Karani, Reena; Callahan, Eileen H; Thomas, David C


    This study sought to design, implement, and evaluate a unique educational curriculum in inpatient geriatrics for internal medicine housestaff. Traditionally the didactic curriculum on an inpatient geriatrics unit varies according to the attending faculty on service, the types of patients admitted, and preferences of the housestaff and students-in-training. However, a more structured educational curriculum would allow for comprehensive attention to, and a detailed exploration of, the principles of geriatric care necessary to effectively treat all hospitalized older adults. We have developed a unique curriculum using an unfolding case that is followed by an OSCE, which assesses the knowledge and skills gained by the learners. An unfolding case is one that evolves over time and is unpredictable to the learners when they begin participating in the curriculum. It is well suited to postgraduate training and assessment since the learner must develop a differential diagnosis, discuss possible work-ups, and use the work-ups' results to reassess the case as it unfolds. Our scripted case, administered by a geriatrics fellow rotating on the unit, follows an ambulatory geriatric patient from her admission throughout her treatment and until the end of her stay. It culminates in a decision-making session about her functional ability and hence her discharge plans. Moreover, several topics relevant to inpatient geriatrics, including dementia, delirium, falls, urinary incontinence, wound care, and depression, are covered in three one-hour sessions. Written examinations or pre- and post-testing after an intervention are better suited to the early years of medical training but provide poor measures of curriculum mastery and clinical competency. Alternatively, our OSCE approach uses "stations" and "interstations" that provide a structured and timed opportunity to test these skills and assess specific areas of knowledge. We have designed a five-station, five-interstation OSCE that is

  13. Contextual Analysis of the Decision To Adopt a Regional Satellite System: The Case of the Andean CONDOR. (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo; Mody, Bella

    Acknowledging the importance of communications in economic development, this paper discusses the rationale behind the decision of the Andean Pact nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela to develop a regional satellite communication system to be known as CONDOR. The application of contextual theorizing to the decision-making…

  14. Merging of airborne gravity and gravity derived from satellite altimetry: Test cases along the coast of greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Tscherning, C.C.


    The National Survey and Cadastre - Denmark (KMS) has for several years produced gravity anomaly maps over the oceans derived from satellite altimetry. During the last four years, KMS has also conducted airborne gravity surveys along the coast of Greenland dedicated to complement the existing onsh...

  15. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale


    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  16. Error resilient H.264/AVC Video over Satellite for low Packet Loss Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren; Andersen, Jakob Dahl


    The performance of video over satellite is simulated. The error resilience tools of intra macroblock refresh and slicing are optimized for live broadcast video over satellite. The improved performance using feedback, using a cross- layer approach, over the satellite link is also simulated. The ne...... Inmarsat BGAN system at 256 kbit/s is used as test case. This systems operates at low loss rates guaranteeing a packet loss rate of not more than 10~3. For high-end applications as 'reporter-in-the-field' live broadcast, it is crucial to obtain high quality without increasing delay....

  17. The BENTO Box: Development and field-testing of a new satellite-linked data collection system for multiparameter volcano monitoring (United States)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.


    Predicting volcanic activity requires continuous monitoring for signals of magmatic unrest in harsh, often remote environments. BENTO is a next-generation monitoring system, currently in prototype testing, that is highly portable, low-cost, rapidly deployable, and entirely autonomous. Such a system could be used to provide critical monitoring and data collection capabilities during rapid-onset eruptions, or to provide a crude baseline monitor at large numbers of remote volcanoes to 'flag' the onset of unrest so that costlier resources such as specialized instrumentation can be deployed in the appropriate place at the appropriate time. The BENTO 1 (low-rate data) prototype currently comprises off-the-shelf volcanic gas sensors (SO2, CO2, Fl, Cl, and Br), a weather station (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, pressure), and telemetry via Iridium modem. In baseline mode, BENTO 1 takes a measurement from all of its sensors every two hours and automatically sends the measurements through Iridium to a server that posts them to a dedicated and customizable web page. The measurement interval and other sensor parameters (pumping time, sensor constants) can be adjusted directly or remotely (through the Iridium network) as needed. Currently, BENTO 1 is deployed at Mt. Etna, Italy; Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, Hengill Volcano, Iceland; and Hekla Volcano, Iceland. The BENTO 2 (high-rate) system is motivated by a need to avoid having to telemeter raw seismic data, which at 20-100 Hz/channel is far too voluminous for cost- and power-effective transmission through satellite networks such as Iridium. Our solution is to regularly transmit only state-of-health information and descriptions of the seismic data (e.g., 'triggered' seismic event rates and amplitudes), rather than the data itself. The latter can be accomplished through on-board data analysis and reduction at the installation site. Currently, it is possible to request specific time segments of raw

  18. Link between cognitive neuroscience and education: the case of clinical assessment of developmental dyscalculia. (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly


    In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1) neurocognitive tests would benefit substantially from incorporating assessments (based on findings from cognitive neuroscience) that entail systematic manipulation of fundamental aspects of number processing. Tests that focus on evaluating networks of core neurocognitive deficits have considerable potential to lead to more precise diagnosis and to provide the basis for designing specific intervention programs tailored to the deficits exhibited by the individual child. (2) implicit knowledge, derived from inspection of variables that are irrelevant to the task at hand, can also provide a useful assessment tool. Implicit knowledge is powerful and plays an important role in human development, especially in cases of psychiatric or neurological deficiencies (such as math learning disabilities or math anxiety).

  19. Link between cognitive neuroscience and education: The case of clinical assessment of developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten


    Full Text Available In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1 neurocognitive tests would benefit substantially from incorporating assessments (based on findings from cognitive neuroscience that entail systematic manipulation of fundamental aspects of number processing. Tests that focus on evaluating networks of core neurocognitive deficits have considerable potential to lead to more precise diagnosis and to provide the basis for designing specific intervention programs tailored to the deficits exhibited by the individual child. (2 implicit knowledge, derived from inspection of variables that are irrelevant to the task at hand, can also provide a useful assessment tool. Implicit knowledge is powerful and plays an important role in human development, especially in cases of psychiatric or neurological deficiencies (such as math learning disabilities

  20. Design of the American Mobile Satellite System (United States)

    Kittiver, Charles


    This paper presents an overview of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) Mobile Satellite System (MSS). A summary of the mobile satellite (MSAT) design and overall performance is provided. The design and components of both the forward link and return link transponders are described in detail. The design and operation of a unique hybrid matrix amplifier that offers flexible power distribution is outlined. The conceptual design and performance of three types of land mobile antennas are described.

  1. TecLines: A MATLAB-Based Toolbox for Tectonic Lineament Analysis from Satellite Images and DEMs, Part 2: Line Segments Linking and Merging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rahnama


    Full Text Available Extraction and interpretation of tectonic lineaments is one of the routines for mapping large areas using remote sensing data. However, this is a subjective and time-consuming process. It is difficult to choose an optimal lineament extraction method in order to reduce subjectivity and obtain vectors similar to what an analyst would manually extract. The objective of this study is the implementation, evaluation and comparison of Hough transform, segment merging and polynomial fitting methods towards automated tectonic lineament mapping. For this purpose we developed a new MATLAB-based toolbox (TecLines. The proposed toolbox capabilities were validated using a synthetic Digital Elevation Model (DEM and tested along in the Andarab fault zone (Afghanistan where specific fault structures are known. In this study, we used filters in both frequency and spatial domains and the tensor voting framework to produce binary edge maps. We used the Hough transform to extract linear image discontinuities. We used B-spline as a polynomial curve fitting method to eliminate artificial line segments that are out of interest and to link discontinuous segments with similar trends. We performed statistical analyses in order to compare the final image discontinuities maps with existing references map.

  2. The link between intracranial haemorrhage and cardiogenic shock: a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Caretta, Giorgio; Vizzardi, Enrico; Rovetta, Riccardo; Evaristi, Laura; Quinzani, Filippo; Raddino, Riccardo; Dei Cas, Livio


    Myocardial dysfunction occurs frequently during subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and it is often referred to as neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), which can lead to life-threatening acute heart failure, has been considered a possible complication of SAH. Actually, NSM and TTC are believed to share the same pathophysiological mechanisms and are likely a manifestation of the same disease. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman with SAH and cardiogenic shock due to acute left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography and ventriculography showed the typical pattern of TTC. Angiography excluded coronary artery disease or coronary spasm. Short-term inotropic support was necessary. Rapid recovery of left ventricular function was observed after 8 days. Acute myocardial dysfunction due to TTC in the setting of SAH may lead to cardiogenic shock which is difficult to treat. Patients with SAH and haemodynamic instability warrant a careful assessment of ventricular function on admission to rule out TTC

  3. Linking phosphorus export and hydrologic modeling: a case study in Central Italy. (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Leone, Antonio; Ripa, Maria Nicolina; Recanatesi, Fabio


    Soil erosion is an open topic, not only because soil fertility is lost, but also because nutrients are spilled into water bodies, thereby causing pollution. Research carried out in this field has amply described this process, but the interaction between these factors is complex and experimental research is needed to understand the production of loads of nutrients for different land uses. This paper describes a long-term monitoring case study using high-resolution rainfall data and runoff samples, carried out in the Lake Vico basin (Central Italy) to determine the phosphorus (P) export during erosive rainfall events. State of the art GIS-based basin characterization and advanced rainfall-runoff models are employed in order to describe the relationship between nutrient export and rainfall or runoff time distribution. Results show that the phosphorus export is strongly related to such time distributions, and less to the cumulative amount of rainfall or runoff.

  4. Tracing the missing link between nursing workload and case mix groups: a validation study. (United States)

    Halpine, S; Maloney, S


    This paper reports on the creation of a nursing workload data base of over 40,000 inpatient records by the Hospital Medical Records Institute (HMRI). During the 1989-90 fiscal year, five Ontario hospitals (four teaching, one community) reported total hours of nursing on the HMRI abstract along with standard clinical and demographic information. The accuracy of nursing workload data varied across hospitals and seemed to reflect differences in how data collection was implemented. When the data base was grouped by Case Mix Groups (CMGs), analysis demonstrated that patterns of resource utilization in nursing workload and length of stay were similar across CMGs. Results of this analysis indicate that the nursing workload component of the Resource Intensity Weight may be useful for estimating a hospital's nursing costs by CMG.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manzini Cianfanelli


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to demonstrate the organizational integration achieved through the implementation of a project management office (PMO, created to combat the loss of water distribution in one of the business units of Basic Sanitation Company of the State of São Paulo – Sabesp. The methodology used to achieve this goal was the study of a single case in which the information was obtained through documentary research and semi-structured interviews. The results showed how this integration was achieved with the adoption of a standard methodology in project management, control based on information technology and the spread of the organization's strategy in the sectors below. This work concluded that with this implantation of the project management office it was possible to improve the planning and the control of the activities of the projects through a pattern methodology in managing projects that gave possibilities to create a new culture focusing in solving problems.

  6. Linking Technology Capabilities to Marketing Requirements: Case of Indonesian Aircraft Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto Suharto


    Full Text Available Abstract. The relationship between strategic technology planning and the overall business strategy has been one of the growing fields that attract much interest both from academics and industrials point of view. The increasingly important role that technology plays in today’s business success is well established.Strategic technology planning activities--within a corporate level--are often implemented by applying integrated planning instrument, which allow firms to consider both technology-oriented and product-oriented aspects. This paper is an attempt to explore the role of strategic planning in the high tech industry using a specific case of aerospace industry in Indonesia.  In order to compete effectively inthe open global marketplace, the company must learn to integrate technology managementwith strategic planning. In other words, all top managers have to linktheir technology capabilities to marketing requirements.Keywords:  technology planning; business strategy; technology capability; marketing requirement; strategic mix 

  7. Study of the Development of the Inter-Satellite Links in Foreign GNSS%国外卫星导航系统星间链路发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙龙; 耿国桐; 李作虎


    利用星间链路提升卫星导航系统性能已成为全球卫星导航系统的重要发展趋势之一。以GPS为代表的国外卫星导航系统都在积极发展星间链路。我国北斗卫星导航系统也将在新一代全球导航卫星上搭载星间链路,目前已开展在轨试验。通过国内外文献查阅和跟踪研究,系统梳理比较了GPS,GLONASS和Galileo三大全球系统已投入使用和正在论证的星间链路技术方案。在此基础上归纳了星间链路的发展特点与趋势:1)星间链路的设计不再局限于实现自主导航,更倾向于通过星地联合实现增强提升导航性能;2)星间链路的发展当前以高频段射频星间链路为主,激光星间链路是未来的发展方向;3)星间链路测距通信将主要采用时分多址体制。相关研究成果对我国北斗卫星导航系统星间链路的发展具有借鉴意义。%Taking advantage of inter-satellite links ISLs to enhance the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS has become one of the important trends. Foreign satellite navigation systems represented by GPS are allactively developing ISLs. The new generation worldwide BDS satellites will also be armed with ISLs which is already under in orbit validation. By means of literatures research and developments survey the ISLs solutions are reviewed and compared including those which have been put into use and those which are still under study. And on this basis the development trends and characteristics of ISLs are summarized which are that the development of ISLs is not only for autonomous navigation but also aimed at realizing the joint of constellation and ground seg-ment in order to improve the capability of GNSS that radio ISLs at higher frequency band is the major now and ISLs of laser will be the main direction of ISLs development in the future that inter-satellite ranging and inter-sat-ellite communication will use TDMA system. The research achievements can

  8. Conjunction Risks of Near-Earth Objects to Artificial Satellites: The Case of Asteroid 2015 VY105 (United States)

    Ryan, W.; Ryan, E.


    The close approach of near-Earth object 2015 VY105 on November 15, 2015 occurred less than 24 hours after discovery by the Catalina Sky Survey (located in Tucson, AZ). Based on the discovery metric information and follow up data from Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) observations, it was clear that this asteroid would pass through the geostationary satellite belt. In particular, data indicated that although 2015 VY105 would come within approximately 200 km of the DirectTV 11 and 14 satellites, it would not impact either. The details of this analysis as well as characterization results acquired are presented. Further, examples of various other asteroids that have made close approaches within geostationary distances in the past (with both long and short lead times) are included for risk context.

  9. A method to develop mission critical data processing systems for satellite based instruments. The spinning mode case

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzarotto, Francesco; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Pacciani, Luigi; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo


    Modern satellite based experiments are often very complex real-time systems, composed by flight and ground segments, that have challenging resource related constraints, in terms of size, weight, power, requirements for real-time response, fault tolerance, and specialized input/output hardware-software, and they must be certified to high levels of assurance. Hardware-software data processing systems have to be responsive to system degradation and to changes in the data acquisition modes, and actions have to be taken to change the organization of the mission operations. A big research & develop effort in a team composed by scientists and technologists can lead to produce software systems able to optimize the hardware to reach very high levels of performance or to pull degraded hardware to maintain satisfactory features. We'll show real-life examples describing a system, processing the data of a X-Ray detector on satellite-based mission in spinning mode.

  10. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelal, Gasser F; Gad, Ahmed H


    Designing satellite structures poses an ongoing challenge as the interaction between analysis, experimental testing, and manufacturing phases is underdeveloped. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing explains the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to perform design of satellite structures. By layering detailed practical discussions with fully developed examples, Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing provides the missing link between theory and implementation.   Computational examples cover all the major aspects of advanced analysis; including modal analysis, harmonic analysis, mechanical and thermal fatigue analysis using finite element method. Test cases are included to support explanations an a range of different manufacturing simulation techniques are described from riveting to shot peening to material cutting. Mechanical design of a satellites structures are covered...

  11. A case cluster of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Coulthart, Michael B; Geschwind, Michael D; Qureshi, Shireen; Phielipp, Nicolas; Demarsh, Alex; Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Jansen, Gerard H; Lang, Anthony E; Schonberger, Lawrence B


    As of mid-2016, 231 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-the human form of a prion disease of cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy-have been reported from 12 countries. With few exceptions, the affected individuals had histories of extended residence in the UK or other Western European countries during the period (1980-96) of maximum global risk for human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, the possibility remains that other geographic foci of human infection exist, identification of which may help to foreshadow the future of the epidemic. We report results of a quantitative analysis of country-specific relative risks of infection for three individuals diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the USA and Canada. All were born and raised in Saudi Arabia, but had histories of residence and travel in other countries. To calculate country-specific relative probabilities of infection, we aligned each patient's life history with published estimates of probability distributions of incubation period and age at infection parameters from a UK cohort of 171 variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. The distributions were then partitioned into probability density fractions according to time intervals of the patient's residence and travel history, and the density fractions were combined by country. This calculation was performed for incubation period alone, age at infection alone, and jointly for incubation and age at infection. Country-specific fractions were normalized either to the total density between the individual's dates of birth and symptom onset ('lifetime'), or to that between 1980 and 1996, for a total of six combinations of parameter and interval. The country-specific relative probability of infection for Saudi Arabia clearly ranked highest under each of the six combinations of parameter × interval for Patients 1 and 2, with values ranging from 0.572 to 0.998, respectively, for Patient 2 (age at infection × lifetime) and

  12. Hyperbolic semi-adequate links


    Futer, David; Kalfagianni, Efstratia; Purcell, Jessica S.


    We provide a diagrammatic criterion for semi-adequate links to be hyperbolic. We also give a conjectural description of the satellite structures of semi-adequate links. One application of our result is that the closures of sufficiently complicated positive braids are hyperbolic links.

  13. Autoimmune Hepatitis and Celiac Disease: Case Report Showing an Entero-Hepatic Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tovoli


    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder primarily targeting the small bowel, although extraintestinal extensions have been reported. The autoimmune processes can affect the liver with manifestations such as primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. We describe a 61-year-old woman with celiac disease and an increased levels of aminotransferases. The persistence of increased levels of aminotransferases after 1 year of gluten-free diet and the positivity for an anti-nuclear and anti-double-strand DNA antibodies led to a misdiagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus-related hepatitis. Based on these findings the patient was placed on steroids, which after a few months were stopped because of the onset of diabetes mellitus. Soon after steroid withdrawal, the patient had a marked increase in aminotransferases and γ-globulins, and a liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis. A course of three months of steroids and azathioprine normalized both biochemical and clinical parameters. Currently the patient is symptom-free and doing well. In conclusion, a hypertransaminasemia persisting after a gluten-free diet should be interpreted as a sign of coexisting autoimmune liver disease. Any autoantibody positivity (in this case to ANA and anti-dsDNA should be carefully considered in order to avoid misdiagnosis delaying appropriate clinical management.

  14. Is there any link between tumor-induced osteomalacia and psoriasis? A case report. (United States)

    Akbari, Mojtaba; Larijani, Bagher; Sharghi, Sasan; Jalili, Ali; Sajjadi-Jazi, Sayed Mahmoud


    Tumor-induced osteomalacia is an uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome caused by Fibroblast growth factor-23-secreting tumors. It is characterized by phosphaturia, hypophosphatemia, and a high plasma level of alkaline phosphatase. We report a young patient with psoriasis who had suffered from bone pain and muscle weakness for more than 6.5 years. He was finally diagnosed with tumor-induced osteomalacia. However, mistakenly attributing the patient's signs and symptoms to psoriatic arthritis for a long time had resulted in multiple complications for the patient. Finally, the tumor was localized and surgically resected. This resulted in clinical improvements and the resolution of all biochemical abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the second case of tumor-induced osteomalacia accompanied by psoriasis. There is growing evidence to suggest that Fibroblast growth factor-23 has a role in regulating immune function while an increased level of it may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. As a result, tumor-induced osteomalacia may affect the psoriasis clinical course by secreting a high amount of Fibroblast growth factor-23. On the other hand, several studies have showed an increased risk of malignancy among patients with psoriasis. Consequently, long-term psoriasis may predispose patients to Fibroblast growth factor-23-secreting tumors. Finally, as psoriasis is a common disease, this presentation may simply be a coincidence.

  15. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations (United States)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.


    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  16. Estimating daily surface NO2 concentrations from satellite data - a case study over Hong Kong using land use regression models (United States)

    Anand, Jasdeep S.; Monks, Paul S.


    Land use regression (LUR) models have been used in epidemiology to determine the fine-scale spatial variation in air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in cities and larger regions. However, they are often limited in their temporal resolution, which may potentially be rectified by employing the synoptic coverage provided by satellite measurements. In this work a mixed-effects LUR model is developed to model daily surface NO2 concentrations over the Hong Kong SAR during the period 2005-2015. In situ measurements from the Hong Kong Air Quality Monitoring Network, along with tropospheric vertical column density (VCD) data from the OMI, GOME-2A, and SCIAMACHY satellite instruments were combined with fine-scale land use parameters to provide the spatiotemporal information necessary to predict daily surface concentrations. Cross-validation with the in situ data shows that the mixed-effects LUR model using OMI data has a high predictive power (adj. R2 = 0. 84), especially when compared with surface concentrations derived using the MACC-II reanalysis model dataset (adj. R2 = 0. 11). Time series analysis shows no statistically significant trend in NO2 concentrations during 2005-2015, despite a reported decline in NOx emissions. This study demonstrates the utility in combining satellite data with LUR models to derive daily maps of ambient surface NO2 for use in exposure studies.

  17. Mass Deposition Fluxes of Asian Dust to the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea from Geostationary Satellite MTSAT: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguang Tu


    Full Text Available Windblown dust aerosol plays an important role in marine ecosystems once they are deposited and dissolved. At present, methods for estimating the deposition flux are mainly limited to direct measurements or model outputs. Additionally, satellite remote sensing was often used to estimate the integral dust column concentration (DCC. In this paper, an algorithm is developed to estimate the mass deposition fluxes of Asian dust by satellite. The dust aerosol is identified firstly and then the DCC is derived based on the relationships between the pre-calculated lookup table (LUT and observations from Japanese geostationary Multi-functional Transport Satellites (MTSAT. The LUT is built on the dust cloud and surface parameters by a radiation transfer model Streamer. The average change rate of deposition is derived, which shows an exponential decay dependence on transport time along the pathway. Thus, the deposition flux is acquired via integrating the hourly deposition. This simple algorithm is applied to a dust storm that occurred in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea from 1 to 3 March 2008. Results indicate that the properties of the dust cloud over the study area changed rapidly and the mass deposition flux is estimated to be 2.59 Mt.

  18. Gastric adenocarcinoma in the context of X-linked agammaglobulinemia: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Staines Boone, Aidé Tamara; Torres Martínez, María Guadalupe; López Herrera, Gabriela; de Leija Portilla, Julia O; Espinosa Padilla, Sara Elva; Espinosa Rosales, Francisco J; Lugo Reyes, Saúl Oswaldo


    The hallmarks of X-linked Agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are panhypogammaglobulinemia, absent B-cells, and recurrent sinopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections starting at an early age, as well as other infections like cellulitis, meningitis, arthritis and sepsis. A number of non-infectious complications have been reported in these patients, including autoimmune diseases and malignancy, especially lymphomas. Here, we report the case of a 30-year old man who developed gastric adenocarcinoma in the context of XLA. Previous reports of, and hypotheses addressing the development of cancer in patients with XLA, are also summarized. Solid cancer in XLA affects mainly the gastrointestinal tract and seems to be related to chronic infection. A natural evolution can be traced back from gastric adenocarcinoma to megaloblastic anemia due to achlorhydria in the context of chronic infection; periodic endoscopy thus seems justified to detect and treat carcinoma in early stages.

  19. Electronic Performance Support for Operational Systems: A Case Study of the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant (United States)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Cooper, Lynne P.


    For complex operational systems, help needs to come from the inside out. It is often not realistic to call a help desk for problems that need immediate attention, especially for tasks that put a heavy cognitive load on the system operator. This session addresses the issues associated with providing electronic performance support for operational systems, including situations where the system is already fielded and can only change through evolution rather than revolution. We present a case study based on our experiences in developing the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The goals of the Operator Assistant are to improve the operability of the system and increase the efficiency of mission operations.

  20. Long-term benefits of the Memory-Link programme in a case of amnesia. (United States)

    Savage, Kimberley R; Svoboda, Eva


    To systematically evaluate the maintenance of clinical gains from a structured memory intervention programme. Efficacy of the programme was initially demonstrated in RR, a woman with moderate-to-severe memory impairment following colloid cyst removal. In the current study (Svoboda and Richards, 2009), we examined RR's day-to-day memory functioning 18 months after completion of the intervention programme. Within-subject A(1)B(1)A(2)B(2)B(3) single-case experimental design. Outpatient memory rehabilitation clinic. A theory-driven training programme in the use of commercially available smartphones for individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment. A phone call task was used as an objective measure of prospective memory function. Self-report, ecologically valid questionnaires were also completed to further assess generalization of smartphone use to day-to-day memory function. Eighteen months after intervention, RR completed 80% of scheduled calls using the smartphone, a rate significantly higher than at baseline (40%) and comparable to her success rate immediately following intervention (90%) and at the four-month follow-up (90%). Responses to questionnaires indicated that RR felt more confident in her ability to handle memory-demanding situations and was making fewer memory mistakes. This favourable outcome was not found with the use of another smartphone brand for which training was not received. Results from ecologically valid measures of memory functioning demonstrated robust maintenance of independent commercial smartphone use over an 18-month period, with increases observed in independence, confidence and real-life memory functioning. The findings further suggest poor cross-device generalizability.

  1. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  2. [X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 complicated with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and ileal perforation: case report and literature review]. (United States)

    Xiao, L; Guan, X M; Meng, Y; Zhao, X D; Xian, Y; An, Y F; Yu, J


    To analyze and summarize the clinical characteristics, laboratory tests and treatment of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP-1). A retrospective study was done in 2012 on an XLP-1 patient to collect the data on clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, gene and protein expression, complications and prognosis. Literatures were reviewed in Pubmed with the key word"X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome". The patient with persistent high fever, jaundice, abdominal distension, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenectasis, rash and suspicious positive family history; the patient eventually died of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), with intestinal perforation, intestinal infection and bleeding after being infected with EB virus. This patient with SH2D1A gene exon 1 large fragment of the coding region of the nucleotide deletion and insertion mutations causing missense mutations (p.Leu25Lys) and nonsense mutations (stop codon TAG was inserted after missense mutation so that the protein encoded by the early termination of the 25 amino acids), which led to SAP protein missing. The expression of SAP in his mother was also partly missing. Retrieval of reports on XLP-1 was conducted through literature search (included totally 157 cases) at home and abroad, positive family history accounted for 60.6%(40/66); lymphoma incidence accounted for 49.7%(72/145); low gamma globulin occurred in 24.8%(39/157) of cases; secondary HLH ratio accounted for 43.3%(68/157); XLP-1 in patients with hemorrhagic enteritis and gastritis was low, accounted for only 2.6%(3/116). XLP-1 patients occasionally develop necrotic enteritis complicated with ileal perforation.XLP-1 with large fragment deletion of SH2D1A gene might be associated with serious gastrointestinal manifestations.

  3. Dynamics in mangroves assessed by high-resolution and multi-temporal satellite data: a case study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR), P. R. China (United States)

    Leempoel, K.; Satyaranayana, B.; Bourgeois, C.; Zhang, J.; Chen, M.; Wang, J.; Bogaert, J.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.


    Mangrove forests are declining across the globe, mainly because of human intervention, and therefore require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc.) to implement better conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (P. R. China) were assessed through time using 1967, 2000 and 2009 satellite imagery (sensors Corona KH-4B, Landsat ETM+, GeoEye-1 respectively). Firstly, multi-temporal analysis of satellite data was undertaken, and secondly biotic and abiotic differences were analysed between the different mangrove stands, assessed through a supervised classification of a high-resolution satellite image. A major decline in mangrove cover (-36%) was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to rice cultivation and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction has prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%), the ratio mangrove / aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice cultivation in the vicinity. From the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 × 5 m plot-based tree measurements) (August-September, 2009) as well as spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1), both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73-100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum was correctly classified at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands with B. gymnorrhiza (overall classification accuracy: 85%). In the case of sediments, sand proportion was significantly different between the three mangrove classes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 (0.5 m) for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination was well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non-dominant species (e.g. Kandelia obovata

  4. Dynamics in mangroves assessed by high-resolution and multi-temporal satellite data: a case study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR, P. R. China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leempoel


    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are declining across the globe, mainly because of human intervention, and therefore require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc. to implement better conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (P. R. China were assessed through time using 1967, 2000 and 2009 satellite imagery (sensors Corona KH-4B, Landsat ETM+, GeoEye-1 respectively. Firstly, multi-temporal analysis of satellite data was undertaken, and secondly biotic and abiotic differences were analysed between the different mangrove stands, assessed through a supervised classification of a high-resolution satellite image. A major decline in mangrove cover (−36% was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to rice cultivation and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction has prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%, the ratio mangrove / aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice cultivation in the vicinity. From the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 × 5 m plot-based tree measurements (August–September, 2009 as well as spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1, both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73–100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum was correctly classified at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands with B. gymnorrhiza (overall classification accuracy: 85%. In the case of sediments, sand proportion was significantly different between the three mangrove classes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 (0.5 m for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination was well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non-dominant species (e

  5. 近距-1协议在星间测距中的应用%Inter-Satellite Ranging Based on Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The timing services in CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Proximity-1 protocol is used together with microwave double one-way ranging to meet the requirements of proximity spacecraft. The method acquires the high accuracy time of the trailing edge of the last bit of the ASM (Attached Synchronization Marker) of every incoming and outgoing Proximity frame with DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum). Moreover, frame data domains are cross-transferred in the form of time codes. The result of error analysis shows that the method can be used in the case of short distance and small relative velocity with high precision and at low cost.%针对近距航天器测距的需要,将CCSDS(空间数据系统咨询委员会)近距-1协议的定时业务与微波双向单程测距法相结合进行测距.该法以直序扩频技术来获得高精度传输帧ASM(附属同步标识)最后1位下降沿的时刻,并以时间码形式,通过帧数据域在测距星之间相互对传,综合考虑协议给出的信号物理特性,对所给出的方法进行了误差分析.分析表明,航天器之间距离不远,相对速度不大时,该法具有较高精度,且与数据通信共用1套设备,降低了成本.

  6. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in a Hydrological Model: A Case Study in Belgium Using Large-Scale Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Baguis


    Full Text Available In the present study, we focus on the assimilation of satellite observations for Surface Soil Moisture (SSM in a hydrological model. The satellite data are produced in the framework of the EUMETSAT project H-SAF and are based on measurements with the Advanced radar Scatterometer (ASCAT, embarked on the Meteorological Operational satellites (MetOp. The product generated with these measurements has a horizontal resolution of 25 km and represents the upper few centimeters of soil. Our approach is based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter technique (EnKF, where observation and model uncertainties are taken into account, implemented in a conceptual hydrological model. The analysis is carried out in the Demer catchment of the Scheldt River Basin in Belgium, for the period from June 2013–May 2016. In this context, two methodological advances are being proposed. First, the generation of stochastic terms, necessary for the EnKF, of bounded variables like SSM is addressed with the aid of specially-designed probability distributions, so that the bounds are never exceeded. Second, bias due to the assimilation procedure itself is removed using a post-processing technique. Subsequently, the impact of SSM assimilation on the simulated streamflow is estimated using a series of statistical measures based on the ensemble average. The differences from the control simulation are then assessed using a two-dimensional bootstrap sampling on the ensemble generated by the assimilation procedure. Our analysis shows that data assimilation combined with bias correction can improve the streamflow estimations or, at a minimum, produce results statistically indistinguishable from the control run of the hydrological model.

  7. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa


    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  8. Are transnational tobacco companies’ market access strategies linked to economic development models? A case study of South Korea (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley


    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have used varied strategies to access previously closed markets. Using TTCs’ efforts to enter the South Korean market from the late 1980s as a case study, this article asks whether there are common patterns in these strategies that relate to the broader economic development models adopted by targeted countries. An analytical review of the existing literature on TTCs’ efforts to access emerging markets was conducted to develop hypotheses relating TTCs’ strategies to countries’ economic development models. A case study of Korea was then undertaken based on analysis of internal tobacco industry documents. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that TTCs’ strategies in Korea were linked to Korea’s export-oriented economic development model and its hostile attitude toward foreign investment. A fuller understanding of TTCs’ strategies for expansion globally can be derived by locating them within the economic development models of specific countries or regions. Of foremost importance is the need for governments to carefully balance economic and public health policies when considering liberalisation. PMID:23327486

  9. Are transnational tobacco companies' market access strategies linked to economic development models? A case study of South Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley


    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have used varied strategies to access previously closed markets. Using TTCs' efforts to enter the South Korean market from the late 1980s as a case study, this article asks whether there are common patterns in these strategies that relate to the broader economic development models adopted by targeted countries. An analytical review of the existing literature on TTCs' efforts to access emerging markets was conducted to develop hypotheses relating TTCs' strategies to countries' economic development models. A case study of Korea was then undertaken based on analysis of internal tobacco industry documents. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that TTCs' strategies in Korea were linked to Korea's export-oriented economic development model and its hostile attitude towards foreign investment. A fuller understanding of TTCs' strategies for expansion globally can be derived by locating them within the economic development models of specific countries or regions. Of foremost importance is the need for governments to carefully balance economic and public health policies when considering liberalisation.

  10. Magnetic Cleanliness and Thermomagnetic Effect: Case Study of the Absolute Scalar Magnetometer and its Environment on Swarm Satellites (United States)

    Jager, T.; Leger, J. M.; Fratter, I.; Lier, P.; Pacholczyk, P.


    This paper first summarizes the thermomagnetic effects highlighted during the magnetic verification and qualification campaign of the Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), the scalar reference instrument on board the ESA Swarm satellites launched on 22/11/2013 [1].The physics of the thermomagnetic effect in metals is next reviewed. The physical and geometrical parameters affecting both the amplitude and the localization of the perturbations are detailed for objects of basic shapes and made out of one metal only. A predictive model has finally been developed and experimentally validated for simple geometrical and thermal configurations.

  11. Trends in mobile satellite communication (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.


    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  12. Fade durations in satellite-path mobile radio propagation (United States)

    Schmier, Robert G.; Bostian, Charles W.


    Fades on satellite to land mobile radio links are caused by several factors, the most important of which are multipath propagation and vegetative shadowing. Designers of vehicular satellite communications systems require information about the statistics of fade durations in order to overcome or compensate for the fades. Except for a few limiting cases, only the mean fade duration can be determined analytically, and all other statistics must be obtained experimentally or via simulation. This report describes and presents results from a computer program developed at Virginia Tech to simulate satellite path propagation of a mobile station in a rural area. It generates rapidly-fading and slowly-fading signals by separate processes that yield correct cumulative signal distributions and then combines these to simulate the overall signal. This is then analyzed to yield the statistics of fade duration.

  13. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  14. Effects of saltwater intrusion on pinewood vegetation using satellite ASTER data: the case study of Ravenna (Italy). (United States)

    Barbarella, M; De Giglio, M; Greggio, N


    The San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy) is part of the remaining wooded areas within the southeastern Po Valley. Several studies demonstrated a widespread saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer caused by natural and human factors in this area as the whole complex coastal system. Groundwater salinization affects soils and vegetation, which takes up water from the shallow aquifer. Changes in groundwater salinity induce variations of the leaf properties and vegetation cover, recognizable by satellite sensors as a response to different spectral bands. A procedure to identify stressed areas from satellite remote sensing data, reducing the expensive and time-consuming ground monitoring campaign, was developed. Multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, acquired between May 2005 and August 2005, were used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Within the same vegetation type (thermophilic deciduous forest), the areas with the higher vegetation index were taken as reference to identify the most stressed areas using a statistical approach. To confirm the findings, a comparison was conducted using contemporary groundwater salinity data. The results were coherent in the areas with highest and lowest average NDVI values. Instead, to better understand the behavior of the intermediate areas, other parameters influencing vegetation (meteorological data, water table depth, and tree density) were added for the interpretation of the results.

  15. Anthropogenic and biogenic emission model for mesoscale urban areas by using Landsat satellite data: Madrid case study (United States)

    San Jose, Roberto; Sanz, Miguel A.; Moreno, Belen; Ramirez-Montesinos, Arturo; Hernandez, Julio C.; Rodriguez, Luis M.


    A very important element in the description of the atmospheric chemistry is an accurate spatial and temporal inventory of the different compounds. Some of them are passive (SO2) and others are very reactive (NOx, VOC's). In this contribution, the anthropogenic emissions are usually accounted following the CORINE and EPA methodologies. In this paper, we present an accurate point, line, and area emission distribution over the Madrid mesoscale urban and suburban area which comprises 80 by 100 km2 with 2000 m resolution. A special part of the inventory is that which is produced by the traffic. We have considered different types of vehicles, emission factors, driving modes, and pollutants. To account for the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions produced by the different vegetation canopy environments we are using data from the thematic mapper Landsat-5 satellite which has 30-m resolution. A Bayesian algorithm enalbles us to cluster the different spectral signatures into several groups which can be identified as different land-use types. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions are strongly dependent on the type of forest, deciduous or coniferous, intensity of the light and leaf temperature which depends on the net radiation balance. The integrated environmental system NUFOMO is used to compare emission results from handmade land-use and satellite land-use classification.

  16. A multivariate variational objective analysis-assimilation method. Part 2: Case study results with and without satellite data (United States)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Scott, Robert W.


    The variational multivariate assimilation method described in a companion paper by Achtemeier and Ochs is applied to conventional and conventional plus satellite data. Ground-based and space-based meteorological data are weighted according to the respective measurement errors and blended into a data set that is a solution of numerical forms of the two nonlinear horizontal momentum equations, the hydrostatic equation, and an integrated continuity equation for a dry atmosphere. The analyses serve first, to evaluate the accuracy of the model, and second to contrast the analyses with and without satellite data. Evaluation criteria measure the extent to which: (1) the assimilated fields satisfy the dynamical constraints, (2) the assimilated fields depart from the observations, and (3) the assimilated fields are judged to be realistic through pattern analysis. The last criterion requires that the signs, magnitudes, and patterns of the hypersensitive vertical velocity and local tendencies of the horizontal velocity components be physically consistent with respect to the larger scale weather systems.

  17. Distribution of dipeptide repeat proteins in cellular models and C9orf72 mutation cases suggests link to transcriptional silencing. (United States)

    Schludi, Martin H; May, Stephanie; Grässer, Friedrich A; Rentzsch, Kristin; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Küpper, Clemens; Klopstock, Thomas; Arzberger, Thomas; Edbauer, Dieter


    A massive expansion of a GGGGCC repeat upstream of the C9orf72 coding region is the most common known cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Despite its intronic localization and lack of a canonical start codon, both strands are translated into aggregating dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins: poly-GA, poly-GP, poly-GR, poly-PR and poly-PA. To address conflicting findings on the predominant toxicity of the different DPR species in model systems, we compared the expression pattern of the DPR proteins in rat primary neurons and postmortem brain and spinal cord of C9orf72 mutation patients. Only poly-GA overexpression closely mimicked the p62-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions commonly observed for all DPR proteins in patients. In contrast, overexpressed poly-GR and poly-PR formed nucleolar p62-negative inclusions. In patients, most of the less common neuronal intranuclear DPR inclusions were para-nucleolar and p62 positive. Neuronal nucleoli in C9orf72 cases showed normal size and morphology regardless of the presence of poly-GR and poly-PR inclusions arguing against widespread nucleolar stress, reported in cellular models. Colocalization of para-nucleolar DPR inclusions with heterochromatin and a marker of transcriptional repression (H3K9me2) indicates a link to gene transcription. In contrast, we detected numerous intranuclear DPR inclusions not associated with nucleolar structures in ependymal and subependymal cells. In patients, neuronal inclusions of poly-GR, poly-GP and the poly-GA interacting protein Unc119 were less abundant than poly-GA inclusions, but showed similar regional and subcellular distribution. Regardless of neurodegeneration, all inclusions were most abundant in neocortex, hippocampus and thalamus, with few inclusions in brain stem and spinal cord. In the granular cell layer of the cerebellum, poly-GA and Unc119 inclusions were significantly more abundant in cases with FTLD than in cases with MND and FTLD/MND. Poly

  18. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  19. Satellite (Natural) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  20. Coded throughput performance simulations for the time-varying satellite channel. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Han, LI


    The design of a reliable satellite communication link involving the data transfer from a small, low-orbit satellite to a ground station, but through a geostationary satellite, was examined. In such a scenario, the received signal power to noise density ratio increases as the transmitting low-orbit satellite comes into view, and then decreases as it then departs, resulting in a short-duration, time-varying communication link. The optimal values of the small satellite antenna beamwidth, signaling rate, modulation scheme and the theoretical link throughput (in bits per day) have been determined. The goal of this thesis is to choose a practical coding scheme which maximizes the daily link throughput while satisfying a prescribed probability of error requirement. We examine the throughput of both fixed rate and variable rate concatenated forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes for the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and then examine the effect of radio frequency interference (RFI) on the best coding scheme among them. Interleaving is used to mitigate degradation due to RFI. It was found that the variable rate concatenated coding scheme could achieve 74 percent of the theoretical throughput, equivalent to 1.11 Gbits/day based on the cutoff rate R(sub 0). For comparison, 87 percent is achievable for AWGN-only case.

  1. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake


    in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...

  2. The application of very high resolution satellite image in urban vegetation cover investigation: a case study of Xiamen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGChengqi; LiBin; MATing


    With the technological improvements of satellite sensors, we will acquire more information about the earth so that we have reached a new application epoch of observation on earth environmental change and cartography. But with the enhancement of spatial resolution, some questions have arisen in the application of using traditional image processing and classification methods. Aiming for such questions, we studied the application of IKONOS very high resolution image (1 m) in Xiamen City on Urban Vegetation Cover Investigation and discussed the difference between the very high resolution image and traditional low spatial resolution image at classification,information abstraction etc. It is an advantageous test for the large-scale application of very high resolution data in the future.

  3. Secular resonances between bodies on close orbits: a case study of the Himalia prograde group of jovian irregular satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daohai


    The gravitational interaction between two objects on similar orbits can effect noticeable changes in the orbital evolution even if the ratio of their masses to that of the central body is vanishingly small. Christou (2005) observed an occasional resonant lock in the differential node $\\Delta \\Omega$ between two members in the Himalia irregular satellite group of Jupiter in the $N$-body simulations (corresponding mass ratio $\\sim 10^{-9}$). Using a semianalytical approach, we have reproduced this phenomenon. We also demonstrate the existence of two additional types of resonance, involving angle differences $\\Delta\\omega$ and $\\Delta (\\Omega+\\varpi)$ between two group members. These resonances cause secular oscillations in eccentricity and/or inclination on timescales $\\sim$ 1 Myr. We locate these resonances in $(a,e,i)$ space and analyse their topological structure. In subsequent $N$-body simulations, we confirm these three resonances and find a fourth one involving $\\Delta \\varpi$. In addition, we study the o...

  4. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine


    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  5. A new tool for supervised classification of satellite images available on web servers: Google Maps as a case study (United States)

    García-Flores, Agustín.; Paz-Gallardo, Abel; Plaza, Antonio; Li, Jun


    This paper describes a new web platform dedicated to the classification of satellite images called Hypergim. The current implementation of this platform enables users to perform classification of satellite images from any part of the world thanks to the worldwide maps provided by Google Maps. To perform this classification, Hypergim uses unsupervised algorithms like Isodata and K-means. Here, we present an extension of the original platform in which we adapt Hypergim in order to use supervised algorithms to improve the classification results. This involves a significant modification of the user interface, providing the user with a way to obtain samples of classes present in the images to use in the training phase of the classification process. Another main goal of this development is to improve the runtime of the image classification process. To achieve this goal, we use a parallel implementation of the Random Forest classification algorithm. This implementation is a modification of the well-known CURFIL software package. The use of this type of algorithms to perform image classification is widespread today thanks to its precision and ease of training. The actual implementation of Random Forest was developed using CUDA platform, which enables us to exploit the potential of several models of NVIDIA graphics processing units using them to execute general purpose computing tasks as image classification algorithms. As well as CUDA, we use other parallel libraries as Intel Boost, taking advantage of the multithreading capabilities of modern CPUs. To ensure the best possible results, the platform is deployed in a cluster of commodity graphics processing units (GPUs), so that multiple users can use the tool in a concurrent way. The experimental results indicate that this new algorithm widely outperform the previous unsupervised algorithms implemented in Hypergim, both in runtime as well as precision of the actual classification of the images.

  6. Exploitation of amplitude and phase of satellite SAR images for landslide mapping: the case of Montescaglioso (South Italy) (United States)

    Raspini, Federico; Ciampalini, Andrea; Lombardi, Luca; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Casagli, Nicola; Del Conte, Sara; Ferretti, Alessandro


    Pre- event and event landslide deformations have been detected and measured for the landslide that occurred on 3 December 2013 on the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). The event, triggered by prolonged rainfalls, created significant damage to buildings and local infrastructures. Ground displacements have been mapped through an integrated analysis based on a series of high resolution SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images acquired by the Italian constellation of satellites COSMO-SkyMed. Analysis has been performed by exploiting both phase (through multi-image SAR interferometry) and amplitude information (through speckle tracking techniques) of the satellite images. SAR Interferometry, applied to images taken before the event, revealed a general pre-event movement, in the order of a few mm/yr, in the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village. Highest pre-event velocities, ranging between 8 and 12 mm/yr, have been recorded in the sector of the slope where the first movement of the landslide took place. Speckle tracking, applied to images acquired before and after the event, allowed the retrieval of the 3D deformation field produced by the landslide. It also showed that ground displacements produced by the landslide have a dominant SSW component, with values exceeding 10 m for large sectors of the landslide area, with local peaks of 20 m in its central and deposit areas. Two minor landslides with a dominant SSE direction, which were detected in the upper parts of the slope, likely also occurred as secondary phenomena as consequence of the SSW movement of the main Montescaglioso landslide. This work demonstrates that this complementary approach, based on the synergistic exploitation of phase and amplitude SAR data, can become a powerful tool for landslide investigation, allowing the detection of slow, precursory deformation patterns as well the retrieval of full 3D surface displacement fields caused by large

  7. Tailoring in risk communication by linking risk profiles and communication preferences: The case of speeding of young car drivers. (United States)

    Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph


    Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking population, health, and the environment: an overview of integrated programs and a case study in Nepal. (United States)

    Hahn, Sigrid; Anandaraja, Natasha; D'Agnes, Leona


    Population, health, and environment programs are cross-sectoral development initiatives that link conservation, health, and family planning interventions. These programs are generally located in biodiversity hotspots, where population pressure is among the factors contributing to environmental degradation. This review describes the general structure of population, health, and environment programs and provides selected examples to highlight various aspects of this approach. We focus in depth on a case study from the Integrating Population and Health into Forestry Management Agendas program in Nepal that simultaneously addressed deforestation from fuel-wood harvesting, indoor air pollution from wood fires, acute respiratory infections related to smoke inhalation, as well as family planning in communities in Nepal's densely populated forest corridors. Keys to the success of the Nepal project included empowerment of community forest user groups with population, health, and environment program know-how and appropriate technology. Lessons learned in Nepal point to the critical role that nongovernmental organizations can play as catalysts of cross-sectoral responses to complex development issues such as this one. The population, health, and environment approach can be an effective method for achieving sustainable development and meeting both conservation and health objectives.

  9. Highly cross-linked polyethylene acetabular liners retrieved four to five years after revision surgery: a report of two cases. (United States)

    Teeter, Matthew G; Naudie, Douglas D R; Charron, Kory D; Holdsworth, David W


    There is currently considerable interest in the use of highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) acetabular liners for total hip arthroplasty (THA). In literature, only a single retrieval analysis of one type of XLPE liner implanted for greater than four years exists. The purpose of the present report is to quantify surface deviations in two XLPE liners implanted during revision THA and retrieved between four to five years after implantation. The two XLPE acetabular liners (Reflection, Smith and Nephew Inc., Memphis, TN) were retrieved from patients undergoing their second revision surgery, at 4.90 and 4.07 years. The retrieved liners and a new, non-implanted, unworn liner of the same size were scanned using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Articular surface deviation maps were created by comparing the retrievals to the unworn liner, based on the liner geometry obtained from micro-CT. The linear penetration rates were found to be 0.018 and 0.008 mm/year. Localized scratches and pits with deviations greater than 0.205 mm were also found on the articular surfaces of both liners. The XLPE liners retrieved from the two cases demonstrated low linear penetration rates. Regions with greater focal deviations were also apparent, likely due to third-body wear. The results are consistent with previously published clinical follow-ups of other XLPE liners.

  10. Assimilation of satellite data to optimize large scale hydrological model parameters: a case study for the SWOT mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pedinotti


    Full Text Available During the last few decades, satellite measurements have been widely used to study the continental water cycle, especially in regions where in situ measurements are not readily available. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT satellite mission will deliver maps of water surface elevation (WSE with an unprecedented resolution and provide observation of rivers wider than 100 m and water surface areas greater than approximately 250 m × 250 m over continental surfaces between 78° S and 78° N. This study aims to investigate the potential of SWOT data for parameter optimization for large scale river routing models which are typically employed in Land Surface Models (LSM for global scale applications. The method consists in applying a data assimilation approach, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm, to correct the Manning roughness coefficients of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrologic System. Indeed, parameters such as the Manning coefficient, used within such models to describe water basin characteristics, are generally derived from geomorphological relationships, which might have locally significant errors. The current study focuses on the Niger basin, a trans-boundary river, which is the main source of fresh water for all the riparian countries. In addition, geopolitical issues in this region can restrict the exchange of hydrological data, so that SWOT should help improve this situation by making hydrological data freely available. In a previous study, the model was first evaluated against in-situ and satellite derived data sets within the framework of the international African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis (AMMA project. Since the SWOT observations are not available yet and also to assess the proposed assimilation method, the study is carried out under the framework of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE. It is assumed that modeling errors are only due to uncertainties in the Manning coefficient. The true

  11. Assimilation of satellite data to optimize large scale hydrological model parameters: a case study for the SWOT mission (United States)

    Pedinotti, V.; Boone, A.; Ricci, S.; Biancamaria, S.; Mognard, N.


    During the last few decades, satellite measurements have been widely used to study the continental water cycle, especially in regions where in situ measurements are not readily available. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will deliver maps of water surface elevation (WSE) with an unprecedented resolution and provide observation of rivers wider than 100 m and water surface areas greater than approximately 250 m × 250 m over continental surfaces between 78° S and 78° N. This study aims to investigate the potential of SWOT data for parameter optimization for large scale river routing models which are typically employed in Land Surface Models (LSM) for global scale applications. The method consists in applying a data assimilation approach, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm, to correct the Manning roughness coefficients of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrologic System. Indeed, parameters such as the Manning coefficient, used within such models to describe water basin characteristics, are generally derived from geomorphological relationships, which might have locally significant errors. The current study focuses on the Niger basin, a trans-boundary river, which is the main source of fresh water for all the riparian countries. In addition, geopolitical issues in this region can restrict the exchange of hydrological data, so that SWOT should help improve this situation by making hydrological data freely available. In a previous study, the model was first evaluated against in-situ and satellite derived data sets within the framework of the international African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project. Since the SWOT observations are not available yet and also to assess the proposed assimilation method, the study is carried out under the framework of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). It is assumed that modeling errors are only due to uncertainties in the Manning coefficient. The true Manning

  12. 基于链路预测的LEO卫星稀疏自组织网络异步路由算法%A routing algorithm of sparse LEO satellite ad-hoc network based on link predicting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴永珊; 姜兴龙; 刘会杰


    随着空间探测活动和技术的发展,航天任务对灵活的分布式星座、编队飞行空间移动平台组成的自组织空间网络提出了技术要求. 针对传统同步自组织路由算法在稀疏空间自组织网络应用的不足,提出一种基于链路预测的LEO卫星稀疏自组织网络异步路由算法,并对其进行了仿真比较. 结果表明该算法具有扩展性、抗毁性,适用范围广的优点,可为空间自组织网络的路由策略设计提供借鉴.%With the development of space technology, the future space missions are bound to be flexible, distributed architecture consisting of constellations of dynamically deployed or configured space and mobile platforms that are networked together into an integrated information system. As the common routingalgorithm is not suit for sparse space networks, by analyzing the advantages and disadvantages, a routing algorithm of sparse LEO satellite ad-hoc network based on link predicting is proposed and simulated.This algorithm has high scalability, high survivability,wide application, and can also be used in the increasingly popular routing algorithm of the future ad-hoc network.

  13. Assimilation of satellite data to optimize large-scale hydrological model parameters: a case study for the SWOT mission (United States)

    Pedinotti, V.; Boone, A.; Ricci, S.; Biancamaria, S.; Mognard, N.


    During the last few decades, satellite measurements have been widely used to study the continental water cycle, especially in regions where in situ measurements are not readily available. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will deliver maps of water surface elevation (WSE) with an unprecedented resolution and provide observation of rivers wider than 100 m and water surface areas greater than approximately 250 x 250 m over continental surfaces between 78° S and 78° N. This study aims to investigate the potential of SWOT data for parameter optimization for large-scale river routing models. The method consists in applying a data assimilation approach, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm, to correct the Manning roughness coefficients of the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere)-TRIP (Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) continental hydrologic system. Parameters such as the Manning coefficient, used within such models to describe water basin characteristics, are generally derived from geomorphological relationships, which leads to significant errors at reach and large scales. The current study focuses on the Niger Basin, a transboundary river. Since the SWOT observations are not available yet and also to assess the proposed assimilation method, the study is carried out under the framework of an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE). It is assumed that modeling errors are only due to uncertainties in the Manning coefficient. The true Manning coefficients are then supposed to be known and are used to generate synthetic SWOT observations over the period 2002-2003. The impact of the assimilation system on the Niger Basin hydrological cycle is then quantified. The optimization of the Manning coefficient using the EKF (extended Kalman filter) algorithm over an 18-month period led to a significant improvement of the river water levels. The relative bias of the water level is globally improved (a 30

  14. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications. (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo


    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  15. Klinefelter syndrome with fabry disease--a case of nondisjunction of the X-chromosome with sex-linked recessive mutation. (United States)

    Sadick, Victoria J; Fietz, Michael J; Tchan, Michel C; Kovoor, Pramesh; Thomas, Liza; Sadick, Norman


    A 52 year-old male with Klinefelter syndrome presented with chest tightness and rapid atrial fibrillation with hypotension. His echocardiogram demonstrated symmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy with minimal diastolic dysfunction. Subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of Fabry cardiomyopathy. This is the first reported case of Klinefelter syndrome with homozygous sex-linked recessive mutation presenting primarily with cardiac manifestation.

  16. Variational assimilation of satellite cloud water/ice path and microphysics scheme sensitivity to the assimilation of a rainfall case (United States)

    Chen, Yaodeng; Zhang, Ruizhi; Meng, Deming; Min, Jinzhong; Zhang, Lina


    Hydrometeor variables (cloud water and cloud ice mixing ratios) are added into the WRF three-dimensional variational assimilation system as additional control variables to directly analyze hydrometeors by assimilating cloud observations. In addition, the background error covariance matrix of hydrometeors is modeled through a control variable transform, and its characteristics discussed in detail. A suite of experiments using four microphysics schemes (LIN, SBU-YLIN, WDM6 and WSM6) are performed with and without assimilating satellite cloud liquid/ice water path. We find analysis of hydrometeors with cloud assimilation to be significantly improved, and the increment and distribution of hydrometeors are consistent with the characteristics of background error covariance. Diagnostic results suggest that the forecast with cloud assimilation represents a significant improvement, especially the ability to forecast precipitation in the first seven hours. It is also found that the largest improvement occurs in the experiment using the WDM6 scheme, since the assimilated cloud information can sustain for longer in this scheme. The least improvement, meanwhile, appears in the experiment using the SBU-YLIN scheme.

  17. Treating the Hooking Effect in Satellite Altimetry Data: A Case Study along the Mekong River and Its Tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boergens


    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of satellite altimetry for water level time series estimation of smaller inland waters where only very few measurements above the water surface are available. A new method was developed using off-nadir measurements to estimate the parabola generated by the hooking effect. For this purpose, a new waveform retracker was used as well as an adopted version of the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC algorithm. The method is applied to compute time series of the water levels height of the Mekong River and some of its tributaries from Envisat high-frequency data. Reliable time series can be obtained from river crossings with widths of less than 500 m and without direct nadir measurements over the water. The expected annual variations are clearly depicted and the time series well agree with available in situ gauging data. The mean RMS value is 1.22 m between the resulting time series and in situ data, the best result is 0.34 m, the worst 2.26 m, and 80% of the time series have an RMS below 1.5 m.

  18. A case study of the energy dissipation of the gravity wave field based on satellite altimeter measurements (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Parsons, C. L.; Long, S. R.; Bliven, L. F.


    Wave breaking is proposed as the primary energy dissipation mechanism for the gravity wave field. The energy dissipation rate is calculated based on the statistical model proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1969) with a modification of the breaking criterion incorporating the surface stress according to Phillips and Banner (1974). From this modified model, an analytic expression is found for the wave attenuation rate and the half-life time of the wave field which depend only on the significant slope of the wave field and the ratio of friction velocity to initial wave phase velocity. These expressions explain why the freshly generated wave field does not last long, but why swells are capable of propagating long distances without substantial change in energy density. It is shown that breaking is many orders of magnitude more effective in dissipating wave energy than the molecular viscosity, if the significant slope is higher than 0.01. Limited observational data from satellite and laboratory are used to compare with the analytic results, and show good agreement.

  19. Secular resonances between bodies on close orbits: a case study of the Himalia prograde group of jovian irregular satellites (United States)

    Li, Daohai; Christou, Apostolos A.


    The gravitational interaction between two objects on similar orbits can effect noticeable changes in the orbital evolution even if the ratio of their masses to that of the central body is vanishingly small. Christou (Icarus 174:215-229, 2005) observed an occasional resonant lock in the differential node Δ Ω between two members in the Himalia irregular satellite group of Jupiter in the N-body simulations (corresponding mass ratio ˜ 10^{-9}). Using a semianalytical approach, we have reproduced this phenomenon. We also demonstrate the existence of two additional types of resonance, involving angle differences Δ ω and Δ (Ω +π) between two group members. These resonances cause secular oscillations in eccentricity and/or inclination on timescales ˜ 1 Myr. We locate these resonances in ( a, e, i) space and analyse their topological structure. In subsequent N-body simulations, we confirm these three resonances and find a fourth one involving Δ π. In addition, we study the occurrence rates and the stability of the four resonances from a statistical perspective by integrating 1000 test particles for 100 Myr. We find ˜ 10 to 30 librators for each of the resonances. Particularly, the nodal resonance found by Christou is the most stable: 2 particles are observed to stay in libration for the entire integration.

  20. Combining satellite remote sensing and surveys to understand persistent yield variation--- a case study in North China Plain (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Lobell, D. B.; Chen, X.


    A large gap between maize yields on average farmers' fields and the highest yields achieved by either experiment or farmers is typical throughout the developing world, including in the North China Plain (NCP). This maize yield gap as identified by previous studies indicates large opportunities for raising yield by improving agronomy. Quzhou county is typical of the winter-wheat summer-maize system in NCP where the average plot size is as small as 0.25 hectares. To analyze this cropping system amidst the challenge of substantial heterogeneity, we identified fields that were either persistently higher or lower yielding according to the remote sensing yield estimates, and then conducted detailed field surveys. We found irrigation facility to be a major constraint to yield both in terms of irrigation water quality and farmers' access to wells. In total, improving the access to unsalty water would be associated with a 0.32t/ha (4.2%) increase in multi-year average yield. In addition, farmers' method of choosing cultivar, which likely relates to their overall knowledge level, significantly explained yield variation. In particular, those choosing cultivars according to technician advice, personal experiences and high yielding neighbors' advice had on average higher yield than farmers that either followed seed sellers' advice or collectively purchased seeds. Overall, the study presents a generalizable methodology of assessing yield gap as well as its persistent factors using a combination of satellite and survey data.

  1. Application of Fuzzy Set Theory and SPOT Satellite Images in Site Selection of Public Libraries (Case Study: Saqqez City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Dashti Nasserabadi


    Full Text Available Easy availability to public libraries is one of the main keys in successful presentation of public library services with high quality will be valueless for those have not access to them. Availability to services should be configured in such a way that maximizes easiness and facility for potential and de facto users. In present research the required number of public libraries and establishment situation of public libraries in Saqqez city in Kurdistan province in North West of Iran were investigated and evaluated by using fuzzy set theory and SPOT 5 satellite images in 2009. In addition, optimum regions for generation of new public libraries were distinguished in city area in form of recommended map. Results showed that weighting variables classes were determined between 0-1 (profusion proportion. Fuzzification each one of effective factors using IDRISI software terminated and after was assigned type and shape membership function. Final map of suitable regions for construction of new public libraries in saqqez city area indicates that none of the libraries were situated in suitable regions.

  2. Scientific Satellites (United States)


    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  3. Satellite mapping of surface biophysical parameters at the biome scale over the North American grasslands a case study (United States)

    Wylie, B.K.; Meyer, D.J.; Tieszen, L.L.; Mannel, S.


    Quantification of biophysical parameters is needed by terrestrial process modeling and other applications. A study testing the role of multispectral data for monitoring biophysical parameters was conducted over a network of grassland field sites in the Great Plains of North America. Grassland biophysical parameters [leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), and biomass] and their relationships with ground radiometer normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were established in this study (r2=.66-.85) from data collected across the central and northern Great Plains in 1995. These spectral/biophysical relationships were compared to 1996 field data from the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in northeastern Oklahoma and showed no consistent biases, with most regression estimates falling within the respective 95% confidence intervals. Biophysical parameters were estimated for 21 "ground pixels" (grids) at the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996, representing three grazing/burning treatments. Each grid was 30 ?? 30 m in size and was systematically sampled with ground radiometer readings. The radiometric measurements were then converted to biophysical parameters and spatially interpolated using geostatistical kriging. Grid-based biophysical parameters were monitored through the growing season and regressed against Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) NDVI (r2=.92-.94). These regression equations were used to estimate biophysical parameters for grassland TM pixels over the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996. This method maintained consistent regression development and prediction scales and attempted to minimize scaling problems associated with mixed land cover pixels. A method for scaling Landsat biophysical parameters to coarser resolution satellite data sets (1 km2) was also investigated. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban Dynamic Analysis Using Satellite Images and Multisource Data. Case of Grand Agadir – Morocco – between 1988 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The earthquake of 1960 marked a turning point in th e urbanization process of Grand Agadir. Agadir`s reconstruction was launched a few mo nths after the city’s destruction. It was based on a desire to create a new town on a green fie ld in a voluntarily attempt to adopt a modernist model of urbanism. But the following years showed that urban planning in the Grand Agadir faces more a crisis management than an expre ssion of competence. Many issues depend on the urban planning of Grand Agadir. Several acto rs (including speculators are involved in developing strategies and very different logics. Al though all means of resources (land ownership, financial and human were mobilized to produce a mod el city, the mismanagement, the lack of control in urbanization, the difficulty of controll ing urban development and the influx of people, coming from the rural exodus and attracted by the a dvantages of a sedentary life, have determined profound changes in the spatial distribu tion of inhabitants. This study consists in identifying the spatio-temporal dynamics of the urb an space in Grand Agadir; this is a diachronic study which integrates the classification method of maximum likelihood. It aims to monitor the urban dynamics of Grand Agadir and the change detec tion in order to estimate the socio-spatial mutations. For this we used the satellite imagery “ Landsat-TM and ETM” over the period 1988-2005 which was complemented with the cartographic materials and aerial photos. This processing allowed us to produce maps that illustrate the spati al distribution of urban development forms and to show the impact of urban sprawl.

  5. Integration of carbon conservation into sustainable forest management using high resolution satellite imagery: A case study in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo (United States)

    Langner, Andreas; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Ong, Robert C.; Titin, Jupiri; Kitayama, Kanehiro


    Conservation of tropical forests is of outstanding importance for mitigation of climate change effects and preserving biodiversity. In Borneo most of the forests are classified as permanent forest estates and are selectively logged using conventional logging techniques causing high damage to the forest ecosystems. Incorporation of sustainable forest management into climate change mitigation measures such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) can help to avert further forest degradation by synergizing sustainable timber production with the conservation of biodiversity. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such initiatives, monitoring methods for forest degradation and above-ground biomass in tropical forests are urgently needed. In this study we developed an index using Landsat satellite data to describe the crown cover condition of lowland mixed dipterocarp forests. We showed that this index combined with field data can be used to estimate above-ground biomass using a regression model in two permanent forest estates in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Tangkulap represented a conventionally logged forest estate while Deramakot has been managed in accordance with sustainable forestry principles. The results revealed that conventional logging techniques used in Tangkulap during 1991 and 2000 decreased the above-ground biomass by an annual amount of average -6.0 t C/ha (-5.2 to -7.0 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) whereas the biomass in Deramakot increased by 6.1 t C/ha per year (5.3-7.2 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) between 2000 and 2007 while under sustainable forest management. This indicates that sustainable forest management with reduced-impact logging helps to protect above-ground biomass. In absolute terms, a conservative amount of 10.5 t C/ha per year, as documented using the methodology developed in this study, can be attributed to the different management systems, which will be of interest when implementing REDD+ that

  6. Small Satellite Transceiver for Launch Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a small, light-weight, low-cost transceivers capable of establishing satellite communications links for telemetry and...

  7. Small Satellite Transceiver for Launch Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a small, light-weight, low-cost transceivers capable of establishing satellite communications links for telemetry and...

  8. Analysis of an international collaboration for capacity building of human resources for eye care: case study of the college-college VISION 2020 LINK. (United States)

    Mwangi, Nyawira; Zondervan, Marcia; Bascaran, Covadonga


    There is an extreme health workforce shortage in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa. Shortage of eye care workers impedes effective implementation of prevention of blindness programs. The World Health Organization has identified education, partnership, leadership, financing, and policy as intertwined interventions that are critical to resolving this crisis on the long term. The VISION 2020 LINK between the College of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa and the Royal College of Ophthalmologists in the United Kingdom aims to increase the quantity and quality of eye care training in East, Central, and Southern Africa through a focus on five strategic areas: fellowship examination for ophthalmologists, training the trainers, curriculum development for residents in ophthalmology and ophthalmic clinical officers, continuous professional development (CPD), and mentoring program for young ophthalmologists. This study examined how education and partnership can be linked to improve eye care, through an evaluation of this north-south link based on its own targets and established frameworks to guide north-south links. An exploratory qualitative case study design was used. Twenty-nine link representatives were recruited through purposive sampling and snowballing. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview schedule that incorporated the components of a successful link from an existing framework. Documents pertaining to the link were also examined. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis. The findings revealed that the perception to the contribution of the link to eye care in the region is generally positive. Process indicators showed that the targets in three strategic objectives of the link have been achieved. Framework-based evaluation also showed that the link is successful. Mutual learning and development of friendships were the most commonly identified success factors. Inadequate awareness of the link by college

  9. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan


    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  10. Reduction of DC-link Capacitor in Case of Cascade Multilevel Converters by means of Reactive Power Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Wang, Huai; Liserre, Marco


    A method to selectively control the amount of dc link voltage ripple by processing desired reactive power by a DC/DC converter in isolated AC/DC or AC/DC/AC system is proposed. The concept can reduce the dc link capacitors used for balancing the input and output power and thereby limiting...... the voltage ripple. It allows the use of smaller dc link capacitor and hence a longer lifetime and at the same time high power density and low cost can be achieved. The isolated DC/DC converter is controlled to process the desired reactive power in addition to the active power. The control system to achieve...

  11. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors - a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin


    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events.

  12. An MDO augmented value-based systems engineering approach to holistic design decision-making: A satellite system case study (United States)

    Kannan, Hanumanthrao

    decision-making under uncertainties. A holistic framework for system optimization called the Value-Based Systems Engineering (VBSE) framework is proposed in this research. This framework acts as the first step towards enabling overall system consistency in decision-making in the design of LSCES. A commercial communication geo-stationary satellite model is created and used as a testbed throughout to demonstrate the different aspects of this research.

  13. Assessing gaps in irrigated agricultural productivity through satellite earth observations-A case study of the Fergana Valley, Central Asia (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Fliemann, Elisabeth; Lamers, John P. A.; Conrad, Christopher


    Improving crop area and/or crop yields in agricultural regions is one of the foremost scientific challenges for the next decades. This is especially true in irrigated areas because sustainable intensification of irrigated crop production is virtually the sole means to enhance food supply and contribute to meeting food demands of a growing population. Yet, irrigated crop production worldwide is suffering from soil degradation and salinity, reduced soil fertility, and water scarcity rendering the performance of irrigation schemes often below potential. On the other hand, the scope for improving irrigated agricultural productivity remains obscure also due to the lack of spatial data on agricultural production (e.g. crop acreage and yield). To fill this gap, satellite earth observations and a replicable methodology were used to estimate crop yields at the field level for the period 2010/2014 in the Fergana Valley, Central Asia, to understand the response of agricultural productivity to factors related to the irrigation and drainage infrastructure and environment. The results showed that cropping pattern, i.e. the presence or absence of multi-annual crop rotations, and spatial diversity of crops had the most persistent effects on crop yields across observation years suggesting the need for introducing sustainable cropping systems. On the other hand, areas with a lower crop diversity or abundance of crop rotation tended to have lower crop yields, with differences of partly more than one t/ha yield. It is argued that factors related to the infrastructure, for example, the distance of farms to the next settlement or the density of roads, had a persistent effect on crop yield dynamics over time. The improvement potential of cotton and wheat yields were estimated at 5%, compared to crop yields of farms in the direct vicinity of settlements or roads. In this study it is highlighted how remotely sensed estimates of crop production in combination with geospatial technologies

  14. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam (United States)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.


    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  15. Assimilation of satellite altimetry data in hydrological models for improved inland surface water information: Case studies from the "Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE" project (SHAPE) (United States)

    Gustafsson, David; Pimentel, Rafael; Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas; Roca, Mónica; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Fernandes, Joana; Lázaro, Clara; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme


    This communication is about the Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE (SHAPE) project, with a focus on the components dealing with assimilation of satellite altimetry data into hydrological models. The SHAPE research and development project started in September 2015, within the Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme of the European Space Agency. The objectives of the project are to further develop and assess recent improvement in altimetry data, processing algorithms and methods for assimilation in hydrological models, with the overarching goal to support improved scientific use of altimetry data and improved inland water information. The objective is also to take scientific steps towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level. The improved altimetry data from the project is used to estimate river stage, river discharge and lake level information in a data assimilation framework using the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and includes data assimilation module based on the Ensemble Kalman filter method. The method will be developed and assessed for a number of case studies with available in situ reference data and satellite altimetry data based on mainly the CryoSat-2 mission on which the new processor will be run; Results will be presented from case studies on the Amazon and Danube rivers and Lake Vänern (Sweden). The production of alti-hydro products (water level time series) are improved thanks to the use of water masks. This eases the geo-selection of the CryoSat-2 altimetric measurements since there are acquired from a geodetic orbit and are thus spread along the river course in space and and time. The specific processing of data from this geodetic orbit space

  16. Efficient enhancing scheme for TCP performance over satellite-based internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lina; Gu Xuemai


    Satellite link characteristics drastically degrade transport control protocol (TCP) performance. An efficient performance enhancing scheme is proposed. The improvement of TCP performance over satellite-based Intemet is accomplished by protocol transition gateways at each end ora satellite link. The protocol which runs over a satellite link executes the receiver-driven flow control and acknowledgements- and timeouts-based error control strategies. The validity of this TCP performance enhancing scheme is verified by a series of simulation experiments. Results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently enhance the TCP performance over satellite-based Intemet and ensure that the available bandwidth resources of the satellite link are fully utilized.

  17. Using exposure prediction tools to link exposure and dosimetry for risk-based decisions: A case study with phthalates. (United States)

    Moreau, Marjory; Leonard, Jeremy; Phillips, Katherine A; Campbell, Jerry; Pendse, Salil N; Nicolas, Chantel; Phillips, Martin; Yoon, Miyoung; Tan, Yu-Mei; Smith, Sherrie; Pudukodu, Harish; Isaacs, Kristin; Clewell, Harvey


    A few different exposure prediction tools were evaluated for use in the new in vitro-based safety assessment paradigm using di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) as case compounds. Daily intake of each phthalate was estimated using both high-throughput (HT) prediction models such as the HT Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model (SHEDS-HT) and the ExpoCast heuristic model and non-HT approaches based on chemical specific exposure estimations in the environment in conjunction with human exposure factors. Reverse dosimetry was performed using a published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for phthalates and their metabolites to provide a comparison point. Daily intakes of DEHP and DnBP were estimated based on the urinary concentrations of their respective monoesters, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and monobutyl phthalate (MnBP), reported in NHANES (2011-2012). The PBPK-reverse dosimetry estimated daily intakes at the 50th and 95th percentiles were 0.68 and 9.58 μg/kg/d and 0.089 and 0.68 μg/kg/d for DEHP and DnBP, respectively. For DEHP, the estimated median from PBPK-reverse dosimetry was about 3.6-fold higher than the ExpoCast estimate (0.68 and 0.18 μg/kg/d, respectively). For DnBP, the estimated median was similar to that predicted by ExpoCast (0.089 and 0.094 μg/kg/d, respectively). The SHEDS-HT prediction of DnBP intake from consumer product pathways alone was higher at 0.67 μg/kg/d. The PBPK-reverse dosimetry-estimated median intake of DEHP and DnBP was comparable to values previously reported for US populations. These comparisons provide insights into establishing criteria for selecting appropriate exposure prediction tools for use in an integrated modeling platform to link exposure to health effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellites in Canadian broadcasting (United States)

    Siocos, C. A.

    The involvement of Canadian broadcasting and related enterprises in satellite telecommunications is surveyed. This includes point-to-point transmissions and direct ones to the general public. The mode of such utilizations is indicated in both these cases. For the forthcoming DBS systems the many types of service offerings and utilization concepts under discussion elasewhere are presented as well as the business prospects and regulatory climate offering them.

  19. Time Transfer by Laser Link - T2L2: Results of the First Year of Operation (United States)


    have demonstrated noise levels of some tens of picoseconds and a preliminary time stability of a few picoseconds over integration times of some tens ...satellite clocks (the ultra-stable oscillator USO of DORIS in the case of Jason-2) to be synchronized are linked to a laser station and to the T2L2...possible to compute a synthetic time of flight obtained over an integration duration of few tens of seconds. This method is pertinent in two cases

  20. Reference unification and reference linking:Concept,functionalities and inhibiting elements.A case study of Chinese Science Citation Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG; Yan; LIU; Xiaomin


    In comparing reference unification to reference linking,the authors found that reference linking yield similar result as that of reference unification.An investigative study was conducted by these authors at Chinese Science Citation Database(CSCD)of National Science Library(NSL)of the ChineseAcademy of Sciences(CAS),it was found that there were three inhibiting elements in invoking a reference unification solution and the same is true for a reference linking solution.Firstly,it was difficult to define a minimum set of data elements for matching.Secondly,it had a problem of data inaccuracy and/or data incompleteness.Thirdly,it was hard to determine an appropriate linking result that produced the desired document for the user.Thus these authors suggest that getting Digital Object Identifier(DOI)for each journal article is a good way to bring about reference unification and also to improve metadata quality simultaneously at the same time.Therefore,DOI has a pivotal role to play in terms of bringing about reference unification and/or a reference linking.

  1. Multi-mission Satellite Management (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  2. A Study of Human-Land Linking Policy Based on Urbanization Away from Home: A Case Study of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuang WANG; Zhongxiang YU


    This paper analyzes the features and trends of urbanization away from home in Anhui Province,and believes that the cross-city floating population in the province shows a expanding scale,and dual cores of the province has obvious attractiveness. This paper also analyzes the relations between urban-rural construction land and urban-rural population transformation in the province,and expounds the possibility and necessity of carrying out human-land linking policy northern Anhui-Wanjiang. Based on the factors affecting human-land linking policy,this paper recommends that we should establish cross-regional trading policy system for land development rights in Anhui Province from four key links( urban entry,urban integration,rural exit,common urban-rural development),in order to effectively promote migrant workers’ citizenization.

  3. Tactical Satellite 3 (United States)

    Davis, T. M.; Straight, S. D.; Lockwook, R. B.


    Tactical Satellite 3 is an Air Force Research Laboratory Science and Technology (S&T) initiative that explores the capability and technological maturity of small, low-cost satellites. It features a low cost "plug and play" modular bus and low cost militarily significant payloads - a Raytheon developed Hyperspectral imager and secondary payload data exfiltration provided by the Office of Naval Research. In addition to providing for ongoing innovation and demonstration in this important technology area, these S&T efforts also help mitigate technology risk and establish a potential concept of operations for future acquisitions. The key objectives are rapid launch and on-orbit checkout, theater commanding, and near-real time theater data integration. It will also feature a rapid development of the space vehicle and integrated payload and spacecraft bus by using components and processes developed by the satellite modular bus initiative. Planned for a late summer 2008 launch, the TacSat-3 spacecraft will collect and process images and then downlink processed data using a Common Data Link. An in-theater tactical ground station will have the capability to uplink tasking to spacecraft and will receive full data image. An international program, the United Kingdom Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) plan to participate in TacSat-3 experiments.

  4. Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology (United States)

    Horan Stephen; Lyman, Raphael


    This report describes the second year of research effort under the grant Research Supporting Satellite Communications Technology. The research program consists of two major projects: Fault Tolerant Link Establishment and the design of an Auto-Configurable Receiver. The Fault Tolerant Link Establishment protocol is being developed to assist the designers of satellite clusters to manage the inter-satellite communications. During this second year, the basic protocol design was validated with an extensive testing program. After this testing was completed, a channel error model was added to the protocol to permit the effects of channel errors to be measured. This error generation was used to test the effects of channel errors on Heartbeat and Token message passing. The C-language source code for the protocol modules was delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center for integration with the GSFC testbed. The need for a receiver autoconfiguration capability arises when a satellite-to-ground transmission is interrupted due to an unexpected event, the satellite transponder may reset to an unknown state and begin transmitting in a new mode. During Year 2, we completed testing of these algorithms when noise-induced bit errors were introduced. We also developed and tested an algorithm for estimating the data rate, assuming an NRZ-formatted signal corrupted with additive white Gaussian noise, and we took initial steps in integrating both algorithms into the SDR test bed at GSFC.

  5. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.


    centres, one joins more thinly populated regions, and the last one links peripheral areas. Two of them (The Great Belt Link and the Oresund Link) have been constructed and are in full operation. The third (the Fehmarnbelt Link) has been decided 2008 on bilateral government level. The three links...

  6. A Case Study of Cognitive and Biophysical Models of Education as Linked to Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (United States)

    Maye, Kelly M.


    Cognitive and biophysical factors have been considered contributors linked to identifiable markers of obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders. Research demonstrates multiple causes and mixed results for the short-term success of educational programs designed to ameliorate problems that children with obsessive compulsive and anxiety disorders…

  7. Linking Early Childhood Education with Indigenous Education Using Gamification: The Case of Maintaining Cultural Value and Identity (United States)

    Ukala, Catherine Chinyere; Agabi, Ogar G.


    Cultural values and identities remain the bench mark for national identity, cohesion, patriotism and harmonious coexistence in any society. The introduction of western education into West Africa created a weak bridge between the indigenous education and the western education which needs to be properly linked using curriculum harmonisation. This…

  8. Optimization of optically pre-amplified inter-satellite microwave photonic links%带前置光放大的星间微波光子链路性能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子行; 赵尚弘; 李勇军; 楚兴春; 张辉; 王翔; 赵顾颢


    The analytical expression of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for inter-satellite microwave photonic links with an optical pre-amplifier is derived considering the signal fade caused by both transmitter's and receiver's pointing errors,and an optimized model for the average SNR is established. With the desired SNR and the pointing errors of transmitter and receiver,the direct current (DC) bias phase shift of Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) can be optimized so as to minimize the output power of laser diode (LD) ,and the effects of the optical pre-amplifier parameters on the minimum output power of LD and optimal DC bias phase shift are also examined. According to the numerical results,the pre-amplifier noise figure determines the minimum output power of LD needed to achieve the desired SNR. The required minimum output power of LD to maintain the SNR of 15. 56 dB increases by 6. 73 dB for an RMS pointing jitter of 0. 4 μrad when doubling the pre-amplifier noise figure. In contrast, the pre-amplifier noise figure has little influence on the optimal DC bias phase shift, doubling the pre-amplifier noise figure , resulting in no more than 0. 003π increase in the optimum DC bias phase shift.%考虑发射机和接收机对准误差引起的信号衰落,推导出带前置光放大的星间微波光子链路输出信噪比(SNR)的解析表达式,并建立了基于平均SNR原则的链路优化模型.在给定SNR要求及对准误差条件下,对Mach-Zehnder调制器(MZM)直流偏置相移进行了优化,使所需激光器(LD)输出功率最小,并进一步分析了前置放大器参数对最小LD输出功率和最优直流偏置相移的影响.数值仿真结果表明,与增益相比,前置放大器噪声系数决定了指定SNR所需的最小LD输出功率.当对准误差角标准差为0.4 μrad时,噪声系数加倍会使SNR达到15.56 dB时所需的最小LD输出功率增加6.73 dB.然而,前置放大器噪声系数对最优的直流偏置相移几乎无影响,噪声系

  9. Satellite Media Broadcasting with Adaptive Coding and Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gardikis


    Full Text Available Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM is a feature incorporated into the DVB-S2 satellite specification, allowing real-time adaptation of transmission parameters according to the link conditions. Although ACM was originally designed for optimizing unicast services, this article discusses the expansion of its usage to broadcasting streams as well. For this purpose, a general cross-layer adaptation approach is proposed, along with its realization into a fully functional experimental network, and test results are presented. Finally, two case studies are analysed, assessing the gain derived by ACM in a real large-scale deployment, involving HD services provision to two different geographical areas.

  10. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in... (United States)


    ... service for their feeder link operations shall coordinate their operations with licensees of geostationary...-geostationary satellite systems for feeder link operations shall coordinate their operations with the...

  11. Discs of Satellites: the new dwarf spheroidals

    CERN Document Server

    Metz, Manuel; Jerjen, Helmut


    The spatial distributions of the most recently discovered ultra faint dwarf satellites around the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy are compared to the previously reported discs-of-satellites (DoS) of their host galaxies. In our investigation we pay special attention to the selection bias introduced due to the limited sky coverage of SDSS. We find that the new Milky Way satellite galaxies follow closely the DoS defined by the more luminous dwarfs, thereby further emphasizing the statistical significance of this feature in the Galactic halo. We also notice a deficit of satellite galaxies with Galactocentric distances larger than 100 kpc that are away from the disc-of-satellites of the Milky Way. In the case of Andromeda, we obtain similar results, naturally complementing our previous finding and strengthening the notion that the discs-of-satellites are optical manifestations of a phase-space correlation of satellite galaxies.

  12. The BREMSAT Phase-Modulated Communications Link


    Lefevre, Don


    BREMSAT is a small scientific satellite being constructed by the west German Zentrum fur angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM), at Bremen University. BREMSAT's payload consists of five scientific experiment packages. The satellite is scheduled for Get-Away-Special (GAS) Canister launch during the German D-2 shuttle mission in March 1992. Cynetics Corporation is constructing the TT&C link for the satellite, using its standard CMX9600 modem. This modem is the result of Cyn...

  13. Automated data analysis to rapidly derive and communicate ecological insights from satellite-tag data: a case study of reintroduced red kites. (United States)

    van der Wal, René; Zeng, Cheng; Heptinstall, Danny; Ponnamperuma, Kapila; Mellish, Chris; Ben, Stuart; Siddharthan, Advaith


    Analysis of satellite-telemetry data mostly occurs long after it has been collected, due to the time and effort needed to collate and interpret such material. Delayed reporting reduces the usefulness of such data for nature conservation where timely information about animal movements is required. To counter this problem, we present a novel approach which combines automated analysis of satellite-telemetry data with rapid communication of insights derived from such data. A relatively simple algorithm (based on radial and angular velocity calculated from fixes) allowed instantaneous detection of excursions away from settlement areas and automated calculation of home ranges on the remaining data. Automating the detection of both excursions and home-range calculations enabled us to disseminate ecological insights from satellite-tag data instantaneously through a dedicated web portal. The automated analysis, interpretation, and communication of satellite-tag and other ecological data offer clear benefits to nature conservation research and practice.

  14. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    two satellites. A general solution for accurate height computation depends on precise navigation of the two satellites. Validation of the geosynchronous satellite stereo using high altitude mountain lakes and vertically pointing aircraft lidar leads to a height accuracy estimate of +/- 500 m for typical clouds which have been studied. Applications of the satellite stereo include: 1) cloud top and base height measurements, 2) cloud-wind height assignment, 3) vertical motion estimates for convective clouds (Mack et al. [13], [14]), 4) temperature vs. height measurements when stereo is used together with infrared observations and 5) cloud emissivity measurements when stereo, infrared and temperature sounding are used together (see Szejwach et al. [15]). When true satellite stereo image pairs are not available, synthetic stereo may be generated. The combination of multispectral satellite data using computer produced stereo image pairs is a dramatic example of synthetic stereoscopic display. The classic case uses the combination of infrared and visible data as first demonstrated by Pichel et al. [16]. Hasler et at. [17], Mosher and Young [18] and Lorenz [19], have expanded this concept to display many channels of data from various radiometers as well as real and simulated data fields. A future system of stereoscopic satellites would be comprised of both low orbiters (as suggested by Lorenz and Schmidt [20], [19]) and a global system of geosynchronous satellites. The low earth orbiters would provide stereo coverage day and night and include the poles. An optimum global system of stereoscopic geosynchronous satellites would require international standarization of scan rate and direction, and scan times (synchronization) and resolution of at least 1 km in all imaging channels. A stereoscopic satellite system as suggested here would make an extremely important contribution to the understanding and prediction of the atmosphere.

  15. Evaluation of Development and Changes in Land Use using Different Satellite Image Processing and Remote Sensing Techniques (Case Study: Kermanshah, Iran)



    Currently the largest city in the western Iran, Kermanshah enjoys fast growing trend because of its strategic location. Remote sensing and satellite imagery are well suited for assessing the changes in land use over different time periods. In this study, satellite images from Landsat TM sensor and ETM sensor have been prepared during 1987 and 2007 as geometric and radiometric corrections have been made to them. The process was followed by selecting the best combination of false color by using...

  16. Inclusion of satellites in an 18/21 translocation chromosome shown by ammonical-silver staining (sat-banding) in case of partial trisomy 18. (United States)

    Neu, R L; Ortega, C C; Barg, G A; Pinto, W; Gardner, L I; Howell, W M; Denton, T E


    A male infant with a partial trisomy 18 and a 46,XY, --21, t(18;21)(18qter replaced by 18q12::21 p13 replaced by 21 qter) chromosome complement is described. The translocation chromosome is of special interest because it includes the satellites of chromosome 21. This was shown by differential satellite staining with the ammoniacal-silver technique. Images PMID:65472

  17. Rapid detection of foodborne botulism outbreaks facilitated by epidemiological linking of cases: implications for food defense and public health response. (United States)

    Newkirk, Ryan W; Hedberg, Craig W


    The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the descriptive epidemiology of foodborne botulism in the context of outbreak detection and food defense. This study used 1993-2008 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Annual Summaries of Notifiable Diseases, 2003-2006 data from the Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Disease National Case Surveillance Annual Reports, and 1993-2008 data from the Annual Listing of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks. Published outbreak investigation reports were identified through a PubMed search of MEDLINE citations for botulism outbreaks. Fifty-eight foodborne botulism outbreaks were reported to CDC between 1993 and 2008. Four hundred sixteen foodborne botulism cases were documented; 205 (49%) were associated with outbreaks. Familial connections and co-hospitalization of initial presenting cases were common in large outbreaks (>5 cases). In these outbreaks, the time from earliest exposure to outbreak recognition varied dramatically (range, 48-216 h). The identification of epidemiologic linkages between foodborne botulism cases is a critical part of diagnostic evaluation and outbreak detection. Investigation of an intentionally contaminated food item with a long shelf life and widespread distribution may be delayed until an astute physician suspects foodborne botulism; suspicion of foodborne botulism occurs more frequently when more than one case is hospitalized concurrently. In an effort to augment national botulism surveillance and antitoxin release systems and to improve food defense and public health preparedness efforts, medical organizations and Homeland Security officials should emphasize the education and training of medical personnel to improve foodborne botulism diagnostic capabilities to recognize single foodborne botulism cases and to look for epidemiologic linkages between suspected cases.

  18. Role of Indian remote sensing imaging satellites for the Antarctic monitoring and mapping: a case study around Indian Antarctic research stations (United States)

    Jayaprasad, P.; Mehra, Raghav; Chawla, Saket; Rajak, D. Ram; Oza, Sandip R.


    Antarctic research station's existence largely depend on the supply of fuel, food and other commodities through Antarctic Scientific Expedition using ship voyage. Safer Ship Navigation demands high resolution satellite monitoring of the ice conditions which varies from 30 km to 200 km from the Antarctic coast of Research stations. During the last couple of years Indian Satellites play a major role in safer ship navigation in sea ice regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Specifically Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctica (ISEA) through National Centre for Antarctic and Oceanic Research (NCAOR) is one of the beneficiaries for safer ship navigation using information derived from Indian Satellite data. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (SAC-ISRO) is providing Sea Ice Advisories for the safer optimum entry and exit for the expedition ship at two of the Research stations Bharati and Maitri. Two of the Indian Satellites namely Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) and ResourceSAT-2 (RS-2) are the two major workhorses of ISRO for monitoring and mapping of the Antarctic terrain. The present study demonstrate the utilisation potential of these satellite images for various Polar Science Applications. Mosaic of the Antarctic Terrain was generated from RISAT-1 CRS data. The preliminary results of the mosaic from CRS- circular polarisation data is presented. Demonstration of the study is extended for other applications such as change detection studies, safer ship navigation and extreme events of Antarctica. The use of multi resolution multi sensor data is also shown in the study.

  19. River flow forecasting with Artificial Neural Networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Akhtar


    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually incorporated in distributed physically-based hydrological modelling approaches. However, these modelling approaches are recognised to be quite complex and expensive, especially due to the data collection of multiple inputs and parameters, which vary in space and time. On the other hand, ANN models for flow forecasting are frequently developed only with precipitation and discharge as inputs, usually without taking into consideration the spatial variability of precipitation. Full inclusion of spatially distributed inputs into ANN models still leads to a complex computational process that may not give acceptable results. Therefore, here we present an analysis of the flow length and travel time as a basis for pre-processing remotely sensed (satellite rainfall data. This pre-processed rainfall is used together with local stream flow measurements of previous days as input to ANN models. The case study for this modelling approach is the Ganges river basin. A comparative analysis of multiple ANN models with different hydrological pre-processing is presented. The ANN showed its ability to forecast discharges 3-days ahead with an acceptable accuracy. Within this forecast horizon, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is marginal, because of dominant influence of strongly auto-correlated discharge inputs. For forecast horizons of 7 to 10 days, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is noticeable, although the overall model performance deteriorates. The incorporation of remote sensing data of spatially distributed precipitation information as pre-processing step showed to be a promising alternative for the setting-up of ANN models for

  20. [Landscape pattern changes at village scale using high resolution satellite images: A case study in low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province]. (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-yue; Peng, Jian; Liu, Yan-xu; Zhang, Tian


    Human activity is the main driving force of the change of land cover and landscape patterns. However, there are few studies focusing on the mechanism of human-induced change of land cover and landscape patterns at village scale. In this study, taking low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province as a case study area, high resolution satellite images were introduced to find out the rules of land cover and landscape pattern changes, i.e. GeoEye-1 of 2009 and World- View-3 of 2014. The object-oriented and human-computer-interaction approaches were applied to interpret the images using ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.2. The results showed that, the main land cover types in the study area were forest land, paddy field and dry land in 2009, with forest, bulldozed unbuilt ground and paddy field in 2014, accounting for 82.8% and 70.9% of the total area, respectively. The land cover transition showed that, during 2009-2014, the main land cover change flows were from forest land, paddy field and dry land, to bulldozed unbuilt ground and construction land. Furthermore, the area of bulldozed but unbuilt land had increased to be 531.57 hm² in 2014, which mainly came from forest land (42.8%), dry land (21.7%), and paddy field (14.2%). Landscape pattern change was characterized as the increase of patch quantity and density, the decrease of mean patch size, the complication of patch shape, the fragmentation of landscape patches, and the diversification of landscape patterns.

  1. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  2. Association, characterisation and meta-analysis of SNPs linked to general reading ability in a German dyslexia case-control cohort (United States)

    Müller, Bent; Wilcke, Arndt; Czepezauer, Ivonne; Ahnert, Peter; Boltze, Johannes; Kirsten, Holger; Friederici, Angela D.; Emmrich, Frank; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Neef, Nicole; Boltze, Johannes; Skeide, Michael; Kirsten, Holger; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Kraft, Indra; Czepezauer, Ivonne; Dörr, Liane


    Dyslexia is a severe disorder in the acquisition of reading and writing. Several studies investigated the role of genetics for reading, writing and spelling ability in the general population. However, many of the identified SNPs were not analysed in case-control cohorts. Here, we investigated SNPs previously linked to reading or spelling ability in the general population in a German case-control cohort. Furthermore, we characterised these SNPs for functional relevance with in silico methods and meta-analysed them with previous studies. A total of 16 SNPs within five genes were included. The total number of risk alleles was higher in cases than in controls. Three SNPs were nominally associated with dyslexia: rs7765678 within DCDC2, and rs2038137 and rs6935076 within KIAA0319. The relevance of rs2038137 and rs6935076 was further supported by the meta-analysis. Functional profiling included analysis of tissue-specific expression, annotations for regulatory elements and effects on gene expression levels (eQTLs). Thereby, we found molecular mechanistical implications for 13 of all 16 included SNPs. SNPs associated in our cohort showed stronger gene-specific eQTL effects than non-associated SNPs. In summary, our results validate SNPs previously linked to reading and spelling in the general population in dyslexics and provide insights into their putative molecular pathomechanisms. PMID:27312598

  3. Neptune's small satellites (United States)

    Thomas, P.


    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  4. Binary Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah


    Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitatio...

  5. Strategies for linking research groups and the productive sector in the case of the national university of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Morales Rubiano


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show strategies used by some research groups at the National University of Colombia (UN, to generate processes of relationship with the environment and some internal and external aspects that affect such processes. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with directors from the research groups and support units of four faculties at the UN. It was found that most links between the university and the environment are the result of the interpersonal relations of the leaders or members of the groups, which are later used to formalize the relationship through agreements or contracts. Likewise, it becomes clear that the capabilities developed by the university are a key factor when interacting with and facing environmental conditions.

  6. Linking Material Flow Analysis with Resilience Using Rice: A Case Study in Global, Visual MFA of a Key Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Monit


    Full Text Available This article uses the rice price crisis of 2007–2008 to show how material flow analysis (MFA can be combined with resilience research. After presentation of fundamental information and methods, resilience-related concepts are illustrated using graphical methods and MFA data. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI and node-link diagrams are used to highlight potential vulnerability hotspots and show response to, recovery from disturbance and adaptation following a disruption of the global rice market. The methods presented are especially useful in rapid screening for potential impact of supply-side disruptions, such as export restrictions or poor harvests. The article concludes by discussing other potential applications of the chosen approach and stressing the importance of visual communication in dissemination of results and cross-pollination between disciplines. All the data used in this study is available online, as interactive visualizations, at:

  7. Linking neuroethology to the chemical biology of natural products: interactions between cone snails and their fish prey, a case study. (United States)

    Olivera, Baldomero M; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Schmidt, Eric W; Safavi-Hemami, Helena


    From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively studied by chemists and biochemists in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the biological purpose for which a natural product evolved is rarely addressed. By focusing on a well-studied group of natural products-venom components from predatory marine cone snails-this review provides a rationale for why a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads. The larger goal is to establish a new sub-discipline in the broader field of neuroethology that we refer to as "Chemical Neuroethology", linking the substantial work carried out by chemists on natural products with accelerating advances in neuroethology.

  8. Shigellosis outbreak linked to canteen-food consumption in a public institution: a matched case-control study. (United States)

    Gutiérrez Garitano, I; Naranjo, M; Forier, A; Hendriks, R; DE Schrijver, K; Bertrand, S; Dierick, K; Robesyn, E; Quoilin, S


    On 13 November 2009, the authorities of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, received an alert concerning a potential outbreak of Shigella sonnei at a public institution. A study was conducted to assess the extent, discover the source and to implement further measures. We performed a matched case-control study to test an association between shigellosis and canteen-food consumption. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples were tested. The reference laboratory characterized the retrospectively collected Shigella specimens. We found 52 cases distributed over space (25/35 departments) and time (2 months). We found a matched odds ratio of 3·84 (95% confidence interval 1·02-14·44) for canteen-food consumption. A food handler had travelled to Morocco shortly before detection of the first laboratory-confirmed case. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples tested negative for Shigella. Confirmed cases presented PFGE profiles, highly similar to archived isolates from Morocco. Foodborne transmission associated with the canteen was strongly suspected.

  9. Global value chains linking local producers from developing countries to international markets: theoretical perspectives and empirical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van D.; Trienekens, J.H.


    This volume presents seven case studies of global value chains alongside two theoretical chapters concerning these chains. The contributors explore a wide range of issues relevant to value chains: the impact of global value chains on local upgrading strategies, the role of governance structures

  10. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.


    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  11. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  12. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff


    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  13. The fetal MR appearance of 'nutmeg lung': findings in 8 cases linked to pulmonary lymphangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa)


    A pattern of abnormal signal at fetal MRI may be seen in the setting of primary or secondary congenital lymphangiectasia, manifested as a heterogeneous appearance of the lung parenchyma and the presence of subtle T2-hyperintense branching tubular structures that emanate from the hila. We have named this pattern the nutmeg lung. We describe the nutmeg lung appearance seen in fetal MRI scans, with discussion of possible etiologies and outcomes in a series of eight fetuses. We retrospectively reviewed imaging from a database of patients demonstrating features of nutmeg lung on fetal MRI. Medical records were used to determine the postnatal diagnosis, clinical course and outcome. Among the eight fetal cases of nutmeg lung, two had postnatal confirmation of primary lymphangiectasia and the remaining six had secondary lymphangiectasia, presumably secondary to congenital cardiac anomalies. There were various-size pleural effusions in all cases. Only one of the cases demonstrated hydrops fetalis. We present the description of the nutmeg lung sign on fetal MRI as T2-hyperintense heterogeneous lungs with fluid-filled, serpiginous branching structures that extend from the pulmonary hila to the periphery of the lung, often accompanied by pleural effusions. The sign denotes findings of primary or secondary lymphangiectasia. Findings of secondary lymphangiectasia in our series were a result of cardiac insufficiency. Recognizing this sign might be helpful in the diagnostic algorithm of the fetus with abnormal lung parenchyma. (orig.)

  14. Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication. (United States)

    Arnon, S


    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the lines of sight of their optics must be aligned for the duration of the communication. The satellite pointing and tracking systems perform the alignment. The satellite pointing systems vibrate because of tracking noise and mechanical impacts (such as thruster operation, the antenna pointing mechanism, the solar array driver, navigation noise, tracking noise). These vibrations increase the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. An expression is derived for adaptive transmitter power that compensates for vibration effects in heterodyne laser satellite links. This compensation makes it possible to keep the link BER performance constant for changes in vibration amplitudes. The motivation for constant BER is derived from the requirement for future satellite communication networks with high quality of service. A practical situation of a two-low-Earth-orbit satellite communication link is given. From the results of the example it is seen that the required power for a given BER increases almost exponentially for linear increase in vibration amplitude.

  15. Parameter Impact on Sharing Studies Between UAS CNPC Satellite Transmitters and Terrestrial Systems (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.


    In order to provide a control and non-payload communication (CNPC) link for civil-use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) when operating in beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) conditions, satellite communication links are generally required. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has determined that the CNPC link must operate over protected aviation safety spectrum allocations. Although a suitable allocation exists in the 5030-5091 MHz band, no satellites provide operations in this band and none are currently planned. In order to avoid a very lengthy delay in the deployment of UAS in BLOS conditions, it has been proposed to use existing satellites operating in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS), of which many operate in several spectrum bands. Regulatory actions by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) are needed to enable such a use on an international basis, and indeed Agenda Item (AI) 1.5 for the 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) was established to decide on the enactment of possible regulatory provisions. As part of the preparation for AI 1.5, studies on the sharing FSS bands between existing services and CNPC for UAS are being contributed by NASA and others. These studies evaluate the potential impact of satellite CNPC transmitters operating from UAS on other in-band services, and on the potential impact of other in-band services on satellite CNPC receivers operating on UAS platforms. Such studies are made more complex by the inclusion of what are essentially moving FSS earth stations, compared to typical sharing studies between fixed elements. Hence, the process of determining the appropriate technical parameters for the studies meets with difficulty. In order to enable a sharing study to be completed in a less-than-infinite amount of time, the number of parameters exercised must be greatly limited. Therefore, understanding the impact of various parameter choices is accomplished through selectivity analyses. In the case of sharing

  16. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease? (United States)

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja


    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  17. University Satellite Campus Management Models (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken


    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  18. X-linked agammaglobulinemia in community-acquired pneumonia cases revealed by immunoglobulin level screening at hospital admission. (United States)

    Vancikova, Z; Freiberger, T; Vach, W; Trojanek, M; Rizzi, M; Janda, A


    In children with primary immunodeficiencies, the onset of symptoms precedes the diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment by months or years. This delay in diagnosis is due to the fact that while these disorders are rare, some of the infections seen in immunodeficient patients are common. Defective antibody production represents the largest group among these disorders, with otitis, sinusitis and pneumonia as the most frequent initial manifestation. We performed a prospective study of humoral immunity in children hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia in tertiary care hospital. Out of 254 patients (131 boys, 123 girls, median age 4.5 years) recruited over 3 years, we found 2 boys (age 11 and 21 months) lacking serum immunoglobulins and circulating B cells. Subsequent genetic analysis confirmed diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Despite their immunodeficiency, the pneumonia was uncomplicated in both patients and did not call for immunological evaluation. However, the immunoglobulin screening at admission allowed for an early diagnosis of the immunodeficiency and timely initiation of immunoglobulin substitution, the key prerequisite for a favorable course of the disease.Simple and inexpensive immuno-globulin measurement during the manage-ment of hospitalized children with community-acquired pneumonia may help in early identification of patients with compromised humoral immunity and prevent serious complications.

  19. Synergy of airborne LiDAR and Worldview-2 satellite imagery for land cover and habitat mapping: A BIO_SOS-EODHaM case study for the Netherlands (United States)

    Mücher, C. A.; Roupioz, L.; Kramer, H.; Bogers, M. M. B.; Jongman, R. H. G.; Lucas, R. M.; Kosmidou, V. E.; Petrou, Z.; Manakos, I.; Padoa-Schioppa, E.; Adamo, M.; Blonda, P.


    A major challenge is to develop a biodiversity observation system that is cost effective and applicable in any geographic region. Measuring and reliable reporting of trends and changes in biodiversity requires amongst others detailed and accurate land cover and habitat maps in a standard and comparable way. The objective of this paper is to assess the EODHaM (EO Data for Habitat Mapping) classification results for a Dutch case study. The EODHaM system was developed within the BIO_SOS (The BIOdiversity multi-SOurce monitoring System: from Space TO Species) project and contains the decision rules for each land cover and habitat class based on spectral and height information. One of the main findings is that canopy height models, as derived from LiDAR, in combination with very high resolution satellite imagery provides a powerful input for the EODHaM system for the purpose of generic land cover and habitat mapping for any location across the globe. The assessment of the EODHaM classification results based on field data showed an overall accuracy of 74% for the land cover classes as described according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) taxonomy at level 3, while the overall accuracy was lower (69.0%) for the habitat map based on the General Habitat Category (GHC) system for habitat surveillance and monitoring. A GHC habitat class is determined for each mapping unit on the basis of the composition of the individual life forms and height measurements. The classification showed very good results for forest phanerophytes (FPH) when individual life forms were analyzed in terms of their percentage coverage estimates per mapping unit from the LCCS classification and validated with field surveys. Analysis for shrubby chamaephytes (SCH) showed less accurate results, but might also be due to less accurate field estimates of percentage coverage. Overall, the EODHaM classification results encouraged us to derive the heights of

  20. Use of Sirolimus (Rapamycin) for Treatment of Cytopenias and Lymphoproliferation Linked to Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS). Two Case Reports. (United States)

    Cayrol, Julie; Garrido Colino, Carmen


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis. Children present with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias. Recent advances show efficacy of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Sirolimus, an mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, improves autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation, with a safe profile. We present 2 patients, a 5-year-old girl and 15-year-old boy, diagnosed with ALPS with initial partial response to steroid treatment. Autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation then became refractory to treatment, with recurrence of symptoms. In both cases, treatment with sirolimus was started, with a rapid response, complete remission of cytopenias, and resolution of lymphoproliferation, with no significant adverse effects.

  1. An improved water footprint methodology linking global consumption to local water resources: a case of Spanish tomatoes. (United States)

    Chapagain, A K; Orr, S


    A water footprint (WF) measures the total water consumed by a nation, business or individual by calculating the total water used during the production of goods and services. This paper extends the existing methods for WF to more localised levels for crops grown partly in open systems and partly in plastic-covered houses with multi-seasonal harvesting, such as the horticulture industry in Spain. This improvement makes it possible to visualise the links of EU tomato consumption to precise production sites in Spain and opens a debate to the usefulness of such findings. This paper also compares existing ecological methodologies with WF and argues that both life cycle analysis (LCA) and ecological footprint (EF) models could benefit from WF methods. Our results show that the EU consumes 957,000 tons of Spanish fresh tomatoes annually, which evaporates 71 Mm(3)/yr of water and would require 7 Mm(3)/yr of water to dilute leached nitrates in Spain. In Spain, tomato production alone evaporates 297 Mm(3)/yr and pollutes 29 Mm(3)/yr of freshwater. Depending upon the local agro-climatic character, status of water resources, total tomato production volumes and production system, the impact of EU consumption of fresh tomatoes on Spanish freshwater is very location specific. The authors suggest that business now seek to report and address negative impacts on the environment. WF opens the door to complex water relationships and provides vital information for policy actors, business leaders, regulators and managers to their draw, dependence and responsibilities on this increasingly scarce resource.

  2. A case of in vivo iontophoresis-assisted corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus: An immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Manetti, Mirko; Favuzza, Eleonora; Sgambati, Eleonora; Mencucci, Rita; Marini, Mirca


    The standard corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), that includes the removal of corneal epithelium to permit adequate penetration of riboflavin in the stroma, is an established procedure to halting keratoconus progression. However, as epithelial removal may cause postoperative pain and an increased risk of corneal infection, new therapeutic approaches have been proposed. Iontophoresis is a recently developed non-invasive technique which provides the use of electrical current during CXL to enhance transepithelial penetration of riboflavin into the corneal stroma. Here, we describe for the first time the morphological changes of the corneal stromal compartment in a patient with keratoconus who underwent in vivo iontophoresis-assisted CXL (ionto-CXL) before full-thickness corneal transplantation. Immunohistochemistry for type I collagen and CD34 was performed to investigate the stromal distribution of collagen fibers and keratocytes, respectively. The histology of ionto-CXL-treated keratoconic cornea, collected 6 months after the intervention, was compared with that of healthy corneas and either untreated or standard CXL-treated keratoconic corneas. An attempt to restore a normal stromal architecture was observed in the ionto-CXL-treated cornea compared with untreated keratoconic corneas. In particular, the ionto-CXL-treated cornea showed a parallel distribution of type I collagen fibers, although fiber interweaving appeared less organized than in healthy corneas and standard CXL-treated keratoconic corneas. Moreover, the distribution of CD34-positive keratocytes was improved in keratoconic corneas following ionto-CXL treatment, though a scattered CD34 immunoreactivity was still noticeable in the subepithelial stroma. This study provides histological evidence that ionto-CXL may represent a non-invasive alternative in the management of progressive keratoconus in adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. DYRK1A genetic variants are not linked to Alzheimer's disease in a Spanish case-control cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berciano José


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A has been implicated in the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain, and the development of neurofibrillary tangles, we examined the contribution of this gene to the susceptibility for AD. Methods We examined genetic variations of DYRK1A by genotyping haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs (rs11701483, rs2835740, rs1137600, rs2835761, rs2835762, rs2154545 and rs8132976 in a group of 634 Spanish AD cases and 733 controls. Results There were no differences in the genotypic, allelic or haplotypic distributions between cases and controls in the overall analysis or after stratification by APOE ε4 allele. Conclusion Our negative findings in the Spanish population argue against the hypothesis that DYRK1A genetic variations are causally related to AD risk. Still, additional studies using different sets of patients and control subjects deserve further attention, since supporting evidence for association between DYRK1A gene and AD risk in the Japanese population exists.

  4. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  5. Reference crop evapotranspiration derived from geo-stationary satellite imagery: a case study for the Fogera flood plain, NW-Ethiopia and the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de H.A.R.; Trigo, I.F.; Jitan, M.A.; Enku, N.T.; Tol, van der C.; Gieske, A.S.M.


    First results are shown of a project aiming to estimate daily values of reference crop evapotranspiration ET0 from geo-stationary satellite imagery. In particular, for Woreta, a site in the Ethiopian highland at an elevation of about 1800 m, we tested a radiation-temperature based approximate formul

  6. A Satellite-Based Estimation of Evapotranspiration Using Vegetation Index-Temperature Trapezoid Concept: A Case Study in Southern Florida, U.S.A. (United States)

    Yagci, A. L.; Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Jones, J. W.


    One of the key surface variables for hydrological applications, monitoring of natural and anthropogenic water consumption, closing energy balance and water budgets and drought identification is evapotranspiration (ET). There is currently a strong need for high temporal and spatial resolution ET products for climate and hydrological modelers. A satellite-based retrieval method based on vegetation index-temperature trapezoid (VITT) concept has been developed. This model has the ability to generate accurate ET estimates at high temporal and spatial resolutions by taking advantage of key remotely sensed parameters such as vegetation indices (VIs) and land surface temperature (LST) acquired by satellites as well as routinely-measured meteorological variables such as air temperature (Ta) and net radiation. For local-scale applications, the model has been successfully implemented in Python programming language and tested using Landsat satellite products at an eddy covariance flux tower in Florida. It is fully functional and automated such that there is no need of user intervention to run the model. The model development for continental-scale applications using VI and LST products from NASA satellites such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is currently in progress. The results for local-scale application and early results for continental-scale (US) will be presented and discussed.

  7. Assessment of satellite and model derived long term solar radiation for spatial crop models: A case study using DSSAT in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Biswal


    Full Text Available Crop Simulation models are mathematical representations of the soil plant-atmosphere system that calculate crop growth and yield, as well as the soil and plant water and nutrient balances, as a function of environmental conditions and crop management practices on daily time scale. Crop simulation models require meteorological data as inputs, but data availability and quality are often problematic particularly in spatialising the model for a regional studies. Among these weather variables, daily total solar radiation and air temperature (Tmax and Tmin have the greatest influence on crop phenology and yield potential. The scarcity of good quality solar radiation data can be a major limitation to the use of crop models. Satellite-sensed weather data have been proposed as an alternative when weather station data are not available. These satellite and modeled based products are global and, in general, contiguous in time and also been shown to be accurate enough to provide reliable solar and meteorological resource data over large regions where surface measurements are sparse or nonexistent. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the satellite and model derived daily solar radiation for simulating groundnut crop growth in the rainfed distrcits of Andhra Pradesh. From our preliminary investigation, we propose that satellite derived daily solar radiation data could be used along with ground observed temperature and rainfall data for regional crop simulation studies where the information on ground observed solar radiation is missing or not available.

  8. Using Satellite Classes to Optimise Access to and Participation in First-Year Business Management: A Case at an Open and Distance-Learning University in South Africa (United States)

    Swanepoel, Elana; De Beer, Andreas; Muller, Helene


    We investigated the effect of satellite classes as a component of blended learning, to enhance student performance of the Business Management I and Management I students at an open and distance-learning university. We discuss the evolution of distance education, the interactivities promoted by open and distance learning and the concept of blended…

  9. Homogenised daily lake surface water temperature data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake (United States)

    Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus


    Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km daily LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness temperatures and a modified diurnal temperature cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk temperature measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr-1 (*P summer.

  10. Reference crop evapotranspiration derived from geo-stationary satellite imagery: a case study for the Fogera flood plain, NW-Ethiopia and the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de H.A.R.; Trigo, I.F.; Jitan, M.A.; Enku, N.T.; Tol, van der C.; Gieske, A.S.M.


    First results are shown of a project aiming to estimate daily values of reference crop evapotranspiration ET0 from geo-stationary satellite imagery. In particular, for Woreta, a site in the Ethiopian highland at an elevation of about 1800 m, we tested a radiation-temperature based approximate

  11. Toward a Satellite-Based System of Sugarcane Yield Estimation and Forecasting in Smallholder Farming Conditions: A Case Study on Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Morel


    Full Text Available Estimating sugarcane biomass is difficult to achieve when working with highly variable spatial distributions of growing conditions, like on Reunion Island. We used a dataset of in-farm fields with contrasted climatic conditions and farming practices to compare three methods of yield estimation based on remote sensing: (1 an empirical relationship method with a growing season-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI, (2 the Kumar-Monteith efficiency model, and (3 a forced-coupling method with a sugarcane crop model (MOSICAS and satellite-derived fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation. These models were compared with the crop model alone and discussed to provide recommendations for a satellite-based system for the estimation of yield at the field scale. Results showed that the linear empirical model produced the best results (RMSE = 10.4 t∙ha−1. Because this method is also the simplest to set up and requires less input data, it appears that it is the most suitable for performing operational estimations and forecasts of sugarcane yield at the field scale. The main limitation is the acquisition of a minimum of five satellite images. The upcoming open-access Sentinel-2 Earth observation system should overcome this limitation because it will provide 10-m resolution satellite images with a 5-day frequency.

  12. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  13. International migration, transnational links and ethnic economy. The case of the Indostanic community in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María López Sala


    Full Text Available The Sindhi diaspora is one of the most extensive and influential of Asian commercial diasporas. Its expansion commenced in the 15th century, but it grew significantly in the second half of the 19th century and in the middle of the 20th. The aim of this article is to describe the Sindhis’ settling and commercial activity on the Canary Islands one of the establishing points of the network and to produce a critical reflection of some of the alternative guidelines for economic integration in places where, as in this case, the territory is presented as a space of opportunities for achieving economic objectives. Such an analysis must consider the make-up and dynamic of this transnational network through which information, capital, goods and people circulate.

  14. A Case Study of the Link between Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Creation in Emerging Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng


    in much knowledge creation research, the empirical insights come from a case study in a Chinese startup SME (small and medium-sized enterprise) within the emerging industry of visual intelligence/surveillance systems. The findings, extracted from semi-structured interviews as well as observations, suggest......, the analysis elicits that counter to the prevailing emphasis on linguistic verbalisation and verbal group interaction, field tests and prototypes are better tools for externalisation and the further development of advanced technical knowledge. The upfront taxation of stock options is a barrier, but the lack...... of consent requirements when collecting information and a willing population makes China an ideal test bed for visual intelligence technologies. The chapter exposes the shortcomings of the existing knowledge creation theory and bridges these with insights on how to overcome them in different contexts...

  15. Use of Whole Genome Sequencing and Patient Interviews To Link a Case of Sporadic Listeriosis to Consumption of Prepackaged Lettuce. (United States)

    Jackson, K A; Stroika, S; Katz, L S; Beal, J; Brandt, E; Nadon, C; Reimer, A; Major, B; Conrad, A; Tarr, C; Jackson, B R; Mody, R K


    We report on a case of listeriosis in a patient who probably consumed a prepackaged romaine lettuce-containing product recalled for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Although definitive epidemiological information demonstrating exposure to the specific recalled product was lacking, the patient reported consumption of a prepackaged romaine lettuce-containing product of either the recalled brand or a different brand. A multinational investigation found that patient and food isolates from the recalled product were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and were highly related by whole genome sequencing, differing by four alleles by whole genome multilocus sequence typing and by five high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms, suggesting a common source. To our knowledge, this is the first time prepackaged lettuce has been identified as a likely source for listeriosis. This investigation highlights the power of whole genome sequencing, as well as the continued need for timely and thorough epidemiological exposure data to identify sources of foodborne infections.

  16. Common variable immune deficiency associated Hodgkin’s lymphoma complicated with EBV-linked hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report (United States)

    Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Gunes, Gursel; Aslan, Tuncay; Etgul, Sezgin; Aydin, Seda; Buyukasik, Yahya


    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is described by an increase in macrophages accountable for extensive phagocytosis of hematopoietic cells. Secondary HPS arises commonly in the presence of infections, neoplasia, autoimmune disorders and immune disorders. Here, we reported a patient with common variable immune deficiency (CVID) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) who later developed EBV linked hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. 42 year old men underwent check-up because of back pain in July 2012. He had known CVID disease. In physical examination he had no lymphadenopathies however his spleen was palpable 3 cm under arcus costa. He had hypogammaglobulinemia with IgG levels around 500 mg/dl. In abdominal computed tomography (CT) multiple lymphadenopathies reaching maximum 26×17 cm size were seen so, PET-CT was performed. Involvement in thorax, abdomen, and bone was detected with maximum SUV max 11.5. He had undergone tru-cut biopsy from lymph node in November 2012 which revealed HL. Bone marrow investigation favored with mix cell type. His cytogenetic analysis was reported as 46 XY. He was considered as stage 4 disease and ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine and dexamethasone). He was given six cycles of chemotherapy in May 2013 and complete remission was observed in control CT screening in July 2013. However pancytopenia evolved in August 2013. Bone marrow investigation revealed suspicious lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Treatment was planned to apply autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) after salvage chemotherapy. Control bone marrow investigation again revealed the lymphohistiocytic aggregates with hemophagocytosis. Our patient showed 5 criteria of hemophagocytic syndrome. He had ferritin elevation (>5000 μg/dl), splenomegaly (13 cm) cytopenia, triglyceride elevation and hemophagocytosis. He had unrelated SCT transplantation however he died from transplant related toxicity. The primary and secondary immune deficiency caused by chemotherapy are the major causes

  17. Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on global horizontal irradiance estimation: UAE case study (United States)

    Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.


    In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=δ/δ_R where δ is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and δR is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the daily variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffused horizontal irradiance (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations

  18. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia (United States)

    Fearns, Peter


    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor’s radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit. PMID:28380059

  19. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that

  20. A multi-scale framework to link remotely sensed metrics with socioeconomic data (United States)

    Watmough, Gary; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Palm, Cheryl; Sullivan, Clare; Danylo, Olha; McCallum, Ian


    There is increasing interest in the use of remotely sensed satellite data for estimating human poverty as it can bridge data gaps that prevent fine scale monitoring of development goals across large areas. The ways in which metrics derived from satellite imagery are linked with socioeconomic data are crucial for accurate estimation of poverty. Yet, to date, approaches in the literature linking satellite metrics with socioeconomic data are poorly characterized. Typically, approaches use a GIS approach such as circular buffer zones around a village or household or an administrative boundary such as a district or census enumeration area. These polygons are then used to extract environmental data from satellite imagery and related to the socioeconomic data in statistical analyses. The use of a single polygon to link environment and socioeconomic data is inappropriate in coupled human-natural systems as processes operate over multiple scales. Human interactions with the environment occur at multiple levels from individual (household) access to agricultural plots adjacent to homes, to communal access to common pool resources (CPR) such as forests at the village level. Here, we present a multi-scale framework that explicitly considers how people use the landscape. The framework is presented along with a case study example in Kenya. The multi-scale approach could enhance the modelling of human-environment interactions which will have important consequences for monitoring the sustainable development goals for human livelihoods and biodiversity conservation.

  1. A Rare Case of Psychomotor Disturbances Linked to the Use of an Adulterated Dietary Supplement Containing Sibutramine. (United States)

    Shapira, Barak; Goldstein, Lee; Reshef, Amikam; Poperno, Alina


    Sibutramine, an oral anorexiant, is often found as an adulterant in various counterfeit herbal slimming products and dietary supplements. The use of sibutramine has been associated with various cardiovascular and psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report a rare case of psychomotor disturbances, in a patient with no previously diagnosed movement disorders. A 26-year-old woman developed abnormal behavior, visual hallucinations, hyperkinesia, facial flushing, and dizziness after taking a counterfeit dietary supplement which contained undeclared sibutramine and phenolphtalein. Laboratory work-up revealed microcytic anemia; leucopenia; and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and antistreptolysin O titer, but rheumatic fever was ruled out. After a neurologic examination, involuntary movements were classified as chorea. The psychiatric examination result was unremarkable. The patient responded well to haloperidol therapy. Body temperature, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels eventually normalized. The patient was discharged. This is the first report we are aware of about a transient, chorea-like psychomotor movement disorder associated with sibutramine. Although the causal relationship between sibutramine and the patient's symptoms cannot be proven definitely, the temporal dimension does suggest sibutramine initiation and termination led to onset and resolution of symptoms, respectively. Furthermore, because of the widespread availability of adulterated food supplements containing sibutramine, physicians should be more aware of their implications for patients.

  2. On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba). (United States)

    Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre


    Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components.

  3. A Case of “en bloc” Excision of a Chest Wall Leiomyosarcoma and Closure of the Defect with Non-Cross-Linked Collagen Matrix (Egis®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rastrelli


    Full Text Available Sarcomas arising from the chest wall account for less than 20% of all soft tissue sarcomas, and at this site, primitive tumors are the most frequent to occur. Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant smooth muscle tumor and the best outcomes are achieved with wide surgical excision. Although advancements have been made in treatment protocols, leiomyosarcoma remains one of the more difficult soft tissue sarcoma to treat. Currently, general local control is obtained with surgical treatment with wide negative margins. We describe the case of a 50-year-old man who underwent a chest wall resection involving a wide portion of the pectoralis major and minor muscle, the serratus and part of the second, third and fourth ribs of the left side. The full-thickness chest wall defect of 10 × 8 cm was closed using a non-cross-linked acellular dermal matrix (Egis® placed in two layers, beneath the rib plane and over it. A successful repair was achieved with no incisional herniation and with complete tissue regeneration, allowing natural respiratory movements. No complications were observed in the postoperative course. Biological non-cross-linked matrix, derived from porcine dermis, behaves like a scaffold supporting tissue regeneration; it can be successfully used as an alternative to synthetic mesh for chest wall reconstruction.

  4. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review. (United States)

    Spinelli, Marialuigia; Sica, Carmine; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Novelli, Antonio; Di Meglio, Letizia; Martinelli, Pasquale


    Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS) is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS), which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3) at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  5. Organization of networks with tagged nodes and biased links: a priori distinct communities. The case of Intelligent Design Proponents and Darwinian Evolution Defenders

    CERN Document Server

    Rotundo, G


    Among topics of opinion formation it is of interest to observe the characteristics of networks with a priori distinct communities. As an illustration, we report on the citation network(s) unfolded in the recent decades through web available works belonging to selected members of the Neocreationist and Intelligent Design Proponents (IDP) and the Darwinian Evolution Defenders (DED) communities. An adjacency matrix of tagged nodes is first constructed; it is not symmetric. A generalization of considerations pertaining to the case of networks with biased links, directed or undirected, is thus presented. The main characteristic coefficients describing the structure of such partially directed networks with tagged nodes are outlined. The structural features are discussed searching for statistical aspects, equivalence or not of subnetworks through the degree distributions, each network assortativity, the global and local clustering coefficients and the Average Overlap Indices. The various closed and open triangles ma...

  6. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuigia Spinelli


    Full Text Available Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS, which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3 at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  7. Linking science, public values, and decision-making: Case study development for public deliberations about climate change resilience (United States)

    Weller, N.; Bennett, I.; Bernstein, M.; Farooque, M.; Lloyd, J.; Lowenthal, C.; Sittenfeld, D.


    Actionable science seeks to align scientific inquiry with decision-making priorities to overcome rifts between scientific knowledge and the needs of decision makers. Combining actionable science with explorations of public values and priorities creates useful support for decision makers facing uncertainty, tradeoffs, and limited resources. As part of a broader project to create public forums about climate change resilience, we convened workshops with decision makers, resilience experts, and community stakeholders to discuss climate change resilience. Our goals were 1) to create case studies of resilience strategies for use in public deliberations at science museums across 8 U.S. cities; and 2) to build relationships with decision makers and stakeholders interested in these public deliberations. Prior to workshops, we created summaries of resilience strategies using academic literature, government assessments, municipal resilience plans, and conversations with workshop participants. Workshops began with example deliberation activities followed by semi-structured discussions of resilience strategies centered on 4 questions: 1) What are the key decisions to be made regarding each strategy? 2) What stakeholders and perspectives are relevant to each strategy? 3) What available data are relevant to each strategy? 4) What visualizations or other resources are useful for communicating things about each strategy? Workshops yielded actionable dialogue regarding issues of justice, feasibility, and the socio-ecological-technical systems impacted by climate change hazards and resilience strategies. For example, discussions of drought revealed systemic and individual-level challenges and opportunities; discussions of sea level rise included ways to account for the cultural significance of many coastal communities. The workshops provide a model for identifying decision-making priorities and tradeoffs and building partnerships among stakeholders, scientists, and decision makers.

  8. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  9. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  10. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  11. Communication Links



    This interactive tutorial helps learners to: Identify key upward, lateral, downward, and informal communication links in their organizations. , Reflect on the benefits, control, satisfaction, information filters, and feedback mechanism of various communication links in the organizations. OCL1000 Communicating Change in Complex Organizations

  12. Operative links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen


    as networks: second, a semantic perspective on discourses and concepts of health, and, third, a health pedagogical perspective on participation, intervention, and roles. This paper argues for the importance of 'operative links' between different levels in health strategies. It is proposed that such links...

  13. SAFARI digital processing unit: performance analysis of the SpaceWire links in case of a LEON3-FT based CPU (United States)

    Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Galli, Emanuele; Pezzuto, Stefano; Farina, Maria; Spinoglio, Luigi


    SAFARI (SpicA FAR infrared Instrument) is a far-infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the SPICA mission. The Digital Processing Unit (DPU) of the instrument implements the functions of controlling the overall instrument and implementing the science data compression and packing. The DPU design is based on the use of a LEON family processor. In SAFARI, all instrument components are connected to the central DPU via SpaceWire links. On these links science data, housekeeping and commands flows are in some cases multiplexed, therefore the interface control shall be able to cope with variable throughput needs. The effective data transfer workload can be an issue for the overall system performances and becomes a critical parameter for the on-board software design, both at application layer level and at lower, and more HW related, levels. To analyze the system behavior in presence of the expected SAFARI demanding science data flow, we carried out a series of performance tests using the standard GR-CPCI-UT699 LEON3-FT Development Board, provided by Aeroflex/Gaisler, connected to the emulator of the SAFARI science data links, in a point-to-point topology. Two different communication protocols have been used in the tests, the ECSS-E-ST-50-52C RMAP protocol and an internally defined one, the SAFARI internal data handling protocol. An incremental approach has been adopted to measure the system performances at different levels of the communication protocol complexity. In all cases the performance has been evaluated by measuring the CPU workload and the bus latencies. The tests have been executed initially in a custom low level execution environment and finally using the Real- Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS), which has been selected as the operating system to be used onboard SAFARI. The preliminary results of the carried out performance analysis confirmed the possibility of using a LEON3 CPU processor in the SAFARI DPU, but pointed out, in agreement

  14. Slope mass movements on SPOT satellite images: A case of the Železniki area (W Slovenia after flash floods in September 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Jemec


    Full Text Available Flash floods in Slovenia, which was exposed on September 18th 2007, demanded 6 lives, several thousand houses and over one thousand kilometres of roads were damaged and more also than 50 bridges. The highest amount of rain fell at west and north-west parts of Slovenia (northern Primorska region and southern Gorenjska region,from where heavy rain spread eastwards over the central Slovenia and in east part of Slovenia. In the article we focused on area of western and north-western part of Slovenia. The aim of present research was in the first phase to describe methodology to determine landslide occurrences from satellite images before and after natural disaster on Železniki region. Second phase was based on comparison of obtained results with the existing models for prediction of slope mass movements, and finally also to determine identificability of landslide types on a satellite image.Results have shown, that the highest part of obtaining area from supervised and unsupervised classification of satellite images, are comparable with classes of landslide susceptibility, where occurrences of landslide are largest.

  15. Spacecraft design project: High latitude communications satellite (United States)

    Josefson, Carl; Myers, Jack; Cloutier, Mike; Paluszek, Steve; Michael, Gerry; Hunter, Dan; Sakoda, Dan; Walters, Wes; Johnson, Dennis; Bauer, Terry


    The spacecraft design project was part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The project was intended to provide experience in the design of all major components of a satellite. Each member of the class was given primary responsibility for a subsystem or design support function. Support was requested from the Naval Research Laboratory to augment the Naval Postgraduate School faculty. Analysis and design of each subsystem was done to the extent possible within the constraints of an eleven week quarter and the design facilities (hardware and software) available. The project team chose to evaluate the design of a high latitude communications satellite as representative of the design issues and tradeoffs necessary for a wide range of satellites. The High-Latitude Communications Satellite (HILACS) will provide a continuous UHF communications link between stations located north of the region covered by geosynchronous communications satellites, i.e., the area above approximately 60 N latitude. HILACS will also provide a communications link to stations below 60 N via a relay Net Control Station (NCS), which is located with access to both the HILACS and geosynchronous communications satellites. The communications payload will operate only for that portion of the orbit necessary to provide specified coverage.

  16. Satellite outreach in Asia and the Pacific. (United States)


    Communication by satellite is rapidly changing information exchange in Asia, especially for rural areas. The integrated education planned for satellite networks includes family planning as part of general development. A series of conferences has already been held successfully via satellite for family planning associations who are members of the East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. These included a conference on nursing training. In India the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) made history during its 1-year trial. By 1981 the entire nation is to be linked by satellite. The question is whether the television education will truly change rural life or whether it will become merely a diversion. In Indonesia, satellites were chosen as the fastest way to obtain interisland communication. The Domsat system links the entire 13,000-island archipelago and is already being used for emergency communications. The system, which was developed in 1 1/2 years by the Hughes Aircraft Corporation will be used for teaching basic health, hygiene, and family planning. It will be several years before Domsat is fully operational, but it bears watching.

  17. Galileo satellite antenna modeling (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver


    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  18. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach (United States)

    Scott, Keith; Czetty, Stephen


    Various issues associated with "Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) TCP over mobile satellite links; 2) ways of breaking the control loop at the groundstation; 3) ACK implementation; and 4) ACK performance.

  19. Satellite-Delivered Learning. (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.


    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  20. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  1. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang


    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  2. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  3. Optimization of satellite constellation reconfiguration maneuvers (United States)

    Appel, Leonid; Guelman, Moshe; Mishne, David


    Constellation satellites are required to perform orbital transfer maneuvers. Orbital transfer maneuvers, as opposed to orbital correction maneuvers, are seldom performed but require a substantial amount of propellant for each maneuver. The maneuvers are performed in order to obtain the desired constellation configuration that satisfies the coverage requirements. In most cases, the single-satellite position is immaterial; rather the relative position between constellation multiple-satellites is to be controlled. This work deals with the solution to the coupled optimization problem of multiple-satellite orbital transfer. The studied problem involves a coupled formulation of the terminal conditions of the satellites. The solution was achieved using functional optimization techniques by a combined algorithm. The combined algorithm is based on the First Order Gradient and Neighboring-Extremals Algorithms. An orbital transfer optimization tool was developed. This software has the ability to consider multiple satellites with coupled terminal conditions. A solution to the multiple-satellite orbital transfer optimization problem is presented. A comparison of this solution to the uncoupled case is presented in order to review the benefits of using this approach. It is concluded that the coupled transfer maneuver solution approach is more computationally efficient and more accurate. Numerical solutions for a number of representative cases are presented.

  4. Anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits and serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in adolescents: case-control and trio studies. (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Blaya, Carolina; Salum, Giovanni A; Cappi, Carolina; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G


    The role of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in anxiety disorder and anxiety-related traits is controversial. Besides this study, few studies have evaluated the triallelic genotype in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits are associated with 5-HTTLPR (biallelic and triallelic) in adolescents, integrating both case-control-based and family-based designs in a community sample. This is a cross-sectional community study of 504 individuals and their families: 225 adolescents (129 adolescents with anxiety disorder and 96 controls) and their biological families. We assessed psychiatric diagnosis using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The Temperament and Character Inventory and the Resnick Behavioral Inhibition Scale were used to evaluate harm avoidance and behavioral inhibition. DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped, including biallelic and triallelic 5-HTTLPR classification, by PCR-RFLP followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We were not able to find any associations between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in both case-control and trio analyses. Further investigation and meta-analytic studies are needed to better clarify the inconsistent results with regard to the association between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in adolescents.

  5. Corneal Melting after Collagen Cross-Linking for Keratoconus in a Thin Cornea of a Diabetic Patient Treated with Topical Nepafenac: A Case Report with a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohamed-Noriega


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of a 50-year-old woman with diabetes that presented with corneal melting and perforation 6 weeks after collagen cross-linking (CxL for keratoconus (KC and postoperative use of nepafenac eye drops, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. Methods: This is a case report of a patient with diabetes, KC and a thin cornea that had undergone left eye corneal CxL at a different hospital followed by postoperative use of nepafenac eye drops for 6 weeks. Results: The patient presented for the first time to our clinic with left corneal melting, perforation and iris prolapse 6 weeks after corneal CxL and topical nepafenac use. She was treated with a left eye tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, intraocular lens implantation and pupilloplasty. Conclusions: The corneal melting and perforation in this patient was associated with multiple risk factors: (1 nepafenac eye drop use, (2 CxL in a cornea thinner than 400 µm and (3 diabetes. The recommended corneal thickness limits should be respected. Topical NSAIDs should be used with caution if used as postoperative treatment after corneal CxL and in patients with diabetes, epithelial defect or delayed healing, because of the possible increased risk for corneal melting when multiple risk factors are observed.

  6. Future large broadband switched satellite communications networks (United States)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. R.


    Critical technical, market, and policy issues relevant to future large broadband switched satellite networks are summarized. Our market projections for the period 1980 to 2000 are compared. Clusters of switched satellites, in lieu of large platforms, etc., are shown to have significant advantages. Analysis of an optimum terrestrial network architecture suggests the proper densities of ground stations and that link reliabilities 99.99% may entail less than a 10% cost premium for diversity protection at 20/30 GHz. These analyses suggest that system costs increase as the 0.6 power of traffic. Cost estimates for nominal 20/30 GHz satellite and ground facilities suggest optimum system configurations might employ satellites with 285 beams, multiple TDMA bands each carrying 256 Mbps, and 16 ft ground station antennas. A nominal development program is outlined.

  7. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi


    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G.Vasantha Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper discusses in-house designed and developed scale-down DVB-RCS hub along with the performance of the realized hub. This development is intended to support the Satellite Based e-Learning initiative in India. The scale-down DVB-RCS HUB is implemented around a single PC with other subsystems making it very cost effective and unique of its kind. This realization will drastically reduce the total cost of Satellite based Education Networks as very low cost commercially available Satellite Interactive Terminals (SITs complying to open standard could be used at remote locations. The system is successfully tested to work with a commercial SIT using a GEO satellite EDUSAT which is especially dedicated for satellite based e-Learning. The internal detail of the DVB-RCS Forward and Return Link Organization and how it manages the Satellite Interactive Terminals access to the satellite channel using MF-TDMA approach has been described.

  9. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  10. Geodetic Secor Satellite (United States)


    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  11. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  12. Neuropathological review of 138 cases genetically tested for X-linked hydrocephalus: evidence for closely related clinical entities of unknown molecular bases. (United States)

    Adle-Biassette, Homa; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Razavi, Férecheté; Drouot, Nathalie; Bazin, Anne; Beaufrère, Anne-Marie; Bessières, Bettina; Blesson, Sophie; Bucourt, Martine; Carles, Dominique; Devisme, Louise; Dijoud, Frédérique; Fabre, Blandine; Fernandez, Carla; Gaillard, Dominique; Gonzales, Marie; Jossic, Frédérique; Joubert, Madeleine; Laurent, Nicole; Leroy, Brigitte; Loeuillet, Laurence; Loget, Philippe; Marcorelles, Pascale; Martinovic, Jelena; Perez, Marie-José; Satge, Daniel; Sinico, Martine; Tosi, Mario; Benichou, Jacques; Gressens, Pierre; Frebourg, Thierry; Laquerrière, Annie


    L1 syndrome results from mutations in the L1CAM gene located at Xq28. It encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, X-linked hydrocephalus being the most severe phenotype detected in utero, and whose pathophysiology is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to report detailed neuropathological data from patients with mutations, to delineate the neuropathological criteria required for L1CAM gene screening in foetuses by characterizing the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the cardinal signs, and to discuss the main differential diagnoses in non-mutated foetuses in order to delineate closely related conditions without L1CAM mutations. Neuropathological data from 138 cases referred to our genetic laboratory for screening of the L1CAM gene were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-seven cases had deleterious L1CAM mutations. Of these, 100 % had hydrocephalus, 88 % adducted thumbs, 98 % pyramidal tract agenesis/hypoplasia, 90 % stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius and 68 % agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Two foetuses had L1CAM mutations of unknown significance. Seventy-nine cases had no L1CAM mutations; these were subdivided into four groups: (1) hydrocephalus sometimes associated with corpus callosum agenesis (44 %); (2) atresia/forking of the aqueduct of Sylvius/rhombencephalosynapsis spectrum (27 %); (3) syndromic hydrocephalus (9 %), and (4) phenocopies with no mutations in the L1CAM gene (20 %) and in whom family history strongly suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. These data underline the existence of closely related clinical entities whose molecular bases are currently unknown. The identification of the causative genes would greatly improve our knowledge of the defective pathways involved in these cerebral malformations.

  13. Link Analysis (United States)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  14. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (United States)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.


    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish developments and heritage in small- / microsatellites like Astrid-2, SMART-1 or the upcoming rendezvous and formation flying demonstration mission PRISMA.

  15. Spatial heterogeneity in mangroves assessed by GeoEye-1 satellite data: a case-study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR), China (United States)

    Leempoel, K.; Bourgeois, C.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, M.; Satyaranayana, B.; Bogaert, J.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.


    Mangrove forests, which are declining across the globe mainly because of human intervention, require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc.) to better implement conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (under the jurisdiction of Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve - ZMNNR, P. R. China) were assessed through time using 1967 (Corona KH-4B), 2000 (Landsat ETM+), and 2009 (GeoEye-1) satellite imagery. An important decline in mangrove cover (-36%) was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to dike construction for agriculture (paddy) and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%), the ratio mangrove/aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice culture. In the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 m × 5 m plot-based tree measurements) (August-September, 2009) and spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1), both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73-100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum is identifiable at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands close to B. gymnorrhiza (classification accuracy: 85%). Sand proportion in the sediment showed significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis/ANOVA, P changes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination is well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non-dominant species (e.g. Kandelia obovata) at Gaoqiao. Despite the limitations such as geometric distortion and single band information, the 42-yr old Corona declassified images are invaluable for land-use/cover change detections when compared to recent satellite data

  16. R&D of a Next Generation LEO System for Global Multimedia Mobile Satellite Communications (United States)

    Morikawa, E.; Motoyoshi, S.; Koyama, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Yasuda, Y.


    Next-generation LEO System Research Center (NeLS) was formed in the end of 1997 as a research group under the Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, in cooperation with the telecommunications operators, manufacturers, universities and governmental research organization. The aim of this project is to develop new technology for global multimedia mobile satellite communications services with a user data rate around 2Mbps for handy terminals. component of the IMT-2000, and the second generation of the big-LEO systems. In prosecuting this project, two-phase approach, phase 1 and phase 2, is considered. Phase 1 is the system definition and development of key technologies. In Phase 2, we plan to verify the developed technology in Phase 1 on space. From this year we shifted the stage to Phase 2, and are now developing the prototype of on-board communication systems for flight tests, which will be planed at around 2006. The satellite altitude is assumed to be 1200 km in order to reduce the number of satellites, to avoid the Van Allen radiation belts and to increase the minimum elevation angle. Ten of the circular orbits with 55 degree of inclination are selected to cover the earth surface from -70 to 70 degree in latitude. 12 satellites are positioned at regular intervals in each orbit. In this case, the minimum elevation angle from the user terminal can be keep more than 20 degree for the visibility of the satellite, and 15 degree for simultaneous visibility of two satellites. Then, NeLS Research Center was focusing on the development of key technologies as the phase 1 project. Four kinds of key technologies; DBF satellite antenna, optical inter-satellite link system, satellite network technology with on-board ATM switch and variable rate modulation were selected. Satellite Antenna Technology: Development of on-board direct radiating active phased array antenna with digital beam forming technology would be one of the most important breakthroughs for the

  17. Mapping Impervious Surface Expansion using Medium-resolution Satellite Image Time Series: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Delta, China (United States)

    Gao, Feng; DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Ma, Ronghua; Weng, Qihao; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Chen, Jin; Pan, Yaozhong; Song, Conghe


    Cities have been expanding rapidly worldwide, especially over the past few decades. Mapping the dynamic expansion of impervious surface in both space and time is essential for an improved understanding of the urbanization process, land-cover and land-use change, and their impacts on the environment. Landsat and other medium-resolution satellites provide the necessary spatial details and temporal frequency for mapping impervious surface expansion over the past four decades. Since the US Geological Survey opened the historical record of the Landsat image archive for free access in 2008, the decades-old bottleneck of data limitation has gone. Remote-sensing scientists are now rich with data, and the challenge is how to make best use of this precious resource. In this article, we develop an efficient algorithm to map the continuous expansion of impervious surface using a time series of four decades of medium-resolution satellite images. The algorithm is based on a supervised classification of the time-series image stack using a decision tree. Each imerpervious class represents urbanization starting in a different image. The algorithm also allows us to remove inconsistent training samples because impervious expansion is not reversible during the study period. The objective is to extract a time series of complete and consistent impervious surface maps from a corresponding times series of images collected from multiple sensors, and with a minimal amount of image preprocessing effort. The approach was tested in the lower Yangtze River Delta region, one of the fastest urban growth areas in China. Results from nearly four decades of medium-resolution satellite data from the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) show a consistent urbanization process that is consistent with economic development plans and policies. The time-series impervious spatial extent maps derived

  18. Evaluation of Linked Data Approach on Scientific Geospatial Data (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.; Spagenberg, D. A.


    Vast amount of scientific data are collected from NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), and this creates a challenge to collaborate, discovery, and access large and diverse data sets that can span across multiple discipline. Typically, web tools or services are created to allow users or applications to discover, order, and retrieve the relevant data that resides behind a repository in varying formats and semantics. This access model makes it difficult to search and access data sets across multiple repositories in a quick and efficient manner. The authors describe a framework for transforming various satellite data into Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model where all observations are linked spatially and temporally in a Linked Data context using new and existing vocabularies to describe these observations. Sample case study data sets are transformed and stored into multiple semantic repositories for demonstration and evaluation. The challenges and results from the evaluation are presented and discussed.

  19. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  20. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  1. Evaluation of Development and Changes in Land Use using Different Satellite Image Processing and Remote Sensing Techniques (Case Study: Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maleky


    Full Text Available Currently the largest city in the western Iran, Kermanshah enjoys fast growing trend because of its strategic location. Remote sensing and satellite imagery are well suited for assessing the changes in land use over different time periods. In this study, satellite images from Landsat TM sensor and ETM sensor have been prepared during 1987 and 2007 as geometric and radiometric corrections have been made to them. The process was followed by selecting the best combination of false color by using Optimal Index Factor (OIF in ILWIS software. Greenness, brightness and wetness indexes along with NDVI index of land cover were then derived in each period using Fuzzy Art map Supervised Classification, Principal Components Analysis and Tasseled-cap Transformation. The results indicated that Pca2 index can properly demonstrate increasing and decreasing changes among the main components as greenness index can display decreasing and no changes in land uses among tasseled-cap components, while the wetness index would reflect increasing changes in land use with high accuracy. Moreover, the precision and results of NDVI index is so close to that of greenness index. The overall results of the study suggest that the urban surface area is annually increased at a rate of 109.6 ha, which was a major decline in agricultural and range land use.

  2. Multitemporal High-Resolution Satellite Images for the Study and Monitoring of an Ancient Mesopotamian City and its Surrounding Landscape: The Case of Ur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Giacomo


    Full Text Available The paper concerns the use of multitemporal high-resolution satellite images for the study of the ancient city of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, inaccessible to scholars from 2003. The acquired dataset is composed by two Gambit KH-7 (1966 and one Corona KH-4B (1968 declassified spy space photos and by few images taken by the recent satellites for civilian use QuickBird-2 (2002, 2004, 2007, Ikonos-2 (2008, and WorldView-1 (2008. The processing of all these images and the integration with ASTER and SRTM DEMs allowed the acquisition of new data about the topographical layout of the city and its monuments and ancient roads; the georeferencing of all archaeological remains and traces visible on the images allowed the upgrade of the archaeological map of Ur. The research also provided important data concerning the reconstruction of the surrounding landscape, where a lot of traces of old channels and riverbeds of the Euphrates were identified in areas much modified and altered during the last decades by urbanization and agricultural works. Moreover, the multitemporal images allowed the monitoring of the conservation of the archaeological area, particularly before and after second Gulf War.

  3. Comprehensive Study on Small and Low Cost Satellite Technology for Earth Observation with Case Study for Indonesia: Projection for 2002-2022 (United States)

    Djojodihardjo, Harijono

    and economic progress, while facing global competitiveness locally as opportunities and challenges. Of particular importance is the utilization and development of earth observation capabilities for environmental natural resources imperatives to this end is quite significant. On one hand there may appear challenges to achieve unique and high quality requirements on many of the elements of social and economic progress, i.e. natural resources, human resources, market opportunities and geographical advantage; on the other hand one may face constraints in the financial system, cultural inertia and paradigm, and the need to carry forward large momentum that may pull back technological and economic progress that may be characterized by a "roller coaster" dynamics. Satellite Technology for Earth Observation, its Utilization and Development is carried out with Indonesian Development Interest in mind. Space System Services and Players are identified. Mission objectives associated with Urban and Rural Areas as well as Satellite-Based Multimedia Technology Applications For Promoting Rural Development will be identified. System design analysis and synthesis will be elaborated and some alternatives will be presented following a unified system outlook. Ground Segment and Space Segment Architecture will be elaborated by carrying out Architecture Optimization.

  4. Research on Congestion Control Algorithm for Satellite Link Based on Detection Mechanism%基于探测机制的卫星链路拥塞控制算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article analyzes the recent research on TCP congestion control algorithms for satel- lite link, and introduces a congestion control algorithm based on detection mechanism. The algo- rithm uses dummy segments to probe the availability of network resources without carrying any new information for the sender, and accordingly forms new congestion control algorithms. Be- sides detailed analysis of the new algorithm, this article gives the network simulation and com- pares the algorithm with the traditional one. Simulation results show that the new algorithm can improve the throughput performance in the beginning of a new connection and in the condition of link errors as well.%分析了目前卫星链路拥塞控制算法的研究现状,重点介绍了一种基于探测机制的拥塞控制算法,即通过发送低优先级且不携带有用信息的哑元来探测网络资源的可用性,改进并形成了新的拥塞控制算法。文章对该算法进行了详细分析,并运用OPNET仿真工具进行了网络仿真,在建立的网络模型中对新旧算法进行了比较。仿真结果表明,该算法能够提高卫星链路TCP连接的初始阶段以及链路出错条件下的吞吐量。

  5. Satellite communications application to Pacific countries above Ku band (United States)

    Iida, Takashi


    An application of satellite communications above the Ku band to the Pacific region is described, focusing on: (1) Lightsat system and (2) a high capacity satellite system. A small geostationary satellite system using Ku band for the Federated States of Micronesia is shown as an example. A concept of multi-gigabits/second high capacity communications system using two satellites in the Ka band is described. The onboard bit-by-bit processing is very useful in the low link margin environment due to rain attenuation. These topics were obtained by the Asia Pacific Telecommunications Study granted by NASA conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  6. Design and analysis of the satellite laser communications network (United States)

    Ren, Pei-an; Qian, Fengchen; Liu, Qiang; Jin, Linlin


    A satellite laser communications network structure with two layers and multiple domains has been proposed, which performance has been simulated by OPENT. To simulation, we design several OPNET models of the network's components based on a satellite constellation with two layers and multiple domains, as network model, node model, MAC layer protocol and optical antenna model. The network model consists of core layer and access layer. The core network consists of four geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites which are uniformly distributed in the geostationary orbit. The access network consists of 6 low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites which is the walker delta (walk-δ) constellation with three orbit planes. In access layer, each plane has two satellites, and the constellation is stably. The satellite constellation presented for space laser network can meet the demand of coverage in the middle and low latitude by a few satellites. Also several terminal device models such as the space laser transmitter, receiver, protocol layer module and optical antenna have been designed according to the inter-satellite links in different orbits t from GEO to LEO or GEO to ground. The influence to network of different transmitting throughput, receiving throughput, network protocol and average time delay are simulated. Simulation results of network coverage, connectivity and traffic load performance in different scenes show that the satellite laser network presented by the paper can be fit for high-speed satellite communications. Such analysis can provide effective reference for the research of satellite laser networking and communication protocol.

  7. Mutation analysis of the gene encoding Bruton`s tyrosine kinase in a family with a sporadic case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia reveals three female carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, T.L.; Kwan, Sau-Ping [Rush Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Assa`ad, A.H. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Bruton`s tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been identified as the protein responsible for the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). We and others have cloned the gene for Btk and recently reported the genomic organization. Nineteen exons were positioned within the 37 kb gene. With the sequence data derived from our genomic map, we have designed a PCR based assay to directly identify mutations of the Btk gene in germline DNA of patients with XLA. In this report, the assay was used to analyze a family with a sporadic case of XLA to determine if other female relatives carry the disease. A four base-pair deletion was found in the DNA of the affected boy and was further traced through three generations. With the direct identification of the mutations responsible for XLA, we can now diagnose conclusively the disease and identify the immunologically normal female carriers. This same technique can easily be applied to prenatal diagnosis in families where the mutation can be identified. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Three-Year Successful Cinacalcet Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in a Patient with X-Linked Dominant Hypophosphatemic Rickets: A Case Report (United States)

    Rejnmark, Lars


    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by a classic rickets phenotype with low plasma phosphate levels and resistance to treatment with vitamin D. Development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) as a direct consequence of treatment is a frequent complication and a major clinical challenge, as this may increase risk of further comorbidity. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent that reduces the secretion of PTH from the parathyroid glands, has been suggested as adjuvant treatment to SHPT in patients with HR. However, only two papers have previously been published and no data are available on effects of treatment for more than six months. We now report a case of 3-year treatment with cinacalcet in a patient with HR complicated by SHPT. A 53-year-old woman with genetically confirmed X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets developed SHPT after 25 years of conventional treatment with alfacalcidol and phosphate supplements. Cinacalcet was added to her treatment, causing a sustained normalization of PTH. Ionized calcium decreased, requiring reduction of cinacalcet, though asymptomatical. Level of phosphate was unchanged, but alkaline phosphatase increased in response to treatment. Cinacalcet appeared to be efficient, safe, and well tolerated. We recommend close control of plasma calcium to avoid hypocalcemia. PMID:24660072

  9. Three-Year Successful Cinacalcet Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in a Patient with X-Linked Dominant Hypophosphatemic Rickets: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Grove-Laugesen


    Full Text Available Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR is a rare inherited disorder characterized by a classic rickets phenotype with low plasma phosphate levels and resistance to treatment with vitamin D. Development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT as a direct consequence of treatment is a frequent complication and a major clinical challenge, as this may increase risk of further comorbidity. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent that reduces the secretion of PTH from the parathyroid glands, has been suggested as adjuvant treatment to SHPT in patients with HR. However, only two papers have previously been published and no data are available on effects of treatment for more than six months. We now report a case of 3-year treatment with cinacalcet in a patient with HR complicated by SHPT. A 53-year-old woman with genetically confirmed X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets developed SHPT after 25 years of conventional treatment with alfacalcidol and phosphate supplements. Cinacalcet was added to her treatment, causing a sustained normalization of PTH. Ionized calcium decreased, requiring reduction of cinacalcet, though asymptomatical. Level of phosphate was unchanged, but alkaline phosphatase increased in response to treatment. Cinacalcet appeared to be efficient, safe, and well tolerated. We recommend close control of plasma calcium to avoid hypocalcemia.

  10. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency due to a novel mutation complicated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and presented with invagination: A case report (United States)

    Patiroglu, Turkan; van den Burg, Mirjam; Unal, Ekrem; Akyildiz, Basak N.; Tekerek, Nazan U.; Yilmaz, Ebru


    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disease with profoundly defective T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. X-linked SCID (X-SCID) is its most common form. In this report, we describe a 4-month-old male with X-SCID who presented invagination and also showed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient was admitted to our hospital with fever, cough, vomiting, monoliasis, and hepatosplenomegaly in postoperative period at the age of 3 months. The laboratory finding revealed no detectable T cells and hypogammaglobulinemia despite normal B-cell counts. Diagnosis of X-SCID was established by DNA analysis of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2RG); namely, we detected the novel mutation in the splice-site of exon 5 (c.595-1G>T). The patient died due to infection at the age of 4 months. Also, this case is the first report that describes the patient with X-SCID with presented invagination. PMID:25215194

  11. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltić Zorana


    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  12. Spatial heterogeneity in mangroves assessed by GeoEye-1 satellite data: a case-study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leempoel


    Full Text Available Mangrove forests, which are declining across the globe mainly because of human intervention, require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc. to better implement conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (under the jurisdiction of Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve – ZMNNR, P. R. China were assessed through time using 1967 (Corona KH-4B, 2000 (Landsat ETM+, and 2009 (GeoEye-1 satellite imagery. An important decline in mangrove cover (−36% was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to dike construction for agriculture (paddy and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%, the ratio mangrove/aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice culture. In the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 m × 5 m plot-based tree measurements (August–September, 2009 and spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1, both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73–100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum is identifiable at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands close to B. gymnorrhiza (classification accuracy: 85%. Sand proportion in the sediment showed significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis/ANOVA, P < 0.05 between the three mangrove classes (B. gymnorrhiza and small and tall A. corniculatum. Distribution of tall A. corniculatum on the convex side of creeks and small A.corniculatum on the concave side (with sand show intriguing patterns of watercourse changes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination is well demonstrated

  13. Identification of Dynamic Routing-Based Faulty Links in LEO/MEO Satellite Communication Networks%LEO/MEO卫星网络基于动态路由策略的链路故障检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚; 拱长青; 王光兴


    卫星通信将成为未来个人通信系统的一个重要组成部分.LEO和MEO(low/medium earth orbiting)是卫星个人通信网络(S-PCN)的首选.针对使用星际链路ISL(intersatellite links)的LEO和MEO卫星系统,本文提出一种基于动态路由策略的卫星个人通信网络的链路故障检测方法,该方法适用于面向连接且采用基于ATM路由算法的卫星网络.该算法通过构建离散时间动态虚拓扑图(DT-DVTG)(discrete-time dynamic virtual topology graph)管理卫星能够自主地、实时地检测(identification)出最可能出现故障的链路范围,并通过快速的、自主的测试可精确定位故障链路.通过在卫星网络上的仿真表明,具有实时性、自主性、精确性且可能不占用或只占用很少的额外带宽.

  14. Investigations in Satellite MIMO Channel Modeling: Accent on Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Horváth


    Full Text Available Due to the much different environment in satellite and terrestrial links, possibilities in and design of MIMO systems are rather different as well. After pointing out these differences and problems arising from them, two MIMO designs are shown rather well adapted to satellite link characteristics. Cooperative diversity seems to be applicable; its concept is briefly presented without a detailed discussion, leaving solving particular satellite problems to later work. On the other hand, a detailed discussion of polarization time-coded diversity (PTC is given. A physical-statistical model for dual-polarized satellite links is presented together with measuring results validating the model. The concept of 3D polarization is presented as well as briefly describing compact 3D-polarized antennas known from the literature and applicable in satellite links. A synthetic satellite-to-indoor link is constructed and its electromagnetic behavior is simulated via the FDTD (finite-difference time-domain method. Previous result of the authors states that in 3D-PTC situations, MIMO capacity can be about two times higher than SIMO (single-input multiple-output capacity while a diversity gain of nearly 2×3 is further verified via extensive FDTD computer simulation.

  15. Modeling rain-fed maize vulnerability to droughts using the standardized precipitation index from satellite estimated rainfall—Southern Malawi case study (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Verdin, James; Adams Chavula,; Gregory J. Husak,; Harikishan Jayanthi,; Tamuka Magadzire,


    During 1990s, disaster risk reduction emerged as a novel, proactive approach to managing risks from natural hazards. The World Bank, USAID, and other international donor agencies began making efforts to mainstream disaster risk reduction in countries whose population and economies were heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture. This approach has more significance in light of the increasing climatic hazard patterns and the climate scenarios projected for different hazard prone countries in the world. The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) has been monitoring the food security issues in the sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and in Haiti. FEWS NET monitors the rainfall and moisture availability conditions with the help of NOAA RFE2 data for deriving food security status in Africa. This paper highlights the efforts in using satellite estimated rainfall inputs to develop drought vulnerability models in the drought prone areas in Malawi. The satellite RFE2 based SPI corresponding to the critical tasseling and silking phases (in the months of January, February, and March) were statistically regressed with drought-induced yield losses at the district level. The analysis has shown that the drought conditions in February and early March lead to most damage to maize yields in this region. The district-wise vulnerabilities to drought were upscaled to obtain a regional maize vulnerability model for southern Malawi. The results would help in establishing an early monitoring mechanism for drought impact assessment, give the decision makers additional time to assess seasonal outcomes, and identify potential food-related hazards in Malawi.

  16. Simultaneous single epoch satellite clock modelling in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (United States)

    Thongtan, Thayathip

    In order to obtain high quality positions from navigation satellites, range errors have to be identified and either modelled or estimated. This thesis focuses on satellite clock errors, which are needed to be known because satellite clocks are not perfectly synchronised with navigation system time. A new approach, invented at UCL, for the simultaneous estimation, in a single epoch, of all satellite clock offsets within a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) from range data collected at a large number of globally distributed ground stations is presented. The method was originally tested using only data from a limited number of GPS satellites and ground stations. In this work a total of 50 globally distributed stations and the whole GPS constellation are used in order to investigate more fully the capabilities of the method, in terms of both accuracy and reliability. A number of different estimation models have been tested. These include those with different weighting schemes, those with and without tropospheric bias parameters and those that include assumptions regarding prior knowledge of satellite orbits. In all cases conclusions have been drawn based on formal error propagation theory. Accuracy has been assessed largely through the sizes of the predicted satellite clock standard deviations and, in the case of simultaneously estimating satellite positions, their error ellipsoids. Both internal and external reliability have been assessed as these are important contributors to integrity, something that is essential for many practical applications. It has been found that the accuracy and reliability of satellite clock offsets are functions of the number of known ground station clocks and distance from them, quality of orbits and quality of range measurement. Also the introduction of tropospheric zenith delay parameters into the model reduces both accuracy and reliability by amounts depending on satellite elevation angles. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Protocol and Topology Issues for Wide-Area Satellite Interconnection of Terrestrial Optical LANs (United States)

    Parraga, N.


    Apart from broadcasting, the satellite business is targeting niche markets. Wide area interconnection is considered as one of these niche markets, since it addresses operators and business LANs (B2B, business to business) in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available. These LANs - if high-speed - are typically based on optical networks such as SONET. One of the advantages of SONET is its architecture flexibility and capacity to transport all kind of applications including multimedia with a range of different transmission rates. The applications can be carried by different protocols among which the Internet Protocol (IP) or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are the most prominent ones. Thus, the question arises how these protocols can be interconnected via the satellite segment. The paper addresses several solutions for interworking with different protocols. For this investigation we distinguish first of all between the topology and the switching technology of the satellites. In case of a star network with transparent satellite, the satellite protocol consists of physical layer and data layer which can be directly interconnected with layer 2 interworking function to their terrestrial counterparts in the SONET backbone. For regenerative satellites the situation is more complex: here we need to distinguish the types of transport protocols being used in the terrestrial and satellite segment. Whereas IP, ATM, MPEG dominate in the terrestrial networks, satellite systems usually do not follow these standards. Some might employ minor additions (for instance, satellite specific packet headers), some might be completely proprietary. In general, interworking must be done for the data plane on top of layer 2 (data link layer), whereas for the signaling plane the interworking is on top of layer 3. In the paper we will discuss the protocol stacks for ATM, IP, and MPEG with a regenerative satellite system. As an example we will use the EuroSkyWay satellite

  18. Satellite-Based Quantum Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nordholt, Jane E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCabe, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newell, Raymond T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Charles G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers the attractive feature of 'future proof', forward security rooted in the laws of quantum physics. Ground based quantum key distribution (QKD) experiments in optical fiber have attained transmission ranges in excess of 200km, but for larger distances we proposed a methodology for satellite-based QC. Over the past decade we have devised solutions to the technical challenges to satellite-to-ground QC, and we now have a clear concept for how space-based QC could be performed and potentially utilized within a trusted QKD network architecture. Functioning as a trusted QKD node, a QC satellite ('QC-sat') could deliver secret keys to the key stores of ground-based trusted QKD network nodes, to each of which multiple users are connected by optical fiber or free-space QC. A QC-sat could thereby extend quantum-secured connectivity to geographically disjoint domains, separated by continental or inter-continental distances. In this paper we describe our system concept that makes QC feasible with low-earth orbit (LEO) QC-sats (200-km-2,000-km altitude orbits), and the results of link modeling of expected performance. Using the architecture that we have developed, LEO satellite-to-ground QKD will be feasible with secret bit yields of several hundred 256-bit AES keys per contact. With multiple ground sites separated by {approx} 100km, mitigation of cloudiness over any single ground site would be possible, potentially allowing multiple contact opportunities each day. The essential next step is an experimental QC-sat. A number of LEO-platforms would be suitable, ranging from a dedicated, three-axis stabilized small satellite, to a secondary experiment on an imaging satellite. to the ISS. With one or more QC-sats, low-latency quantum-secured communications could then be provided to ground-based users on a global scale. Air-to-ground QC would also be possible.

  19. A relativistic and autonomous navigation satellite system

    CERN Document Server

    Delva, Pacôme; Kostić, Uros; Carloni, Sante


    A relativistic positioning system has been proposed by Bartolom\\'e Coll in 2002. Since then, several group developed this topic with different approaches. I will present a work done in collaboration with Ljubljana University and the ESA Advanced Concepts Team. We developed a concept, Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, in order to take advantage of the full autonomy of a satellite constellation for navigation and positioning, by means of satellite inter-links. I will present the advantages of this new paradigm and a number of potential application for reference systems, geophysics and relativistic gravitation.

  20. Satellite economics in the 1980's (United States)

    Morgan, W. L.


    Satellite traffic, competition, and decreasing costs are discussed, as are capabilities in telecommunication (including entertainment) and computation. Also considered are future teleconferencing and telecommuting to offset the cost of transportation, the establishment of a manufacturer-to-user link for increased home minicomputer capability, and an increase of digital over analog traffic. It is suggested that transcontinental bulk traffic, high-speed data, and multipoint private networks will eventually be handled by satellites which are cost-insensitive to distance, readily match dynamically varying multipoint networks, and have uniformly wide bandwidths available to both major cities and isolated towns.

  1. Satellite B-ISDN traffic analysis (United States)

    Shyy, Dong-Jye; Inukai, Thomas


    The impact of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) traffic on the advanced satellite broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) with onboard processing is reported. Simulation models were built to analyze the cell transfer performance through the statistical multiplexer at the earth station and the fast packet switch at the satellite. The effectiveness of ground ATM cell preprocessing was established, as well as the performance of several schemes for improving the down-link beam utilization when the space segment employs a fast packet switch.

  2. Laser Communication Experiments with Artemis Satellite (United States)

    Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Kuzkov, Volodymyr


    In November 2001, the European Space Agency (ESA) established the world-first inter-satellite laser communication link between the geostationary ARTEMIS satellite and the low Earth orbiting (LEO) SPOT-4 Earth observation satellite, demonstrating data rates of 50 Mbps. In 2006, the Japanese Space Agency launched the KIRARI (OICETS) LEO satellite with a compatible laser communication terminal and bidirectional laser communication links (50 Mbps and 2 Mbps) were successfully realized between KIRARI and ARTEMIS. ESA is now developing the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) system, which will use laser communication technology to transmit data between the Sentinel 1 and 2 satellites in LEO to two geostationary satellites (EDRS-A and EDRS-C) at data rates of 1.8 Gbps. As the data handling capabilities of state-of-the-art telecommunication satellites in GEO increase so is the demand for the feeder-link bandwidth to be transmitted from ground. This is why there is an increasing interest in developing high bandwidth ground-to-space laser communication systems working through atmosphere. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system for its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope, located in Kyiv, Ukraine. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA. MAO developed a highly accurate computerized tracking system for AZT-2 telescope and a compact laser communication package called LACES (Laser Atmosphere and Communication Experiments with Satellites). The LACES instrument includes a camera of the pointing and tracking subsystems, a receiver module, a laser transmitter module, a tip/tilt atmospheric turbulence compensation subsystem, a bit error rate tester module and other optical and electronic components. The principal subsystems are mounted on a platform, which is located at the Cassegrain focus of the AZT-2 telescope. All systems were tested with the laser communication payload on-board ARTEMIS and

  3. Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm in LEO/MEO Double-layered Optical Satellite Network (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Zhao, Shanghong


    A novel routing algorithm (Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm, HSARA) for LEO/MEO (low earth orbit/medium earth orbit) double-layered optical satellite network is brought forward. The so-called supervisor (MEO satellite) is designed for failure recovery and network management. LEO satellites are grouped according to the virtual managed field of MEO which is different from coverage area of MEO satellite in RF satellite network. In each LEO group, one LEO satellite which has maximal persistent link with its supervisor is called the agent. A LEO group is updated when this optical inter-orbit links between agent LEO satellite and the corresponding MEO satellite supervisor cuts off. In this way, computations of topology changes and LEO group updating can be decreased. Expense of routing is integration of delay and wavelength utilization. HSARA algorithm simulations are implemented and the results are as follows: average network delay of HSARA can reduce 21 ms and 31.2 ms compared with traditional multilayered satellite routing and single-layer LEO satellite respectively; LEO/MEO double-layered optical satellite network can cover polar region which cannot be covered by single-layered LEO satellite and throughput is 1% more than that of single-layered LEO satellite averagely. Therefore, exact global coverage can be achieved with this double-layered optical satellite network.

  4. A MEO Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Constellation Scheme for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ting-yong; WU Shi-qi; LING Xiang


    A medium earth orbit (MEO) tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) constellation scheme for China is proposed. This system consists of MEO satellite constellation, inter-satellite links (ISLs) and terrestrial gateway station, which can provide continuous bidirectional data transmission links between low altitude spacecrafts and the terrestrial gateway station in China. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed constellation can cover the global low altitude space sphere and earth surface of China continuously, and has a preferable practical perspective.

  5. Incremental cost effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ulcers : a pharmacoeconomic analysis linked to a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Klok, Rogier M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; van de laar, Mart A. F. J.


    Introduction We estimated the cost effectiveness of concomitant proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in relation to the occurrence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer complications. Methods This study was linked to a nested case-control study. Patients with NSAID ulcer complications were

  6. Incremental cost effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ulcers : a pharmacoeconomic analysis linked to a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, H.E.; Braakman-Jansen, L.M.A.; Klok, R.M.; Postma, M.J.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; van de Laar, M.A.F.J.


    Introduction We estimated the cost effectiveness of concomitant proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in relation to the occurrence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer complications. Methods This study was linked to a nested case-control study. Patients with NSAID ulcer complications were

  7. Satellite communication antenna technology (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)


    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  8. Methods of satellite oceanography (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  9. Alignments between galaxies, satellite systems and haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Shi; Frenk, Carlos S; Gao, Liang; Crain, Robert A; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom


    The spatial distribution of the satellite populations of the Milky Way and Andromeda are puzzling in that they are nearly perpendicular to the disks of their central galaxies. To understand the origin of such configurations we study the alignment of the central galaxy, satellite system and dark matter halo in the largest of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) simulation. We find that centrals and their satellite systems tend to be well aligned with their haloes, with a median misalignment angle of $33^{\\circ}$ in both cases. While the centrals are better aligned with the inner $10$ kpc halo, the satellite systems are better aligned with the entire halo indicating that satellites preferentially trace the outer halo. The central - satellite alignment is weak (median misalignment angle of $52^{\\circ}$) and we find that around $20\\%$ of systems have a misalignment angle larger than $78^{\\circ}$, which is the value for the Milky Way. The central - satellite alignment is a conseq...

  10. Urban Land Cover Change Modelling Using Time-Series Satellite Images: A Case Study of Urban Growth in Five Cities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah F. Alqurashi


    Full Text Available This study analyses the expansion of urban growth and land cover changes in five Saudi Arabian cities (Riyadh, Jeddah, Makkah, Al-Taif and the Eastern Area using Landsat images for the 1985, 1990, 2000, 2007 and 2014 time periods. The classification was carried out using object-based image analysis (OBIA to create land cover maps. The classified images were used to predict the land cover changes and urban growth for 2024 and 2034. The simulation model integrated the Markov chain (MC and Cellular Automata (CA modelling methods and the simulated maps were compared and validated to the reference maps. The simulation results indicated high accuracy of the MC–CA integrated models. The total agreement between the simulated and the reference maps was >92% for all the simulation years. The results indicated that all five cities showed a massive urban growth between 1985 and 2014 and the predicted results showed that urban expansion is likely to continue going for 2024 and 2034 periods. The transition probabilities of land cover, such as vegetation and water, are most likely to be urban areas, first through conversion to bare soil and then to urban land use. Integrating of time-series satellite images and the MC–CA models provides a better understanding of the past, current and future patterns of land cover changes and urban growth in this region. Simulation of urban growth will help planners to develop sustainable expansion policies that may reduce the future environmental impacts.

  11. Investigating the Capability of IRS-P6-LISS IV Satellite Image for Pistachio Forests Density Mapping (case Study: Northeast of Iran) (United States)

    Hoseini, F.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Zargham, N.


    In order to investigate the capability of satellite images for Pistachio forests density mapping, IRS-P6-LISS IV data were analyzed in an area of 500 ha in Iran. After geometric correction, suitable training areas were determined based on fieldwork. Suitable spectral transformations like NDVI, PVI and PCA were performed. A ground truth map included of 34 plots (each plot 1 ha) were prepared. Hard and soft supervised classifications were performed with 5 density classes (0-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%). Because of low separability of classes, some classes were merged and classifications were repeated with 3 classes. Finally, the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70% and 0.44, respectively, were obtained with three classes (0-5%, 5-20%, and > 20%) by fuzzy classifier. Considering the low kappa value obtained, it could be concluded that the result of the classification was not desirable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate for operational mapping of these valuable Pistachio forests.

  12. Satellite detection of IR precursors using bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer data: a case study of Yushu earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiong; Xuhui Shen; Xingfa Gu; Qingyan Meng; Yaxin Bi; Liming Zhao; Yanhua Zhao


    The paper has developed and proposed a synthesis analysis method based on the robust satellite data analysis technique (RST) to detect seismic anomalies within the bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer (AATSR) gridded brightness temperature (BT)data based on spatial/temporal continuity analysis.The proposed methods have been applied to analyze the Yushu (Qinghai,China) earthquake occurred on 14th April 2010,and a full AATSR data-set of 8 years data from March 2003 to May 2010 with longitude from 91°E to 101°E and latitude from 28°N to 38°N has been analyzed.Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena,the analyzed results indicate that the infrared radiation anomalies detected by the AATSR BT data with nadir view appear and enhance gradually along with the development and occurring of the earthquake,especially along the Ganzi-Yushu fault,Nu River fault and Jiali-Chayu fault;more infrared anomalies along the earthquake fault zone (Lancangjiang fault and Ning Karma Monastery-Deqin fault) are detected using the proposed synthesis analysis method,which can also characterize the activity of seismic faults more precisely.

  13. Flash Flood Hazard Mapping Using Satellite Images and GIS Tools: A case study of Najran City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Elkhrachy


    Full Text Available Flash flood in the cities led to high levels of water in the streets and roads, causing many problems such as bridge collapse, building damage and traffic problems. It is impossible to avoid risks of floods or prevent their occurrence, however it is plausible to work on the reduction of their effects and to reduce the losses which they may cause. Flash flood mapping to identify sites in high risk flood zones is one of the powerful tools for this purpose. Mapping flash flood will be beneficial to urban and infrastructure planners, risk managers and disaster response or emergency services during extreme and intense rainfall events. The objective of this paper is to generate flash flood map for Najran city, Saudi Arabia, using satellite images and GIS tools. To do so, we use SPOT and SRTM DEMs data for which accuracy assessment is achieved by using check points, obtained by GPS observations. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used to determine relative impact weight of flood causative factors to get a composite flood hazard index (FHI. The causative factors in this study are runoff, soil type, surface slope, surface roughness, drainage density, distance to main channel and land use. All used data are finally integrated in an ArcMap to prepare a final flood hazard map for study area. The areas in high risk flood zones are obtained by overlaying the flood hazard index map with the zone boundaries layer. The affected population number and land area are determined and compared.

  14. Mapping lake level changes using ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry data: a case study in arid regions of central Asia (United States)

    Li, JunLi; Fang, Hui; Yang, Liao


    Lakes in arid regions of Central Asia act as essential components of regional water cycles, providing sparse but valuable water resource for the fragile ecological environments and human lives. Lakes in Central Asia are sensitive to climate change and human activities, and great changes have been found since 1960s. Mapping and monitoring these inland lakes would improve our understanding of mechanism of lake dynamics and climatic impacts. ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry provides an efficient tool of continuously measuring lake levels in these poorly surveyed remote areas. An automated mapping scheme of lake level changes is developed based on GLAS altimetry products, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of 9 typical lakes in Central Asia are analyzed to validate the level accuracies. The results show that ICESat/GLAS has a good performance of lake level monitoring, whose patterns of level changes are the same as those of field observation, and the max differences between GLAS and field data is 3cm. Based on the results, it is obvious that alpine lakes are increasing greatly in lake levels during 2003-2009 due to climate change, while open lakes with dams and plain endorheic lakes decrease dramatically in water levels due to human activities, which reveals the overexploitation of water resource in Central Asia.

  15. The Use of Hotspot Spatial Clustering and Multitemporal Satellite Imagery to Facilitate Peat Land Degradation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia (Case Study in Mensiku Miniwatershed of Kapuas River) (United States)

    Yanuarsyah, I.; Suwarno, Y.; Hudjimartsu, S.


    Peat land in Indonesia is currently a matter of interest to economic activity. In addition to having the uniqueness of the ecosystem which is reserve a huge of biodiversity and carbon storage, peat land is grow an alternative expansion of agriculture and plantation. Mensiku miniwatershed is a subset of Kapuas Watershed with the domination of the peat soil type. It located in the upstream from the Kapuas River and supporting for the continuation of the river ecosystem. The research objective is to facilitate peat land degradation by using hotspot spatial clustering and multitemporal satellite imagery. There have three main processes which are image processing, geoprocessing and statistical process using DBSCAN to determine hotspot clustering. The trend of LUC changes for 14 years (2002 to 2016) shows that the downward occurred in secondary peat forest (0.9% per year) and swampy shrub (0.6% per year). The upward occurred in mixed farms (0.6% per year) and plantations (0.8% per year). degradation rate of peat land over 14 years about 4.6 km2 per year. Hotspot predominantly occurrence in secondary peat forest with 200-250 centimeter depth and Saprists type. DBSCAN clustering obtain 2 clusters in 2002, obtain 4 clusters in 2009 and obtain 1 clusters in 2016. Regarding LUC platform, average density value over 14 years about 0.063 hotspot per km2. DBSCAN is common used to examine the cluster and perform the distribution and density with spatial analysis

  16. Wavelength dimensioning for wavelength-routed WDM satellite network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhe; Guo Wei; Deng Changlin; Hu Weisheng


    Internet and broadband applications driven by data traffic demand have become key dri-vers for satellite constellations. The key technology to satisfy the high capacity requirements between satellites is optical satellite networks by means of wavelength division multiplexing inter-satellite links (ISLs) with wavelength routing (WDM-OSN). Due to the limited optical amplifier bandwidth onboard the satellite, it is important to minimize the wavelength requirements to provi-sion requests. However, ISLs should be dynamically established and deleted for each satellite according to its visible satellites. Furthermore, different link assignments will result in different topologies, hence yielding different routings and wavelength assignments. Thus, a perfect match model-based link assignment scheme (LAS-PMM) is proposed to design an appropriate topology such that shorter path could be routed and less wavelengths could be assigned for each ISL along the path. Finally, simulation results show that in comparison to the regular Manhattan street net-work (MSN) topology, wavelength requirements and average end-to-end delay based on the topol-ogy generated by LAS-PMM could be reduced by 24.8%and 12.4%, respectively.

  17. Evaluating NOx Emissions Using Satellite Observations (United States)

    Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Brioude, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Heckel, A.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gleason, J. F.; Boersma, K. F.; Hsie, E.; Lee, S.; Angevine, W. M.; Granier, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.


    Atmospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellites can provide a useful top-down assessment of bottom-up NOx emissions inventories. We present three case studies of an approach to evaluate NOx emissions at a sector level by comparing satellite retrievals to regional chemical-transport model calculations of NO2 columns. In the first example, the atmospheric impact of implementing NOx controls at eastern US power plants is demonstrated. In the second study, we use NOx monitors at western US power plants to calibrate our satellite-model comparisons. We then apply our approach to evaluate bottom-up estimates of NOx emissions from western US cities. In the third example, we validate our satellite-model approach using in-situ aircraft measurements and assess NOx emissions from power plants, cities, industrial facilities, and ports in eastern Texas. We conclude with some general insights on the usefulness of this approach and suggestions for future areas of research.

  18. Progress in satellite quantum key distribution (United States)

    Bedington, Robert; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Ling, Alexander


    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a family of protocols for growing a private encryption key between two parties. Despite much progress, all ground-based QKD approaches have a distance limit due to atmospheric losses or in-fibre attenuation. These limitations make purely ground-based systems impractical for a global distribution network. However, the range of communication may be extended by employing satellites equipped with high-quality optical links. This manuscript summarizes research and development which is beginning to enable QKD with satellites. It includes a discussion of protocols, infrastructure, and the technical challenges involved with implementing such systems, as well as a top level summary of on-going satellite QKD initiatives around the world.

  19. Satellites of spiral galaxies (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.


    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  20. Evidences of volcanic unrest on high-temperature fumaroles by satellite thermal monitoring: The case of Santa Ana volcano, El Salvador (United States)

    Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J. E.; Cigolini, C.; Escobar, D.; Funes, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Henriquez, B.; Hernandez, A.; Montalvo, F.; Olmos, R.; Ripepe, M.; Finizola, A.


    On October 1st, 2005, Santa Ana volcano (El Salvador) underwent a VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption after approximately one century of rest. Casualties and damages to some of the local infrastructures and surrounding plantations were followed by the evacuation of the nearby communities. The analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data reveals that the main explosion was preceded by a one-year-long thermal unrest, associated to the development of a fumaroles field, located at the western rim of the summit crater lake. By combining space-based thermal flux and ground-based measurements (seismicity, sulfur emissions and lake temperatures), we suggest that the activity observed at Santa Ana between 2004 and 2005 was driven by the gradual intrusion of an undegassed magma body at a very shallow depth. Magma injection induced thermal anomalies associated with sustained degassing from the fumaroles field and promoted the interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal system and the overlying water table. This process culminated into the VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption of October 2005 that strongly modified the shallow structure of the crater area. The subsequent three-years-long activity resulted from self-sealing of the fracture system and by the opening of a new fracture network directly connecting the deeper hydrothermal system with the crater lake. Our results show that satellite-based thermal data allow us to detect the expansion of the high-temperature fumarolic field. This may precede an explosive eruption and/or a lava dome extrusion. In particular, we show that thermal records can be analyzed with other geochemical (i.e. SO2 emissions) and geophysical (seismicity) data to track a shallow magmatic intrusion interacting with the surrounding hydrothermal system. This provides a remarkable support for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, particularly in remote areas where permanent ground data acquisition is hazardous, expensive

  1. Drought impact assessment from monitoring the seasonality of vegetation condition using long-term time-series satellite images: a case study of Mt. Kenya region. (United States)

    Song, Youngkeun; Njoroge, John B; Morimoto, Yukihiro


    Drought-induced anomalies in vegetation condition over wide areas can be observed by using time-series satellite remote sensing data. Previous methods to assess the anomalies may include limitations in considering (1) the seasonality in terms of each vegetation-cover type, (2) cumulative damage during the drought event, and (3) the application to various types of land cover. This study proposed an improved methodology to assess drought impact from the annual vegetation responses, and discussed the result in terms of diverse landscape mosaics in the Mt. Kenya region (0.4° N 35.8° E ~ 1.6° S 38.4° E). From the 30-year annual rainfall records at the six meteorological stations in the study area, we identified 2000 as the drought year and 2001, 2004, and 2007 as the normal precipitation years. The time-series profiles of vegetation condition in the drought and normal precipitation years were obtained from the values of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI; Huete et al. 2002), which were acquired from Terra MODIS remote sensing dataset (MOD13Q1) taken every 16 days at the scale of 250-m spatial resolution. The drought impact was determined by integrating the annual differences in EVI profiles between drought and normal conditions, per pixel based on nearly same day of year. As a result, we successfully described the distribution of landscape vulnerability to drought, considering the seasonality of each vegetation-cover type at every MODIS pixel. This result will contribute to the large-scale landscape management of Mt. Kenya region. Future study should improve this method by considering land-use change occurred during the long-term monitoring period.

  2. Glacier Basal Sliding in Two-Dimensions Quantified from Correlation of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study on Kennicott Glacier, Alaska (United States)

    Armstrong, W. H., Jr.; Anderson, R. S.; Allen, J.; Rajaram, H.; Anderson, L. S.


    The coupling of glacial hydrology and sliding is a source of uncertainty for both ice flow modeling and prediction of future sea level rise. As basal sliding is required for a glacier to erode its bed, the spatial pattern of glacier sliding is also important for understanding alpine landscape evolution. We use multi-temporal WorldView satellite imagery (0.5 m pixel) to monitor the seasonal progression of glacier velocity across the terminal ~50 km2of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska. We employ the free image correlation software COSI-Corr to construct multiple velocity maps, using 2013 imagery with repeat times from 15 to 38 days. These short intervals between images allow us to analyze variations in glacier velocity over weekly to monthly timescales associated with hydrologically-induced basal sliding. By assuming that spring (March-April) glacier velocity results solely from viscous deformation, we produce spatially distributed maps of glacier sliding speed by differencing summer and spring ice surface speeds. For a given time, a large portion of our study reach slides with roughly uniform speed, despite significant variation in deformation speed. This suggests that glacier flow models in which basal sliding is taken simply to scale as ice surface velocity are unfounded. The upglacier end of our study reach slides at speeds that vary through the summer, whereas the terminal reach slides at a steady speed. The proportion of glacier motion due to sliding increases dramatically moving downglacier, making basal sliding especially important in the terminal region. Many formulations express glacier sliding as a function of effective pressure (ice pressure minus water pressure). If such formulations are correct, effective pressure varies little over large areas or is averaged over lengthscales equivalent to ~10 glacier thicknesses. Also, effective pressure is steady in the terminal region through the summer. We explore existing sliding laws to find which best describes the

  3. Estimation of human-induced changes in terrestrial water storage through integration of GRACE satellite detection and hydrological modeling: A case study of the Yangtze River basin (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Salama, Mhd. Suhyb; Krol, Maarten S.; Su, Zhongbo; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Zeng, Yijian; Zhou, Yunxuan


    Quantifying the human effects on water resources plays an important role in river basin management. In this study, we proposed a framework, which integrates the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite estimation with macroscale hydrological model simulation, for detection and attribution of spatial terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In particular, it provides valuable insights for regions where ground-based measurements are inaccessible. Moreover, this framework takes into account the feedback between land and atmosphere and innovatively put forward several suggestions (e.g., study period selection, hydrological model selection based on soil moisture-climate interactions) to minimize the uncertainties brought by the interaction of human water use with terrestrial water fluxes. We demonstrate the use of the proposed framework in the Yangtze River basin of China. Our results show that, during the period 2003-2010, the TWS was continually increasing in the middle and south eastern reaches of the basin, at a mean rate of about 3 cm yr-1. This increment in TWS was attributed to anthropogenic modification of the hydrological cycle, rather than natural climate variability. The dominant contributor to the TWS excess was found to be intensive surface water irrigation, which recharged the water table in the middle and south eastern parts of the basin. Water impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is found to account for nearly 20% of the human-induced TWS increment in the region where the TGR is located. The proposed framework gives water managers/researchers a useful tool to investigate the spatial human effects on TWS changes.

  4. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region (United States)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.


    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  5. Delivery of satellite based broadband services (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Venugopal, D.


    Availability of speedy communication links to individuals and organizations is essential to keep pace with the business and social requirements of this modern age. While the PCs have been continuously growing in processing speed and memory capabilities, the availability of broadband communication links still has not been satisfactory in many parts of the world. Recognizing the need to give fillip to the growth of broadband services and improve the broadband penetration, the telecom policies of different counties have placed special emphasis on the same. While emphasis is on the use of fiber optic and copper in local loop, satellite communications systems will play an important role in quickly establishing these services in areas where fiber and other communication systems are not available and are not likely to be available for a long time to come. To make satellite communication systems attractive for the wide spread of these services in a cost effective way special emphasis has to be given on factors affecting the cost of the bandwidth and the equipment. As broadband services are bandwidth demanding, use of bandwidth efficient modulation technique and suitable system architecture are some of the important aspects that need to be examined. Further there is a need to re-look on how information services are provided keeping in view the user requirements and broadcast capability of satellite systems over wide areas. This paper addresses some of the aspects of delivering broadband services via satellite taking Indian requirement as an example.

  6. An optimum traffic loading to intersatellite links (United States)

    Takahata, Fumio


    An algorithm has been developed to evaluate the benefits of intersatellite links (ISLs) quantitatively in satellite communications networks. The developed algorithm derives the minimum satellite capacity, under the condition that the same type of satelites are located onto the geostationary orbit, by assigning traffic among earth stations to the satellites effectively. Some example calculations are presented, based on a current Intelsat database. The calculated results indicate that the benefits of ISL depend strongly on the distribution pattern of traffic in the network. They demonstrate, furthermore, that ISLs over long distances have significant potential advantages in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean regions for accommodating a large volume of traffic, and enabling the effective utilization of satellite resources at high elevation angles.

  7. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 9: Ports and harbors case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to harbors and shipping industries through improved weather forecasting (United States)


    This case study and generalization quantify benefits made possible through improved weather forecasting resulting from the integration of SEASAT data into local weather forecasts. The major source of avoidable economic losses to shipping from inadequate weather forecasting data is shown to be dependent on local precipitation forecasting. The ports of Philadelphia and Boston were selected for study.

  8. The Inclusion of Raman Scattering Effects in the Combined Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model MOMO to Estimate the Influence of Raman Scattering in Case 1 Waters on Satellite Ocean Remote Sensing Applications (United States)

    von Bismarck, J.; Fischer, J.


    source, the MOMO program structure allows the inclusion of other elastic and inelastic sources, e.g. fluorescence effects. To estimate the influence of Raman scattered light from case 1 waters on satellite remote sensing applications, tables with Raman fractions where computed for water-leaving and top-of-atmosphere radiances for the spectral channels of the OLCI imaging spectrometer on the upcoming ESA remote sensing satellite SENTINEL-3. The tables where generated for different chlorophyll concentrations, incorporating a bio optical model, and accounting for possible variations of salinity (0 - 40 PSU) and temperature (5° - 30° C) of the water. These results, also pointing out the importance of the inclusion of clear Water Raman scattering contributions in ocean and atmosphere remote sensing applications, are presented.

  9. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić


    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  10. Determination of seasonal changes in wetlands using CHRIS/Proba Hyperspectral satellite images: A case study from Acigöl (Denizli), Turkey. (United States)

    Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat; Avci, Damla Uca; Ozelkan, Emre; Bulbul, Ali; Civas, Melda; Tasdelen, Suat


    The changes in wetlands that occur through natural processes, as well as through industrialization and agricultural activities, are decreasing and even annihilating the living spaces of endemic species. Acigöl (Denizli, Turkey), which is a suitable habitat for flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), is a lake that is affected by seasonal anomalies as a result of being shallow. Acigöl, which is fed by precipitation, groundwater and the springs that occur along tectonic faults, has no water output other than evaporation and industrial activities. In addition to natural factors, it is important to determine the changes in the wetlands of Acig6l, where industrial salt is produced, in order to reveal the micro-ecological equilibrium, the relationship between climate and natural life, and regulation of industrial activities. Remote sensing tools are frequently used in determination of changes in wetlands. Changes in coastlines, water level and area covered by water are parameters that can be examined by remote sensing while investigating wetlands. In this study, the water-covered area was examined using remote sensing. Within the scope of this study, CHRIS/Proba Mode 2 (water bandset) hyperspectral satellite images, acquired on 9/17/2011 for the season and on 6/18/2012 - 6/19/2012 forwet season, were used in orderto present the seasonal changes in Acigöl, during one hydrogeological period. The processes of noise reduction, cloud screening, atmospheric correction, geometric correction, and identification of wetlands have been implemented on the CHRIS/Proba images. In determining the water-covered areas, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used. It was determined that W6 (560 nm) and W18 (1015 nm) and W2 (447 nm) and W18 (1015 nm) band combinations were most appropriate to be used in NDWI to demonstrate the water-land separation. Using Proba-NDWI image, it was established that an area of 27.4 km2 was covered with water during dry season, and 61.2 km2 was covered

  11. Transatlantic link (United States)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  12. The Use of Chaff in Space as a Jamming Device between Ground Stations and Satellites (United States)


    of Fi•Yu es Figure Page 1. Rasic Orbital Parameters . . . . . . . .... 2. Satellite Orientation for Cases I, II, III, and IV...Moti r on Spin Direction PCe of sot on c.SSO..!Path of notion Case.X AngLe of Tk~t Case-III Cast IV Figure 2. SatelLite Orientation for Cases I, II

  13. The reionization of galactic satellite populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocvirk, P.; Gillet, N.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Knebe, A.; Yepes, G. [Grupo de Astrofísica, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Modulo C-8, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-280049 (Spain); Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S. [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Hoffman, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    We use high-resolution simulations of the formation of the local group, post-processed by a radiative transfer code for UV photons, to investigate the reionization of the satellite populations of an isolated Milky Way-M31 galaxy pair in a variety of scenarios. We use an improved version of ATON which includes a simple recipe for radiative feedback. In our baseline models, reionization is initiated by low-mass, radiatively regulated halos at high redshift, until more massive halos appear, which then dominate and complete the reionization process. We investigate the relation between reionization history and present-day positions of the satellite population. We find that the average reionization redshift (z {sub r}) of satellites is higher near galaxy centers (MW and M31). This is due to the inside out reionization patterns imprinted by massive halos within the progenitor during the epoch of reionization, which end up forming the center of the galaxy. Due to incomplete dynamical mixing during galaxy assembly, these early patterns survive to present day, resulting in a clear radial gradient in the average satellite reionization redshift, up to the virial radius of MW and M31 and beyond. In the lowest emissivity scenario, the outer satellites are reionized about 180 Myr later than the inner satellites. This delay decreases with increasing source model emissivity, or in the case of external reionization by Virgo or M31, because reionization occurs faster overall and becomes spatially quasi-uniform at the highest emissivity.

  14. Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Jr , Richard


    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what it is they are observing. This is the basis for the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Every amateur astronomer sees "stars" that aren't natural objects steadily slide across the background of the sky. Artificial satellites can be seen on any night, and some are as bright as the planets. But can you identify which satellite or spent launch vehicle casing you are seeing? Do you know how to image it? Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them describes all of the different satellites that can be observed, including communication, scientific, spy satellites, and of course, the International Space Station. Richard Schmude describes how to recognize them and even how to predict their orbits. The book tells how to observe artificial satellites with the unaided eye, binoculars and with telesc...

  15. Mobile communications by satellite in Europe - Overview of ESA activities (United States)

    Rogard, R.; Jongejans, A.; Bartholome, P.

    ESA is conducting studies aimed at the definition of a Land Mobile Satellite System for digital communications within the Western European region, in view of recent market studies indicating the existence of substantial demand for the provision of mobile communications services by satellite. Attention is presently given to the 'Prodat' low-rate system and its ARQ-coding scheme, Prodat's CDMA return link (noting interference protection and spectrum use efficiency criteria) and the aims of Prodat performance trials.

  16. High-precision satellite relative-trajectory simulating servosystem for inter-satellite laser communications (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Liren; Luan, Zhu; Liu, Hongzhan; Xu, Rongwei


    Because PAT (pointing-acquisition-tracking) parameters and integrated technical specifications of laser communication terminals for inter-satellite link must be pre-verified and assessed thoroughly on a ground-based test-bed before launched into the space, it is necessary to develop a system as a primary part of the test bed to simulate the relative trajectory between the satellites. In this paper, an original high-precision satellite relative-trajectory simulating servosystem is introduced in detail as well as its structures and characteristics. The system is used to simulate the motion of relative-trajectory between satellites in different orbits. The principle of the system is to import the data of two satellites" orbits into a computer-based control system in advance. After processed and analyzed, the data is transformed into the angular displacement of the servomotor which drives the gimbal directly. The angular displacement of the two axes of the gimbal can simulate precisely the relative-trajectory, namely elevation angle and azimuth angle of the two satellites in communication. A laser communication terminal mounted on the gimbal then performs the PAT mechanisms to evaluate the system"s capacity.

  17. Laser experiments in light cloudiness with the geostationary satellite ARTEMIS (United States)

    Kuzkov, V.; Kuzkov, S.; Sodnik, Z.


    The geostationary satellite ARTEMIS was launched in July 2001. The satellite is equipped with a laser communication terminal, which was used for the world's first inter-satellite laser communication link between ARTEMIS and the low earth orbit satellite SPOT-4. Ground-to-space laser communication experiments were also conducted under various atmospheric conditions involving ESA's optical ground station. With a rapidly increasing volume of information transferred by geostationary satellites, there is a rising demand for high-speed data links between ground stations and satellites. For ground-to-space laser communications there are a number of important design parameters that need to be addressed, among them, the influence of atmospheric turbulence in different atmospheric conditions and link geometries. The Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine developed a precise computer tracking system for its 0.7 m AZT-2 telescope and a compact laser communication package LACES (Laser Atmosphere and Communication experiments with Satellites) for laser communication experiments with geostationary satellites. The specially developed software allows computerized tracking of the satellites using their orbital data. A number of laser experiments between MAO and ARTEMIS were conducted in partial cloudiness with some amount of laser light observed through clouds. Such conditions caused high break-up (splitting) of images from the laser beacon of ARTEMIS. One possible explanation is Raman scattering of photons on molecules of a water vapor in the atmosphere. Raman scattering causes a shift in a wavelength of the photons.In addition, a different value for the refraction index appears in the direction of the meridian for the wavelength-shifted photons. This is similar to the anomalous atmospheric refraction that appears at low angular altitudes above the horizon. We have also estimated the atmospheric attenuation and the influence of atmospheric turbulence on observed results

  18. Small Earth Observing Satellites Flying with Large Satellites in the A-Train (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Loverro, Adam; Case, Warren F.; Queruel, Nadege; Marechal, Chistophe; Barroso, Therese


    examples will be cited, including CloudSat's relocation (to accommodate a new viewing angle for the CALIPSO satellite), Glory's replan to move closer to PARASOL, and OCO's long term plans to minimize on-orbit operations costs while maintaining safety. In all cases, safety is ensured, science returns are enhanced, and operational flexibility is retained to the maximum extent possible.

  19. A figure of merit for competing communications satellite designs (United States)

    Lovell, R. R.; Fordyce, S. W.


    Trends in launch schedules, weights, power, and space segment costs per transponder year for Intelsats and North American domsats (domestic communications satellites) are discussed. The Intelsat system currently services 25,000 point to point telephone links at any one moment, and a $3 billion order has been placed for Intelsat VIs, which feature 36,000 telephone circuits each. The Intelsat VI spacecraft will weigh 1670 kg in orbit, a continuance of the trend to heavier satellites, while the domsats will stay at 650 kg due to launch vehicle limitations. Direct television broadcast satellites are being designed for receive only (R/O) earth stations, with each satellite capable of servicing 50,000 individual ground stations. Competition is growing for C and Ku band satellite transponders for DBS, with costs $350,000 each. No standardized design has yet emerged.

  20. The link between corporations' (sponsors') motives behindsport sponsorship activities and the attractiveness characteristics of sport sponsorship objects: a comparative case study of The Norwegian association of orienteering and The Norwegian football association as sponsorship objects


    Kirkesæther, Erlend


    Just a few studies on sponsoring deal with sponsorship motives or sponsorship object attractiveness. However, these research studies focus on events as sponsorship objects and do not combine motives and attractiveness. This paper draws the attention to Sport Associations, exemplified with a comparative case study of The Norwegian Association of Orienteering and The Norwegian Football Association as sponsorship objects, and develops a link between specific sponsorship motives and sponsorship o...