WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite ir images

  1. Estimation of Leaf Area Index Using IRS Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faridhosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of vegetation cover attributes, such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI, is an important step in identifying the amount of water use for some plants. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using IRS LISS-III data to retrieve LAI. To get a LAI retrieval model based on reflectance and vegetation index, detailed field data were collected in the study area of eastern Iran. In this study, atmospheric corrected IRS LISS-III imagery was used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Data of 50 samples of LAI were measured by Sun Scan System – SS1 in the study area. In situ measurements of LAI were related to widely use spectral vegetation indices (NDVI. The best model through analyzing the results was LAI = 19.305×NDVI+5.514 using the method of linear-regression analysis. The results showed that the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.534 and RMSE was 0.67. Thereby, suggesting that, when using remote sensing NDVI for LAI estimation, not only is the choice of NDVI of importance but also prior knowledge of plant architecture and soil background. Hence, some kind of landscape stratification is required before using multi- spectral imagery for large-scale mapping of vegetation biophysical variables.

  2. IR nanoscale spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Yarrow, Fiona; Rice, James H.

    2011-10-01

    Sub diffraction limited infrared absorption imaging was applied to hemoglobin by coupling IR optics with an atomic force microscope. Comparisons between the AFM topography and IR absorption images of micron sized hemoglobin features are presented, along with nanoscale IR spectroscopic analysis of the metalloprotein.

  3. Advanced IR imaging seeker program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiera, R. A.

    1980-05-01

    An advanced IR Imaging Seeker System was developed which is compatible with the Hellfire Missile System mission. A technical overview of this program and current status is presented. The IR imaging seeker was tested during late 1979 and early 1980. This seeker utilizes a 1024 element InAsSb/silicon hybrid focal plane array (FPA) operating at 77 degrees K and IR-sensitive in the 2.4-4.0 micrometer wavelength region. A multimode tracker provides improved tracking capability for operation against targets in a high clutter background.

  4. HWIL IR imaging testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, R. J.; Passwater, R. D.

    1981-03-01

    The Army simulator facilities are presently configured to conduct hardware-in-the-loop mission tasks on the HELLFIRE and COPPERHEAD missile systems. These systems presently use a LASER seeker. The facility is an ideal candidate to be converted to include infrared (IR) seekers used on the TGSM system. This study investigates the possibility and impact of a facility update. This report documents the feasibility of developing a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) hybrid simulation incorporating infrared IR seekers used for the Assault Breaker program. Other hardware to be considered are the autopilot, signal conditioning, signal processing, and actuators which may be integrated into the system simulation. Considerations are given to replacing all or elements of hardware while substituting math models in the system simulation.

  5. Investigating the Capability of IRS-P6-LISS IV Satellite Image for Pistachio Forests Density Mapping (case Study: Northeast of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, F.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Zargham, N.

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the capability of satellite images for Pistachio forests density mapping, IRS-P6-LISS IV data were analyzed in an area of 500 ha in Iran. After geometric correction, suitable training areas were determined based on fieldwork. Suitable spectral transformations like NDVI, PVI and PCA were performed. A ground truth map included of 34 plots (each plot 1 ha) were prepared. Hard and soft supervised classifications were performed with 5 density classes (0-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%). Because of low separability of classes, some classes were merged and classifications were repeated with 3 classes. Finally, the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70% and 0.44, respectively, were obtained with three classes (0-5%, 5-20%, and > 20%) by fuzzy classifier. Considering the low kappa value obtained, it could be concluded that the result of the classification was not desirable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate for operational mapping of these valuable Pistachio forests.

  6. Cross calibration of IRS-P4 OCM satellite sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Naik, P.; Nayak, S.R.

    The cross calibration of ocean color satellite sensor, IRS-P4 OCM using the radiative transfer code, with SeaWiFS as a reference are presented here. Since the bands of IRS-P4 OCM are identical to those of SeaWiFS and SeaWiFS has been continuously...

  7. Estimation and Mapping Forest Attributes Using “k Nearest Neighbor” Method on IRS-P6 LISS III Satellite Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Eslam Bonyad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explored the utility of k Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm to integrate IRS-P6 LISS III satellite imagery data and ground inventory data for application in forest attributes (DBH, trees height, volume, basal area, density and forest cover type estimation and mapping. The ground inventory data was based on a systematic-random sampling grid and the numbers of sampling plots were 408 circular plots in a plantation in Guilan province, north of Iran. We concluded that kNN method was useful tool for mapping at a fine accuracy between 80% and 93.94%. Values of k between 5 and 8 seemed appropriate. The best distance metrics were found Euclidean, Fuzzy and Mahalanobis. Results showed that kNN was accurate enough for practical applicability for mapping forest areas.

  8. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  9. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  10. WFC3 IR Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The IR imaging performance over the detector will be assessed periodically {every 4 months} in two passbands to check for image stability. The field around star 58 in the open cluster NGC188 is the chosen target because it is sufficiently dense to provide good sampling over the FOV while providing enough isolated stars to permit accurate PSF {point spread function} measurement. It is available year-round and used previously for ACS image quality assessment. The field is astrometric, and astrometric guide stars will be used, so that the plate scale and image orientation may also be determined if necessary {as in SMOV proposals 11437 and 11443}. Full frame images will be obtained at each of 4 POSTARG offset positions designed to improve sampling over the detector in F098M, F105W, and F160W. The PSFs will be sampled at 4 positions with subpixel shifts in filters F164N and F127M.This proposal is a periodic repeat {once every 4 months} of the visits in SMOV proposal 11437 {activity ID WFC3-24}. The data will be analyzed using the code and techniques described in ISR WFC3 2008-41 {Hartig}. Profiles of encircled energy will be monitored and presented in an ISR. If an update to the SIAF is needed, {V2,V3} locations of stars will be obtained from the Flight Ops Sensors and Calibrations group at GSFC, the {V2,V3} of the reference pixel and the orientation of the detector will be determined by the WFC3 group, and the Telescopes group will update and deliver the SIAF to the PRDB branch.The specific PSF metrics to be examined are encircled energy for aperture diameter 0.25, 0.37, and 0.60 arcsec, FWHM, and sharpness. {See ISR WFC3 2008-41 tables 2 and 3 and preceding text.} 20 stars distributed over the detector will be measured in each exposure for each filter. The mean, rms, and rms of the mean will be determined for each metric. The values determined from each of the 4 exposures per filter within a visit will be compared to each other to see to what extent they are affected

  11. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  12. Rule-based semi-automated approach for the detection of landslides induced by 18 September 2011 Sikkim, Himalaya, earthquake using IRS LISS3 satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Siyahghalati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is considered as one of the most devastating and most costly natural hazards in highlands, which is triggered mainly by rainfalls or earthquakes. In comparison with other methods, landslide mapping and monitoring via remote sensing data products are considered as the least expensive method of data collection. The current research attempts to detect landslides which occurred due to a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in Sikkim Himalaya, India, on 18 September 2011 and also to establish the spatial relationship between landslides and the slope of the terrain. To detect the landslides, decision tree method was applied on two Indian remote sensing satellites linear imaging self-scanning sensor (LISS III images acquired from 2007 and 2011 which were taken before and after the earthquake. As the study area was relatively huge for identifying the landslides, the region was separated into two parts: “tested study area” and “real study area”. The overall accuracy of landslide detection was 76%, and 75% for tested and real study area, respectively. Then, the spatial relationship between the landslides and the slope of the terrain was conducted using the digital elevation model. The results revealed that most of the landslides occurred between the slope of 25° and 45° covering 2.3 km2 and no landslide recorded in the slope of 65°–90° in the real study area. The results obtained in this study may be useful for decision-making and policy support towards reconstruction effort after the landslide occurrence. In addition, the information can be useful for reducing the risk of potential damages to substructures and properties by developing new and efficient strategies.

  13. Mid-IR Imaging: Upconversion imager improves IR gas sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlberg, Anna-Lena; Li, Zhongshan; Høgstedt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear upconversion detector shows near-shot-noise-limited performance and compares favorably—while adding additional imaging information—to conventional cryogenic detectors in the measurement of trace-level gases at atmospheric pressure.......A nonlinear upconversion detector shows near-shot-noise-limited performance and compares favorably—while adding additional imaging information—to conventional cryogenic detectors in the measurement of trace-level gases at atmospheric pressure....

  14. Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Panchal, V K; Kaur, Navdeep; Kundra, Harish

    2009-01-01

    Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researchers are always finding alternative strategies for satellite image classification so that they may be prepared to select the most appropriate technique for the feature extraction task in hand. This paper is focused on classification of the satellite image of a particular land cover using the theory of Biogeography based Optimization. The original BBO algorithm does not have the inbuilt property of clustering which is required during image classification. Hence modifications have been proposed to the original algorithm and...

  15. Global Land Surface Emissivity Retrieved From Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, W. L.; Strow, L. L.; Yang, Ping; Schlussel, P.; Calbet, X.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraspectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances obtained from nadir observations provide information about the atmosphere, surface, aerosols, and clouds. Surface spectral emissivity (SSE) and surface skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information about the Earth s ecosystem and land-surface-type properties, which might be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth s environment and global climate change. In this study, fast radiative transfer models applied to the atmosphere under all weather conditions are used for atmospheric profile and surface or cloud parameter retrieval from ultraspectral and/or hyperspectral spaceborne IR soundings. An inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral IR sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface or cloud microphysical parameters. This inversion scheme has been applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). Rapidly produced SSE is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted surface and atmospheric parameters. Initial validation of retrieved emissivity spectra is conducted with Namib and Kalahari desert laboratory measurements. Seasonal products of global land SSE and surface skin temperature retrieved with IASI are presented to demonstrate seasonal variation of SSE.

  16. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  17. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. (2005) proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...

  18. Developing Geostationary Satellite Imaging at Lowell Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lowell Observatory operates the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and owns & operates the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). This unique & necessary combination of facilities positions Lowell to develop a robust program of observing geostationary, GPS-plane, and other high-altitude (&1000mi) satellites. NPOI is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is supported by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates year-round in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and imaging technology development. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe geostationary satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, an ongoing program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted 1.0-m apertures feeding each beam line, and new near-infrared instrumentation on the back end. The large apertures will enable `at-will' observations of objects brighter than mK = 8:3 in the near-IR, corresponding to brighter than mV = 11:3 in the visible. At its core, the system is enabled by a `wavelength-baseline bootstrapping' approach discussed herein. A complementary pilot imaging study of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m DCT, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, is also outlined.

  19. Using IRS Products to Recover 7ETM+ Defective Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On May 31st, 2003, Landsat 7 faced an anomaly in the Scan Line Corrector (SLC normal operation. This malfunctioning of SLC caused the individual scan lines alternately overlap each other and consequently produce large gaps at the edges of the image. Regarding the unique specification of ETM+ sensor on board of Landsat-7 satellite such as its spectral bands in the shortwave IR and TIR region and its suitable spatial resolution which is ideal for most of the scientific researches, a technique for the reconstruction of the defected images due to the SLC malfunctioning, was built up. Due to the availability of IRS/1D LISS-III images for our region of interest i.e., southwest of Iran, it was decided to use these images to recover 7ETM+ products. The procedure in reconstructing the defected 7ETM+ images is divided in to two stages. In the first stage, after implementation of some preprocessing to both LISS-III and 7ETM+, a linear regression model between bands 3 and 4 of 7ETM+ and bands 2 and 3 of LISS-III was setup. This model is used to fill up the missing places in 7ETM+ defected image and produced two new images in bands 3 and 4. In the second stage, these two newly reconstructed images of 7ETM+ were used to recover images of 7ETM+ in other spectral bands. At this stage, two methods were introduced, one using linear relationship between band 3 and bands 1 and 2 and in the second method we introduced a planar relationship between bands 3 and 4 with each one of bands 5, 6 and 7. The models are applied to few images and are found to be fairly reliable. The primary and necessary conditions for applying these methods have been explained in detail.

  20. Micro cryogenic coolers for IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan; Wang, Yunda; Cooper, Jill; Lin, Martin M.; Bright, Victor M.; Lee, Y. C.; Bradley, Peter E.; Radebaugh, Ray; Huber, Marcia L.

    2011-06-01

    Joule-Thomson micro cryogenic coolers (MCCs) are a preferred approach for small and low power cryocoolers. With the same heat lift, MCC's power input can be only 1/10 of a thermoelectric cooler's input, and MCC's size can be only 1/10 of a Stirling cooler's size. With futuristic planar MCC and with high frequency MEMS compressors to be developed, its size can be reduced another order of magnitude. Such "invisible" cryocoolers may revolutionize future IR imaging systems. We will review our studies on the feasibility of MCC with an emphasis on: 1) high thermal isolation levels reaching 89,000 K/W; 2) custom-designed gas mixtures with refrigeration capabilities increased by 10X and pressure ratio reduced to only 4:1; 3) compressors with low pressure ratios; and 4) excellent scalability for further size reduction.

  1. Forecasting Hurricane by Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. Y.

    Earth is an endanger planet. Severe weather, especially hurricanes, results in great disaster all the world. World Meteorology Organization and United Nations Environment Program established intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to offer warnings about the present and future disasters of the Earth. It is the mission for scientists to design warning system to predict the severe weather system and to reduce the damage of the Earth. Hurricanes invade all the world every year and made millions damage to all the people. Scientists in weather service applied satellite images and synoptic data to forecast the information for the next hours for warning purposes. Regularly, hurricane hits on Taiwan island directly will pass through her domain and neighbor within 10 hours. In this study, we are going to demonstrate a tricky hurricane NARI invaded Taiwan on September 16, 2000. She wandered in the neighborhood of the island more than 72 hours and brought heavy rainfall over the island. Her track is so tricky that scientists can not forecast her path using the regular method. Fortunately, all scientists in the Central Weather Bureau paid their best effort to fight against the tricky hurricane. Applying the new developed technique to analysis the satellite images with synoptic data and radar echo, scientists forecasted the track, intensity and rainfall excellently. Thus the damage of the severe weather reduced significantly.

  2. Investigation of mid-IR picosecond image upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathez, Morgan David; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2017-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (Mid-IR) wavelength region have received considerable attention in recent years. The reason is the high Mid-IR spectral specificity of many gases and complex molecules. In this pilot study we focus on picosecond upconversion imaging exploiting the χ(2...

  3. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  4. System design of the compact IR space imaging system MIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wonyong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Ree, Chang-Hee; Moon, Bongkon; Cha, Sang-Mok; Park, Sung-Joon; Park, Jang-Hyun; Nam, Uk-Won; Ka, Nung Hyun; Lee, Mi Hyun; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Duk-Hang; Yang, Sun Choel; Rhee, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Oh; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2010-07-01

    Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) is the main payload of the Korea Science and Technology Satellite-3 (STSAT-3), which is being developed by Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute (KASI). MIRIS is a small space telescope mainly for astronomical survey observations in the near infrared wavelengths of 0.9~2 μm. A compact wide field (3.67 x 3.67 degree) optical design has been studied using a 256 x 256 Teledyne PICNIC FPA IR sensor with a pixel scale of 51.6 arcsec. The passive cooling technique is applied to maintain telescope temperature below 200 K with a cold shutter in the filter wheel for accurate dark calibration and to reach required sensitivity, and a micro stirling cooler is employed to cool down the IR detector array below 100K in a cold box. The science mission of the MIRIS is to survey the Galactic plane in the emission line of Paschen-α (Paα, 1.88 μm) and to detect the cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation. Comparing the Paα map with the Hα data from ground-based surveys, we can probe the origin of the warm-ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy. The CIB is being suspected to be originated from the first generation stars of the Universe and we will test this hypothesis by comparing the fluctuations in I (0.9~1.2 um) and H (1.2~2.0 um) bands to search the red shifted Lyman cutoff signature. Recent progress of the MIRIS imaging system design will be presented.

  5. Upconversion applied for mid-IR hyperspectral image acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai Højer;

    2015-01-01

    Different schemes for upconversion mid-IR hyperspectral imaging is implemented and compared in terms of spectral coverage, spectral resolution, speed and noise. Phasematch scanning and scanning of the object within the field of view is considered.......Different schemes for upconversion mid-IR hyperspectral imaging is implemented and compared in terms of spectral coverage, spectral resolution, speed and noise. Phasematch scanning and scanning of the object within the field of view is considered....

  6. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    modern Quantum cascade lasers have evolved as ideal coherent mid-IR excitation sources, simple, low noise, room temperature detectors and imaging systems still lag behind. We address this need presenting a novel, field-deployable, upconversion system for sensitive, 2-D, mid-IR spectral imaging. Measured...... room temperature dark noise is 0.2 photons/spatial element/second, which is a billion times below the dark noise level of cryogenically cooled InSb cameras. Single photon imaging and up to 200 x 100 spatial elements resolution is obtained reaching record high continuous wave quantum efficiency of about...

  7. Charge-Coupled Scanned IR Imaging Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-15

    34- —- . imjiiMwmimTimfm ■ ■liliil« III 11.1 II 1 . ■ ’""""■l" i.1 i.’ *sppi» pnp »ppnn^mipipi — ’" • ’■■ ’i- •*mm ^■tl UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSlFi...showing the floating diffusion (21), the MOS transistor (22), the reset gate (23), and the drain (24) n 3. (a) Photograph through the microscope of the...spectral response 22 12. Characteristics of setting circuit of IR-CCD chip run as an MOS transistor . The bias is C.2 V/step; tht. transconductance (gm

  8. Structural High-resolution Satellite Image Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Gui-Song; YANG, WEN; Delon, Julie; Gousseau, Yann; Sun, Hong; Maître, Henri

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Satellite images with high spatial resolution raise many challenging issues in image understanding and pattern recognition. First, they allow measurement of small objects maybe up to 0.5 m, and both texture and geometrical structures emerge simultaneously. Second, objects in the same type of scenes might appear at different scales and orientations. Consequently, image indexing methods should combine the structure and texture information of images and comply with some i...

  9. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  10. Satellite imager calibration and validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The success or failure of any earth observation mission depends on the quality of its data. Data quality is assessed by determining the radiometric, spatial, spectral and geometric fidelity of the satellite sensor. The process is termed calval...

  11. Model-based satellite image fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Sveinsson, J. R.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed for pixel-level satellite image fusion derived directly from a model of the imaging sensor. By design, the proposed method is spectrally consistent. It is argued that the proposed method needs regularization, as is the case for any method for this problem. A framework for pixel...

  12. Comparison of Laboratory Measurements for IR Imaging System Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-cai; XU Zong-chang; XIAO Shun-wang

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity and human performance are two important parameters for IR imaging system. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) and minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) can describe sensitivity and human performance of IR imaging system. So a lot of engineers apply themselves to studying the methods to measure NETD and MRTD for IR imaging system. The classical laboratory measurement methodologies for NETD and MRTD are introduced. And, two new approaches to three-dimensional (3-D) noise and MRTD/MRC are also portrayed, which can overcome some of the disadvantages existed in classical testing of NETD and MRTD. With the help of the new laboratory measurements, the disadvantages of the classical methods to measure NETD and MRTD can be solved.

  13. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spectral imaging and detection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths are emerging as an enabling technology of great technical and scientific interest; primarily because important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints revealing valuable chemical information. While modern Quantum cascade lasers have evolved as ideal coherent mid-IR excitation sources, simple, low noise, room temperature detectors and imaging systems still lag behind. We address this need presenting a novel, field-deployable, upconversion system for sensitive, 2-D, mid-IR spectral imaging. Measured room temperature dark noise is 0.2 photons/spatial element/second, which is a billion times below the dark noise level of cryogenically cooled InSb cameras. Single photon imaging and up to 200 x 100 spatial elements resolution is obtained reaching record high continuous wave quantum efficiency of about 20 % for polarized incoherent light at 3 \\mum. The proposed method is relevant for existing and new mid-IR applicat...

  14. IR camera temperature resolution enhancing using computer processing of IR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2016-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the IR camera for the security problems is very promising way. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possility of viewing the temperature trace on a human body skin, caused by temperature changing inside the human body due to water drinking. We use new approach, based on usung a correlation function, for computer processing of IR images. Its application results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments were made with measurements of a body temperature covered by shirt. We try to see a human body temperature changing in physical experiments under consideration. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, cancelled under clothes or inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  15. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.;

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  16. Low-Cost Satellite Infrared Imager Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2,297.00 10 MATLAB , Simulink , Symbolic Math Toolbox (2 ea @ £894) £1,788.00 11 MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox (2 ea at £192) £384.00 12 MATLAB ...Figure 1: MWIR and TIR satellite imagery. On the left is a BIRD image of forest fires on the Portuguese/ Spanish border3 and the image on right is...space-borne MWIR and TIR imagers, instrument engineers are continually evaluating advances in the miniaturization of detector technology. One

  17. Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    enable long-range imaging. In 2013, a major upgrade to the facility was completed, adding a millimeter - wave W-band radar capability to Haystack’s X...diameter antenna was completely rebuilt to provide a 100 μm root-mean-square (rms) surface accuracy to support operation at the 3 mm wave - length (W...electromagnetic wave propagation through the troposphere. − The signal processing system lev- eraged Lincoln Laboratory‘s Radar Open Systems

  18. Change detection in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonnessen, U.; Hofele, G.; Middelmann, W.

    2005-05-01

    Change detection plays an important role in different military areas as strategic reconnaissance, verification of armament and disarmament control and damage assessment. It is the process of identifying differences in the state of an object or phenomenon by observing it at different times. The availability of spaceborne reconnaissance systems with high spatial resolution, multi spectral capabilities, and short revisit times offer new perspectives for change detection. Before performing any kind of change detection it is necessary to separate changes of interest from changes caused by differences in data acquisition parameters. In these cases it is necessary to perform a pre-processing to correct the data or to normalize it. Image registration and, corresponding to this task, the ortho-rectification of the image data is a further prerequisite for change detection. If feasible, a 1-to-1 geometric correspondence should be aspired for. Change detection on an iconic level with a succeeding interpretation of the changes by the observer is often proposed; nevertheless an automatic knowledge-based analysis delivering the interpretation of the changes on a semantic level should be the aim of the future. We present first results of change detection on a structural level concerning urban areas. After pre-processing, the images are segmented in areas of interest and structural analysis is applied to these regions to extract descriptions of urban infrastructure like buildings, roads and tanks of refineries. These descriptions are matched to detect changes and similarities.

  19. Internal waves and vortices in satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Some recent papers proposed the use of the satellite images of Google Earth in teaching physics, in particular to see some behaviours of waves. Reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference are easy to be found in these satellite maps. Besides Google Earth, other sites exist, such as Earth Observatory or Earth Snapshot, suitable for illustrating the large-scale phenomena in atmosphere and oceans In this paper, we will see some examples for teaching surface and internal sea waves, and internal waves and the K\\'arm\\'an vortices in the atmosphere. Aim of this proposal is attracting the interest of students of engineering schools to the physics of waves.

  20. AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Herrald, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small (1-2 m) telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras. We are able to track satellites down to magnitude 10 with a Strehl in excess of 20% in median seeing.

  1. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchitta, B K; Ferguson, H M

    1986-11-28

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  2. A neuromorphic approach to satellite image understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Perakakis, Manolis

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing satellite imagery provides high altitude, top viewing aspects of large geographic regions and as such the depicted features are not always easily recognizable. Nevertheless, geoscientists familiar to remote sensing data, gradually gain experience and enhance their satellite image interpretation skills. The aim of this study is to devise a novel computational neuro-centered classification approach for feature extraction and image understanding. Object recognition through image processing practices is related to a series of known image/feature based attributes including size, shape, association, texture, etc. The objective of the study is to weight these attribute values towards the enhancement of feature recognition. The key cognitive experimentation concern is to define the point when a user recognizes a feature as it varies in terms of the above mentioned attributes and relate it with their corresponding values. Towards this end, we have set up an experimentation methodology that utilizes cognitive data from brain signals (EEG) and eye gaze data (eye tracking) of subjects watching satellite images of varying attributes; this allows the collection of rich real-time data that will be used for designing the image classifier. Since the data are already labeled by users (using an input device) a first step is to compare the performance of various machine-learning algorithms on the collected data. On the long-run, the aim of this work would be to investigate the automatic classification of unlabeled images (unsupervised learning) based purely on image attributes. The outcome of this innovative process is twofold: First, in an abundance of remote sensing image datasets we may define the essential image specifications in order to collect the appropriate data for each application and improve processing and resource efficiency. E.g. for a fault extraction application in a given scale a medium resolution 4-band image, may be more effective than costly

  3. Imaging artificial satellites: An observational challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Hill, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, as of the beginning of 2016 there are 1381 active satellites orbiting the Earth, and the United States' Space Surveillance Network tracks about 8000 manmade orbiting objects of baseball-size and larger. NASA estimates debris larger than 1 cm to number more than half a million. The largest ones can be seen by eye—unresolved dots of light that move across the sky in minutes. For most astrophotographers, satellites are annoying streaks that can ruin hours of work. However, capturing a resolved image of an artificial satellite can pose an interesting challenge for a student, and such a project can provide connections between objects in the sky and commercial and political activities here on Earth.

  4. Fusion: ultra-high-speed and IR image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, T. Goji; Dao, V. T. S.; Nguyen, Quang A.; Kimata, M.

    2015-08-01

    Most targets of ultra-high-speed video cameras operating at more than 1 Mfps, such as combustion, crack propagation, collision, plasma, spark discharge, an air bag at a car accident and a tire under a sudden brake, generate sudden heat. Researchers in these fields require tools to measure the high-speed motion and heat simultaneously. Ultra-high frame rate imaging is achieved by an in-situ storage image sensor. Each pixel of the sensor is equipped with multiple memory elements to record a series of image signals simultaneously at all pixels. Image signals stored in each pixel are read out after an image capturing operation. In 2002, we developed an in-situ storage image sensor operating at 1 Mfps 1). However, the fill factor of the sensor was only 15% due to a light shield covering the wide in-situ storage area. Therefore, in 2011, we developed a backside illuminated (BSI) in-situ storage image sensor to increase the sensitivity with 100% fill factor and a very high quantum efficiency 2). The sensor also achieved a much higher frame rate,16.7 Mfps, thanks to the wiring on the front side with more freedom 3). The BSI structure has another advantage that it has less difficulties in attaching an additional layer on the backside, such as scintillators. This paper proposes development of an ultra-high-speed IR image sensor in combination of advanced nano-technologies for IR imaging and the in-situ storage technology for ultra-highspeed imaging with discussion on issues in the integration.

  5. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  6. Monitoring of wetlands Ecosystems using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Gruszczynska, M.; Yesou, H.; Hoscilo, A.

    Wetlands are very sensitive ecosystems, functioning as habitat for many organisms. Protection and regeneration of wetlands has been the crucial importance in ecological research and in nature conservation. Knowledge on biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation retrieved from satellite images will enable us to improve monitoring of these unique areas, very often impenetrable. The study covers Biebrza wetland situated in the Northeast part of Poland and is considered as Ramsar Convention test site. The research aims at establishing of changes in biophysical parameters as the scrub encroachment, lowering of the water table, and changes of the farming activity caused ecological changes at these areas. Data from the optical and microwave satellite images collected for the area of Biebrza marshland ecosystem have been analysed and compared with the detailed soil-vegetation ground measurements conducted in conjunction with the overflights. Satellite data include Landsat ETM, ERS-2 ATSR and SAR, SPOT VEGETATION, ENVISAT MERIS and ASAR, and NOAA AVHRR. From the optical data various vegetation indices have been calculated, which characterize the vegetation surface roughness, its moisture conditions and stage of development. Landsat ETM image has been used for classification of wetlands vegetation. For each class of vegetation various moisture indices have been developed. Ground data collected include wet and dry biomass, LAI, vegetation height, and TDR soil moisture. The water cloud model has been applied for retrieval of soil vegetation parameters taking into account microwave satellite images acquired at VV, HV and HH polarisations at different viewing angles. The vegetation parameters have been used for to distinguish changes, which occurred at the area. For each of the vegetation class the soil moisture was calculated from microwave data using developed algorithms. Results of this study will help mapping and monitoring wetlands with the high spatial and temporal

  7. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  8. PM-GCD - a combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.; di Paola, F.; Formenton, M.; Mugnai, A.; Porcù, F.; Sanò, P.

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach high level of accuracy - especially regarding convective precipitation. At the present stage though, these observations cannot provide satisfactory coverage of the evolution of intense and rapid precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications - especially in supporting authorities for flood alerts and weather warnings. To tackle this problem, over the past two decades several techniques have been developed combining accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this framework, we have developed a new fast and simple precipitation retrieval technique which we call Passive Microwave - Global Convective Diagnostic, (PM-GCD). This method uses MW retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convective Diagnostic (GCD) technique which discriminates deep convective clouds based on the difference between the MSG water vapor (6.2 μm) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm) channels. Specifically, MSG observations and the GCD technique are used to identify deep convective areas. These areas are then calibrated using MW precipitation estimates based on observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiometers onboard operational NOAA and Eumetsat satellites, and then finally propagated in time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique, analyzing its results for a case study that refers to a flood event that struck the island of Sicily in southern Italy on 1-2 October 2009.

  9. Embedded Implementation of VHR Satellite Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Balla-Arabé, Souleymane; Ginhac, Dominique; Yang, Fan

    2016-05-27

    Processing and analysis of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images provide a mass of crucial information, which can be used for urban planning, security issues or environmental monitoring. However, they are computationally expensive and, thus, time consuming, while some of the applications, such as natural disaster monitoring and prevention, require high efficiency performance. Fortunately, parallel computing techniques and embedded systems have made great progress in recent years, and a series of massively parallel image processing devices, such as digital signal processors or Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), have been made available to engineers at a very convenient price and demonstrate significant advantages in terms of running-cost, embeddability, power consumption flexibility, etc. In this work, we designed a texture region segmentation method for very high resolution satellite images by using the level set algorithm and the multi-kernel theory in a high-abstraction C environment and realize its register-transfer level implementation with the help of a new proposed high-level synthesis-based design flow. The evaluation experiments demonstrate that the proposed design can produce high quality image segmentation with a significant running-cost advantage.

  10. System refinement for content based satellite image retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NourElDin Laban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a large increase in satellite generated data especially in the form of images. Hence intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by dozens of earth observing satellites, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. Content based satellite image retrieval (CBSIR approaches have mainly been driven so far by approaches dealing with traditional images. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that refines image retrieval process using the unique properties to satellite images. Our approach uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tiling sizes. Accordingly the system uses these multilevel features within a multilevel retrieval system that refines the retrieval process. Our multilevel refinement approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional one yielding enhanced precision and recall rates.

  11. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  12. Reference-free nonuniformity compensation for IR imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Multi-detector IR imaging focal plane arrays possess large detector-to-detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations which can completely mask the useful thermal signatures in IR scenes. Conventional detector compensation techniques require uniform temperature references of constant radiance over the entire field of view and a mechanical/electro-optical shutter. This detracts from the mechanical simplicity of multi-detector staring focal planes (which require no scanning). This paper describes a real-time offset and responsivity (gain) compensation technique which dispenses with temperature references and shutters in staring focal planes. The technique makes use of the IR scene itself for calibration and continuously updates the compensation coefficients without interrupting the field of view with a shutter or a temperature reference. The results of real-time simulations of this technique with a number of sensors are presented. Real-time hardware implementation considerations suggest that the technique can be implemented with the addition of very little hardware to a conventional compensation technique requiring temperature references. The technique is also suitable for multi-detector scanning focal planes and for the removal of shading in TV sensors as well.

  13. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  14. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...... on a seven-year ERS-1 and a four-year ERS-2 time series, the long term stability is found to be sufficient to allow a single calibration covering the entire mission period. A descending and an ascending orbit tandem pair of the ESA calibration site on Flevoland, suitable for calibration of ERS SAR processors...

  15. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  16. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  17. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  18. Progress in Understanding the Pre-Earthquake Associated Events by Analyzing IR Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Taylor, Patrick; Bryant, Nevin

    2004-01-01

    We present latest result in understanding the potential relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earths crust and atmosphere with an increase in IR flux as a potential signature of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that are related to earthquake activity, either pre-, co- or post seismic. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by the polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) gave an indication of the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients that are associated with the location (epicenter and local tectonic structures) and time of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths less than 50km. We analyzed broad category of associated pre-earthquake events, which provided evidence for changes in surface temperature, surface latent heat flux, chlorophyll concentrations, soil moisture, brightness temperature, emissivity of surface, water vapour in the atmosphere prior to the earthquakes occurred in Algeria, India, Iran, Italy, Mexico and Japan. The cause of such anomalies has been mainly related to the change of near-surface thermal properties due to complex lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmospheric interactions. As final results we present examples from the most recent (2000-2004) worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of EM emission mid-IR anomalies and a methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  19. Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

  20. AUTOMATIC APPROACH TO VHR SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kupidura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a proposition of a fully automatic classification of VHR satellite images. Unlike the most widespread approaches: supervised classification, which requires prior defining of class signatures, or unsupervised classification, which must be followed by an interpretation of its results, the proposed method requires no human intervention except for the setting of the initial parameters. The presented approach bases on both spectral and textural analysis of the image and consists of 3 steps. The first step, the analysis of spectral data, relies on NDVI values. Its purpose is to distinguish between basic classes, such as water, vegetation and non-vegetation, which all differ significantly spectrally, thus they can be easily extracted basing on spectral analysis. The second step relies on granulometric maps. These are the product of local granulometric analysis of an image and present information on the texture of each pixel neighbourhood, depending on the texture grain. The purpose of texture analysis is to distinguish between different classes, spectrally similar, but yet of different texture, e.g. bare soil from a built-up area, or low vegetation from a wooded area. Due to the use of granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology opening and closing, the results are resistant to the border effect (qualifying borders of objects in an image as spaces of high texture, which affect other methods of texture analysis like GLCM statistics or fractal analysis. Therefore, the effectiveness of the analysis is relatively high. Several indices based on values of different granulometric maps have been developed to simplify the extraction of classes of different texture. The third and final step of the process relies on a vegetation index, based on near infrared and blue bands. Its purpose is to correct partially misclassified pixels. All the indices used in the classification model developed relate to reflectance values, so the

  1. Automatic Approach to Vhr Satellite Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupidura, P.; Osińska-Skotak, K.; Pluto-Kossakowska, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a proposition of a fully automatic classification of VHR satellite images. Unlike the most widespread approaches: supervised classification, which requires prior defining of class signatures, or unsupervised classification, which must be followed by an interpretation of its results, the proposed method requires no human intervention except for the setting of the initial parameters. The presented approach bases on both spectral and textural analysis of the image and consists of 3 steps. The first step, the analysis of spectral data, relies on NDVI values. Its purpose is to distinguish between basic classes, such as water, vegetation and non-vegetation, which all differ significantly spectrally, thus they can be easily extracted basing on spectral analysis. The second step relies on granulometric maps. These are the product of local granulometric analysis of an image and present information on the texture of each pixel neighbourhood, depending on the texture grain. The purpose of texture analysis is to distinguish between different classes, spectrally similar, but yet of different texture, e.g. bare soil from a built-up area, or low vegetation from a wooded area. Due to the use of granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology opening and closing, the results are resistant to the border effect (qualifying borders of objects in an image as spaces of high texture), which affect other methods of texture analysis like GLCM statistics or fractal analysis. Therefore, the effectiveness of the analysis is relatively high. Several indices based on values of different granulometric maps have been developed to simplify the extraction of classes of different texture. The third and final step of the process relies on a vegetation index, based on near infrared and blue bands. Its purpose is to correct partially misclassified pixels. All the indices used in the classification model developed relate to reflectance values, so the preliminary step

  2. Passive IR polarimetric hyperspectral imaging contributions to multisensor humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarilli, Frank J., Jr.; Scott, Herman E.; Jones, Stephen H.

    2001-10-01

    Supported by the Army Humanitarian Demining MURI, we most recently have focused on determining the unique strengths of passive IR sensing as a function of attribute diversity. Our initial findings identify polarimetric hyperspectral imaging.as a robust means to rapidly survey and detect partially exposed, non-metallic anti-personnel (AP) mines. We are investigating the discrimination gains expected from the combined polarimetric hyperspectral attributes under laboratory and field conditions. A principal components analysis of our earliest data indicates that this combination of attributes is about three times more effective in discriminating AP mines or mine-like materials than conventional hyperspectral sensing. In addition, we have uncovered a distinguishing spectral behavior of the Fresnel reflectance across resonance features that can be measured only by spectrally-resolved polarimetry.

  3. Novel near-to-mid IR imaging sensors without cooling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boston Applied Technologies, Inc (BATi), together with Kent State University (KSU), proposes to develop a high sensitivity infrared (IR) imaging sensor without...

  4. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  5. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  6. Upconversion imager measures single mid-IR photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The most sensitive IR detectors today are based on exotic semicoductor technology such as indium antimonide or mercury cadmium telluride. High quality detectors of these sorts are expensive and suffer from high dark currents. Dark current can be somewhat alleviated by extreme cooling. Comparing...... in the near-IR. Conventional detection schemes for IR radiation include microbolometers, which rely on minute temperature changes induced in a 2D nanophotonic sensor device when IR radiation is adsorbed. Microbolometers exist both as cryogenically cooled and uncooled devices. The wavelength upconversion...

  7. Frequency up-conversion based single photon, mid-IR spectral imaging with 20% quantum efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    Spectral imaging of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light is emerging as a promising technology since important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints. We demonstrate for detection a novel method including a field deployable imaging system with single photon sensitivity...

  8. The 2010 Eyja eruption evolution by using IR satellite sensors measurements: retrieval comparison and insights into explosive volcanic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, A.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Scollo, S.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 April-May Eyja eruption caused an unprecedented disruption to economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, many European airports were in fact closed causing millions of passengers to be stranded, and with a worldwide airline industry loss estimated of about 2.5 billion Euros. Both security and economical issues require robust and affordable volcanic cloud retrievals that may be really improved through the intercomparison among different remote sensing instruments. In this work the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) measurements of different polar and geostationary satellites instruments as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), have been used to retrieve the volcanic ash and SO2 in the entire eruption period over Iceland. The ash retrievals (mass, AOD and effective radius) have been carried out by means of the split window BTD technique using the channels centered around 11 and 12 micron. The least square fit procedure is used for the SO2 retrieval by using the 7.3 and 8.7 micron channels. The simulated TOA radiance Look-Up Table (LUT) needed for both the ash and SO2 column abundance retrievals have been computed using the MODTRAN 4 Radiative Transfer Model. Further, the volcanic plume column altitude and ash density have been computed and compared, when available, with ground observations. The results coming from the retrieval of different IR sensors show a good agreement over the entire eruption period. The column height, the volcanic ash and the SO2 emission trend confirm the indentified different phases occurred during the Eyja eruption. We remark that the retrieved volcanic plume evolution can give important insights into eruptive dynamics during long-lived explosive activity.

  9. Satellite image eavesdropping: a multidisciplinary science education project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, Jean-Michel [Association Projet Aurore, UFR-ST La Bouloie, 16, route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2005-11-01

    Amateur reception of satellite images gathers a wide number of concepts and technologies which makes it attractive as an educational tool. We here introduce the reception of images emitted from NOAA series low-altitude Earth-orbiting satellites. We tackle various issues including the identification and prediction of the pass time of visible satellites, the building of the radio-frequency receiver and antenna after modelling their radiation pattern, and then the demodulation of the resulting audio signal for finally displaying an image of the Earth as seen from space.

  10. A Spatio-Temporal Model for Forest Fire Detection Using HJ-IRS Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire detection based on multi-temporal remote sensing data is an active research field. However, multi-temporal detection processes are usually complicated because of the spatial and temporal variability of remote sensing imagery. This paper presents a spatio-temporal model (STM based forest fire detection method that uses multiple images of the inspected scene. In STM, the strong correlation between an inspected pixel and its neighboring pixels is considered, which can mitigate adverse impacts of spatial heterogeneity on background intensity predictions. The integration of spatial contextual information and temporal information makes it a more robust model for anomaly detection. The proposed algorithm was applied to a forest fire in 2009 in the Yinanhe forest, Heilongjiang province, China, using two-month HJ-1B infrared camera sensor (IRS images. A comparison of detection results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm described in this paper are useful to represent the spatio-temporal information contained in multi-temporal remotely sensed data, and the STM detection method can be used to obtain a higher detection accuracy than the optimized contextual algorithm.

  11. In situ scanning FTIR microscopy and IR imaging of Pt electrode surface towards CO adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世刚; 洪双进; 陈声培; 卢国强; 戴鸿平; 肖晓银

    1999-01-01

    In situ scanning FTIR microscopy was built up for the first time in the present work, which consists of an FTIR apparatus, an IR microscope, an X-Y mapping stage, and the specially designed electrochemical IR cell and computer software. It has been demonstrated that this new space-resolvd in situ IR technique can be used to study vibration properties of micro-area, and to perform IR imaging of electrode surface. The chemical image obtained using this technique fur CO adsorption on Pt electrode illustrated, at a space-resolution of 10-2 cm, the inhomogeneity and the distribution of reactivity of micro-area of electrode surface.

  12. Velocity estimation of an airplane through a single satellite image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuxin Zhao; Gongjian Wen; Bingwei Hui; Deren Li

    2012-01-01

    The motion information of a moving target can be recorded in a single image by a push-broom satellite. A push-broom satellite image is composed of many image lines sensed at different time instants. A method to estimate the velocity of a flying airplane from a single image based on the imagery model of the linear push-broom sensor is proposed. Some key points on the high-resolution image of the plane are chosen to determine the velocity (speed and direction). The performance of the method is tested and verified by experiments using a WorldView-1 image.%The motion information of a moving target can be recorded in a single image by a push-broom satellite.A push-broom satellite image is composed of many image lines sensed at different time instants.A method to estimate the velocity of a flying airplane from a single image based on the imagery model of the linear push-broom sensor is proposed.Some key points on the high-resolution image of the plane are chosen to determine the velocity (speed and direction).The performance of the method is tested and verified by experiments using a WorldView-1 image.

  13. Satellite image collection modeling for large area hazard emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shufan; Hodgson, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Timely collection of critical hazard information is the key to intelligent and effective hazard emergency response decisions. Satellite remote sensing imagery provides an effective way to collect critical information. Natural hazards, however, often have large impact areas - larger than a single satellite scene. Additionally, the hazard impact area may be discontinuous, particularly in flooding or tornado hazard events. In this paper, a spatial optimization model is proposed to solve the large area satellite image acquisition planning problem in the context of hazard emergency response. In the model, a large hazard impact area is represented as multiple polygons and image collection priorities for different portion of impact area are addressed. The optimization problem is solved with an exact algorithm. Application results demonstrate that the proposed method can address the satellite image acquisition planning problem. A spatial decision support system supporting the optimization model was developed. Several examples of image acquisition problems are used to demonstrate the complexity of the problem and derive optimized solutions.

  14. Landsat TM and ETM+ Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2000-2001 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and...

  15. Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)...

  16. AFM-IR: Technology and Applications in Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Alexandre; Prater, Craig B

    2016-12-13

    Atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) is a rapidly emerging technique that provides chemical analysis and compositional mapping with spatial resolution far below conventional optical diffraction limits. AFM-IR works by using the tip of an AFM probe to locally detect thermal expansion in a sample resulting from absorption of infrared radiation. AFM-IR thus can provide the spatial resolution of AFM in combination with the chemical analysis and compositional imaging capabilities of infrared spectroscopy. This article briefly reviews the development and underlying technology of AFM-IR, including recent advances, and then surveys a wide range of applications and investigations using AFM-IR. AFM-IR applications that will be discussed include those in polymers, life sciences, photonics, solar cells, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and cultural heritage. In the Supporting Information , the authors provide a theoretical section that reviews the physics underlying the AFM-IR measurement and detection mechanisms.

  17. Spatial Cloud Detection and Retrieval System for Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Nasr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In last the decade we witnessed a large increase in data generated by earth observing satellites. Hence, intelligent processing of the huge amount of data received by hundreds of earth receiving stations, with specific satellite image oriented approaches, presents itself as a pressing need. One of the most important steps in earlier stages of satellite image processing is cloud detection. Satellite images having a large percentage of cloud cannot be used in further analysis. While there are many approaches that deal with different semantic meaning, there are rarely approaches that deal specifically with cloud detection and retrieval. In this paper we introduce a novel approach that spatially detect and retrieve clouds in satellite images using their unique properties .Our approach is developed as spatial cloud detection and retrieval system (SCDRS that introduce a complete framework for specific semantic retrieval system. It uses a Query by polygon (QBP paradigm for the content of interest instead of using the more conventional rectangular query by image approach. First, we extract features from the satellite images using multiple tile sizes using spatial and textural properties of cloud regions. Second, we retrieve our tiles using a parametric statistical approach within a multilevel refinement process. Our approach has been experimentally validated against the conventional ones yielding enhanced precision and recall rates in the same time it gives more precise detection of cloud coverage regions.

  18. Generation of chemical movies: FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of segmented flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Niu, X; deMello, A J; Kazarian, S G

    2011-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that FT-IR spectroscopic imaging can be used as a powerful, label-free detection method for studying laminar flows. However, to date, the speed of image acquisition has been too slow for the efficient detection of moving droplets within segmented flow systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the extraction of fast FT-IR images with acquisition times of 50 ms. This approach allows efficient interrogation of segmented flow systems where aqueous droplets move at a speed of 2.5 mm/s. Consecutive FT-IR images separated by 120 ms intervals allow the generation of chemical movies at eight frames per second. The technique has been applied to the study of microfluidic systems containing moving droplets of water in oil and droplets of protein solution in oil. The presented work demonstrates the feasibility of the use of FT-IR imaging to study dynamic systems with subsecond temporal resolution.

  19. IR image generation of space target based on OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tongsheng; Guo, Ming; Wang, Chenggang

    2007-11-01

    IR Scene simulation has been an important way to design and assess the IR sensor, and the key of simulation is the generation of IR scene image. Based on OpenGL, the method of IR image generation is proposed. The geometry model is constructed with professional CAD software, and the observer location is determined after scene transformation. The full infrared model of space target is built based on infrared physics and heat transfer, which includes the radiation, convection, conduction between different parts of the space target, and which also includes the radiation, convection of environment. Radiance of space target is converted to gray value, and properties of scene are defined according to the gray level. After a series of processing, dynamic IR images are generated with the technology of double buffering.

  20. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  1. Wind Statistics Offshore based on Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Mouche, Alexis; Badger, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Ocean wind maps from satellites are routinely processed both at Risø DTU and CLS based on the European Space Agency Envisat ASAR data. At Risø the a priori wind direction is taken from the atmospheric model NOGAPS (Navel Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System) provided by the U.S. Navy......’s Master Environmental Library. At CLS the a priori wind direction is taken from the ECMWF (European Centre of Medium-range Weather Forecasting). It is also possible to use other sources of wind direction e.g. the satellite-based ASCAT wind directions as demonstrated by CLS. The wind direction has to known...

  2. Upconversion imager measures single mid-IR photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The most sensitive IR detectors today are based on exotic semicoductor technology such as indium antimonide or mercury cadmium telluride. High quality detectors of these sorts are expensive and suffer from high dark currents. Dark current can be somewhat alleviated by extreme cooling. Comparing t...

  3. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    -project.eu] DTU Fotonik has now demonstrated the first optical fiber based broadband so-called supercontinuum light souce, which covers 1.4-13.3 μm and thereby most of the molecular fingerprint region [1]. This ultra-fast light source is the basic component in the mid-IR camera developed in MINERVA for early...

  4. Non Destructive IR Micro-Imaging of Whole Grains of the Paris Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionnet, Z.; Aleon-Toppani, A.; Borondics, F.; Brunetto, R.; Djouadi, Z.; Troadec, D.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the results of high-resolution Fourier Transform IR spectral imaging experiments at micron scale using FPA (Focal Plan Array) and synchroton radiation of the Paris meteorite (carbonaceous chondrite,CM )with a new sample preparation.

  5. Very high resolution satellite data: New challenges in image analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    with the exception that a ground-based view covers the entire optical range from 400 to 700 nm while satellite images will be wavelength-specific. Although the images will not surpass details observed by a human eye, they will, in principle, be comparable with aerial...

  6. Geospatial Visualization of Global Satellite Images with Vis-EROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standart, G. D.; Stulken, K. R.; Zhang, Xuesong; Zong, Ziliang

    2011-04-13

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey is currently managing and maintaining the world largest satellite images distribution system, which provides 24/7 free download service for researchers all over the globe in many areas such as Geology, Hydrology, Climate Modeling, and Earth Sciences. A large amount of geospatial data contained in satellite images maintained by EROS is generated every day. However, this data is not well utilized due to the lack of efficient data visualization tools. This software implements a method for visualizing various characteristics of the global satellite image download requests. More specifically, Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files are generated which can be loaded into an earth browser such as Google Earth. Colored rectangles associated with stored satellite scenes are painted onto the earth browser; and the color and opacity of each rectangle is varied as a function of the popularity of the corresponding satellite image. An analysis of the geospatial information obtained relative to specified time constraints provides an ability to relate image download requests to environmental, political, and social events.

  7. Near-IR imaging towards a puzzling YSO precessing jet

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Ortega, M E

    2016-01-01

    At present there are many studies concerning jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies towards massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are scarce. In a previous study, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows towards the infrared point source IRS. Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs-broad-bands and narrow-bands centered at the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Br-gamma, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.35" and 0.45". The emission in the JHKs-broad-bands shows, with great detail, the presence of a cone-like shape nebula extending to the north/northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed by two arc-like features and a bow shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks-band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis ...

  8. Entropy-Based Block Processing for Satellite Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhyun Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is an important task in many computer vision applications such as fusion systems, 3D shape recovery and earth observation. Particularly, registering satellite images is challenging and time-consuming due to limited resources and large image size. In such scenario, state-of-the-art image registration methods such as scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT may not be suitable due to high processing time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on block processing via entropy to register satellite images. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using different real images. The comparative analysis shows that it not only reduces the processing time but also enhances the accuracy.

  9. Developing Algorithms to Improve Defect Extraction and Suppressing Undesired Heat Patterns in Sonic IR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2016-12-01

    Sonic IR imaging is an emerging NDE technology. This technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in materials and structures. Sonic energy is coupled to the specimen under inspection by means of direct contact between the transducer tip and the specimen at some convenient point. This region which is normally in the field of view of the camera appears as intensity peak in the image which might be misinterpreted as defects or obscure the detection and/or extraction of the defect signals in the proximity of the contact region. Moreover, certain defects may have very small heat signature or being buried in noise. In this paper, we present algorithms to improve defect extraction and suppression of undesired heat patterns in sonic IR images. Two approaches are presented, each fits to a specific category of sonic IR images.

  10. The best printing methods to print satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Yousif

    2011-12-01

    In this paper different printing systems were used to print an image of SPOT-4 satellite, caver part of Sharm Elshekh area, Sinai, Egypt, on the same type of paper as much as possible, especially in the photography. This step is followed by measuring the experimental data, and analyzed colors to determine the best printing systems for satellite image printing data. The laser system is the more printing system where produce a wider range of color and highest densities of ink and access much color detail. Followed by the offset system which it recorded the best dot gain. Moreover, the study shows that it can use the advantages of each method according to the satellite image color and quantity to be produced.

  11. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  12. Mid-IR image acquisition using a standard CCD camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Sørensen, Knud Palmelund; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Direct image acquisition in the 3-5 µm range is realized using a standard CCD camera and a wavelength up-converter unit. The converter unit transfers the image information to the NIR range were state-of-the-art cameras exist.......Direct image acquisition in the 3-5 µm range is realized using a standard CCD camera and a wavelength up-converter unit. The converter unit transfers the image information to the NIR range were state-of-the-art cameras exist....

  13. Comparison of Satellite Image Enhancement Techniques in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Narasimhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison of various existing satellite image resolution enhancement techniques in wavelet domain is done. Each method is analysed quantitatively and visually. There are various wavelet domain based methods such as Wavelet Zero Padding, Dual Tree-Complex Wavelet Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Cycle Spinning and Undecimated Wavelet Transform. On the basis of analysis, the most efficient method is proposed. The algorithms take the low resolution image as the input image and then wavelet transformation using daubechies (db3 is used to decompose the input image into different sub band images containing high and low frequency component. Then these subband images along with the input image are interpolated followed by combining all these images to generate a new resolution enhanced image by an inverse process.

  14. Advanced Technology Demonstrator for IR Imaging Missile Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    13 Figure 9: Paraglider ...but also mountains, towers, other flying platform and e.g. paratroopers/ paragliders . Some of these objects have no plume, this excludes UV-devices for...Figure 9: Paraglider - The device also has to have the ability to recognize these a.m. objects, so it has to be an imaging device with intelligent image

  15. Satellite Imaging with Adaptive Optics on a 1 M Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Copeland, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia, have been developing adaptive optic (AO) systems for space situational awareness applications. We report on the development and demonstration of an AO system for satellite imaging using a 1 m telescope. The system uses the orbiting object as a natural guide star to measure atmospheric turbulence, and a deformable mirror to provide an optical correction. The AO system utilised modern, high speed and low noise EMCCD technology on both the wavefront sensor and imaging camera to achieve high performance, achieving a Strehl ratio in excess of 30% at 870 nm. Images are post processed with lucky imaging algorithms to further improve the final image quality. We demonstrate the AO system on stellar targets and Iridium satellites, achieving a near diffraction limited full width at half maximum. A specialised realtime controller allows our system to achieve a bandwidth above 100 Hz, with the wavefront sensor and control loop running at 2 kHz. The AO systems we are developing show how ground-based optical sensors can be used to manage the space environment. AO imaging systems can be used for satellite surveillance, while laser ranging can be used to determine precise orbital data used in the critical conjunction analysis required to maintain a safe space environment. We have focused on making this system compact, expandable, and versatile. We are continuing to develop this platform for other space situational awareness applications such as geosynchronous satellite astrometry, space debris characterisation, satellite imaging, and ground-to-space laser communication.

  16. IR Imaging Using Arrays of SiO2 Micromechanical Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grbovic, Dragoslav [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we describe the fabrication of an array of bimaterial detectors for infrared (IR) imaging that utilize SiO2 as a structural material. All the substrate material underneath the active area of each detector element was removed. Each detector element incorporates an optical resonant cavity layer in the IR absorbing region of the sensing element. The simplified microfabrication process requires only four photolithographic steps with no wet etching or sacrificial layers. The thermomechanical deflection sensitivity was 7.9 10-3 rad/K which corresponds to a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 2.9 mK. In the present work the array was used to capture IR images while operating at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and no need for vacuum packaging. The average measured NETD of our IR detector system was approximately 200 mK but some sensing elements exhibited an NETD of 50 mK.

  17. Develop algorithms to improve detectability of defects in Sonic IR imaging NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2016-02-01

    Sonic Infrared (IR) technology is relative new in the NDE family. It is a fast, wide area imaging method. It combines ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging while the former to apply ultrasound energy thus induce friction heating in defects and the latter to capture the IR emission from the target. This technology can detect both surface and subsurface defects such as cracks and disbands/delaminations in various materials, metal/metal alloy or composites. However, certain defects may results in only very small IR signature be buried in noise or heating patterns. In such cases, to effectively extract the defect signals becomes critical in identifying the defects. In this paper, we will present algorithms which are developed to improve the detectability of defects in Sonic IR.

  18. Simultaneous Fusion and Denoising of Panchromatic and Multispectral Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, Amr M.; Osman, Heba; Abbas, Alaa M.; Elkaffas, Saleh M.; El-Tobely, Tarek A.; Khamis, S.; Elhalawany, Mohamed E.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2012-12-01

    To identify objects in satellite images, multispectral (MS) images with high spectral resolution and low spatial resolution, and panchromatic (Pan) images with high spatial resolution and low spectral resolution need to be fused. Several fusion methods such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS), the discrete wavelet transform, the discrete wavelet frame transform (DWFT), and the principal component analysis have been proposed in recent years to obtain images with both high spectral and spatial resolutions. In this paper, a hybrid fusion method for satellite images comprising both the IHS transform and the DWFT is proposed. This method tries to achieve the highest possible spectral and spatial resolutions with as small distortion in the fused image as possible. A comparison study between the proposed hybrid method and the traditional methods is presented in this paper. Different MS and Pan images from Landsat-5, Spot, Landsat-7, and IKONOS satellites are used in this comparison. The effect of noise on the proposed hybrid fusion method as well as the traditional fusion methods is studied. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed hybrid method to the traditional methods. The results show also that a wavelet denoising step is required when fusion is performed at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  19. Image Dodging Algorithm for GF-1 Satellite WFV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Image dodging method is one of the important processes that determines whether the mosaicking image can be used for remote sensing quantitative application. GF-1 satellite is the first satellite in CHEOS (Chinese high-resolution earth observation system. WFV multispectral sensor is one of the instruments onboard GF-1 satellite which consist of four cameras to mosaic imaging. According to the characteristics of WFV sensor, this paper proposes an image dodging algorithm based on cross/inter-radiometric calibration method. First, the traditional cross calibration method is applied to obtain the calibration coefficients of one WFV camera. Then statistical analysis and simulation methods are adopted to build the correlation models of DN and TOA (top of atmosphere radiances between adjacent cameras. The proposed method can not only accomplish the radiation performance transfer, but also can fulfill the image dodging. The experimental results show the cross/inter-radiometric calibration coefficients in this paper can effectively eliminate the radiation inconsistency problem of the adjacent camera image which realizes the image dodging. So our proposed dodging method can provide an important reference for other similar sensor in future.

  20. Analgorithmic Framework for Automatic Detection and Tracking Moving Point Targets in IR Image Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anand Raji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging sensors operating in infrared (IR region of electromagnetic spectrum are gaining importance in airborne automatic target recognition (ATR applications due to their passive nature of operation. IR imaging sensors exploit the unintended IR radiation emitted by the targets of interest for detection. The ATR systems based on the passive IR imaging sensors employ a set of signal processing algorithms for processing the image information in real-time. The real-time execution of signal processing algorithms provides the sufficient reaction time to the platform carrying ATR system to react upon the target of interest. These set of algorithms include detection, tracking, and classification of low-contrast, small sized-targets. Paper explained a signal processing framework developed to detect and track moving point targets from the acquired IR image sequences in real-time.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.208-213, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8164

  1. Classification of Pansharpened Urban Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, Frosti; Sveinsson, Johannes R.; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2012-01-01

    The classification of high resolution urban remote sensing imagery is addressed with the focus on classification of imagery that has been pansharpened by a number of different pansharpening methods. The pansharpening process introduces some spectral and spatial distortions in the resulting fused...... multispectral image, the amount of which highly varies depending on which pansharpening technique is used. In the majority of the pansharpening techniques that have been proposed, there is a compromise between the spatial enhancement and the spectral consistency. Here we study the effects of the spectral...... information from the panchromatic data. Random Forests (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) will be used as classifiers. Experiments are done for three different datasets that have been obtained by two different imaging sensors, IKONOS and QuickBird. These sensors deliver multispectral images that have four...

  2. Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard...

  3. Analytical models integrated with satellite images for optimized pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global field protection (GFP) was developed to protect and optimize pest management resources integrating satellite images for precise field demarcation with physical models of controlled release devices of pesticides to protect large fields. The GFP was implemented using a graphical user interf...

  4. Interferometric Imaging of Geostationary Satellites: Signal-to-Noise Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    and the extent to which they cover the necessary portions of the UV plane . Once the photon counting noise becomes smaller than the UV coverage noise, ad...satellites,” in Proc. SPIE 4091, Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras , S. R. Czyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D...SPIE 4091, Imaging Technology and Telescopes, J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras , S. R. Czyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, and P. S

  5. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been to implement a software system, that is able to create a 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D photographic images made from different positions. The height is determined from the disparity difference of the images. The general purpose of the system is mapping o......, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed....

  6. Ir-Ru/Al2O3 catalysts used in satellite propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Soares Neto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Ir/Al2O3, Ir-Ru/Al2O3 and Ru/Al2O3, catalysts with total metal contents of 30% were prepared using the methods of incipient wetness and incipient coimpregnation wetness and were tested in a 2N microthruster. Their performances were then compared with that of the Shell 405 commercial catalyst (30% Ir/Al2O3. Tests were performed in continuous and pulsed regimes, where there are steep temperature and pressure gradients, from ambient values up to 650 ºC and 14 bar. Performance stability, thrust produced, temperature and stagnation pressure in the chamber and losses of mass were analyzed and compared to the corresponding parameters in Shell 405 tests. It was observed that the performance of all the above-mentioned catalysts was comparable to that of the commercial one, except for in loss of mass, where the values was higher, which was attributed to the lower mechanical resistance of the support.

  7. The cradle of pyramids in satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    We propose the use of image processing to enhance the Google Maps of some archaeological areas of Egypt. In particular we analyse that place which is considered the cradle of pyramids, where it was announced the discovery of a new pyramid by means of an infrared remote sensing.

  8. An Image Matching Algorithm Integrating Global SRTM and Image Segmentation for Multi-Source Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel image matching method for multi-source satellite images, which integrates global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data and image segmentation to achieve robust and numerous correspondences. This method first generates the epipolar lines as a geometric constraint assisted by global SRTM data, after which the seed points are selected and matched. To produce more reliable matching results, a region segmentation-based matching propagation is proposed in this paper, whereby the region segmentations are extracted by image segmentation and are considered to be a spatial constraint. Moreover, a similarity measure integrating Distance, Angle and Normalized Cross-Correlation (DANCC, which considers geometric similarity and radiometric similarity, is introduced to find the optimal correspondences. Experiments using typical satellite images acquired from Resources Satellite-3 (ZY-3, Mapping Satellite-1, SPOT-5 and Google Earth demonstrated that the proposed method is able to produce reliable and accurate matching results.

  9. QCLs and the future of IR chemical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, Jeremy A.; Fotheringham, Edeline; Weida, Miles J.; Chapman, William B.; Larson, Paul; Day, Tiim

    2016-09-01

    High-fidelity, broadly-tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are replacing thermal light sources in next-generation infrared chemical imaging and microscopy instrumentation. Their superior spectral brightness, beam quality, and reliability are enabling new applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and industrial markets which demand substantially better noise performance, higher throughput, and ease-of-use. In this talk we will discuss the state-of-the-art in QCL source technology and describe our systems approach to leveraging QCL sources in the next-generation of infrared chemical imaging microscopes.

  10. Satellite images analysis for shadow detection and building height estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasis, Gregoris; Stavrou, Stavros

    2016-09-01

    Satellite images can provide valuable information about the presented urban landscape scenes to remote sensing and telecommunication applications. Obtaining information from satellite images is difficult since all the objects and their surroundings are presented with feature complexity. The shadows cast by buildings in urban scenes can be processed and used for estimating building heights. Thus, a robust and accurate building shadow detection process is important. Region-based active contour models can be used for satellite image segmentation. However, spectral heterogeneity that usually exists in satellite images and the feature similarity representing the shadow and several non-shadow regions makes building shadow detection challenging. In this work, a new automated method for delineating building shadows is proposed. Initially, spectral and spatial features of the satellite image are utilized for designing a custom filter to enhance shadows and reduce intensity heterogeneity. An effective iterative procedure using intensity differences is developed for tuning and subsequently selecting the most appropriate filter settings, able to highlight the building shadows. The response of the filter is then used for automatically estimating the radiometric property of the shadows. The customized filter and the radiometric feature are utilized to form an optimized active contour model where the contours are biased to delineate shadow regions. Post-processing morphological operations are also developed and applied for removing misleading artefacts. Finally, building heights are approximated using shadow length and the predefined or estimated solar elevation angle. Qualitative and quantitative measures are used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method for both shadow detection and building height estimation.

  11. Near-IR polarization imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.1 The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  12. Polarization resolved near-IR imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light is reflected from and transmitted through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of optical imaging devices. New optical imaging tools employing non-ionizing radiation are needed for the detection and assessment of dental caries. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light is reflected from the occlusal surface or transmitted through thin sections of extracted human whole teeth. Previous near-IR imaging studies suggest that polarization imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of early dental caries due to the rapid depolarization of incident polarized light by the highly scattering areas of decay. In this study, the reflectance from tooth occlusal surfaces with demineralization and transmitted light through tooth thin sections with caries lesions were investigated. Major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel. This study suggests that polarization resolved optical imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of dental decay.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SATELLITE IMAGE PRE-PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sree Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are corrupted by noise in its acquisition and transmission. The removal of noise from the image by attenuating the high frequency image components, removes some important details as well. In order to retain the useful information and improve the visual appearance, an effective denoising and resolution enhancement techniques are required. In this research, Hybrid Directional Lifting (HDL technique is proposed to retain the important details of the image and improve the visual appearance. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT based interpolation technique is developed for enhancing the resolution of the denoised image. The performance of the proposed techniques are tested by Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (LANDSAT images, using the quantitative performance measure, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and computation time to show the significance of the proposed techniques. The PSNR of the HDL technique increases 1.02 dB compared to the standard denoising technique and the DWT based interpolation technique increases 3.94 dB. From the experimental results it reveals that newly developed image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques improve the image visual quality with rich textures.

  14. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirinos J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  15. Remote Sensing of Clouds using Satellites, Lidars, CLF/XLF and IR Cameras at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, J.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds in the field of view of the fluorescence detectors affect the detection of the extensive air showers. Several remote sensing techniques are used to detect night-time clouds over the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Four lidars at the fluorescence detector sites are performing different patterns of scans of the surrounding sky detecting clouds. Two laser facilities (CLF and XLF) are shooting into the sky delivering cloud cover above them every 15 minutes. Four IR cameras detect the presence of clouds within the FOV of the fluorescence detectors every 5 minutes. A method using GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites identifies night-time clouds twice per hour with a spatial resolution of 2.4 km by 5.5 km over the Observatory. We upload all this information into several databases to be used for the reconstruction of cosmic ray events and to find exotic events.

  16. Identification of geostationary satellites using polarization data from unresolved images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Andy

    In order to protect critical military and commercial space assets, the United States Space Surveillance Network must have the ability to positively identify and characterize all space objects. Unfortunately, positive identification and characterization of space objects is a manual and labor intensive process today since even large telescopes cannot provide resolved images of most space objects. Since resolved images of geosynchronous satellites are not technically feasible with current technology, another method of distinguishing space objects was explored that exploits the polarization signature from unresolved images. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze visible-spectrum polarization data from unresolved images of geosynchronous satellites taken over various solar phase angles. Different collection geometries were used to evaluate the polarization contribution of solar arrays, thermal control materials, antennas, and the satellite bus as the solar phase angle changed. Since materials on space objects age due to the space environment, it was postulated that their polarization signature may change enough to allow discrimination of identical satellites launched at different times. The instrumentation used in this experiment was a United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Department of Physics system that consists of a 20-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope and a dual focal plane optical train fed with a polarizing beam splitter. A rigorous calibration of the system was performed that included corrections for pixel bias, dark current, and response. Additionally, the two channel polarimeter was calibrated by experimentally determining the Mueller matrix for the system and relating image intensity at the two cameras to Stokes parameters S0 and S1. After the system calibration, polarization data was collected during three nights on eight geosynchronous satellites built by various manufacturers and launched several years apart. Three pairs of the eight

  17. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging of human tissue sections towards improving pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Nguyen, Peter L; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J

    2015-01-21

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis.

  18. MR imaging of optic neuritis using short TI IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Kohichi; Uehara, Masako; Ashikaga, Ryuichirou; Inoue, Masaaki; Shindou, Hiroshi; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu (Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    We evaluated the ability of MRI using short TI inversion recovery (STIR) to diagnose optic neuritis. Eleven patients with previous or recent attack of optic neuritis were studied with MRI at 0.5 tesla. STIR images revealed high signal regions in 7 of 12 symptomatic and 5 of 10 asymptomatic nerves. Three of five asymptomatic nerves with high intensity were pertinent to the cases with past attack and seemed to reflect the demyelinating change. The other two nerves were pertinent to the cases without past attack and seemed to show occult lesions. We consider that STIR is useful in detection of optic nerve lesions associated with optic neuritis. (author).

  19. Cassini Imaging of Auroral Emissions on the Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.; McEwen, A.; Porco, C.

    2001-05-01

    Cassini captured several sequences of images showing Io, Europa and Ganymede while the moons were eclipsed by Jupiter. Io was the best studied of the satellites, with 4 eclipses successfully recorded. Earlier eclipse imaging by Galileo (Geissler et al., Science 295, 870-874) had shown colorful atmospheric emissions from Io and raised questions concerning their temporal variability and the identity of the emitting species. With its high data rate and numerous filter combinations, Cassini was able to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge of Io's visible aurorae. Io's bright equatorial glows were detected at previously unknown wavelengths and were also seen in motion. One eclipse took place on 12/29/2000 while Io was far from the plasma torus center. The pair of equatorial glows near the sub-Jupiter and anti-Jupiter points appeared about equal in brightness and changed little in location or intensity over a two hour period. Io crossed the plasma torus center during the next eclipse on 1/01/2001, as it passed through System III magnetic longitudes from 250 to 303 degrees. The equatorial glows were seen to shift in latitude during this eclipse, tracking the tangent points of the jovian magnetic field lines. This behaviour is similar to that observed for ultraviolet and other atomic emissions, and confirms that these visible glows are powered by Birkeland currents connecting Io and Jupiter. The eclipse on 1/05/2001 provided the best spectral measurements of the aurorae. The equatorial glows were detected at near ultraviolet wavelengths, consistent with their interpretation as molecular SO2 emissions. More than 100 kR were recorded in the ISS UV3 filter (300-380 nm) along with a similar intensity in BL1 (290-500 nm), comparable to Galileo estimates. At least 50 kR were detected in UV2 images (265-330 nm). No detection was made in UV1 (235-280 nm), allowing us to place an upper limit of about 100 kR. A new detection of the equatorial glows was made in the IR1 band (670

  20. Use of geostationary meteorological satellite images in convective rain estimation for flash-flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardah, T.; Abu Bakar, S. H.; Bardossy, A.; Maznorizan, M.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryFrequent flash-floods causing immense devastation in the Klang River Basin of Malaysia necessitate an improvement in the real-time forecasting systems being used. The use of meteorological satellite images in estimating rainfall has become an attractive option for improving the performance of flood forecasting-and-warning systems. In this study, a rainfall estimation algorithm using the infrared (IR) information from the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5) is developed for potential input in a flood forecasting system. Data from the records of GMS-5 IR images have been retrieved for selected convective cells to be trained with the radar rain rate in a back-propagation neural network. The selected data as inputs to the neural network, are five parameters having a significant correlation with the radar rain rate: namely, the cloud-top brightness-temperature of the pixel of interest, the mean and the standard deviation of the temperatures of the surrounding five by five pixels, the rate of temperature change, and the sobel operator that indicates the temperature gradient. In addition, three numerical weather prediction (NWP) products, namely the precipitable water content, relative humidity, and vertical wind, are also included as inputs. The algorithm is applied for the areal rainfall estimation in the upper Klang River Basin and compared with another technique that uses power-law regression between the cloud-top brightness-temperature and radar rain rate. Results from both techniques are validated against previously recorded Thiessen areal-averaged rainfall values with coefficient correlation values of 0.77 and 0.91 for the power-law regression and the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, respectively. An extra lead time of around 2 h is gained when the satellite-based ANN rainfall estimation is coupled with a rainfall-runoff model to forecast a flash-flood event in the upper Klang River Basin.

  1. Convolutional neural network features based change detection in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed El Amin, Arabi; Liu, Qingjie; Wang, Yunhong

    2016-07-01

    With the popular use of high resolution remote sensing (HRRS) satellite images, a huge research efforts have been placed on change detection (CD) problem. An effective feature selection method can significantly boost the final result. While hand-designed features have proven difficulties to design features that effectively capture high and mid-level representations, the recent developments in machine learning (Deep Learning) omit this problem by learning hierarchical representation in an unsupervised manner directly from data without human intervention. In this letter, we propose approaching the change detection problem from a feature learning perspective. A novel deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) features based HR satellite images change detection method is proposed. The main guideline is to produce a change detection map directly from two images using a pretrained CNN. This method can omit the limited performance of hand-crafted features. Firstly, CNN features are extracted through different convolutional layers. Then, a concatenation step is evaluated after an normalization step, resulting in a unique higher dimensional feature map. Finally, a change map was computed using pixel-wise Euclidean distance. Our method has been validated on real bitemporal HRRS satellite images according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results obtained confirm the interest of the proposed method.

  2. Inversion of Aerosol Optical Depth Based on the CCD and IRS Sensors on the HJ-1 Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform a high-resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD inversion from the HJ-1 satellites, a dark pixel algorithm utilizing the HJ-1 satellite data was developed based on the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS algorithm. By analyzing the relationship between the apparent reflectance from the 1.65 μm and 2.1 μm channels of MODIS, a method for estimating albedo using the 1.65 μm channel data of the HJ-1 satellites was established, and a high-resolution AOD inversion in the Chengdu region based on the HJ-1 satellite was completed. A comparison of the inversion results with CE318 measured data produced a correlation of 0.957, respectively, with an absolute error of 0.106. An analysis of the AOD inversion results from different aerosol models showed that the rural aerosol model was suitable as a general model for establishing an aerosol inversion look-up table for the Chengdu region.

  3. Progress on characterization of a dualband IR imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecken, Brian P.; LeVan, Paul D.; Lindh, Cory; Johnson, Randall S.

    2008-04-01

    A dualband infrared focal plane array is the central component of a compact, low mass, multispectral imaging spectrometer with perfect spectral registration. The prototype spectrometer design uses a grating blaze chosen to be efficient over both 3.75-6.05 and 7.5-12.1 μm, although the mercury cadmium telluride focal plane array limits the bandwidths with cutoff wavelengths near 5.2 and 10.5 μm. The spectrometer has been spectrally calibrated with flooded blackbody illumination and offset and gain corrections have been performed. The wavelength resolution is +/-0.024 μm in the MWIR and +/-0.083 μm in the LWIR, however this limitation is caused by the calibration method and not by the design. The potential for determining the temperature of a blackbody or greybody from the ratio of two narrow wavebands has been demonstrated.

  4. Image Analysis of Plasma Induced by Focused IR Pulsed Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hadi Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma induced by focused laser beam is very essential especially in laser material interaction. Preliminary study leading to this research has been carried out. A Q-switch Nd:YAG laser was employed as a source of energy. The laser was focused using a wide-angle camera lens. The formation of plasma at the focal region was visualized perpendicularly using a CCD video camera interfaced to an image processing system. The dynamic expansion of the laser plasma was grabbed in conjunction with a high-speed photographic system. The observation results show that the plasma was formed in an ellipsoidal shape. The lateral width and the length of the plasma were found gradually increased

  5. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  6. A standard data set for performance analysis of advanced IR image processing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, A.R.; Adomeit, U.; Chevalier, P.; Landeau, S.; Bijl, P.; Champagnat, F.; Dijk, J.; Göhler, B.; Landini, S.; Reynolds, J.P.; Smith, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Modern IR cameras are increasingly equipped with built-in advanced (often non-linear) image and signal processing algorithms (like fusion, super-resolution, dynamic range compression etc.) which can tremendously influence performance characteristics. Traditional approaches to range performance model

  7. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M17 UC1-IRS5 region

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiwei; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact HII region M17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Five of the seven point sources in this region show $L$-band excess emission. Geometric match is found between the H_2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H_2 emission is typical for dense PDRs, which are FUV pumped initially and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity L_IR in the range 1-20 micron is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0x10^3 L_\\sun for IRS5A, 13 L_\\sun for IRS5C, and 10 L_\\sun for B273A. IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (~ 9 M_\\sun, ~1x10^5 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedb...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF IMAGE QUALITY ON DIGITAL MAP GENERATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High resolution satellite images are widely used to produce and update a digital map since they became widely available. It is well known that the accuracy of digital map produced from satellite images is decided largely by the accuracy of geometric modelling. However digital maps are made by a series of photogrammetric workflow. Therefore the accuracy of digital maps are also affected by the quality of satellite images, such as image interpretability. For satellite images, parameters such as Modulation Transfer Function(MTF, Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR and Ground Sampling Distance(GSD are used to present images quality. Our previous research stressed that such quality parameters may not represent the quality of image products such as digital maps and that parameters for image interpretability such as Ground Resolved Distance(GRD and National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale(NIIRS need to be considered. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the image quality on accuracy of digital maps produced by satellite images. QuickBird, IKONOS and KOMPSAT-2 imagery were used to analyze as they have similar GSDs. We measured various image quality parameters mentioned above from these images. Then we produced digital maps from the images using a digital photogrammetric workstation. We analyzed the accuracy of the digital maps in terms of their location accuracy and their level of details. Then we compared the correlation between various image quality parameters and the accuracy of digital maps. The results of this study showed that GRD and NIIRS were more critical for map production then GSD, MTF or SNR.

  9. Panchromatic Satellite Image Classification for Flood Hazard Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the use of panchromatic (PAN satellite image data for flood hazard assessment with anaid of various digital image processing techniques. Two SPOT PAN satellite images covering part of the Nile River inEgypt were used to delineate the flood extent during the years 1997 and 1998 (before and after a high flood. Threeclassification techniques, including the contextual classifier, maximum likelihood classifier and minimum distanceclassifier, were applied to the following: 1 the original PAN image data, 2 the original PAN image data and grey-levelco-occurrence matrix texture created from the PAN data, and 3 the enhanced PAN image data using an edgesharpeningfilter. The classification results were assessed with reference to the results derived from manualdigitization and random checkpoints. Generally, the results showed improvement of the calculation of flood area whenan edge-sharpening filter was used. In addition, the maximum likelihood classifier yielded the best classificationaccuracy (up to 97% compared to the other two classifiers. The research demonstrates the benefits of using PANsatellite imagery as a potential data source for flood hazard assessment.

  10. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  11. The SUMO Ship Detector Algorithm for Satellite Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Greidanus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO is an algorithm for ship detection in satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. It has been developed over the course of more than 15 years, using a large amount of SAR images from almost all available SAR satellites operating in L-, C- and X-band. As validated by benchmark tests, it performs very well on a wide range of SAR image modes (from Spotlight to ScanSAR and resolutions (from 1–100 m and for all types and sizes of ships, within the physical limits imposed by the radar imaging. This paper describes, in detail, the algorithmic approach in all of the steps of the ship detection: land masking, clutter estimation, detection thresholding, target clustering, ship attribute estimation and false alarm suppression. SUMO is a pixel-based CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate detector for multi-look radar images. It assumes a K distribution for the sea clutter, corrected however for deviations of the actual sea clutter from this distribution, implementing a fast and robust method for the clutter background estimation. The clustering of detected pixels into targets (ships uses several thresholds to deal with the typically irregular distribution of the radar backscatter over a ship. In a multi-polarization image, the different channels are fused. Azimuth ambiguities, a common source of false alarms in ship detection, are removed. A reliability indicator is computed for each target. In post-processing, using the results of a series of images, additional false alarms from recurrent (fixed targets including range ambiguities are also removed. SUMO can run in semi-automatic mode, where an operator can verify each detected target. It can also run in fully automatic mode, where batches of over 10,000 images have successfully been processed in less than two hours. The number of satellite SAR systems keeps increasing, as does their application to maritime surveillance. The open data policy of the EU

  12. Detection of land mines with passive IR and MMW imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Francois C.; Lhomme, Patrick

    1997-07-01

    A review of physical properties of passive sensors working in IR and millimetric wavelength points out main advantages and drawbacks of each technology. To verify and to assess qualitatively the behavior of senors working in these spectral bands, we have collected data with 3 IR sensors and a passive millimeter wave (PmmW) imager. Priority was given to plastic AT mines and blast AP mines laid or buried in sand, compost or in grass. With the MIR and the FIR sensors used, most of the plastic mines were detectable when laid and unobscured. With the PmmW sensor the detection of laid mine is improved, compare to IR, and the number of false- alarms is reduced, but because of the better spatial resolution of IR sensors their classification capability is better than with the PmmW imager. Each technology can take benefits from the fusion or combination of IR and PmmW sensors. An attempt of data fusion at a pixel level is presented.

  13. METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE IMAGES IN GEOGRAPHY CLASSES: a didactic possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correia Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The satellite images are still largely unexplored as didactic resource in geography classes, particularly about meteorology. This article aims to contribute to the development of new methodologies of interpretation and understanding, beyond the construction of pedagogical practices involving meteorological satellite images, concepts and issues related to climate issues. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for the use of meteorological satellite images in the Teaching of Geography, aiming the promoting and the understanding of contents of air masses and fronts and climatic factors. RESUMO: As imagens de satélite ainda são pouco exploradas como recurso didático nas aulas de Geografia, principalmente aquelas relativas à meteorologia. Este artigo visa contribuir com o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de interpretação e compreensão, além da construção de práticas pedagógicas envolvendo imagens de satélite meteorológico, conceitos e temas ligados às questões climáticas. Seu objetivo é apresentar possibilidades de utilização das imagens de satélite meteorológico no Ensino de Geografia, visando à promoção e ao entendimento dos conteúdos de massas de ar e frentes e de elementos climáticos. Palavras chave

  14. Estimation of surface latent heat fluxes from IRS-P4/MSMR satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Randhir Singh; B Simon; P C Joshi

    2001-09-01

    The brightness temperatures of the Microwave sensor MSMR (Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) launched in May 1999 onboard Indian Oceansat-1 IRS-P4 are used to develop a direct retrieval method for latent heat ux by multivariate regression technique. The MSMR measures the microwave radiances at 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz at both vertical and horizontal polarizations. It is found that the surface LHF (Latent Heat Flux) is sensitive to all the channels. The coeficients were derived using the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data of three months: July, September, November of 1999. The NCEP daily analyzed latent heat uxes and brightness temperatures observed by MSMR were used to derive the coeficients. Validity of the derived coeficients was checked with in situ observations over the Indian Ocean and with NCEP analyzed LHF for global points. The LHF derived directly from the MSMR brightness temperature (Tb) yielded an accuracy of 35 watt/m2. LHF was also computed by applying bulk formula using the geophysical parameters extracted from MSMR. In this case the errors were higher apparently due to the errors involved in derivation of the geophysical parameters.

  15. Assessment of Satellite Images for Soil Salinity Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Sanaeinejad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the main environmental problems affecting extensive area in the world. There are some problems with traditional data collection methods for soil studies. Using the new methods and techniques such as remote sensing could overcome most of these problems. However using these data in areas with uncommon usages needed some researches to find the best calibration between the data and real situations in soil. This research was carried out using Landsat satellite images in Neyshabour area, North East of Iran. In order to prepare suitable learning samples for the image processing in this study, 300 locations were randomly selected in the area, among which 273 locations were finally selected as suitable surface soil samples. All samples were moved to laboratory and their electrical conductivity was measured. Six reflective bands of ETM+ satellite images taken from the study area in 2002 were used for the image processing analysis. Classification of different soil salinities was carried out using common algorithms of image classification based on the best composition bands and using statistical methods between soil salinity variables and digital numbers of the images to represent a suitable method. the research results showed that the reflective bands 7, 3, 4 and 1 are the best band composition for preparing the color composite images and for the classification of the salinity in this area. The highest coefficient of determination was R2=0.311 and R2=0.44 for saline and non-saline soil respectively using band 2 and 3 of the images at 5% significant level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the potential of ETM+ images for delineation and identification of different soil salinity are limited.

  16. Authentication Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis for Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf. K. Helmy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-band wavelet image content authentication scheme for satellite images by incorporating the principal component analysis (PCA. The proposed schemeachieves higher perceptual transparency and stronger robustness. Specifically, the developed watermarking scheme can successfully resist common signal processing such as JPEG compression and geometric distortions such as cropping. In addition, the proposed scheme can be parameterized, thus resulting in more security. That is, an attacker may not be able to extract the embedded watermark if the attacker does not know the parameter.In an order to meet these requirements, the host image is transformed to YIQ to decrease the correlation between different bands, Then Multi-band Wavelet transform (M-WT is applied to each channel separately obtaining one approximate sub band and fifteen detail sub bands. PCA is then applied to the coefficients corresponding to the same spatial location in all detail sub bands. The last principle component band represents an excellent domain forinserting the water mark since it represents lowest correlated features in high frequency area of host image.One of the most important aspects of satellite images is spectral signature, the behavior of different features in different spectral bands, the results of proposed algorithm shows that the spectral stamp for different features doesn't tainted after inserting the watermark.

  17. Some Methodological Aspects Concerning the Use of Satellite Images and Maps in the Physico-Geographical Regional Determination of the Romania Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE LOGHIN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some methodological aspects concerning the use of satellite images and maps in the physico-geographical region determination of Romania's territory, as well as some results that can be obtained using this method. In order to determine the physico-geographical units and sub-units using satellite maps (Bucharest page, 1:1.500.000 and satellite images (Landsat, IRS we have analyzed, from the geographical point of view, some samples of such documents. The resulting maps were compared with the already existing physico-geographical region determination maps. Our results show that the method under consideration has both advantages and disadvantages. One conclusion is sure: satellite images and maps can be used for this purpose together with traditional maps.

  18. Near-IR spectroscopic imaging for skin hydration: the long and the short of it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attas, E Michael; Sowa, Michael G; Posthumus, Trevor B; Schattka, Bernhard J; Mantsch, Henry H; Zhang, Shuliang L

    2002-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopic methods have been developed to determine the degree of hydration of human skin in vivo. Noncontact reflectance spectroscopic imaging was used to investigate the distribution of skin moisture as a function of location. A human study in a clinical setting has generated quantitative data showing the effects of a drying agent and a moisturizer on delineated regions of the forearms of eight volunteers. Two digital imaging systems equipped with liquid-crystal tunable filters were used to collect stacks of monochromatic images at 10-nm intervals over the 650-1050 and 960-1700 nm wavelength bands. Synthetic images generated from measurements of water absorption band areas at three different near-IR wavelengths (970, 1200, and 1450 nm) showed obvious differences in the apparent distribution of water in the skin. Changes resulting from the skin treatments were much more evident in the long-wavelength images than in the short-wavelength ones. The variable sensitivity of the method at different wavelengths has been interpreted as being the result of different penetration depths of the IR light used in the reflectance studies.

  19. Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt area mapping.

  20. Analysis of Galileo Style Geostationary Satellite Imaging: Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    obtained using only baselines longer than 8 m does not sample the short spacial frequencies, and the image reconstruction is not able to recover the...the long spacial frequencies sampled in a shorter baseline overlap the short spacial frequencies sampled in a longer baseline. This technique will

  1. AUTOMATIC URBAN ILLEGAL BUILDING DETECTION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL SATELLITE IMAGES AND GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khalili Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented growth of urban population and urban development, we are faced with the growing trend of illegal building (IB construction. Field visit, as the currently used method of IB detection, is time and man power consuming, in addition to its high cost. Therefore, an automatic IB detection is required. Acquiring multi-temporal satellite images and using image processing techniques for automatic change detection is one of the optimum methods which can be used in IB monitoring. In this research an automatic method of IB detection has been proposed. Two-temporal panchromatic satellite images of IRS-P5 of the study area in a part of Tehran, the city map and an updated spatial database of existing buildings were used to detect the suspected IBs. In the pre-processing step, the images were geometrically and radiometrically corrected. In the next step, the changed pixels were detected using K-means clustering technique because of its quickness and less user’s intervention required. Then, all the changed pixels of each building were identified and the change percentage of each building with the standard threshold of changes was compared to detect the buildings which are under construction. Finally, the IBs were detected by checking the municipality database. The unmatched constructed buildings with municipal database will be field checked to identify the IBs. The results show that out of 343 buildings appeared in the images; only 19 buildings were detected as under construction and three of them as unlicensed buildings. Furthermore, the overall accuracies of 83%, 79% and 75% were obtained for K-means change detection, detection of under construction buildings and IBs detection, respectively.

  2. Path planning on satellite images for unmanned surface vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe-Ming Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of autonomous surface vehicles has been a field of increasing research interest. There are two major areas in this field: control theory and path planning. This study focuses on path planning, and two objectives are discussed: path planning for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs and implementation of path planning in a real map. In this paper, satellite thermal images are converted into binary images which are used as the maps for the Finite Angle A * algorithm (FAA *, an advanced A * algorithm that is used to determine safer and suboptimal paths for USVs. To plan a collision-free path, the algorithm proposed in this article considers the dimensions of surface vehicles. Furthermore, the turning ability of a surface vehicle is also considered, and a constraint condition is introduced to improve the quality of the path planning algorithm, which makes the traveled path smoother. This study also shows a path planning experiment performed on a real satellite thermal image, and the path planning results can be used by an USV

  3. NNIC—neural network image compressor for satellite positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Pavel; Lifshits, Feodor; Orion, Itzhak; Koren, Sion; Solomon, Alan D.; Mark, Shlomo

    2007-04-01

    We have developed an algorithm, based on novel techniques of data compression and neural networks for the optimal positioning of a satellite. The algorithm is described in detail, and examples of its application are given. The heart of this algorithm is the program NNIC—neural network image compressor. This program was developed for compression color and grayscale images with artificial neural networks (ANNs). NNIC applies three different methods for compression. Two of them are based on neural networks architectures—multilayer perceptron and kohonen network. The third is based on a widely used method of discrete cosine transform, the basis for the JPEG standard. The program also serves as a tool for determining numerical and visual quality parameters of compression and comparison between different methods. A number of advantages and disadvantages of the compression using ANNs were discovered in the course of the present research, some of them presented in this report. The thrust of the report is the discussion of ANNs implementation problems for modern platforms, such as a satellite positioning system that include intensive image flowing and processing.

  4. Imaging of human colon carcinoma thin sections by FT-IR microspectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasch, Peter; Waesche, Wolfgang; McCarthy, W. J.; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Naumann, Dieter

    1998-04-01

    FTIR microspectroscopic maps of unstained colon carcinoma thin sections were obtained on a conventional IR microscope equipped with an automatic x, y stage, or alternatively by using a MCT focal plane array detector system. IR data were analyzed by different image re-assembling techniques. One main goal of the present study was to test the influence of different spectra data compression approaches on the quality of the FTIR images. The images, re-assembled by Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of spectral information available from the fingerprint region exhibited an excellent image contrast confirming standard histo- pathological examinations. The second approach included a systematic search for spectral windows which were supposed to contain the relevant information, necessary for spectra classification and identification. Data from these spectral windows were analyzed by an ANN and output data were utilized for image construction. In contrast to the PCA approach, the image contrast was lower although the main morphological structures were exactly classified. From the spectroscopic point of view, the spectral feature selection method delivered useful information which could be discussed in terms of structural alternations upon carcinogenesis.

  5. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth A.; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for caries detection employing transillumination and reflectance imaging geometries. Three intra-oral NIR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo, real time videos using a high definition InGaAs SWIR camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provide occlusal and interproximal images using 1300-nm light where water absorption is low and enamel manifests the highest transparency. A third reflectance probe utilizes cross polarization and operates at >1500-nm, where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. These probes are being used in an ongoing clinical study to assess the diagnostic performance of NIR imaging for the detection of caries lesions in teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons.

  6. An entropy-based approach to automatic image segmentation of satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, A L; Rodrigues, F A; Bruno, O M; Costa, L da F

    2009-01-01

    An entropy-based image segmentation approach is introduced and applied to color images obtained from Google Earth. Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image in order to locate different objects and regions of interest. The application to satellite images paves the way to automated monitoring of ecological catastrophes, urban growth, agricultural activity, maritime pollution, climate changing and general surveillance. Regions representing aquatic, rural and urban areas are identified and the accuracy of the proposed segmentation methodology is evaluated. The comparison with gray level images revealed that the color information is fundamental to obtain an accurate segmentation.

  7. Image Processing Technique for Automatic Detection of Satellite Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    satellites actifs et d’autres débris doivent être contrôlées. Dans ces cas, les paramètres orbitaux sont connus, mais après un certain temps cette...artéfacts de capteur (tel que des pixels morts, gradient de fond, bruit) et dégradation du signal (coulage, éblouissement, saturation, etc...Cette étude explique comment les artéfacts du capteur peuvent être corrigés, le fond de l’image enlevé et le bruit partiellement effacé. Puis, elle

  8. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  9. Near-IR and PS-OCT imaging of developmental defects in dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2007-02-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and near-IR (NIR) imaging are promising new technologies under development for monitoring early carious lesions. Fluorosis is a growing problem in the U.S., and the more prevalent mild fluorosis can be visually mistaken for early enamel demineralization. Some initial NIR images suggest that enamel defects and dental caries manifest different optical behavior in the NIR. Unfortunately, there is little quantitative information available regarding the differences in optical properties of sound enamel, enamel developmental defects, and demineralized enamel due to caries. This study tested the hypothesis that hypomineralized enamel due to fluorosis can be differentiated from demineralized enamel due to caries using NIR and PS-OCT imaging because of different optical behavior in the NIR. Thirty extracted human teeth with various degrees of suspected fluorosis and/or caries were imaged using PS-OCT and NIR transillumination. An InGaAs camera and a near-IR diode laser were used to measure the optical attenuation through transverse tooth sections (~200 μm). Developmental defects were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved OCT images, demonstrating that PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively measure the depth and possible severity of the defects. Enamel defects on whole teeth that could be imaged with high contrast with visible light were transparent in the near-IR while demineralized areas due to caries were opaque. In contrast, dental caries could be clearly distinguished from sound enamel. This study suggests that PS-OCT and NIR methods may potentially be used as tools to assess the severity and extent of enamel defects and for the differentiation of mild fluorosis defects from early carious lesions.

  10. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  11. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  12. Satellite image based methods for fuels maps updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Benito, Alfonso; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Arbelo, Manuel; Gonzalez-Calvo, Alejandro; Moreno-Ruiz, Jose A.; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose R.

    2016-10-01

    Regular updating of fuels maps is important for forest fire management. Nevertheless complex and time consuming field work is usually necessary for this purpose, which prevents a more frequent update. That is why the assessment of the usefulness of satellite data and the development of remote sensing techniques that enable the automatic updating of these maps, is of vital interest. In this work, we have tested the use of the spectral bands of OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor on board Landsat 8 satellite, for updating the fuels map of El Hierro Island (Spain). From previously digitized map, a set of 200 reference plots for different fuel types was created. A 50% of the plots were randomly used as a training set and the rest were considered for validation. Six supervised and 2 unsupervised classification methods were applied, considering two levels of detail. A first level with only 5 classes (Meadow, Brushwood, Undergrowth canopy cover >50%, Undergrowth canopy cover <15%, and Xeric formations), and the second one containing 19 fuel types. The level 1 classification methods yielded an overall accuracy ranging from 44% for Parellelepided to an 84% for Maximun Likelihood. Meanwhile, level 2 results showed at best, an unacceptable overall accuracy of 34%, which prevents the use of this data for such a detailed characterization. Anyway it has been demonstrated that in some conditions, images of medium spatial resolution, like Landsat 8-OLI, could be a valid tool for an automatic upgrade of fuels maps, minimizing costs and complementing traditional methodologies.

  13. Application of Geostatistical Simulation to Enhance Satellite Image Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thirulanambi, Rajkumar; Roy, David

    2004-01-01

    With the deployment of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites that provide daily, global imagery, there is increasing interest in defining the limitations of the data and derived products due to its coarse spatial resolution. Much of the detail, i.e. small fragments and notches in boundaries, is lost with coarse resolution imagery such as the EOS MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Higher spatial resolution data such as the EOS Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat and airborne sensor imagery provide more detailed information but are less frequently available. There are, however, both theoretical and analytical evidence that burn scars and other fragmented types of land covers form self-similar or self-affine patterns, that is, patterns that look similar when viewed at widely differing spatial scales. Therefore small features of the patterns should be predictable, at least in a statistical sense, with knowledge about the large features. Recent developments in fractal modeling for characterizing the spatial distribution of undiscovered petroleum deposits are thus applicable to generating simulations of finer resolution satellite image products. We will present example EOS products, analysis to investigate self-similarity, and simulation results.

  14. Airport runway detection in satellite images by Adaboost learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongur, Ugur; Halici, Ugur; Aytekin, Orsan; Ulusoy, Ilkay

    2009-09-01

    Advances in hardware and pattern recognition techniques, along with the widespread utilization of remote sensing satellites, have urged the development of automatic target detection systems in satellite images. Automatic detection of airports is particularly essential, due to the strategic importance of these targets. In this paper, a runway detection method using a segmentation process based on textural properties is proposed for the detection of airport runways, which is the most distinguishing element of an airport. Several local textural features are extracted including not only low level features such as mean, standard deviation of image intensity and gradient, but also Zernike Moments, Circular-Mellin Features, Haralick Features, as well as features involving Gabor Filters, Wavelets and Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis. Since the subset of the mentioned features, which have a role in the discrimination of airport runways from other structures and landforms, cannot be predicted trivially, Adaboost learning algorithm is employed for both classification and determining the feature subset, due to its feature selector nature. By means of the features chosen in this way, a coarse representation of possible runway locations is obtained. Promising experimental results are achieved and given.

  15. Morphological Properties of PPNs Mid-IR and HST Imaging Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, T; Ueta, Toshiya; Meixner, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    We will review our mid-infrared and HST imaging surveys of the circumstellar dust shells of proto-planetary nebulae. While optical imaging indirectly probes the dust distribution via dust-scattered starlight, mid-IR imaging directly maps the distribution of warm dust grains. Both imaging surveys revealed preferencially axisymmetric nature of PPN dust shells, suggesting that axisymmetry in planetary nebulae sets in by the end of the asymptotic giant branch phase, most likely by axisymmetric superwind mass loss. Moreover, both surveys yielded two morphological classes which have one-to-one correspondence between the two surveys, indicating that the optical depth of circumstellar dust shells plays an equally important role as the inclination angle in determining the morphology of the PPN shells.

  16. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-18

    The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a lambda=9.3-microm CO(2) laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

  17. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  18. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient () based optical classification of IRS-P3 MOS-B satellite ocean colour data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Sarangi; Prakash Chauhan; S R Nayak

    2002-09-01

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical classification based on values was performed. An atmospheric correction scheme was used for retrieving water leaving radiances in blue and green channels of 412, 443, 490 and 550 nm. The upwelling radiances from 443nm and 550nm spectral channels were used for computation of vertical diffuse attenuation coeffcient at 490 nm. The waters off the Gujarat coast were classified into different water types based on Jerlov classification scheme. The oceanic water type IA ( range 0.035-0.040m-1), type IB (0.042-0.065m-1), type II (0.07-0.1m-1) and type III (0.115-0.14m-1) were identified. For the coastal waters along Gujarat coast and Gulf of Kachchh, (490) values ranged between 0.15m-1 and 0.35m-1. The depth of 1% of surface light for water type IA, IB, II and III corresponds to 88, 68, 58 and 34 meters respectively. Classification of oceanic and coastal waters based on is useful in understanding the light transmission characteristics for sub-marine navigation and under-water imaging.

  19. Spatial, Temporal and Spectral Satellite Image Fusion via Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huihui

    Remote sensing provides good measurements for monitoring and further analyzing the climate change, dynamics of ecosystem, and human activities in global or regional scales. Over the past two decades, the number of launched satellite sensors has been increasing with the development of aerospace technologies and the growing requirements on remote sensing data in a vast amount of application fields. However, a key technological challenge confronting these sensors is that they tradeoff between spatial resolution and other properties, including temporal resolution, spectral resolution, swath width, etc., due to the limitations of hardware technology and budget constraints. To increase the spatial resolution of data with other good properties, one possible cost-effective solution is to explore data integration methods that can fuse multi-resolution data from multiple sensors, thereby enhancing the application capabilities of available remote sensing data. In this thesis, we propose to fuse the spatial resolution with temporal resolution and spectral resolution, respectively, based on sparse representation theory. Taking the study case of Landsat ETM+ (with spatial resolution of 30m and temporal resolution of 16 days) and MODIS (with spatial resolution of 250m ~ 1km and daily temporal resolution) reflectance, we propose two spatial-temporal fusion methods to combine the fine spatial information of Landsat image and the daily temporal resolution of MODIS image. Motivated by that the images from these two sensors are comparable on corresponding bands, we propose to link their spatial information on available Landsat- MODIS image pair (captured on prior date) and then predict the Landsat image from the MODIS counterpart on prediction date. To well-learn the spatial details from the prior images, we use a redundant dictionary to extract the basic representation atoms for both Landsat and MODIS images based on sparse representation. Under the scenario of two prior Landsat

  20. CLOUD DETECTION OF OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012 uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate

  1. Cloud Detection of Optical Satellite Images Using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012) uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate the detection

  2. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  3. A generic Framework for Landmine detection using statistical classifier based on IR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.G.Padmavathi,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Landmine detection with passive infrared images can depend quite heavily on the environmental conditions, and there are cross over periods when the thermal contrast is negligible and the mines may be undetectable. Conventional antipersonnel mine detection has not evolved the perfect betterment in the methodological process. Here a generic framework is proposed using most adaptable methods and techniques. The IR captured image is being used for the detection and identification of buried targets by adopting high efficiency and better reliability image processing techniques for landmine detection. Results on diverse landmine data, collected using IR sensors show that the adopted method can identify meaningful and coherent clusters and that different expert algorithms can be identified for the different contexts. The initial experiments have also indicated that the need of preprocessing the images will highly increase the individual classifier performance. In future, the sensing technology can also be combined with processing power and wireless communication to make it profitable for various types ofsecurity threats.

  4. Near-IR imaging toward a puzzling young stellar object precessing jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Fariña, C.; Ortega, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: The study of jets that are related to stellar objects in formation is important because it enables us to understand the history of how the stars have built up their mass. Many studies currently examine jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies toward massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are rare. In a previous study, based on 12CO J = 3-2 and public near-IR data, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows toward the infrared point source UGPS J185808.46+010041.8 (IRS) and some infrared features suggesting the existence of a precessing jet. Methods: Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs broad- and narrowbands centered on the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Brγ, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.̋35 and 0.̋45. Results: The emission in the JHKs broadbands shows in great detail a cone-shaped nebula extending to the north-northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed of two arc-like features and a bow-shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis of proper motions based on our Gemini observations and UKIDSS data additionally supports the precession scenario. We present one of the best-resolved cone-like nebula that is most likely related to a precessing jet up to date. The analysis of the observed near-IR lines shows that the H2 is collisionally excited, and the spatially coincidence of the [FeII] and H2 emissions in the closer arc-like feature suggests that this region is affected by a J shock. The second arc-like feature presents H2 emission without [FeII], which suggests a nondissociated C shock or a less energetic J shock. The H2 1-0 S(1) continuum-subtracted image reveals several knots and filaments at a larger

  5. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, G. A., E-mail: wurden@lanl.gov; Dunn, J. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stephey, L. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M. [Max Planck Institut für Plasma Physik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  6. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Dunn, J. P.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (˜1-4.5 MW/m2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO's can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  7. Building damage scale proposal from VHR satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Constantin; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Cotrufo, Silvana; Boccardo, Piero

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards have a huge impact in terms of economic losses, affected and killed people. Current exploitation of remote sensed images play a fundamental role in the delineation of damages generated by catastrophic events. Institutions like the United Nations and the European Commission designed services that provide information about the impact of disasters rapidly. One of the approach currently used to carry out the damage assessment is based on very high resolution remote sensing imagery (including both aerial and satellite platforms). One of the main focus of the responders, especially in case of events like earthquakes, is on buildings and infrastructures. As far as the buildings are concerned, to date international standard guidelines that provide essential information on how to assess building damages using VHR images still does not exist. The aim of this study is to develop a building damage scale tailored for analyses based on VHR vertical imagery and to propose a standard for the related interpretation guidelines. The task is carried out by comparing the current scales used for damage assessment by the main satellite based emergency mapping services. The study will analyze the datasets produced after the Ecuador (April 2016) and Central Italy(August and October 2016) earthquakes. The results suggest that by using VHR remotely sensed images it is not possible to directly use damage classification scales addressing structural damages (e.g the 5 grades proposed by EMS-98). A fine-tuning of existing damage classes is therefore required and the adoption of an internationally agreed standard should be encouraged, to streamline the use of SEM products generated by different services.

  8. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  9. Robust thermophysics-based interpretation of radiometrically uncalibrated IR images for ATR and site change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhakumar, N; Michel, J D; Arnold, D G; Tsihrintzis, G A; Velten, V

    1997-01-01

    We previously formulated a new approach for computing invariant features from infrared (IR) images. That approach is unique in the field since it considers not just surface reflection and surface geometry in the specification of invariant features, but it also takes into account internal object composition and thermal state that affect images sensed in the nonvisible spectrum. In this paper, we extend the thermophysical algebraic invariance (TAI) formulation for the interpretation of uncalibrated infrared imagery and further reduce the information that is required to be known about the environment. Features are defined such that they are functions of only the thermophysical properties of the imaged objects. In addition, we show that the distribution of the TAI features can be accurately modeled by symmetric alpha-stable models. This approach is shown to yield robust classifier performance. Results on ground truth data and real infrared imagery are presented. The application of this scheme for site change detection is discussed.

  10. Real-time near-IR imaging of laser-ablation crater evolution in dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    We have shown that the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm in the near-infrared and that near-IR (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue and for observing defects in the interior of the tooth. Lasers are now routinely used for many applications in dentistry including the ablation of dental caries. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that real-time NIR imaging can be used to monitor laser-ablation under varying conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage and to measure the rate and efficiency of ablation. Moreover, NIR imaging may have considerable potential for monitoring the removal of demineralized areas of the tooth during cavity preparations. Sound human tooth sections of approximately 3-mm thickness were irradiated by a CO II laser under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with band-pass filter centered at 131--nm combined with an InGaAs focal plane array with a NIR zoom microscope in transillumination. Due to the high transparency of enamel at 1310-nm, laser-incisions were clearly visible to the dentin-enamel junction and crack formation, dehydration and irreversible thermal changes were observed during ablation. This study showed that there is great potential for near-IR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to: assess safe laser operating parameters by imaging thermal and stress-induced damage, elaborate the mechanisms involved in ablation such as dehydration, and monitor the removal of demineralized enamel.

  11. Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm Oriented Dynamic Tasks for Imaging Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.

  12. Urban Land Use Change Detection Using Multisensor Satellite Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jin-Song; WANG Ke; LI Jun; DENG Yan-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Due to inappropriate planning and management, accelerated urban growth and tremendous loss in land, especially cropland, have become a great challenge for sustainable urban development in China, especially in developed urban area in the coastal regions; therefore, there is an urgent need to effectively detect and monitor the land use changes and provide accurate and timely information for planning and management. In this study a method combining principal component analysis (PCA) of multiseusor satellite images from SPOT (systeme pour l'observation de la terre or earth observation satellite)-5 muttispectral (XS) and Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) panchromatic (PAN) data, and supervised classification was used to detect and analyze the dynamics of land use changes in the city proper of Hangzhou. The overall accuracy of the land use change detection was 90.67% and Kappa index was 0.89. The results indicated that there was a considerable land use change (10.03% of the total area) in the study area from 2001 to 2003, with three major types of land use conversions: from cropland into bnilt-up land, construction site, and water area (fish pond). Changes from orchard land into built-up land were also detected. The method described in this study is feasible and useful for detecting rapid land use change in the urban area.

  13. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Hugo; Jongerden, Joost; van Etten, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite images for verification of witness reports collected by human rights groups. The Turkish army was reported to be burning forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against guerrilla uprising. This paper concludes that satellite images are useful to validate witness reports of forest fires. Even though the use of this technology for human rights groups will depend on some feasibility factors such as prices, access and expertise, the images proved to be key for analysis of spatial aspects of conflict and valuable for reconstructing a more trustworthy picture.

  14. 16 micron Imaging around the Hubble Deep Field North with the Spitzer IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, H I; Chary, R; Colbert, J W; Armus, L; Weedman, D

    2005-01-01

    We present a pilot study of 16 micron imaging within the GOODS northern field. Observations were obtained using the PeakUp imaging capability of the Spitzer IRS. We survey 35 square arcminutes to an average 3 sigma depth of 0.075 mJy and detect 149 sources. The survey partially overlaps the area imaged at 15 microns by ISO, and we demonstrate that our photometry and galaxy-number counts are consistent with their measurements. We infer the total infrared luminosity of 16 micron detections using a comparison to local templates and find a wide range of L_IR} from ~10^9 to 10^{12} L_sun. Approximately one fifth of the detected sources have counterparts in the Chandra 2 Msec catalog, and we show that the hard band (2-8 keV) detected sources are likely to have strong AGN contributions to the X-ray flux. The ultradeep sensitivity of Chandra implies some X-ray detections may be purely starbursting objects. We examine the 16 to 24 micron flux ratio and conclude that it shows evidence for the detection of redshifted PA...

  15. Online industrial thermography of die casting tooling using dual-wavelength IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourous, Helen E.; Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Luster, Spencer D.; Sacha, Jaroslaw P.

    1998-03-01

    Recent advances in IR system technology coupled with significant reduction sin cost are making thermography a viable tool for on-line monitoring of industrial processes. This paper describes the implementation of a novel rugged thermal imaging system based on a dual-wavelength technique for a large intelligent process monitoring project. The objective of the portion described herein is to deploy a non-contact means of monitoring die cast tooling surface thermal conditions and analyzing the data in the context of the process monitor. The technical and practical challenges of developing such a non-contact thermal measurement system for continuous inspection in an industrial environment are discussed, and methods of resolving them are presented. These challenges include implementation of a wavelength filter system for quantitative determination of the surface temperature. Additionally, emissivity variations of the tooling surface as well as IR reflections are discussed. The primary issues that are addressed, however, are compensation for ambient temperature conditions and optimization of the calibration process. Other issues center on remote camera control, image acquisition, data synchronization, and data interpretation. An example application of this system, along with in-plant images and thermal data, is described.

  16. TIRCIS: thermal infrared compact imaging spectrometer for small satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul; Crites, Sarah; Garbeil, Harold; Wood, Mark; Pilger, Eric; Gabrieli, Andrea; Honniball, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm ♢ 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible. Measured signal-to-noise ratios range from peak values of 500:1 to 1500:1, for source temperature of 10 to 100°C.

  17. A System to Detect Residential Area in Multispectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfallah Bouraoui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new solution to extract complex structures from High-Resolution (HR remote-sensing images. We propose to represent shapes and there relations by using region adjacency graphs. They are generated automatically from the segmented images. Thus, the nodes of the graph represent shape like houses, streets or trees, while arcs describe the adjacency relation between them. In order to be invariant to transformations such as rotation and scaling, the extraction of objects of interest is done by combining two techniques: one based on roof color to detect the bounding boxes of houses, and one based on mathematical morphology notions to detect streets. To recognize residential areas, a model described by a regular language is built. The detection is achieved by looking for a path in the region adjacency graph, which can be recognized as a word belonging to the description language. Our algorithm was tested with success on images from the French satellite SPOT 5 representing the urban area of Strasbourg (France at different spatial resolution.

  18. Dsm Based Orientation of Large Stereo Satellite Image Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2012-07-01

    High resolution stereo satellite imagery is well suited for the creation of digital surface models (DSM). A system for highly automated and operational DSM and orthoimage generation based on CARTOSAT-1 imagery is presented, with emphasis on fully automated georeferencing. The proposed system processes level-1 stereo scenes using the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) universal sensor model. The RPC are derived from orbit and attitude information and have a much lower accuracy than the ground resolution of approximately 2.5 m. In order to use the images for orthorectification or DSM generation, an affine RPC correction is required. In this paper, GCP are automatically derived from lower resolution reference datasets (Landsat ETM+ Geocover and SRTM DSM). The traditional method of collecting the lateral position from a reference image and interpolating the corresponding height from the DEM ignores the higher lateral accuracy of the SRTM dataset. Our method avoids this drawback by using a RPC correction based on DSM alignment, resulting in improved geolocation of both DSM and ortho images. Scene based method and a bundle block adjustment based correction are developed and evaluated for a test site covering the nothern part of Italy, for which 405 Cartosat-1 Stereopairs are available. Both methods are tested against independent ground truth. Checks against this ground truth indicate a lateral error of 10 meters.

  19. Identifying potential solar power generation sites using satellite apt images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawz-Ul-Haq, K. R.; Siddiqui, Z. R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, satellite APT images have been used to study cloud-cover over Pakistan, so as to determine those areas which have the least frequency of cloudiness. Such areas are likely to receive maximum insolation, and have been shown on a contour map of Pakistan. It is observed that more than half of Pakistan is highly sunny, and has many promising areas for establishing large scale solar electric power generation stations. It is further observed that, some of the productive mineral-rich areas in remote parts, such as Chagai, are highly cloud-free, therefore, it may be possible to meet their mining needs through solar energy. Thus Pakistan, on the threshold of industrialization, has high prospects of obtaining `clean' energy, free of greenhouse gases.

  20. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  1. Particle and heat flux estimates in Proto-MPEX in Helicon Mode with IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, M. A.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Donovan, D. C.; Goulding, R. H.; Rapp, J.

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a linear plasma device developing the plasma source concept for the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will address plasma material interaction (PMI) science for future fusion reactors. To better understand how and where energy is being lost from the Proto-MPEX plasma during ``helicon mode'' operations, particle and heat fluxes are quantified at multiple locations along the machine length. Relevant diagnostics include infrared (IR) cameras, four double Langmuir probes (LPs), and in-vessel thermocouples (TCs). The IR cameras provide temperature measurements of Proto-MPEX's plasma-facing dump and target plates, located on either end of the machine. The change in surface temperature is measured over the duration of the plasma shot to determine the heat flux hitting the plates. The IR cameras additionally provide 2-D thermal load distribution images of these plates, highlighting Proto-MPEX plasma behaviors, such as hot spots. The LPs and TCs provide additional plasma measurements required to determine particle and heat fluxes. Quantifying axial variations in fluxes will help identify machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX's performance, increasing its PMI research capabilities. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  2. High spatial resolution infrared imaging of L1551-IRS 5 - Direct observations of its circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneti, Andrea; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Images of L1551-IRS 5 were obtained at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.8 microns using the University of Rochester's Infrared Array Camera. It is found that IRS 5 is spatially resolved, and that it is elongated: the observed FWHM size of IRS 5 is 4.1 x 2.8 arcsec-squared at 2.2 microns. These observations are interpreted in terms of a flattened circumstellar envelope that is viewed from about 18 deg above its equatorial plane, a configuration that has been treated theoretically by Lefevre et al. In this model the central star is not seen directly, but only light scattered toward the observer from the visible polar region, where the envelope is thinnest, is observed. It is deduced that the envelope has a diameter of 1000 AU, a molecular hydrogen density of greater than or approximately equal to 4 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and a mass of greater than or approximately equal to 0.02 M solar mass, which results in an extinction of Av greater than about 33 mag to the central source.

  3. Estimates of heat flux to material surfaces in Proto-MPEX with IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, M.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Donovan, D.; Goulding, R. H.; Gray, T. K.; Rapp, J.; Youchison, D. L.; Nygren, R. E.

    2015-11-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a linear plasma device with the primary purpose of developing the plasma source concept for the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will address the plasma material interactions (PMI) science for future fusion reactors. New diagnostics for Proto-MPEX include an infrared (IR) camera, in-vessel thermocouples and ex-vessel fluoroptic probes. The IR camera and other diagnostics provide surface temperature measurements of Proto-MPEX's dump and target plates, located on either end of the machine, which are being exposed to plasma. The change in surface temperature is measured over the duration of the plasma shot to determine the heat flux hitting the plates. The IR camera additionally provides 2-D thermal load distribution images of these plates, highlighting Proto-MPEX plasma behaviors, such as hot spots. The plasma diameter on the dump plate is on the order of 15 cm. The combination of measured heat flux and the thermal load distribution gives information on the efficiency of Proto-MPEX as a plasma generating device. Machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX's performance may be identified, increasing its PMI research capabilities.

  4. High spatial resolution infrared imaging of L1551-IRS 5 - Direct observations of its circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneti, Andrea; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Images of L1551-IRS 5 were obtained at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.8 microns using the University of Rochester's Infrared Array Camera. It is found that IRS 5 is spatially resolved, and that it is elongated: the observed FWHM size of IRS 5 is 4.1 x 2.8 arcsec-squared at 2.2 microns. These observations are interpreted in terms of a flattened circumstellar envelope that is viewed from about 18 deg above its equatorial plane, a configuration that has been treated theoretically by Lefevre et al. In this model the central star is not seen directly, but only light scattered toward the observer from the visible polar region, where the envelope is thinnest, is observed. It is deduced that the envelope has a diameter of 1000 AU, a molecular hydrogen density of greater than or approximately equal to 4 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and a mass of greater than or approximately equal to 0.02 M solar mass, which results in an extinction of Av greater than about 33 mag to the central source.

  5. Exoplanet research with SAFARI: A far-IR imaging spectrometer for SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, J R; Swinyard, B

    2009-01-01

    The far-IR spectral window plays host to a wide range of both spectroscopic and photometric diagnostics with which to open the protoplanetary disks and exoplanet research to wavelengths completely blocked by the Earth's atmosphere. These include some of the key atomic (e.g., oxygen) and molecular (e.g., water) cooling lines, the dust thermal emission, the water ice features as well as many other key chemical tracers. Most of these features can not be observed from ground-based telescopes but play a critical diagnostic in a number of key areas including the early stages of planet formation and potentially exoplanets. The proposed Japanese-led IR space telescope SPICA, with its 3.5m cooled mirror will be the next step in sensitivity after Herschel. SPICA has been recently selected to go to the next stage of the ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 process. This contribution summarizes the design concept behind SAFARI: an imaging far-IR spectrometer covering the ~30-210um waveband that is one of a suite of instruments ...

  6. Satellite Image Security Improvement by Combining DWT-DCT Watermarking and AES Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naida.H.Nazmudeen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the large-scale research in space sciences and technologies, there is a great demand of satellite image security system for providing secure storage and transmission of satellite images. As the demand to protect the sensitive and valuable data from satellites has increased and hence proposed a new method for satellite image security by combining DWT-DCT watermarking and AES encryption. Watermarking techniques developed for multimedia data cannot be directly applied to the satellite images because here the analytic integrity of the data, rather than perceptual quality, is of primary importance. To improve performance, combine discrete wavelet transform (DWT with another equally powerful transform; the discrete cosine transform (DCT. The combined DWT-DCT watermarking algorithm’s imperceptibility was better than the performance of the DWT approach. Modified decision based unsymmetrical trimmed median filter (MDBUTMF algorithm is proposed for the restoration of satellite images that are highly corrupted by salt and pepper noise. Satellite images desire not only the watermarking for copyright protection but also encryption during storage and transmission for preventing information leakage. Hence this paper investigates the security and performance level of joint DWT-DCT watermarking and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES for satellite imagery. Theoretical analysis can be done by calculating PSNR and MSE. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme, which fulfils the strict requirements concerning alterations of satellite images.

  7. Satellite image analysis for surveillance, vegetation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, D Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18

    Recently, many studies have provided abundant evidence to show the trend of tree mortality is increasing in many regions, and the cause of tree mortality is associated with drought, insect outbreak, or fire. Unfortunately, there is no current capability available to monitor vegetation changes, and correlate and predict tree mortality with CO{sub 2} change, and climate change on the global scale. Different survey platforms (methods) have been used for forest management. Typical ground-based forest surveys measure tree stem diameter, species, and alive or dead. The measurements are low-tech and time consuming, but the sample sizes are large, running into millions of trees, covering large areas, and spanning many years. These field surveys provide powerful ground validation for other survey methods such as photo survey, helicopter GPS survey, and aerial overview survey. The satellite imagery has much larger coverage. It is easier to tile the different images together, and more important, the spatial resolution has been improved such that close to or even higher than aerial survey platforms. Today, the remote sensing satellite data have reached sub-meter spatial resolution for panchromatic channels (IKONOS 2: 1 m; Quickbird-2: 0.61 m; Worldview-2: 0.5 m) and meter spatial resolution for multi-spectral channels (IKONOS 2: 4 meter; Quickbird-2: 2.44 m; Worldview-2: 2 m). Therefore, high resolution satellite imagery can allow foresters to discern individual trees. This vital information should allow us to quantify physiological states of trees, e.g. healthy or dead, shape and size of tree crowns, as well as species and functional compositions of trees. This is a powerful data resource, however, due to the vast amount of the data collected daily, it is impossible for human analysts to review the imagery in detail to identify the vital biodiversity information. Thus, in this talk, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges to use high resolution satellite imagery and

  8. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images with TV-based Edge Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2007-01-01

    Several widely used methods have been proposed for fusing high resolution panchromatic data and lower resolution multi-channel data. However, many of these methods fail to maintain the spectral consistency of the fused high resolution image, which is of high importance to many of the applications...... based on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. [1] proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...... in a statistically meaningful way and was called spectral consistent panshapening (SCP). In this paper we improve this framework for satellite image fusion by introducing a better image prior, via data-dependent image smoothing. The dependency is obtained via total variation edge detection method....

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL PROFILE AND GRANULOMETRIC MAPS IN EXTRACTION OF BUILDINGS IN VHR SATELLITE IMAGES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kupidura Przemysław; Skulimowska Monika

    2015-01-01

    ...: the morphological profile, and granulometric maps in detecting buildings on satellite images. It briefly explains the theoretical basis for granulometric analysis of image and compares two methods used in research...

  10. 印度IRS-P5影像的几何纠正%Geometric Rectiifcation of India P5 Mapping Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔嘉

    2014-01-01

    本文给出了IRS-P5测图卫星及其传感器的有关性能参数,根据IRS-P5测图卫星的特点,重点分析了基于有理函数模型的几何纠正,使用北京怀柔地区的立体像对数据进行了有关试验研究。%The paper gives the related parameters of IRS-P5 Mapping Satel ite, According to the features of IRS-P5 mapping satel ite, the paper focuses on the theory of geometric rectification based on RFM and gives research on the method of calculating coefficient of RFM. And at last an experiment is made based on a pair of stereo images of Huairou country in Beijing city.

  11. About possibility of temperature trace observing on a human skin through clothes by using computer processing of IR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Shestakov, Ivan L.; Blednov, Roman G.

    2017-05-01

    One of urgent security problems is a detection of objects placed inside the human body. Obviously, for safety reasons one cannot use X-rays for such object detection widely and often. For this purpose, we propose to use THz camera and IR camera. Below we continue a possibility of IR camera using for a detection of temperature trace on a human body. In contrast to passive THz camera using, the IR camera does not allow to see very pronounced the object under clothing. Of course, this is a big disadvantage for a security problem solution based on the IR camera using. To find possible ways for this disadvantage overcoming we make some experiments with IR camera, produced by FLIR Company and develop novel approach for computer processing of images captured by IR camera. It allows us to increase a temperature resolution of IR camera as well as human year effective susceptibility enhancing. As a consequence of this, a possibility for seeing of a human body temperature changing through clothing appears. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water and eats chocolate. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments are made with observing of temperature trace from objects placed behind think overall. Demonstrated results are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, concealed inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  12. New detection algorithm for dim point moving target in IR-image sequence based on an image frames transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M. A.; Li, Hongzuo

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we follow the concept of the track before detect (TBD) category in order to perform a simple, fast and adaptive detection and tracking processes of dim pixel size moving targets in IR images sequence. We present two new algorithms based on an image frames transformation, the first algorithm is a recursive algorithm to measure the image background Baseline which help in assigning an adaptive threshold, while the second is an adaptive recursive statistical spatio-temporal algorithm for detecting and tracking the target. The results of applying the proposed algorithms on a set of frames having a simple single pixel target performing a linear motion shows a high efficiency and validity in the detecting of the motion, and the measurement of the background baseline.

  13. Mapping soil heterogeneity using RapidEye satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Eerens, Herman; Dong, Qinghan; Gobin, Anne; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of BELCAM, a project funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO), researchers from UCL, ULg, CRA-W and VITO aim to set up a collaborative system to develop and deliver relevant information for agricultural monitoring in Belgium. The main objective is to develop remote sensing methods and processing chains able to ingest crowd sourcing data, provided by farmers or associated partners, and to deliver in return relevant and up-to-date information for crop monitoring at the field and district level based on Sentinel-1 and -2 satellite imagery. One of the developments within BELCAM concerns an automatic procedure to detect soil heterogeneity within a parcel using optical high resolution images. Such heterogeneity maps can be used to adjust farming practices according to the detected heterogeneity. This heterogeneity may for instance be caused by differences in mineral composition of the soil, organic matter content, soil moisture or soil texture. Local differences in plant growth may be indicative for differences in soil characteristics. As such remote sensing derived vegetation indices may be used to reveal soil heterogeneity. VITO started to delineate homogeneous zones within parcels by analyzing a series of RapidEye images acquired in 2015 (as a precursor for Sentinel-2). Both unsupervised classification (ISODATA, K-means) and segmentation techniques were tested. Heterogeneity maps were generated from images acquired at different moments during the season (13 May, 30 June, 17 July, 31 August, 11 September and 1 November 2015). Tests were performed using blue, green, red, red edge and NIR reflectances separately and using derived indices such as NDVI, fAPAR, CIrededge, NDRE2. The results for selected winter wheat, maize and potato fields were evaluated together with experts from the collaborating agricultural research centers. For a few fields UAV images and/or yield measurements were available for comparison.

  14. Object-based illumination normalization for multi-temporal satellite images in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Zhang, Ye; Tian, Shu; Yan, Yiming

    2016-09-01

    Multi-temporal satellite images acquisition with different illumination conditions cause radiometric difference to have a huge effect on image quality during remote sensing image processing. In particular, image matching of satellite stereo images with great difference between acquisition dates is very difficult for the high-precision DSM generation in the field of satellite photogrammetry. Therefore, illumination normalization is one of the greatest application technology to eliminate radiometric difference for image matching and other image applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel method of object-based illumination normalization to improve image matching of different temporal satellite stereo images in urban area. Our proposed method include two main steps: 1) the object extraction 2) multi-level illumination normalization. Firstly, we proposed a object extraction method for the same objects extraction among the multi-temporal satellite images, which can keep the object structural attribute. Moreover, the multi-level illumination normalization is proposed by combining gradient domain method and singular value decomposition (SVD) according to characteristic information of relevant objects. Our proposed method has great improvement for the illumination of object area to be benefit for image matching in urban area with multiple objects. And the histogram similarity parameter and matching rate are used for illumination consistency quantitative evaluation. The experiments have been conducted on different satellite images with different acquisition dates in the same urban area to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate a good performance by comparing other methods.

  15. Near-IR Spectral Imaging of Semiconductor Absorption Sites in Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Samson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive spectral maps of absorption sites in integrated circuits (ICs by varying the wavelength of the optical probe within the near-IR range. This method has allowed us to improve the contrast of the acquired images by revealing structures that have a different optical absorption from neighboring sites. A false color composite image from those acquired at different wavelengths is generated from which the response of each semiconductor structure can be deduced. With the aid of the spectral maps, nonuniform absorption was also observed in a semiconductor structure located near an electrical overstress defect. This method may prove important in failure analysis of ICs by uncovering areas exhibiting anomalous absorption, which could improve localization of defective edifices in the semiconductor parts of the microchip

  16. Satellite Image Time Series Decomposition Based on EEMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-long Kong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite Image Time Series (SITS have recently been of great interest due to the emerging remote sensing capabilities for Earth observation. Trend and seasonal components are two crucial elements of SITS. In this paper, a novel framework of SITS decomposition based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD is proposed. EEMD is achieved by sifting an ensemble of adaptive orthogonal components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs. EEMD is noise-assisted and overcomes the drawback of mode mixing in conventional Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD. Inspired by these advantages, the aim of this work is to employ EEMD to decompose SITS into IMFs and to choose relevant IMFs for the separation of seasonal and trend components. In a series of simulations, IMFs extracted by EEMD achieved a clear representation with physical meaning. The experimental results of 16-day compositions of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI time series with disturbance illustrated the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approach to monitoring tasks, such as applications for the detection of abrupt changes.

  17. The Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS) will follow in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10keV band. These capabilities will enable major advances in many of the most active areas of astrophysics, including (i) mapping event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the determination of supermassive black hole (SMBH) spins through monitoring of gravitationally-microlensed quasars; (ii) dramatically deepening our understanding of AGN feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters out to high-z through the direct imaging of AGN winds and the interaction of jets with the hot interstellar/intracluster medium; (iii) understanding the fueling of AGN by probing hot flows inside of the SMBH sphere of influence; (iv) obtaining geometric distance measurements using dust scattering halos. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS will be enormously synergistic with LSST, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS is enabled by breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, building on recent developments in the semiconductor industry. Here, we describe the straw-man concept for AXIS, some of the high profile science that this observatory will address, and how you can become involved.

  18. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  19. High Resolution Imaging of Satellites with Ground-Based 10-m Astronomical Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C

    2007-01-04

    High resolution imaging of artificial satellites can play an important role in current and future space endeavors. One such use is acquiring detailed images that can be used to identify or confirm damage and aid repair plans. It is shown that a 10-m astronomical telescope equipped with an adaptive optics system (AO) to correct for atmospheric turbulence using a natural guide star can acquire high resolution images of satellites in low-orbits using a fast shutter and a near-infrared camera even if the telescope is not capable of tracking satellites. With the telescope pointing towards the satellite projected orbit and less than 30 arcsec away from a guide star, multiple images of the satellite are acquired on the detector using the fast shutter. Images can then be shifted and coadded by post processing to increase the satellite signal to noise ratio. Using the Keck telescope typical Strehl ratio and anisoplanatism angle as well as a simple diffusion/reflection model for a satellite 400 km away observed near Zenith at sunset or sunrise, it is expected that such system will produced > 10{sigma} K-band images at a resolution of 10 cm inside a 60 arcsec diameter field of view. If implemented, such camera could deliver the highest resolution satellite images ever acquired from the ground.

  20. Nanoscale infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging of structural lipids in human stratum corneum using an atomic force microscope to directly detect absorbed light from a tunable IR laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Curtis; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Domanov, Yegor; Balooch, Guive; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2013-06-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a tunable infrared (IR) laser source have been combined in a single instrument (AFM-IR) capable of producing ~200-nm spatial resolution IR spectra and absorption images. This new capability enables IR spectroscopic characterization of human stratum corneum at unprecendented levels. Samples of normal and delipidized stratum corneum were embedded, cross-sectioned and mounted on ZnSe prisms. A pulsed tunable IR laser source produces thermomechanical expansion upon absorption, which is detected through excitation of contact resonance modes in the AFM cantilever. In addition to reducing the total lipid content, the delipidization process damages the stratum corneum morphological structure. The delipidized stratum corneum shows substantially less long-chain CH2 -stretching IR absorption band intensity than normal skin. AFM-IR images that compare absorbances at 2930/cm (lipid) and 3290/cm (keratin) suggest that regions of higher lipid concentration are located at the perimeter of corneocytes in the normal stratum corneum.

  1. Using Satellite Images for Wireless Network Planing in Baku City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojamanov, M.; Ismayilov, J.

    2013-04-01

    It is a well known fact that the Information-Telecommunication and Space research technologies are the fields getting much more benefits from the achievements of the scientific and technical progress. In many cases, these areas supporting each other have improved the conditions for their further development. For instance, the intensive development in the field of the mobile communication has caused the rapid progress of the Space research technologies and vice versa.Today it is impossible to solve one of the most important tasks of the mobile communication as Radio Frecance planning without the 2D and 3D digital maps. The compiling of such maps is much more efficient by means of the space images. Because the quality of the space images has been improved and developed, especially at the both spectral and spatial resolution points. It has been possible to to use 8 Band images with the spatial resolution of 50 sm. At present, in relation to the function 3G of mobile communications one of the main issues facing mobile operator companies is a high-precision 3D digital maps. It should be noted that the number of mobile phone users in the Republic of Azerbaijan went forward other Community of Independent States Countries. Of course, using of aerial images for 3D mapping would be optimal. However, depending on a number of technical and administrative problems aerial photography cannot be used. Therefore, the experience of many countries shows that it will be more effective to use the space images with the higher resolution for these issues. Concerning the fact that the mobile communication within the city of Baku has included 3G function there were ordered stereo images wih the spatial resolution of 50 cm for the 150 sq.km territory occupying the central part of the city in order to compile 3D digital maps. The images collected from the WorldView-2 satellite are 4-Band Bundle(Pan+MS1) stereo images. Such kind of imagery enable to automatically classificate some required

  2. First Satellite Imaging of Auroral Pulsations by the Fast Auroral Imager on e-POP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, A.; Cogger, L.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report the first satellite imaging of auroral pulsations by the Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) onboard the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite. The near-infrared camera of FAI is capable of providing up to two auroral images per second, ideal for investigation of pulsating auroras. The auroral pulsations were observed within the auroral bulge formed during a substorm interval on 2014 February 19. This first satellite view of these pulsations from FAI reveals that (1) several pulsating auroral channels (PACs) occur within the auroral bulge, (2) periods of the intensity pulsations span over one decade within the auroral bulge, and (3) there is no apparent trend of longer pulsation periods associated with higher latitudes for these PACs. Although PACs resemble in some respect stable pulsating auroras reported previously but they have several important differences in characteristics.PACs are not embedded in or emerging from omega bands or torches and are located at significant distances from the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval, unlike the characteristics of stable pulsating auroras.

  3. Estimate Landslide Volume with Genetic Algorithms and Image Similarity Method from Single Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting-To

    2013-04-01

    It is important to acquire the volume of landslide in short period of time. For hazard mitigation and also emergency response purpose, the traditional method takes much longer time than expected. Due to the weather limit, traffic accessibility and many regulations of law, it take months to handle these process before the actual carry out of filed work. Remote sensing imagery can get the data as long as the visibility allowed, which happened only few day after the event. While traditional photometry requires a stereo pairs images to produce the post event DEM for calculating the change of volume. Usually have to wait weeks or even months for gathering such data, LiDAR or ground GPS measurement might take even longer period of time with much higher cost. In this study we use one post event satellite image and pre-event DTM to compare the similarity between these by alter the DTM with genetic algorithms. The outcome of smartest guess from GAs shall remove or add exact values of height at each location, which been converted into shadow relief viewgraph to compare with satellite image. Once the similarity threshold been make then the guessing work stop. It takes only few hours to finish the entire task, the computed accuracy is around 70% by comparing to the high resolution LiDAR survey at a landslide, southern Taiwan. With extra GCPs, the estimate accuracy can improve to 85% and also within few hours after the receiving of satellite image. Data of this demonstration case is a 5 m DTM at 2005, 2M resolution FormoSat optical image at 2009 and 5M LiDAR at 2010. The GAs and image similarity code is developed on Matlab at windows PC.

  4. Monitoring of the optical and 2.5-11.7 micron spectrum and mid-IR imaging of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk279 with ISO

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Lleó, M; Schulz, B; Altieri, B; Barr, P; Alloin, D; Berlind, P; Bertram, R; Crenshaw, D M; Edelson, R A; Giveon, U; Horne, K; Huchra, J P; Kaspi, S; Kriss, G A; Krolik, J H; Malkan, M A; Malkov, Y F; Netzer, H; O'Brien, P T; Peterson, B M; Malkov, Yu.F.

    2001-01-01

    Mid-infrared images of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 279 obtained with the ISO satellite are presented together with the results of a one-year monitoring campaign of the 2.5-11.7 micron spectrum. Contemporaneous optical photometric and spectrophotometric observations are also presented. The galaxy appears as a point-like source at the resolution of the ISOCAM instrument, 4-5". The 2.5-11.7 micron average spectrum of the nucleus in Mrk 279 shows a strong power law continuum with a spectral index alpha = -0.80+/-0.05 and weak PAH emission features. The Mrk 279 spectral energy distribution shows a mid-IR bump, which extends from 2 to 15-20 micron . The mid-IR bump is consistent with thermal emission from dust grains at a distance of >= 100 light-days. No significant variations of the mid-IR flux have been detected during our observing campaign, consistent with the relatively low amplitude (~10 % rms) of the optical variability during the campaign. The time delay for the Hbeta line emission in response to the optical ...

  5. Surface chlorophyll a estimation in the Arabian Sea using IRS-P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, P.; Mohan, M.; Sarangi, R.K; Kumari, B.; Nayak, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments, coloured dissolved organic matter and suspended particulate matter. Remote sensing data obtained from IRS-P4 OCM sensor is processed for the removal of atmospheric effects of Rayleigh and aerosol scattering to derive...

  6. Semi-hidden target recognition in gated viewer images fused with thermal IR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeelen, M.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Toet, A.; Loog, M.

    2013-01-01

    Defense and security surveillance scenarios typically involve the detection and classification of targets in complex and dynamic backgrounds. Imaging systems deployed for this purpose should therefore provide imagery that enables optimal simultaneous recognition of both targets and their context. He

  7. A compact thermal infrared imaging radiometer with high spatial resolution and wide swath for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kenji; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tanii, Jun; Kawanishi, Toneo; Ueno, Shinichi; Kuga, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study for the potential of a high spatial resolution and wide swath thermal infrared (TIR) imaging radiometer for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). The preliminary TIR imaging radiometer designs were performed. One is a panchromatic (mono-band) imaging radiometer (8-12μm) with a large format 2000 x 1000 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 15 μm. The other is a multiband imaging radiometer (8.8μm, 10.8μm, 11.4μm). This radiometer is employed separate optics and detectors for each wave band. It is based on the use of a 640 x 480 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 25 μm. The thermal time constant of an uncooled IR-FPA is approximately 10-16ms, and introduces a constraint to the satellite operation to achieve better signal-to-noise ratio, MTF and linearity performances. The study addressed both on-ground time-delayintegration binning and staring imaging solutions, although a staring imaging was preferred after trade-off. The staring imaging requires that the line of sight of the TIR imaging radiometer gazes at a target area during the acquisition time of the image, which can be obtained by rotating the satellite or a steering mirror around the pitch axis. The single band radiometer has been designed to yield a 30m ground sample distance over a 30km swath width from a satellite altitude of 500km. The radiometric performance, enhanced with staring imaging, is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.5K for a 300K ground scene. The multi-band radiometer has three spectral bands with spatial resolution of 50m and swath width of 24km. The radiometric performance is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.85K. We also showed some preliminary simulation results on volcano, desert/urban scenes, and wildfire.

  8. The Application of the Technology of 3D Satellite Cloud Imaging in Virtual Reality Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fang Xie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite cloud images to simulate clouds is one of the new visual simulation technologies in Virtual Reality (VR. Taking the original data of satellite cloud images as the source, this paper depicts specifically the technology of 3D satellite cloud imaging through the transforming of coordinates and projection, creating a DEM (Digital Elevation Model of cloud imaging and 3D simulation. A Mercator projection was introduced to create a cloud image DEM, while solutions for geodetic problems were introduced to calculate distances, and the outer-trajectory science of rockets was introduced to obtain the elevation of clouds. For demonstration, we report on a computer program to simulate the 3D satellite cloud images.

  9. Further development of image processing algorithms to improve detectability of defects in Sonic IR NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Sonic Infrared imaging (SIR) technology is a relatively new NDE technique that has received significant acceptance in the NDE community. SIR NDE is a super-fast, wide range NDE method. The technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in the structures under inspection. Defects become visible to the IR camera when the temperature in the crack vicinity increases due to various heating mechanisms in the specimen. Defect detection is highly affected by noise levels as well as mode patterns in the image. Mode patterns result from the superposition of sonic waves interfering within the specimen during the application of sound pulse. Mode patterns can be a serious concern, especially in composite structures. Mode patterns can either mimic real defects in the specimen, or alternatively, hide defects if they overlap. In last year's QNDE, we have presented algorithms to improve defects detectability in severe noise. In this paper, we will present our development of algorithms on defect extraction targeting specifically to mode patterns in SIR images.

  10. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of reactions in multiphase flow in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2012-05-01

    Rapid, in situ, and label-free chemical analysis in microfluidic devices is highly desirable. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging has previously been shown to be a powerful tool to visualize the distribution of different chemicals in flows in a microfluidic device at near video rate imaging speed without tracers or dyes. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using this imaging technology to capture the chemical information of all reactants and products at different points in time and space in a two-phase system. Differences in the rates of chemical reactions in laminar flow and segmented flow systems are also compared. Neutralization of benzoic acid in decanol with disodium phosphate in water has been used as the model reaction. Quantitative information, such as concentration profiles of reactant and products, can be extracted from the imaging data. The same feed flow rate was used in both the laminar flow and segmented flow systems. The laminar flow pattern was achieved using a plain wide T-junction, whereas the segmented flow was achieved by introducing a narrowed section and a nozzle at the T-junction. The results show that the reaction rate is limited by diffusion and is much slower with the laminar flow pattern, whereas the reaction is completed more quickly in the segmented flow due to better mixing.

  11. Image transmission in mid-IR using a solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kratovil, Pat; Magee, James R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, image transmission using a mid-wave IR (MWIR) optical transceiver based free-space data link under low visibility conditions is presented. The all-solid-state MWIR transceiver primarily consisted of a passively Q-switched, short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumping a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric oscillator and a Dember effect detector. The MILES transceiver generates pulse position waveforms. The optical data link consisting of transmitter drive electronics, pulse conditioning electronics and a computer generating pulses compatible with the 2400-baud rate RS232 receiver was utilized. Data formatting and RS232 transmission and reception were achieved using a computer. Data formatting transformed an arbitrary image file format compatible with the basic operation of pump laser. Images were transmitted at a date rate of 2400 kbits/sec with 16 bits/pixel. Test images consisting of 50X40 pixels and 100X80 pixels were transmitted through free-space filled with light fog up to 120 ft. Besides optical parametric oscillators, the proposed concept can be extended to optical parametric amplifiers, Raman lasers and other nonlinear optical devices to achieve multi-functionality.

  12. A novel IR polarization imaging system designed by a four-camera array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Shao, Xiaopeng; Han, Pingli

    2014-05-01

    A novel IR polarization staring imaging system employing a four-camera-array is designed for target detection and recognition, especially man-made targets hidden in complex battle field. The design bases on the existence of the difference in infrared radiation's polarization characteristics, which is particularly remarkable between artificial objects and the natural environment. The system designed employs four cameras simultaneously to capture the00 polarization difference to replace the commonly used systems engaging only one camera. Since both types of systems have to obtain intensity images in four different directions (I0 , I45 , I90 , I-45 ), the four-camera design allows better real-time capability and lower error without the mechanical rotating parts which is essential to one-camera systems. Information extraction and detailed analysis demonstrate that the caught polarization images include valuable polarization information which can effectively increase the images' contrast and make it easier to segment the target even the hidden target from various scenes.

  13. Towards stochastically downscaled precipitation in the Tropics based on a robust 1DD combined satellite product and a high resolution IR-based rain mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Clement; Roca, Rémy; Gosset, Marielle

    2015-04-01

    In the Tropics where the ground-based rain gauges network is very sparse, satellite rainfall estimates are becoming a compulsory source of information for various applications: hydrological modeling, water resources management or vegetation-monitoring. The tropical Tropical Amount of Precipitation with Estimate of Error (TAPEER) algorithm, developed within the framework of Megha-Tropiques satellite mission is a robust estimate of surface rainfall accumulations at the daily, one degree resolution. TAPEER validation in West Africa has proven its accuracy. Nevertheless applications that involve non-linear processes (such as surface runoff) require finer space / time resolution than one degree one day, or at least the statistical characterization of the sub-grid rainfall variability. TAPEER is based on a Universally Adjusted Global Precipitation Index (UAGPI) technique. The one degree, one day estimation relies on the combination of observations from microwave radiometers embarked on the 7 platforms forming the GPM constellation of low earth orbit satellites together with geostationary infra-red (GEO-IR) imagery. TAPEER provides as an intermediate product a high-resolution rain-mask based on the GEO-IR information (2.8 km, 15 min in Africa). The main question of this work is, how to use this high-resolution mask information as a constraint for downscaling ? This work first presents the multi-scale evaluation of TAPEER's rain detection mask against ground X-band polarimetric radar data and TRMM precipitation radar data in West Africa, through wavelet transform. Other algorithms (climate prediction center morphing technique CMORPH, global satellite mapping of precipitation GSMaP, multi-sensor precipitation estimate MPE) detection capabilities are also evaluated. Spatio-temporal wavelet filtering of the detection mask is then used to compute precipitation probability at the GEO-IR resolution. The wavelet tool is finally used to stochastically generate rain / no rain field

  14. A New Method for Wide-field Near-IR Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel B.; MacKenty, John; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    We present a new technique for wide and shallow observations using the near-infrared channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide-field near-IR surveys with HST are generally inefficient, as guide star acquisitions make it impractical to observe more than one pointing per orbit. This limitation can be circumvented by guiding with gyros alone, which is possible as long as the telescope has three functional gyros. The method presented here allows us to observe mosaics of eight independent WFC3-IR pointings in a single orbit by utilizing the fact that HST drifts by only a very small amount in the 25 s between non-destructive reads of unguided exposures. By shifting the reads and treating them as independent exposures the full resolution of WFC3 can be restored. We use this “drift and shift” (DASH) method in the Cycle 23 COSMOS-DASH program, which will obtain 456 WFC3 H 160 pointings in 57 orbits, covering an area of 0.6 degree in the COSMOS field down to H 160 = 25. When completed, the program will more than triple the area of extra-galactic survey fields covered by near-IR imaging at HST resolution. We demonstrate the viability of the method with the first four orbits (32 pointings) of this program. We show that the resolution of the WFC3 camera is preserved, and that structural parameters of galaxies are consistent with those measured in guided observations.

  15. Utility of FT-IR imaging spectroscopy in estimating differences between the quality of bovine blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecheć, A.; Opiela, J.; Lipiec, E.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether the FT-IR spectroscopy and Focal Plane Array (FPA) imaging can be successfully applied to estimate the quality of bovine blastocysts (on the basis of the concentration of nucleic acids and amides). The FT-IR spectra of inner cell mass from blastocysts of three different culture systems were examined. The spectral changes between blastocysts were analyzed in DNA (spectral range of 1240-950 cm-1) and protein amides (1800-1400 cm-1). Blastocyst 1 (BL1-HA) was developed from the fertilized oocyte cultured with low concentration of hialuronian (HA), Blastocyst 2 and 3 were developed from the oocytes cultured in standard conditions. Cleavage stage blastocyst 2 (BL2-SOF) has been cultured in SOF medium while blastocyst 3 (BL3-VERO) was cultured in co-culture with VERO cells. The multivariate statistical analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis - HCA and Principal Component Analysis - PCA) of single cells spectra showed high similarity of cells forming the inner cell mass within single blastocyst. The main variance between the three examined blastocysts was related to amides bands. Differences in the intensities of the amides' peaks between the bovine blastocysts derived from different culture systems indicated that specific proteins reflecting the appearance of a new phenotype were produced. However, for the three blastocysts, the α-helix typical peak was twice more intensive than the β-sheet typical peak suggesting that the differentiation processes had been started. Taking into account the quantitative and qualitative composition of the protein into examined blastocysts, it can be assumed, that the quality of the BL1-HA turned out much more similar to BL3-VERO than to BL2-SOF. FT-IR spectroscopy can be successfully applied in reproductive biology research for quality estimation of oocytes and embryos at varied stages of their development. Moreover this technique proved to be particularly useful when the quantity of the

  16. Spatio-temporal multi-modality ontology for indexing and retrieving satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    MESSOUDI, Wassim; FARAH, Imed Riadh; SAHEB ETTABAA, Karim; Ben Ghezala, Henda; SOLAIMAN, Basel

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents spatio-temporal multi-modality ontology for indexing and retrieving satellite images in the high level to improve the quality of the system retrieval and to perform semantic in the retrieval process.Our approach is based on three modules: (1) regions and features extraction, (2) ontological indexing and (3) semantic image retrieval. The first module allows extracting regions from the satellite image using the fuzzy c-means FCM) segmentation algorith...

  17. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, F

    2015-01-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable to the wider...

  18. Region of Interest Detection Based on Histogram Segmentation for Satellite Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadtikornthaweeyot, Warinthorn; Tatnall, Adrian R. L.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution satellite imaging is considered as the outstanding applicant to extract the Earth's surface information. Extraction of a feature of an image is very difficult due to having to find the appropriate image segmentation techniques and combine different methods to detect the Region of Interest (ROI) most effectively. This paper proposes techniques to classify objects in the satellite image by using image processing methods on high-resolution satellite images. The systems to identify the ROI focus on forests, urban and agriculture areas. The proposed system is based on histograms of the image to classify objects using thresholding. The thresholding is performed by considering the behaviour of the histogram mapping to a particular region in the satellite image. The proposed model is based on histogram segmentation and morphology techniques. There are five main steps supporting each other; Histogram classification, Histogram segmentation, Morphological dilation, Morphological fill image area and holes and ROI management. The methods to detect the ROI of the satellite images based on histogram classification have been studied, implemented and tested. The algorithm is be able to detect the area of forests, urban and agriculture separately. The image segmentation methods can detect the ROI and reduce the size of the original image by discarding the unnecessary parts.

  19. SEEDS ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF THE ASYMMETRIC TRANSITION DISK OPH IRS 48 IN SCATTERED LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird M. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Sitko, Michael L.; Champney, Elizabeth H. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Van der Marel, Nienke; Maaskant, Koen; Min, Michiel [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Takami, Michihiro [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuchner, Marc J; McElwain, Michael W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Muto, Takayuki [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Fukagawa, Misato [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Russell, Ray W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kusakabe, Nobuhiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Abe, Lyu [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2015-01-10

    We present the first resolved near-infrared imagery of the transition disk Oph IRS 48 (WLY 2-48), which was recently observed with ALMA to have a strongly asymmetric submillimeter flux distribution. H-band polarized intensity images show a ∼60 AU radius scattered light cavity with two pronounced arcs of emission, one from northeast to southeast and one smaller, fainter, and more distant arc in the northwest. K-band scattered light imagery reveals a similar morphology, but with a clear third arc along the southwestern rim of the disk cavity. This arc meets the northwestern arc at nearly a right angle, revealing the presence of a spiral arm or local surface brightness deficit in the disk, and explaining the east-west brightness asymmetry in the H-band data. We also present 0.8-5.4 μm IRTF SpeX spectra of this object, which allow us to constrain the spectral class to A0 ± 1 and measure a low mass accretion rate of 10{sup –8.5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, both consistent with previous estimates. We investigate a variety of reddening laws in order to fit the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of Oph IRS 48 and find a best fit consistent with a younger, higher luminosity star than previous estimates.

  20. Detecting Anomaly Regions in Satellite Image Time Series Based on Sesaonal Autocorrelation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.-G.; Tang, P.; Zhou, M.

    2016-06-01

    Anomaly regions in satellite images can reflect unexpected changes of land cover caused by flood, fire, landslide, etc. Detecting anomaly regions in satellite image time series is important for studying the dynamic processes of land cover changes as well as for disaster monitoring. Although several methods have been developed to detect land cover changes using satellite image time series, they are generally designed for detecting inter-annual or abrupt land cover changes, but are not focusing on detecting spatial-temporal changes in continuous images. In order to identify spatial-temporal dynamic processes of unexpected changes of land cover, this study proposes a method for detecting anomaly regions in each image of satellite image time series based on seasonal autocorrelation analysis. The method was validated with a case study to detect spatial-temporal processes of a severe flooding using Terra/MODIS image time series. Experiments demonstrated the advantages of the method that (1) it can effectively detect anomaly regions in each of satellite image time series, showing spatial-temporal varying process of anomaly regions, (2) it is flexible to meet some requirement (e.g., z-value or significance level) of detection accuracies with overall accuracy being up to 89% and precision above than 90%, and (3) it does not need time series smoothing and can detect anomaly regions in noisy satellite images with a high reliability.

  1. DETECTING ANOMALY REGIONS IN SATELLITE IMAGE TIME SERIES BASED ON SESAONAL AUTOCORRELATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-G. Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly regions in satellite images can reflect unexpected changes of land cover caused by flood, fire, landslide, etc. Detecting anomaly regions in satellite image time series is important for studying the dynamic processes of land cover changes as well as for disaster monitoring. Although several methods have been developed to detect land cover changes using satellite image time series, they are generally designed for detecting inter-annual or abrupt land cover changes, but are not focusing on detecting spatial-temporal changes in continuous images. In order to identify spatial-temporal dynamic processes of unexpected changes of land cover, this study proposes a method for detecting anomaly regions in each image of satellite image time series based on seasonal autocorrelation analysis. The method was validated with a case study to detect spatial-temporal processes of a severe flooding using Terra/MODIS image time series. Experiments demonstrated the advantages of the method that (1 it can effectively detect anomaly regions in each of satellite image time series, showing spatial-temporal varying process of anomaly regions, (2 it is flexible to meet some requirement (e.g., z-value or significance level of detection accuracies with overall accuracy being up to 89% and precision above than 90%, and (3 it does not need time series smoothing and can detect anomaly regions in noisy satellite images with a high reliability.

  2. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of High-Resolution Satellite ZY-3 TLC Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Heng; Ying, Shen

    2017-05-07

    Super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction is a technique used to recover a high-resolution image using the cumulative information provided by several low-resolution images. With the help of SR techniques, satellite remotely sensed images can be combined to achieve a higher-resolution image, which is especially useful for a two- or three-line camera satellite, e.g., the ZY-3 high-resolution Three Line Camera (TLC) satellite. In this paper, we introduce the application of the SR reconstruction method, including motion estimation and the robust super-resolution technique, to ZY-3 TLC images. The results show that SR reconstruction can significantly improve both the resolution and image quality of ZY-3 TLC images.

  3. High resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, W.R.; Hays, P.B.; Grassl, H.J.; Gell, D.A.; Burrage, M.D.; Marshall, A.R.; Ortland, D.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite has been providing measurements of the wind field in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere since November 1991. Examination of various calibration data indicates the instrument has remained remarkably stable since launch. The instrument has a thermal drift of about 30 m/s/{degree}C (slightly dependent on wavelength) and a long-term temporal drift that has amounted to about 80 m/s since launch. These effects are removed in the data processing leaving an uncertainty in the instrument stability of {minus}2 nVs. The temperature control of the instrument has improved significantly since launch as a new method was implemented. The initial temperature control held the instrument temperature at about {+-}1{degree}C. The improved method, which holds constant the temperature of the optical bench instead of the radiator, keeps the instrument temperature at about 0.2{degree}C. The calibrations indicate very little change in the sensitivity of the instrument. The detector response has shown no degradation and the optics have not changed their transmittance.

  4. Improving multispectral satellite image compression using onboard subpixel registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Mathieu; Camarero, Roberto; Isnard, Maxime; Poulet, Christophe; Perret, Jokin

    2013-09-01

    Future CNES earth observation missions will have to deal with an ever increasing telemetry data rate due to improvements in resolution and addition of spectral bands. Current CNES image compressors implement a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed by a bit plane encoding (BPE) but only on a mono spectral basis and do not profit from the multispectral redundancy of the observed scenes. Recent CNES studies have proven a substantial gain on the achievable compression ratio, +20% to +40% on selected scenarios, by implementing a multispectral compression scheme based on a Karhunen Loeve transform (KLT) followed by the classical DWT+BPE. But such results can be achieved only on perfectly registered bands; a default of registration as low as 0.5 pixel ruins all the benefits of multispectral compression. In this work, we first study the possibility to implement a multi-bands subpixel onboard registration based on registration grids generated on-the-fly by the satellite attitude control system and simplified resampling and interpolation techniques. Indeed bands registration is usually performed on ground using sophisticated techniques too computationally intensive for onboard use. This fully quantized algorithm is tuned to meet acceptable registration performances within stringent image quality criteria, with the objective of onboard real-time processing. In a second part, we describe a FPGA implementation developed to evaluate the design complexity and, by extrapolation, the data rate achievable on a spacequalified ASIC. Finally, we present the impact of this approach on the processing chain not only onboard but also on ground and the impacts on the design of the instrument.

  5. Satellite Image Processing for Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashoka Vanjare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, urban growth of Bangalore region is analyzed and discussed by using multi-temporal and multi-spectral Landsat satellite images. Urban growth analysis helps in understanding the change detection of Bangalore region. The change detection is studied over a period of 39 years and the region of interest covers an area of 2182 km2. The main cause for urban growth is the increase in population. In India, rapid urbanization is witnessed due to an increase in the population, continuous development has affected the existence of natural resources. Therefore observing and monitoring the natural resources (land use plays an important role. To analyze changed detection, researcher’s use remote sensing data. Continuous use of remote sensing data helps researchers to analyze the change detection. The main objective of this study is to monitor land cover changes of Bangalore district which covers rural and urban regions using multi-temporal and multi-sensor Landsat - multi-spectral scanner (MSS, thematic mapper (TM, Enhanced Thematic mapper plus (ETM+ MSS, TM and ETM+ images captured in the years 1973, 1992, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011. Temporal changes were determined by using maximum likelihood classification method. The classification results contain four land cover classes namely, built-up, vegetation, water and barren land. The results indicate that the region is densely developed which has resulted in decrease of water and vegetation regions. The continuous transformation of barren land to built-up region has affected water and vegetation regions. Generally, from 1973 to 2011 the percentage of urban region has increased from 4.6% to 25.43%, mainly due to urbanization.

  6. Micro-Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (Micro ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging with Variable Angles of Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Tomasz P; Vichi, Alessandra; Baranska, Malgorzata; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-10-01

    The control of the angle of incidence in attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy allows for the probing of the sample at different depths of penetration of the evanescent wave. This approach has been recently coupled with macro-imaging capability using a diamond ATR accessory. In this paper, the design of optical apertures for the micro-germanium (Ge) ATR objective is presented for an FT-IR spectroscopic imaging microscope, allowing measurements with different angles of incidence. This approach provides the possibility of three-dimensional (3D) profiling in micro-ATR FT-IR imaging mode. The proof of principle results for measurements of polymer laminate samples at different angles of incidence confirm that controlling the depth of penetration is possible using a Ge ATR objective with added apertures.

  7. Non-destructive testing of mid-IR optical fiber using infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Fortin, Vincent; Vallée, Réal; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber lasers offers the advantage of being relatively compact and efficient. However, the materials such as fluoride and chalcogenide glasses used for their fabrication must be exempt of defects in order to make efficient laser systems. However, most existing quality control techniques are not compatible with chalcogenide fibers because of their limited transparency in the visible spectral range. For this reason, the Université Laval's Centre d'optique, photonique et laser (COPL), in Quebec City, Canada, has developed a novel non-destructive testing (NDT) methodology based on infrared imaging to address this problem. The results show how this simple screening technique eases the selection of high-quality fibers for the design of high-power mid-IR lasers.

  8. Wide-band IR imaging in the NIR-MIR-FIR regions for in situ analysis of frescoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Pezzati, L.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Di Biase, R.; Mariotti, P. I.; Frosinini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Imaging methods offer several advantages in the field of conservation allowing to perform non-invasive inspection of works of art. In particular, non-invasive techniques based on imaging in different infrared (IR) regions are widely used for the investigation of paintings. Using radiation beyond the visible range, different characteristics of the inspected artwork may be revealed according to the bandwidth acquired. In this paper we present the recent results of a joint project among the two research institutes DIMEG and CNR-INO, and the restoration facility Opificio delle Pietre Dure, concerning the wide-band integration of IR imaging techniques, in the spectral ranges NIR 0.8-2.5 μm, MIR 3-5 μm, and FIR 8-12 μm, for in situ analysis of artworks. A joint, multi-mode use of reflection and thermal bands is proposed for the diagnostics of mural paintings, and it is demonstrated to be an effective tool in inspecting the layered structure. High resolution IR reflectography and, to a greater extent, IR imaging in the 3-5 μm band, are effectively used to characterize the superficial layer of the fresco and to analyze the stratigraphy of different pictorial layers. IR thermography in the 8-12 μm band is used to characterize the support deep structure. The integration of all the data provides a multi- layered and multi-spectral representation of the fresco that yields a comprehensive analysis.

  9. Imaging-Duration Embedded Dynamic Scheduling of Earth Observation Satellites for Emergent Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Niu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel two-stage dynamic scheduling of earth observation satellites to provide emergency response by making full use of the duration of the imaging task execution. In the first stage, the multiobjective genetic algorithm NSGA-II is used to produce an optimal satellite imaging schedule schema, which is robust to dynamic adjustment as possible emergent events occur in the future. In the second stage, when certain emergent events do occur, a dynamic adjusting heuristic algorithm (CTM-DAHA is applied to arrange new tasks into the robust imaging schedule. Different from the existing dynamic scheduling methods, the imaging duration is embedded in the two stages to make full use of current satellite resources. In the stage of robust satellite scheduling, total task execution time is used as a robust indicator to obtain a satellite schedule with less imaging time. In other words, more imaging time is preserved for future emergent events. In the stage of dynamic adjustment, a compact task merging strategy is applied to combine both of existing tasks and emergency tasks into a composite task with least imaging time. Simulated experiments indicate that the proposed method can produce a more robust and effective satellite imaging schedule.

  10. PM-GCD - A combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation: Application to the EU FLASH project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Daniele; Dietrich, Stefano; di Paola, Francesco; Formenton, Marco; Mugnai, Alberto; Sanò, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach a high level of accuracy - and especially so, for deep convective precipitating systems. However, these observations do not provide a satisfactorily coverage of the rapid evolution of intense precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications -- including support to authorities in activating flood alarms. To avoid this problem, several techniques have been developed that combine accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). Within the European Union FP6 FLASH project, we have developed a new combined MW-IR technique for producing frequent precipitation retrievals from space (which we call PM-GCD technique). This technique uses passive-microwave (PM) retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convection Detection (GCD) technique that discriminates deep convective clouds within the GEO observations, based on the difference between the water vapor (6.2 μm ) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm ) channels. In essence, within the PM-GCD technique, deep convective areas are defined from MSG observations, then calibrated using MW-AMSU precipitation retrievals and finally propagated over time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique and discuss the results of its application to a flood event that occurred on September 12-15, 2006 over the north-western Mediterranean coastal areas, and that has been selected for joint research by the EU FLASH and HYDRATE projects.

  11. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites: simulation, image reconstruction, and shadow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis M.; Hunt, Bobby R.; Sheppard, David G.

    2016-09-01

    Shadow imaging is a technique to obtain highly resolved silhouettes of resident space objects (RSOs) which would otherwise be unattainable using conventional terrestrial based imaging approaches. This is done by post processing the measured irradiance pattern (shadow) cast onto the Earth as the RSO occults a star. The research presented here focuses on shadow imaging of geosynchronous (GEO) satellites with near stationary orbits approximately 36,000 km from the Earth. Shadows pertaining to a set of diverse observing scenarios are simulated and used as inputs to a Fresnel based phase retrieval algorithm. Spatial resolution limits are evaluated and correlated to signal to noise (SNR) metrics. Resolvable feature sizes of less than 1 m are shown to be readily achievable using foreseeable observing scenarios. Initial output from a shadow prediction tool indicates that there are, on average, over 1000 shadows on the Earth on any given time from a single GEO satellite for stars brighter than mv=10. Shadow ground track uncertainties are correlated to stellar astrometric errors. Global and localized shadow track maps are presented demonstrating a high feasibility for future shadow collections.

  12. A novel automated method for doing registration and 3D reconstruction from multi-modal RGB/IR image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Richard; Whitaker, Ross

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the use of multi-modal camera rigs consisting of an RGB sensor and an infrared (IR) sensor have become increasingly popular for use in surveillance and robotics applications. The advantages of using multi-modal camera rigs include improved foreground/background segmentation, wider range of lighting conditions under which the system works, and richer information (e.g. visible light and heat signature) for target identification. However, the traditional computer vision method of mapping pairs of images using pixel intensities or image features is often not possible with an RGB/IR image pair. We introduce a novel method to overcome the lack of common features in RGB/IR image pairs by using a variational methods optimization algorithm to map the optical flow fields computed from different wavelength images. This results in the alignment of the flow fields, which in turn produce correspondences similar to those found in a stereo RGB/RGB camera rig using pixel intensities or image features. In addition to aligning the different wavelength images, these correspondences are used to generate dense disparity and depth maps. We obtain accuracies similar to other multi-modal image alignment methodologies as long as the scene contains sufficient depth variations, although a direct comparison is not possible because of the lack of standard image sets from moving multi-modal camera rigs. We test our method on synthetic optical flow fields and on real image sequences that we created with a multi-modal binocular stereo RGB/IR camera rig. We determine our method's accuracy by comparing against a ground truth.

  13. An IR thermal imaging method to investigate spreading process of ethanol solution droplets on carbon fiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Lu, Longsheng; Teh, Kwok Siong; Wang, Hongfei; Wan, Zhenping; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Porous media are a class of basic engineering material, and the applications of a porous medium are significantly influenced by its surface and bulk wettabilities. Conventionally, the surface wettability and dynamics of a liquid droplet on a stationary material surface can be observed by performing a dyed droplet spreading test captured with a high-speed camera. Such a method, however, is not effective in the quantification of droplet dynamics within a porous medium. In this work, we propose an infrared (IR) thermal imaging method to investigate the spreading of colorless droplet beneath the surface of, and within, the porous network of the porous medium. The spreading rim of a colorless droplet is accurately detected by the locations of extreme points in its temperature gradient curve, as deduced from temperature distribution data collected by an IR camera imaging from the top. Compared with the images captured simultaneously by a high-speed camera from the side, the droplet spreading rim is revealed to be an inner precursor rim located inside the porous media. To evaluate this method, carbon fiber (CF) mats with different porosities are used as the porous media. The spreading velocities of droplets in CF mats are measured successfully and coincide exactly with conclusions obtained by the background subtraction method. This finding validates the effectiveness of IR thermal imaging method in a droplet spreading test. This work demonstrates that IR imaging holds great promise in the visualization of the inner precursor rim of droplets in porous media.

  14. Satellite image blind restoration based on surface fitting and multivariate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-bing; YANG Shi-zhi; WANG Xian-hua; QIAO Yan-li

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the blurring effect from atmosphere and camera system in the satellite imaging a blind image restoration algo-rithm is proposed which includes the modulation transfer function (MTF) estimation and the image restoration. In the MTF estimation stage, based on every degradation process of satellite imaging-chain, a combined parametric model of MTF is given and used to fit the surface of normalized logarithmic amplitude spectrum of degraded image. In the image restoration stage, a maximum a posteriori (MAP) based edge-preserving image restoration method is presented which introduces multivariate Laplacian model to characterize the prior distribution of wavelet coefficients of original image. During the image restoration, in order to avoid solving high nonlinear equations, optimization transfer algorithm is adopted to decom-pose the image restoration procedure into two simple steps: Landweber iteration and wavelet thresholding denoising. In the numerical experiment, the satellite image restoration results from SPOT-5 and high resolution camera (HR) of China & Brazil earth resource satellite (CBERS-02B) ane compared, and the proposed algorithm is superior in the image edge preservation and noise inhibition.

  15. A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-02-01

    A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

  16. A study on quality and availability of COCTS images of HY- 1 satellite by simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑菁; 毛天明; 潘德炉

    2002-01-01

    Hy-1 is a first China's ocean color satellite which will be launched as a piggyback satellite on FY- 1 satellite using Long March rocket. On the satellite there are two sensors: one is the China's ocean color and temperature scanner (COCTS), the other is CCD coastal zone imager (CZI).The COCTS is considered to be a main sensor to play a key role. In order to understand the characteristics of future ocean color images observed, a simulation and evaluation study on the quality and availability of the COCTS image has been done. First, the simulation models are introduced briefly, and typical simulated cases of radiance images at visible bands are introduced, in which the radiance distribution is based on geographic location, the satellite orbital parameters and sensor properties, the simulated method to evaluate the image quality and availability is developed by using the characteristics of image called the complex signal noise ratio ( CSNR ). Meanwhile, a series of the CSNR images are generated from the simulated radiance components for different cases, which can be used to evaluate the quality and availability of the COCTS images before the HY - 1 is placed in orbit. Finally, the quality and availability of the COCTS images are quantitatively analyzed with the simulated CSNR data. The results will be beneficial to all scientists who are in charge of the COCTS mission and to those who plan to use the data from the COCTS.

  17. Feature Extraction in Sequential Multimedia Images: with Applications in Satellite Images and On-line Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Li

    Multimedia data is increasingly important in scientific discovery and people's daily lives. Content of massive multimedia is often diverse and noisy, and motion between frames is sometimes crucial in analyzing those data. Among all, still images and videos are commonly used formats. Images are compact in size but do not contain motion information. Videos record motion but are sometimes too big to be analyzed. Sequential images, which are a set of continuous images with low frame rate, stand out because they are smaller than videos and still maintain motion information. This thesis investigates features in different types of noisy sequential images, and the proposed solutions that intelligently combined multiple features to successfully retrieve visual information from on-line videos and cloudy satellite images. The first task is detecting supraglacial lakes above ice sheet in sequential satellite images. The dynamics of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet deeply affect glacier movement, which is directly related to sea level rise and global environment change. Detecting lakes above ice is suffering from diverse image qualities and unexpected clouds. A new method is proposed to efficiently extract prominent lake candidates with irregular shapes, heterogeneous backgrounds, and in cloudy images. The proposed system fully automatize the procedure that track lakes with high accuracy. We further cooperated with geoscientists to examine the tracked lakes and found new scientific findings. The second one is detecting obscene content in on-line video chat services, such as Chatroulette, that randomly match pairs of users in video chat sessions. A big problem encountered in such systems is the presence of flashers and obscene content. Because of various obscene content and unstable qualities of videos capture by home web-camera, detecting misbehaving users is a highly challenging task. We propose SafeVchat, which is the first solution that achieves satisfactory

  18. NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series provides continuous measurements of the atmosphere and surface over the Western Hemisphere....

  19. NEPR World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  20. Potential of multispectral synergism for observing tropospheric ozone by combining IR and UV measurements from incoming LEO (EPS-SG) and GEO (MTG) satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Coman, Adriana; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations offer a great potential for monitoring air quality on daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently in orbit sensors do not allow to probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone (Liu et al., 2010). Using single-band approaches based on spaceborne measurements of either thermal infrared radiance (TIR, Eremenko et al., 2008) or ultraviolet reflectance (UV, Liu et al., 2010) only ozone down to the lower troposphere (3 km) may be observed. A recent multispectral method (referred to as IASI+GOME-2) combining the information of IASI and GOME-2 (both onboard MetOp satellites) spectra, respectively from the TIR and UV, has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) with maximum sensitivity down to 2.20 km a.s.l. over land, while sensitivity for IASI or GOME-2 only peaks at 3 to 4 km at lowest (Cuesta et al., 2013). Future spatial missions will be launched in the upcoming years on both low and geostationary orbits, such as EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation) and MTG (Meteosat Third Generation), carrying respectively IASI-NG (for IR) and UVNS (for UV), and IRS (for IR) and UVN (Sentinel 4, for UV). This new-generation sensors will enhance the capacity to observe ozone pollution and particularly by synergism of multispectral measurements. In this work we develop a pseudo-observation simulator and evaluate the potential of future EPS-SG and MTG satellite observations, through IASI-NG+UVNS and IRS+UVN multispectral methods to observe near-surface O3. The pseudo-real state of atmosphere (nature run) is provided by MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle) chemical transport model. Simulations are calibrated by careful comparisons with real data, to ensure the best coherence between pseudo-reality and reality, as well as between the pseudo-observation simulator and existing satellite products. We perform full and

  1. An Image-Based Sensor System for Autonomous Rendez-Vous with Uncooperative Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Miravet, Carlos; Krouch, Eloise; del Cura, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper are described the image processing algorithms developed by SENER, Ingenieria y Sistemas to cope with the problem of image-based, autonomous rendez-vous (RV) with an orbiting satellite. The methods developed have a direct application in the OLEV (Orbital Life Extension Extension Vehicle) mission. OLEV is a commercial mission under development by a consortium formed by Swedish Space Corporation, Kayser-Threde and SENER, aimed to extend the operational life of geostationary telecommunication satellites by supplying them control, navigation and guidance services. OLEV is planned to use a set of cameras to determine the angular position and distance to the client satellite during the complete phases of rendez-vous and docking, thus enabling the operation with satellites not equipped with any specific navigational aid to provide support during the approach. The ability to operate with un-equipped client satellites significantly expands the range of applicability of the system under development, compar...

  2. Multi-Mode GF-3 Satellite Image Geometric Accuracy Verification Using the RPC Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoyang; Zhang, Guo; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Ruishan; Deng, Mingjun; Xu, Kai

    2017-09-01

    The GaoFen-3 (GF-3) satellite is the first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging satellite with a resolution up to 1 m in China. It is also the only SAR satellite of the High-Resolution Earth Observation System designed for civilian use. There are 12 different imaging models to meet the needs of different industry users. However, to use SAR satellite images for related applications, they must possess high geometric accuracy. In order to verify the geometric accuracy achieved by the different modes of GF-3 images, we analyze the SAR geometric error source and perform geometric correction tests based on the RPC model with and without ground control points (GCPs) for five imaging modes. These include the spotlight (SL), ultra-fine strip (UFS), Fine Strip I (FSI), Full polarized Strip I (QPSI), and standard strip (SS) modes. Experimental results show that the check point residuals are large and consistent without GCPs, but the root mean square error of the independent checkpoints for the case of four corner control points is better than 1.5 pixels, achieving a similar level of geometric positioning accuracy to that of international satellites. We conclude that the GF-3 satellite can be used for high-accuracy geometric processing and related industry applications.

  3. Subsurface Dynamical Properties of Variable Features Seen in Satellite IR Imagery off Point Sur and Their Acoustic Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    profile as in Fig. 87 except 60 foot source at 50 Hz -------------------------------. 205 90 Graph showing the difference between clima - tological PL...graph as in Fig. 90 except 300 foot source ---------------------------------------- 207 92 Graph showing the difference between clima - tological PL and... temporal scales, to make observations on the subsurface structure of features observed by satellite imagery, to investigate the diurnal variation of the sea

  4. Satellite Image Edge Detection for Population Distribution Pattern Identification using Levelset with Morphological Filtering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsiti; Munandar, T. A.; Suhendar, A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Rohendi, D.

    2017-03-01

    Population distribution pattern is directly related with economic gap of a region. Analysis of population distribution pattern is usually performed by studying statistical data on population. This study aimed to analyze population distribution pattern using image analysis concept, i.e. using satellite images. Levelset and morphological image filtering methods were used to analyze images to see distribution pattern. The research result showed that Levelset and morphological image filtering could remove a lot of noises in analysis result images and form object edge contours very clearly. The detected object contours were used as references to recognize population distribution pattern based on satellite image analysis. The pattern made based on the research result didn’t show optimal result because Levelset performed image segmentation based on the contours of the analyzed objects. Other segmentation methods should be combined with it to produce clearer population distribution pattern.

  5. Autonomous Sub-Pixel Satellite Track Endpoint Determination for Space Based Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L M

    2011-03-07

    An algorithm for determining satellite track endpoints with sub-pixel resolution in spaced-based images is presented. The algorithm allows for significant curvature in the imaged track due to rotation of the spacecraft capturing the image. The motivation behind the subpixel endpoint determination is first presented, followed by a description of the methodology used. Results from running the algorithm on real ground-based and simulated spaced-based images are shown to highlight its effectiveness.

  6. SEEDS Adaptive Optics Imaging of the Asymmetric Transition Disk Oph IRS 48 in Scattered Light

    CERN Document Server

    Follette, Katherine B; Swearingen, Jeremy R; Sitko, Michael L; Champney, Elizabeth H; van der Marel, Nienke; Takami, Michihiro; Kuchner, Marc J; Close, Laird M; Muto, Takayuki; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W; Fukagawa, Misato; Maaskant, Koen; Min, Michiel; Russell, Ray W; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2014-01-01

    We present the first resolved near infrared imagery of the transition disk Oph IRS 48 (WLY 2-48), which was recently observed with ALMA to have a strongly asymmetric sub-millimeter flux distribution. H-band polarized intensity images show a $\\sim$60AU radius scattered light cavity with two pronounced arcs of emission, one from Northeast to Southeast and one smaller, fainter and more distant arc in the Northwest. K-band scattered light imagery reveals a similar morphology, but with a clear third arc along the Southwestern rim of the disk cavity. This arc meets the Northwestern arc at nearly a right angle, revealing the presence of a spiral arm or local surface brightness deficit in the disk, and explaining the East-West brightness asymmetry in the H-band data. We also present 0.8-5.4$\\mu$m IRTF SpeX spectra of this object, which allow us to constrain the spectral class to A0$\\pm$1 and measure a low mass accretion rate of 10$^{-8.5}$M$_{\\odot}$/yr, both consistent with previous estimates. We investigate a varie...

  7. Three attempts of earthquake prediction with satellite cloud images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guangmeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal anomalies detected from satellite data are widely reported. Nearly all the anomalies are reported after the quake. Here we report three earthquake predictions in Italy and Iran according to satellite cloud anomalies. These cloud anomalies usually show a linear pattern, stay there for hours and do not move with winds. According to these anomalies, we can give a rough estimation about impending earthquake activities. All the estimated dates and magnitudes are in good agreement with the earthquake facts, and the only unsatisfactory point is that the distance error is 100–300 km. Because the cloud anomaly is long, we can not reduce the distance error further. A possible way is to combine geophysical data and satellite data together to estimate the epicenter and this will increase the prediction accuracy.

  8. Landsat 7 thermal-IR image sharpening using an artificial neural network and sensor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshewsky, George P.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    2001-08-01

    The enhanced thematic mapper (plus)(ETM+) instrument on Landsat 7 shares the same basic design as the TM sensors on Landsats 4 and 5, with some significanti mprovements. In common are six multispetral bands with a 30-m ground projected instantaneous field of view (GIFOV). However, the thermal-IR (TIR) band now has a 60-m GIFOV, instead of 120- m. Also, a 15-m panchromatic band has been added. The artificial neural network (NN) image sharpening method described here uses data form the higher spatial resolution ETM+ bands to enhance (sharpen) the spatial resolution of the TIR imagery. It is based on an assumed correlation over multiple scales of resolution, between image edge contrast patterns in the TIR band and several other spectral bands. A multilayer, feedforward NN is trained to approximate TIR data at 60m, given degraded (from 30-m to 60-m) spatial resolution input from spectral bands 7,5, and 2. After training, the NN output for full-resolution input generates an approximation of a TIR image at 30-m resolution. Two methods are used to degrade the spatial resolution of the imagery used for NN training, and the corresponding sharpening results are compared. One degradation method uses a published sensor transfer function (TR) for Landsat 5 to simulate sensor coarser resolution imagery form higher resolution imagery. For comparison, the second degradation method is simply Gaussian low pass filtering and subsampling, wherein the Gaussian filter approximates the full width at half maximum amplitude characteristics of the TF-based spatial filter. Two fixed-size Nns (that is, number of weights and processing elements) were trained separately with the degraded resolution data, and the sharpening results compared. The comparison evaluates the relative influence of the degradation technique employed and whether or not it is desirable to incorporate a sensor TF model. Preliminary results indicate some improvements for the sensor model-based technique. Further evaluation

  9. Landsat 7 thermal-IR image sharpening using an artificial neural network and sensor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; Schowengerdt, R.A.; ,

    2001-01-01

    The enhanced thematic mapper (plus) (ETM+) instrument on Landsat 7 shares the same basic design as the TM sensors on Landsats 4 and 5, with some significant improvements. In common are six multispectral bands with a 30-m ground-projected instantaneous field of view (GIFOV). However, the thermaL-IR (TIR) band now has a 60-m GIFOV, instead of 120-m. Also, a 15-m panchromatic band has been added. The artificial neural network (NN) image sharpening method described here uses data from the higher spatial resolution ETM+ bands to enhance (sharpen) the spatial resolution of the TIR imagery. It is based on an assumed correlation over multiple scales of resolution, between image edge contrast patterns in the TIR band and several other spectral bands. A multilayer, feedforward NN is trained to approximate TIR data at 60m, given degraded (from 30-m to 60-m) spatial resolution input from spectral bands 7, 5, and 2. After training, the NN output for full-resolution input generates an approximation of a TIR image at 30-m resolution. Two methods are used to degrade the spatial resolution of the imagery used for NN training, and the corresponding sharpening results are compared. One degradation method uses a published sensor transfer function (TF) for Landsat 5 to simulate sensor coarser resolution imagery from higher resolution imagery. For comparison, the second degradation method is simply Gaussian low pass filtering and subsampling, wherein the Gaussian filter approximates the full width at half maximum amplitude characteristics of the TF-based spatial filter. Two fixed-size NNs (that is, number of weights and processing elements) were trained separately with the degraded resolution data, and the sharpening results compared. The comparison evaluates the relative influence of the degradation technique employed and whether or not it is desirable to incorporate a sensor TF model. Preliminary results indicate some improvements for the sensor model-based technique. Further

  10. IR image properties measurement of new micro-mirror array structure beam combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Microwave (MW)/Infrared(IR) dual-mode compound guidance technology has greatly developed recent years for enhancing guidance precision effectively. Here a new micro-mirror array structure is introduced as upright display for MW/IR beam combiner in HWIL simulation. The beam combiner is used in the IR/MW compound HWIL system for transmitting the MW signal while reflecting the IR signal. The spatial resolution and spatial uniformity are two important performance indicators for beam combiner in the application of HWIL simulation system. In this paper, the definitions, measurement methods, and results of spatial resolution and spatial uniformity are given. Through the measurement by multiple groups of black and white stripes, the spatial resolution and the spatial uniformity can be got. It shows the micro-mirror array beam combiner can be applied for MW/IR dual-mode common-aperture HWIL simulation system.

  11. Wildfire monitoring using satellite images, ontologies and linked geospatial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyzirakos, K.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Garbis, G.; Nikolaou, C.; Bereta, K.; Papoutsis, I.; Herekakis, T.; Michail, D.; Koubarakis, M.; Kontoes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing technologies have allowed us to send an ever-increasing number of satellites in orbit around Earth. As a result, Earth Observation data archives have been constantly increasing in size in the last few years, and have become a valuable source of data for many scientific and

  12. Remote sensing place : Satellite images as visual spatial imaginaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David

    How do people come to know the world? How do they get a sense of place and space? Arguably, one of the ways in which they do this is through the practice of remote sensing, among which satellite imagery is one of the most widespread and potent tools of engaging, representing and constructing space.

  13. Higher resolution satellite remote sensing and the impact on image mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Allen H.; Thormodsgard, June M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of civil land remote sensing satellite data are presenting new opportunities for image mapping applications. The U.S. Geological Survey's experimental satellite image mapping program is evolving toward larger scale image map products with increased information content as a result of improved image processing techniques and increased resolution. Thematic mapper data are being used to produce experimental image maps at 1:100,000 scale that meet established U.S. and European map accuracy standards. Availability of high quality, cloud-free, 30-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper sensor, along with 10-meter ground resolution panchromatic and 20-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the recently launched French SPOT satellite, present new cartographic and image processing challenges. The need to fully exploit these higher resolution data increases the complexity of processing the images into large-scale image maps. The removal of radiometric artifacts and noise prior to geometric correction can be accomplished by using a variety of image processing filters and transforms. Sensor modeling and image restoration techniques allow maximum retention of spatial and radiometric information. An optimum combination of spectral information and spatial resolution can be obtained by merging different sensor types. These processing techniques are discussed and examples are presented. 

  14. Higher resolution satellite remote sensing and the impact on image mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Allen H.; Thormodsgard, June M.

    Recent advances in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of civil land remote sensing satellite data are presenting new opportunities for image mapping applications. The U.S. Geological Survey's experimental satellite image mapping program is evolving toward larger scale image map products with increased information content as a result of improved image processing techniques and increased resolution. Thematic mapper data are being used to produce experimental image maps at 1:100,000 scale that meet established U.S. and European map accuracy standards. Availability of high quality, cloud-free, 30-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper sensor, along with 10-meter ground resolution panchromatic and 20-meter ground resolution multispectral data from the recently launched French SPOT satellite, present new cartographic and image processing challenges. The need to fully exploit these higher resolution data increases the complexity of processing the images into large-scale image maps. The removal of radiometric artifacts and noise prior to geometric correction can be accomplished by using a variety of image processing filters and transforms. Sensor modeling and image restoration techniques allow maximum retention of spatial and radiometric information. An optimum combination of spectral information and spatial resolution can be obtained by merging different sensor types. These processing techniques are discussed and examples are presented.

  15. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION OF COVERAGE CATALOGUES OF ASTER SATELLITE IMAGE FOR URBAN AREAS OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  16. The Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS): the future of hyperspectral satellite sensors. Imagery of Oostende coastal and inland waters

    OpenAIRE

    B. De Mol; Ruddick, K

    2004-01-01

    The gap between airborne imaging spectroscopy and traditional multi spectral satellite sensors is decreasing thanks to a new generation of satellite sensors of which CHRIS mounted on the small and low-cost PROBA satellite is the prototype. Although image acquisition and analysis are still in a test phase, the high spatial and spectral resolution and pointability have proved their potential. Because of the high resolution small features, which were before only visible on airborne images, becom...

  17. Adaptive Optics for Satellite and Debris Imaging in LEO and GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, M.; Bennet, F.; Zovaro, A.; Riguat, F.; Piatrou, P.; Korkiakoski, V.; Smith, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University has developed and Adaptive Optics (AO) system for satellite and debris imaging in low Earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary orbit (GEO). In LEO the size, shape and orientation of objects will be measured with resolution of 50 cm for objects at 800 km range at an 800 nm imaging wavelength. In GEO satellite position will be measured using precision astrometry of nearby stars. We use an AO system with a deformable mirror (DM) of 277 actuators and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 2 kHz. Imaging is performed at a rate of >30 Hz to reduce image blur due to tip-tilt and rotation. We use two imaging modes; a high resolution mode to obtain Nyquist sampled images and a acquisition mode with 75 arcsecond field of view to aid in finding targets.

  18. Biomass prediction model in maize based on satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Herbei; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of crops by satellite techniques is very useful in the context of precision agriculture, regarding crops management and agricultural production. The present study has evaluated the interrelationship between maize biomass production and satellite indices (NDVI and NDBR) during five development stages (BBCH code), highlighting different levels of correlation. Biomass production recorded was between 2.39±0.005 t ha-1 (12-13 BBCH code) and 51.92±0.028 t ha-1 (83-85 BBCH code), in relation to vegetation stages studied. Values of chlorophyll content ranged from 24.1±0.25 SPAD unit (12-13 BBCH code) to 58.63±0.47 SPAD unit (71-73 BBCH code), and the obtained satellite indices ranged from 0.035641±0.002 and 0.320839±0.002 for NDVI indices respectively 0.035095±0.034 and 0.491038±0.018 in the case of NDBR indices. By regression analysis it was possible to obtain predictive models of biomass in maize based on the satellite indices, in statistical accurate conditions. The most accurate prediction was possible based on NDBR index (R2 = 0.986, F = 144.23, p<0.001, RMSE = 1.446), then based on chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.834, F = 16.14, p = 0.012, RMSE = 6.927) and NDVI index (R2 = 0.682, F = 3.869, p = 0.116, RMSE = 12.178).

  19. Nightfire method to track volcanic eruptions from multispectral satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Grigory; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first results of an application of the Nightfire hotspot algorithm towards volcano activity detection. Nightfire algorithm have been developed to play along with a Suomi-NPP polar satellite launched in 2011, which has a new generation multispectral VIIRS thermal sensor on board, to detect gas flares related to the upstream and downstream production of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously using of nighttime data in SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR sensor bands the algorithm is able to estimate the hotspot temperature, size and radiant heat. Four years of non-filtered observations have been accumulated in a spatio-temporal detection database, which currently totals 125 GB in size. The first part of this work presents results of retrospective cross-match of the detection database with the publicly available observed eruptions databases. The second part discusses how an approximate 3D shape of a lava lake could be modeled based on the apparent source size and satellite zenith angle. The third part presents the results of fusion Landsat-8 and Himawari-8 satellites data with the VIIRS Nightfire for several active volcanoes.

  20. Updating Object for GIS Database Information Using High Resolution Satellite Images: a Case Study Zonguldak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, M.; Arca, D.; Bayik, Ç.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays Geographic Information Systems (GIS) uses Remote Sensing (RS) data for a lot of applications. One of the application areas is the updating of the GIS database using high resolution imagery. In this context high resolution satellite imagery data is very important for many applications areas today's and future. And also, high resolution satellite imagery data will be used in many applications for different purposes. Information systems needs to high resolution imagery data for updating. Updating is very important component for the any of the GIS systems. One of this area will be updated and kept alive GIS database information. High resolution satellite imagery is used with different data base which serve map information via internet and different aims of information systems applications in future topographic and cartographic information systems will very important in our country in this sense use of the satellite images will be unavoidable. In this study explain to how is acquired to satellite images and how is use this images in information systems for object and roads. Firstly, pan-sharpened two of the IKONOS's images have been produced by fusion of high resolution PAN and MS images using PCI Geomatica v9.1 software package. Automatic object extraction has been made using eCognition v4.0.6. On the other hand, these objects have been manually digitized from high resolution images using ArcGIS v9.3. software package. Application section of in this study, satellite images data will be compared each other and GIS objects and road database. It is also determined which data is useful in Geographic Information Systems. Finally, this article explains that integration of remote sensing technology and GIS applications.

  1. Satellite Imagery Cadastral Features Extractions using Image Processing Algorithms: A Viable Option for Cadastral Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Babawuro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are used for feature extraction among other functions. They are used to extract linear features, like roads, etc. These linear features extractions are important operations in computer vision. Computer vision has varied applications in photogrammetric, hydrographic, cartographic and remote sensing tasks. The extraction of linear features or boundaries defining the extents of lands, land covers features are equally important in Cadastral Surveying. Cadastral Surveying is the cornerstone of any Cadastral System. A two dimensional cadastral plan is a model which represents both the cadastral and geometrical information of a two dimensional labeled Image. This paper aims at using and widening the concepts of high resolution Satellite imagery data for extracting representations of cadastral boundaries using image processing algorithms, hence minimizing the human interventions. The Satellite imagery is firstly rectified hence establishing the satellite imagery in the correct orientation and spatial location for further analysis. We, then employ the much available Satellite imagery to extract the relevant cadastral features using computer vision and image processing algorithms. We evaluate the potential of using high resolution Satellite imagery to achieve Cadastral goals of boundary detection and extraction of farmlands using image processing algorithms. This method proves effective as it minimizes the human demerits associated with the Cadastral surveying method, hence providing another perspective of achieving cadastral goals as emphasized by the UN cadastral vision. Finally, as Cadastral science continues to look to the future, this research aimed at the analysis and getting insights into the characteristics and potential role of computer vision algorithms using high resolution satellite imagery for better digital Cadastre that would provide improved socio economic development.

  2. Object Based and Pixel Based Classification Using Rapideye Satellite Imager of ETI-OSA, Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Oluwafunmilayo Makinde; Ayobami Taofeek Salami; James Bolarinwa Olaleye; Oluwapelumi Comfort Okewusi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out to find an appropriate method to classify the remote sensing data. Traditional classification approaches are all pixel-based, and do not utilize the spatial information within an object which is an important source of information to image classification. Thus, this study compared the pixel based and object based classification algorithms using RapidEye satellite image of Eti-Osa LGA, Lagos. In the object-oriented approach, the image was segmented to homog...

  3. Developing an efficient technique for satellite image denoising and resolution enhancement for improving classification accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaswamy, Sree Sharmila; Kadarkarai, Ramar; Thangaswamy, Sree Renga Raja

    2013-01-01

    Satellite images are corrupted by noise during image acquisition and transmission. The removal of noise from the image by attenuating the high-frequency image components removes important details as well. In order to retain the useful information, improve the visual appearance, and accurately classify an image, an effective denoising technique is required. We discuss three important steps such as image denoising, resolution enhancement, and classification for improving accuracy in a noisy image. An effective denoising technique, hybrid directional lifting, is proposed to retain the important details of the images and improve visual appearance. The discrete wavelet transform based interpolation is developed for enhancing the resolution of the denoised image. The image is then classified using a support vector machine, which is superior to other neural network classifiers. The quantitative performance measures such as peak signal to noise ratio and classification accuracy show the significance of the proposed techniques.

  4. Identification of urushi coated films taken from ancient Buddha images by using PIXE, FT-IR, and organic elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemori, N.; Umemura, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Inoue, M.; Kawai, S. [Wood Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Yano, K. [Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Uenokouen, Tokyo (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical Univ., Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, S. [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [Kyoto National Museum, Higashiyama, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Six types of samples including urushi, urushi tree and black coating films taken from ancient Buddha images were examined by analyses of PIXE, organic element and FT-IR to identify with urushi or another material. Based on the results of three analytical experiments above mentioned, the coating materials aging over hundreds of years were identified with weathered urushi films mixed with other material. Further investigation may reveal the urushi coating techniques used in the past. (author)

  5. Automatic Open Space Area Extraction and Change Detection from High Resolution Urban Satellite Images

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithm to find out the open space area from the high resolution urban satellite imagery, and to detect changes from the extracted open space area during the period 2003, 2006 and 2008. This automatic extraction and change detection algorithm uses some filters, segmentation and grouping that are applied on satellite images. The resultant images may be used to calculate the total available open space area and the built up area. It may also be used to compare the difference between present and past open space area using historical urban satellite images of that same projection, which is an important geo spatial data management application.

  6. Contrast enhanced IR-SSFP examination compared with T1-weighted turbo spin-echo imaging of cardiac tumors and tumorlike lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauner, K.U., E-mail: Kerstin.Bauner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals - Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Sandner, T.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals - Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schmoeckel, M. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospitals - Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Reiser, M.F.; Huber, A.M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals - Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To show that the use of an early and delayed contrast enhanced multislice inversion recovery steady state free precession (SS-IR-SSFP) is a valuable substitute for conventional post-contrast fat saturated turbo spin-echo (TSE) T1-weighted images in the assessment of cardiac tumors. Materials and methods: 34 consecutive patients referred for MRI in order to assess cardiac tumors were examined. Shortly after administration of gadopenetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) images were obtained using a SS-IR-SSFP sequence. The inversion time (TI) was set at 350 ms to achieve a good demarcation of intracavitary tumor spread. Hereafter 9 slices of a T1w TSE sequence were obtained. Finally a SS-IR-SSFP sequence with an optimized TI to null normal myocardium was employed. Quantitative comparisons were performed by calculating contrast to noise ratios of tumor/myocardium (CNR{sub tumor/myo}) and CNR of tumor/left ventricular cavity (CNR{sub tumor/LVC}). Image quality was assessed regarding overall image quality, artifacts and tumor conspicuity. Results: Neither calculation of CNR{sub tumor/LVC} when comparing the early IR-SSFP and T1w TSE, nor calculation of CNR{sub tumor/myo} when comparing the late IR-SSFP and T1w TSE sequence resulted in statistically significant differences. However, qualitative assessments revealed significant superior results for the early and the late IR-SSFP images compared to the T1-weighted TSE images (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Image quality and tumor conspicuity were superior and image degradation by artifacts was less on IR-SSFP images compared to TSE images without loss of CNR. Thus the use of IR-SSFP sequences is an attractive alternative imaging method compared to post-contrast T1w TSE imaging in the assessment of cardiac tumors.

  7. Gemini Planet Imager Observational Calibrations VIII: Characterization and Role of Satellite Spots

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jason J; Graham, James R; Savransky, Dmitry; Ingraham, Patrick J; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Patience, Jennifer; De Rosa, Robert J; Bulger, Joanna; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall D; Thomas, Sandrine J; Sadakuni, Naru; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Pueyo, Laurent; Marois, Christian; Oppenheimer, Ben R; Kalas, Paul; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) combines extreme adaptive optics, an integral field spectrograph, and a high performance coronagraph to directly image extrasolar planets in the near-infrared. Because the coronagraph blocks most of the light from the star, it prevents the properties of the host star from being measured directly. Instead, satellite spots, which are created by diffraction from a square grid in the pupil plane, can be used to locate the star and extract its spectrum. We describe the techniques implemented into the GPI Data Reduction Pipeline to measure the properties of the satellite spots and discuss the precision of the reconstructed astrometry and spectrophotometry of the occulted star. We find the astrometric precision of the satellite spots in an $H$-band datacube to be $0.05$ pixels and is best when individual satellite spots have a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of $> 20$. In regards to satellite spot spectrophotometry, we find that the total flux from the satellite spots is stable to $\\sim 7\\...

  8. GPU Accelerated Automated Feature Extraction From Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Phani Tejaswi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The availability of large volumes of remote sensing data insists on higher degree of automation in featureextraction, making it a need of thehour. Fusingdata from multiple sources, such as panchromatic,hyperspectraland LiDAR sensors, enhances the probability of identifying and extracting features such asbuildings, vegetation or bodies of water by using a combination of spectral and elevation characteristics.Utilizing theaforementioned featuresin remote sensing is impracticable in the absence ofautomation.Whileefforts are underway to reduce human intervention in data processing, this attempt alone may notsuffice. Thehuge quantum of data that needs to be processed entailsaccelerated processing to be enabled.GPUs, which were originally designed to provide efficient visualization,arebeing massively employed forcomputation intensive parallel processing environments. Image processing in general and hence automatedfeatureextraction, is highly computation intensive, where performance improvements have a direct impacton societal needs. In this context, an algorithm has been formulated for automated feature extraction froma panchromatic or multispectral image based on image processing techniques.Two Laplacian of Guassian(LoGmasks were applied on the image individually followed by detection of zero crossing points andextracting the pixels based on their standard deviationwiththe surrounding pixels. The two extractedimages with different LoG masks were combined together which resulted in an image withthe extractedfeatures and edges.Finally the user is at liberty to apply the image smoothing step depending on the noisecontent in the extracted image.The image ispassed through a hybrid median filter toremove the salt andpepper noise from the image.This paper discusses theaforesaidalgorithmforautomated featureextraction, necessity of deployment of GPUs for thesame;system-level challenges and quantifies thebenefits of integrating GPUs in such environment. The

  9. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration of wetlands vegetation habitats retrieved from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Budzynska, M.; Kowalik, W.; Turlej, K.

    2010-08-01

    The research has been carried out in Biebrza Ramsar Convention test site situated in the N-E part of Poland. Data from optical and microwave satellite images have been analysed and compared to the detailed soil-vegetation ground truth measurements conducted during the satellite overpasses. Satellite data applied for the study include: ENVISAT.ASAR, ENVISAT.MERIS, ALOS.PALSAR, ALOS.AVNIR-2, ALOS.PRISM, TERRA.ASTER, and NOAA.AVHRR. Optical images have been used for classification of wetlands vegetation habitats and vegetation surface roughness expressed by LAI. Also, heat fluxes have been calculated using NOAA.AVHRR data and meteorological data. Microwave images have been used for the assessment of soil moisture. For each of the classified wetlands vegetation habitats the relationship between soil moisture and backscattering coefficient has been examined, and the best combination of microwave variables (wave length, incidence angle, polarization) has been used for mapping and monitoring of soil moisture. The results of this study give possibility to improve models of water cycle over wetlands ecosystems by adding information about soil moisture and surface heat fluxes derived from satellite images. Such information is very essential for better protection of the European sensitive wetland ecosystems. ENVISAT and ALOS images have been obtained from ESA for AO ID 122 and AOALO.3742 projects.

  10. Detecting aircrafts from satellite images using saliency and conical pyramid based template representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIK BANERJEE; NITIN GUPTA; SUKHENDU DAS; PINAKI ROY CHOWDHURY; L K SINHA

    2016-10-01

    Automatic target localization in satellite images still remains as a challenging problem in the field of computer vision. The issues involved in locating targets in satellite images are viewpoint, spectral (intensity) and scale variations. Diversity in background texture and target clutter also adds up to the complexity of the problem of localizing aircrafts in satellite images. Failure of modern feature extraction and object detection methods highlight the complexity of the problem. In the proposed work, pre-processing techniques, viz.denoising and contrast enhancement, are first used to improve the quality of the images. Then, the concept of unsupervised saliency is used to detect the potential regions of interest, which reduces the search space. Parts from the salient regions are further processed using clustering and morphological processing to get the probable regions of isolated aircraft targets. Finally, a novel conical pyramid based framework for template representation of the target samples is proposed for matching. Experimental results shown on a few satellite images exhibit the superior performance of the proposed methods.

  11. Optimization of post-classification processing of high-resolution satellite image: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Rencai; DONG; Jiajia; WU; Gang; DENG; Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    The application of remote sensing monitoring techniques plays a crucial role in evaluating and governing the vast amount of ecological construction projects in China. However, extracting information of ecological engineering target through high-resolution satellite image is arduous due to the unique topography and complicated spatial pattern on the Loess Plateau of China. As a result, enhancing classification accuracy is a huge challenge to high-resolution image processing techniques. Image processing techniques have a definitive effect on image properties and the selection of different parameters may change the final classification accuracy during post-classification processing. The common method of eliminating noise and smoothing image is majority filtering. However, the filter function may modify the original classified image and the final accuracy. The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and accurate post-processing technique for acquiring information of soil and water conservation engineering, on the Loess Plateau of China, using SPOT image with 2.5 rn resolution. We argue that it is vital to optimize satellite image filtering parameters for special areas and purposes, which focus on monitoring ecological construction projects. We want to know how image filtering influences final classified results and which filtering kernel is optimum. The study design used a series of window sizes to filter the original classified image, and then assess the accuracy of each output map and image quality. We measured the relationship between filtering window size and classification accuracy, and optimized the post-processing techniques of SPOT5satellite images. We conclude that (1) smoothing with the majority filter is sensitive to the information accuracy of soil and water conservation engineering, and (2) for SPOT5 2.5 m image, the 5×5 pixel majority filter is most suitable kernel for extracting information of ecological construction sites in the Loess Plateau of

  12. Quantitative thermal wave phase imaging of an IR semi-transparent GaAs wafer using IR lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Michal; Streza, Mihaela; Morari, Cristian; Strzałkowski, Karol; Depriester, Michael; Chirtoc, Mihai

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient of an IR semi-transparent GaAs wafer using infrared lock-in thermography technique (LIT) is presented. The method relies on analysis of the generated LIT phase images recorded at different modulation frequencies, using the thermal wave model in the transmission configuration. The out-of-plane thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient are estimated from the best fit of the theoretical model to the experimental data. The obtained values are in good agreement with those obtained by supplementary measurement using the modulated photothermal infrared radiometry technique (PTR) in the reflection mode, and also with data reported in the literature. In addition, simple modification of the LIT experiment set up allows one to determinate the in-plane thermal diffusivity of n-GaAs wafer. It was found that in-plane and out-of-plane thermal diffusivities of the GaAs wafer are very close, as expected, within the limit of measurement errors. The results show that the LIT technique in transmission configuration can provide spatial information about both the (effective) infrared absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of semiconductor crystals.

  13. Effect of satellite formations and imaging modes on global albedo estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; Miller, David W.; de Weck, Olivier L.

    2016-05-01

    We confirm the applicability of using small satellite formation flight for multi-angular earth observation to retrieve global, narrow band, narrow field-of-view albedo. The value of formation flight is assessed using a coupled systems engineering and science evaluation model, driven by Model Based Systems Engineering and Observing System Simulation Experiments. Albedo errors are calculated against bi-directional reflectance data obtained from NASA airborne campaigns made by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer for the seven major surface types, binned using MODIS' land cover map - water, forest, cropland, grassland, snow, desert and cities. A full tradespace of architectures with three to eight satellites, maintainable orbits and imaging modes (collective payload pointing strategies) are assessed. For an arbitrary 4-sat formation, changing the reference, nadir-pointing satellite dynamically reduces the average albedo error to 0.003, from 0.006 found in the static referencecase. Tracking pre-selected waypoints with all the satellites reduces the average error further to 0.001, allows better polar imaging and continued operations even with a broken formation. An albedo error of 0.001 translates to 1.36 W/m2 or 0.4% in Earth's outgoing radiation error. Estimation errors are found to be independent of the satellites' altitude and inclination, if the nadir-looking is changed dynamically. The formation satellites are restricted to differ in only right ascension of planes and mean anomalies within slotted bounds. Three satellites in some specific formations show average albedo errors of less than 2% with respect to airborne, ground data and seven satellites in any slotted formation outperform the monolithic error of 3.6%. In fact, the maximum possible albedo error, purely based on angular sampling, of 12% for monoliths is outperformed by a five-satellite formation in any slotted arrangement and an eight satellite formation can bring that error down four fold to 3%. More than

  14. Digital image processing for the earth resources technology satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, P. M.; Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of digital processing of the large volumes of multispectral image data that are expected to be received from the ERTS program. Correction of geometric and radiometric distortions are discussed and a byte oriented implementation is proposed. CPU timing estimates are given for a System/360 Model 67, and show that a processing throughput of 1000 image sets per week is feasible.

  15. IR-images of PV-modules with potential induced degradation (PID) correlated to monitored string power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerhop, Claudia; Pickel, Tobias; Blumberg, Tiberius; Adams, Jens; Wrana, Simon; Dalsass, Manuel; Zetzmann, Cornelia; Camus, Christian; Hauch, Jens; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-09-01

    Many PV-plants suffer from potential induced degradation (PID) which causes severe power reduction of installed PVmodules. Fast and reliable methods to detect PID and evaluate the impact on the module performance are gaining importance. Drone-assisted IR-inspection is a suitable method. PID affected modules are detected by their characteristic IR-fingerprint, modules with differing number of slightly heated cells occur more frequently at the negative string end. These modules show a degraded IV-curve, lowered Voc and Isc, and electroluminescence (EL)-images with suspicious, dark cells. Also, the measured string power is reduced. For a first quantitative data evaluation the suspicious cell are counted in the IR-images and correlated with the module power. A linear decrease of the module power with increasing number of suspicious cells results. A correlation function for estimating the module power was deduced, which has a mean deviation of less than 7%. This correlation function allows an acceptable approximation of the string power.

  16. Quaternary and secondary structural imaging of a human hair by a VSFG-detected IR super-resolution microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Makoto, E-mail: makotos@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kikuchi, Katsuya [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Masaaki, E-mail: mfujii@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► IR super-resolution image of cross section of a human black hair were measured. ► For the amide III band, human hair gave strong VSFG signals at the cortex area. ► Distribution of α-helix based quaternary structure of keratin proteins was observed. ► The VSFG signal disappeared completely when the amide I band was monitored. ► The α-helix of keratin proteins is well aligned along the axial direction in hair. - Abstract: IR super-resolution images of cross sections of a human black hair were measured by using a home-made vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) detected IR microscope in the 6–9 μm region with a sub-micrometer spatial resolution. For the amide III band, the sample gave clear strong signals at the cortex area. This enabled us to measure the distribution of intermediate filaments, which have an α-helix based quaternary structure of keratin proteins in the hair. On the other hand, the VSFG signal disappeared completely when the amide I band was monitored by the same polarization of incident light. From the polarization dependence of VSFG, it is concluded that the α-helix of keratin proteins are well aligned along the axial direction in human hair.

  17. Pre-processing Algorithm for Rectification of Geometric Distortions in Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Panigrahi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of algorithms have been reported to process and remove geometric distortions in satellite images. Ortho-correction, geometric error correction, radiometric error removal, etc are a few important examples. These algorithm require supplementary meta-information of the satellite images such as ground control points and correspondence, sensor orientation details, elevation profile of the terrain, etc to establish corresponding transformations. In this paper, a pre-processing algorithm has been proposed which removes systematic distortions of a satellite image and thereby removes the blank portion of the image. It is an input-to-output mapping of image pixels, where the transformation computes the coordinate of each output pixel corresponding to the input pixel of an image. The transformation is established by the exact amount of scaling, rotation and translation needed for each pixel in the input image so that the distortion induced during the recording stage is corrected.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.174-179, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.421

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN THE FOURIER TRANSFORM-IMAGING SPECTROMETERS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artiukhina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers basic model parameters of a static imaging Fourier spectrometer for Earth remote sensing from space. Design of the imaging spectrometer model has been developed and images have been obtained in the paper. The images have made it possible to determine such parameters as ratio of signal/ noise, frequency/contrast characteristic and spectral coincidence of reconstructed images.

  19. A fast and automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongshun; He, Hui; Xiao, Hongyu; Huang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fast and fully automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images. First, the overlapped rectangle is computed according to geographical locations of the reference and mosaic images and feature points on both the reference and mosaic images are extracted by a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm only from the overlapped region. Then, the RANSAC method is used to match feature points of both images. Finally, the two images are fused into a seamlessly panoramic image by the simple linear weighted fusion method or other method. The proposed method is implemented in C++ language based on OpenCV and GDAL, and tested by Worldview-2 multispectral images with a spatial resolution of 2 meters. Results show that the proposed method can detect feature points efficiently and mosaic images automatically.

  20. Multiangle Bistatic SAR Imaging and Fusion Based on BeiDou-2 Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BSAR based on the Global Navigation Service System (GNSSBSAR uses navigation satellites as radar transmitters, which are low in cost. However, GNSS-BSAR images have poor resolution and low Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR. In this paper, a multiangle observation and data processing strategy are presented based on BeiDou-2 navigation satellite imagery, from which twenty-six BSAR images in different configurations are obtained. A region-based fusion algorithm using region of interest segmentation is proposed, and a high-quality fusion image is obtained. The results reveal that the multiangle imaging method can extend the applications of GNSS-BSAR.

  1. Wave Period and Coastal Bathymetry Estimations from Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo, Celine; Melgani, Farid

    2016-08-01

    We present an approach for wave period and coastal water depth estimation. The approach based on wave observations, is entirely independent of ancillary data and can theoretically be applied to SAR or optical images. In order to demonstrate its feasibility we apply our method to more than 50 Sentinel-1A images of the Hawaiian Islands, well-known for its long waves. Six wave buoys are available to compare our results with in-situ measurements. The results on Sentinel-1A images show that half of the images were unsuitable for applying the method (no swell or wavelength too small to be captured by the SAR). On the other half, 78% of the estimated wave periods are in accordance with buoy measurements. In addition, we present preliminary results of the estimation of the coastal water depth on a Landsat-8 image (with characteristics close to Sentinel-2A). With a squared correlation coefficient of 0.7 for ground truth measurement, this approach reveals promising results for monitoring coastal bathymetry.

  2. 基于模糊理论的红外图像滤波%IR Image Filtering Based on Fuzzy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史彩成; 赵保军; 韩月秋; 毛二可

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm of IR image filtering based on fuzzy using IR image spatial correlation.The algorithm has small operand and convenient for real-time image processing,solves the defect of general image filtering.The experimental results showed that the algorithm can filter singular points and remain fixity of the target edge.%利用图像的空间相关性,提出了一种基于模糊理论的图像智能滤波方法。此方法具有运算量小和便于图像实时处理等特点,同时避免了常用滤波方法的缺陷。实验表明:基于模糊理论的图像智能滤波方法比常规图像滤波方法运算量小,它既能去除奇异点,又能保持图像中目标的边缘不变性,具有很好的滤波效果。

  3. Attitude motion compensation for imager on Fengyun-4 geostationary meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wang; Dai, Shoulun; Dong, Yaohai; Shen, Yili; Song, Xiaozheng; Wang, Tianshu

    2017-09-01

    A compensation method is used in Chinese Fengyun-4 satellite to counteracting the line-of-sight influence by attitude motion during imaging. The method is acted on-board by adding the compensation amount to the instrument scanning control circuit. The mathematics simulation and the three-axis air-bearing test results show that the method works effectively.

  4. Collection of road traffic information from satellite images and digital map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    There have been many reports on the analysis of the Earth's surface by remote sensing. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic information, and we have been studying methods of collecting traffic information by remote sensing. To collect traffic information, sensors installed on the roadside are frequently used. However, methods using sensors only collect information around the positions of the sensors. In this study, we attempt to solve this problem by using satellite images, which have recently become increasingly available. We propose a method of collecting traffic information over a large area using satellite images as well as three-dimensional digital maps. We assess traffic conditions by computing the number of edges of vehicles per road section as follows. First, the edges of vehicles are detected in satellite images. During this processing, three-dimensional digital maps are used to increase the accuracy of vehicle edge detection. The number of vehicles per road section, which is computed from the number of edges of vehicles, is computed and referred to as the vehicle density. Traffic conditions can be assessed from the vehicle density and are considered useful for collecting information on traffic congestion. In this study, we experimentally confirm that congested roads can be extracted from satellite images by our method.

  5. Vegetation Cover Change in Yellowstone National Park Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Results from Landsat satellite image analysis since 1987 in all unburned areas (since the 1880s) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) showed that consistent decreases in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been strongly dependent on periodic variations in peak annual snow water equivalents (SWE).

  6. The Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer: An Imaging Mid-IR Spectrometer for the Marco Polo NEO Sample Return Cosmic Vision Candidate Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S.; Reininger, F.; Green, S. F.; Mortimer, H.

    2009-03-01

    We describe the Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer (ATMS) instrument, a compact imaging mid-IR Fourier transform spectrometer currently being developed at the University of Oxford for NEO remote sensing applications.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wieland; Massimiliano Pittore

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS) and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos) multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognitio...

  8. Mapping land cover from satellite images: A basic, low cost approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elifrits, C. D.; Barney, T. W.; Barr, D. J.; Johannsen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive methodologies developed for mapping general land cover and land use categories from LANDSAT images are reported. One methodology, a stepwise, interpretive, direct tracing technique was developed through working with university students from different disciplines with no previous experience in satellite image interpretation. The technique results in maps that are very accurate in relation to actual land cover and relative to the small investment in skill, time, and money needed to produce the products.

  9. Extraction of DTM from Satellite Images Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a way to generate a Digital Terrain Model (dtm) from a Digital Surface Model (dsm) and multi spectral images (including the Near Infrared (nir) color band). An Artificial Neural Network (ann) is used to pre-classify the dsm and multi spectral images. This in turn is used to filter the dsm to a dtm. The use of an ann as a classifier provided good results. Additionally, the addition of the nir color band resulted in an improvement of the accuracy of the classifier. Using th...

  10. Climatic potential productivity and an IRS-1CWiFS image in Natural Park Los Alcornocales. Relationship with the standing forest biomass; Productividad Potencial Climatica y una imagen IRS-1CWiFS en el Parque Natural Los Alcornocales. Relacion con la biomasa forestal real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.; Roldan, A.; Huesca, M.

    2009-07-01

    It is studied the use of the Map of Forest Potential Productivity of Spain as information in base to which classify an Indian IRS-1C WiFS satellite image in Los Alcornocales Natural Park (Andalucia, Spain), a large forest area covered by natural forests of Mediterranean broad-leaved species, mainly cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Grouping the classes of climatic potential productivity of this map were obtained three macro classes that resulted significantly different among them at the 99% confidence level for the visible and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the WiFS image. It was built a classifier using these macro classes of climatic potential productivity as ground truth areas. By maximum likelihood supervised classification of the NDVI were obtained classes who resulted significantly different among them at the 90% confidence level for the basal area from the Second Spanish National Forest Inventory ground plots located in the park. (Author) 60 refs.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging research in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and satellite-based networking implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourette, Matthew T; Siebert, James E; Barto, Robert J; Marable, Kenneth L; Muyepa, Anthony; Hammond, Colleen A; Potchen, Michael J; Kampondeni, Samuel D; Taylor, Terrie E

    2011-08-01

    As part of an NIH-funded study of malaria pathogenesis, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging research facility was established in Blantyre, Malaŵi to enhance the clinical characterization of pediatric patients with cerebral malaria through application of neurological MR methods. The research program requires daily transmission of MR studies to Michigan State University (MSU) for clinical research interpretation and quantitative post-processing. An intercontinental satellite-based network was implemented for transmission of MR image data in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, research data collection, project communications, and remote systems administration. Satellite Internet service costs limited the bandwidth to symmetrical 384 kbit/s. DICOM routers deployed at both the Malaŵi MRI facility and MSU manage the end-to-end encrypted compressed data transmission. Network performance between DICOM routers was measured while transmitting both mixed clinical MR studies and synthetic studies. Effective network latency averaged 715 ms. Within a mix of clinical MR studies, the average transmission time for a 256 × 256 image was ~2.25 and ~6.25 s for a 512 × 512 image. Using synthetic studies of 1,000 duplicate images, the interquartile range for 256 × 256 images was [2.30, 2.36] s and [5.94, 6.05] s for 512 × 512 images. Transmission of clinical MRI studies between the DICOM routers averaged 9.35 images per minute, representing an effective channel utilization of ~137% of the 384-kbit/s satellite service as computed using uncompressed image file sizes (including the effects of image compression, protocol overhead, channel latency, etc.). Power unreliability was the primary cause of interrupted operations in the first year, including an outage exceeding 10 days.

  12. Simultaneous hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of satellite images through combined data sampling and anisotropic triangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [PNNL

    2010-10-21

    The automatic detection, recognition , and segmentation of object classes in remote sensed images is of crucial importance for scene interpretation and understanding. However, it is a difficult task because of the high variability of satellite data. Indeed, the observed scenes usually exhibit a high degree of complexity, where complexity refers to the large variety of pictorial representations of objects with the same semantic meaning and also to the extensive amount of available det.ails. Therefore, there is still a strong demand for robust techniques for automatic information extraction and interpretation of satellite images. In parallel, there is a growing interest in techniques that can extract vector features directly from such imagery. In this paper, we investigate the problem of automatic hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of multispectral satellite images. We propose a new algorithm composed of the following steps: (i) a non-uniform sampling scheme extracting most salient pixels in the image, (ii) an anisotropic triangulation constrained by the sampled pixels taking into account both strength and directionality of local structures present in the image, (iii) a polygonal grouping scheme merging, through techniques based on perceptual information , the obtained segments to a smaller quantity of superior vectorial objects. Besides its computational efficiency, this approach provides a meaningful polygonal representation for subsequent image analysis and/or interpretation.

  13. 3D mapping from high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, D.; Georgopoulos, A.; Sarakenos, A.; Paraschou, Ch.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years 3D information has become more easily available. Users' needs are constantly increasing, adapting to this reality and 3D maps are in more demand. 3D models of the terrain in CAD or other environments have already been common practice; however one is bound by the computer screen. This is why contemporary digital methods have been developed in order to produce portable and, hence, handier 3D maps of various forms. This paper deals with the implementation of the necessary procedures to produce holographic 3D maps and three dimensionally printed maps. The main objective is the production of three dimensional maps from high resolution aerial and/or satellite imagery with the use of holography and but also 3D printing methods. As study area the island of Antiparos was chosen, as there were readily available suitable data. These data were two stereo pairs of Geoeye-1 and a high resolution DTM of the island. Firstly the theoretical bases of holography and 3D printing are described, and the two methods are analyzed and there implementation is explained. In practice a x-axis parallax holographic map of the Antiparos Island is created and a full parallax (x-axis and y-axis) holographic map is created and printed, using the holographic method. Moreover a three dimensional printed map of the study area has been created using 3dp (3d printing) method. The results are evaluated for their usefulness and efficiency.

  14. Automatic Detection of Clouds and Shadows Using High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Detecting clouds and their shadows is one of the primaries steps to perform when processing satellite images because they may alter the quality of some products such as large-area orthomosaics. The main goal of this paper is to present the automatic method developed at IGN-France for detecting clouds and shadows in a sequence of satellite images. In our work, surface reflectance orthoimages are used. They were processed from initial satellite images using a dedicated software. The cloud detection step consists of a region-growing algorithm. Seeds are firstly extracted. For that purpose and for each input ortho-image to process, we select the other ortho-images of the sequence that intersect it. The pixels of the input ortho-image are secondly labelled seeds if the difference of reflectance (in the blue channel) with overlapping ortho-images is bigger than a given threshold. Clouds are eventually delineated using a region-growing method based on a radiometric and homogeneity criterion. Regarding the shadow detection, our method is based on the idea that a shadow pixel is darker when comparing to the other images of the time series. The detection is basically composed of three steps. Firstly, we compute a synthetic ortho-image covering the whole study area. Its pixels have a value corresponding to the median value of all input reflectance ortho-images intersecting at that pixel location. Secondly, for each input ortho-image, a pixel is labelled shadows if the difference of reflectance (in the NIR channel) with the synthetic ortho-image is below a given threshold. Eventually, an optional region-growing step may be used to refine the results. Note that pixels labelled clouds during the cloud detection are not used for computing the median value in the first step; additionally, the NIR input data channel is used to perform the shadow detection, because it appeared to better discriminate shadow pixels. The method was tested on times series of Landsat 8 and Pl

  15. Automatic cloud detection for high resolution satellite stereo images and its application in terrain extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng; Hu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Lulin; Tao, Pengjie; Lu, Luping

    2016-11-01

    The automatic extraction of terrain from high-resolution satellite optical images is very difficult under cloudy conditions. Therefore, accurate cloud detection is necessary to fully use the cloud-free parts of images for terrain extraction. This paper addresses automated cloud detection by introducing an image matching based method under a stereo vision framework, and the optimization usage of non-cloudy areas in stereo matching and the generation of digital surface models (DSMs). Given that clouds are often separated from the terrain surface, cloudy areas are extracted by integrating dense matching DSM, worldwide digital elevation model (DEM) (i.e., shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM)) and gray information from the images. This process consists of the following steps: an image based DSM is firstly generated through a multiple primitive multi-image matcher. Once it is aligned with the reference DEM based on common features, places with significant height differences between the DSM and the DEM will suggest the potential cloud covers. Detecting cloud at these places in the images then enables precise cloud delineation. In the final step, elevations of the reference DEM within the cloud covers are assigned to the corresponding region of the DSM to generate a cloud-free DEM. The proposed approach is evaluated with the panchromatic images of the Tianhui satellite and has been successfully used in its daily operation. The cloud detection accuracy for images without snow is as high as 95%. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly improve the usage of the cloudy panchromatic satellite images for terrain extraction.

  16. Topic Modelling for Object-Based Unsupervised Classification of VHR Panchromatic Satellite Images Based on Multiscale Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a key prerequisite for object-based classification. However, it is often difficult, or even impossible, to determine a unique optimal segmentation scale due to the fact that various geo-objects, and even an identical geo-object, present at multiple scales in very high resolution (VHR satellite images. To address this problem, this paper presents a novel unsupervised object-based classification for VHR panchromatic satellite images using multiple segmentations via the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA model. Firstly, multiple segmentation maps of the original satellite image are produced by means of a common multiscale segmentation technique. Then, the LDA model is utilized to learn the grayscale histogram distribution for each geo-object and the mixture distribution of geo-objects within each segment. Thirdly, the histogram distribution of each segment is compared with that of each geo-object using the Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence measure, which is weighted with a constraint specified by the mixture distribution of geo-objects. Each segment is allocated a geo-object category label with the minimum KL divergence. Finally, the final classification map is achieved by integrating the multiple classification results at different scales. Extensive experimental evaluations are designed to compare the performance of our method with those of some state-of-the-art methods for three different types of images. The experimental results over three different types of VHR panchromatic satellite images demonstrate the proposed method is able to achieve scale-adaptive classification results, and improve the ability to differentiate the geo-objects with spectral overlap, such as water and grass, and water and shadow, in terms of both spatial consistency and semantic consistency.

  17. Building identification from very high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Stephane

    Urbanisation still remains one of the main problems worldwide. The extent and rapidity of the urban growth induce a number of socio-economic and environmental conflicts everywhere. In order to reduce these problems, urban planners need to integrate spatial information in planning tools. Actually high expectations are made on Very High Spatial Resolution imagery (VHSR). These high-spatial resolution images are available at a reasonable price and due to short revisit periods, they offer a high degree of actuality. However, interpretation methods seem not to be adapted to this new type of images. The aim of our study is to develop a new method for semi-automatic building extraction with VHSR. The different steps performed to achieve our objective are each presented in a chapter. In the first chapter, the general context of our research is described with the definition of our objective. After a short historical review of urbanisation, we focus on urban growth and associated problems. In the following we discuss the possible contributions of geography to reduce these problems. After discussing concepts, theories and methodologies of geographical analysis in urban areas, we present existing general urban planning tools. Finally, we show the special interest of our study that is due to a growing need to integrate spatial information in these decision support tools. In the second chapter we verify the possibility of reaching our objective by analysing the technical characteristics of the images, the noise and the distortions which affect the images. Quality and interpretability of the studied image is analysed in order to show the capacity of these image to represent urban objects as close to reality as possible. The results confirm the potential of VHSR Imagery for urban objects analysis. The third chapter deal with the preliminary steps necessary for the elaboration of our method of building extraction. First, we evaluate the quality of the Sherbrooke Ikonos image

  18. Composite multi-lobe descriptor for cross spectral face recognition: matching active IR to visible light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2015-05-01

    Matching facial images across electromagnetic spectrum presents a challenging problem in the field of biometrics and identity management. An example of this problem includes cross spectral matching of active infrared (IR) face images or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. This paper describes a new operator named Composite Multi-Lobe Descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction in cross spectral matching of near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) against visible light images. The new operator is inspired by the design of ordinal measures. The operator combines Gaussian-based multi-lobe kernel functions, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), generalized LBP (GLBP) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) and modifies them into multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods. The new operator encodes both the magnitude and phase responses of Gabor filters. The combining of LBP and WLD utilizes both the orientation and intensity information of edges. Introduction of multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods further makes the proposed operator robust against noise and poor image quality. Output templates are transformed into histograms and then compared by means of a symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric resulting in a matching score. The performance of the multi-lobe descriptor is compared with that of other operators such as LBP, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), ordinal measures, and their combinations. The experimental results show that in many cases the proposed method, CMLD, outperforms the other operators and their combinations. In addition to different infrared spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated in this paper. Performance of CMLD is evaluated for of each of the three cases of distances.

  19. SHADOW DETECTION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTON SATELLITE IMAGE USING GRABCUT SEGMENTATION AND RATIO-BAND ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. S. M. Kadhim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Resolution (VHR satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour, the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates

  20. Thermal precursors in satellite images of the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Jonathan; Dean, Kenneson; Engle, Kevin; Izbekov, Pavel

    2002-07-01

    Shishaldin Volcano, Unimak Island Alaska, began showing signs of thermal unrest in satellite images on 9 February 1999. A thermal anomaly and small steam plume were detected at the summit of the volcano in short-wave thermal infrared AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) satellite data. This was followed by over 2 months of changes in the observed thermal character of the volcano. Initially, the thermal anomaly was only visible when the satellite passed nearly directly over the volcano, suggesting a hot source deep in the central crater obscured from more oblique satellite passes. The "zenith angle" needed to see the anomaly increased with time, presumably as the thermal source rose within the conduit. Based on this change, an ascent rate of ca. 14 m per day for the thermal source was estimated, until it reached the summit on around 21 March. It is thought that Strombolian activity began around this time. The precursory activity culminated in a sub-Plinian eruption on 19 April, ejecting ash to over 45,000 ft. (13,700 m). The thermal energy output through the precursory period was calculated based on geometric constraints unique to Shishaldin. These calculations show fluctuations that can be tied to changes in the eruptive character inferred from seismic records and later geologic studies. The remote location of this volcano made satellite images a necessary observation tool for this eruption. To date, this is the longest thermal precursory activity preceding a sub-Plinian eruption recorded by satellite images in the region. This type of thermal monitoring of remote volcanoes is central in the efforts of the Alaska Volcano Observatory to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruption, and mitigate their associated hazards to air-traffic and local residents.

  1. Identification and Quantification of Microplastics in Wastewater Using Focal Plane Array-Based Reflectance Micro-FT-IR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, Alexander S; Sapp, Melanie; Harrison, Jesse P; Ojeda, Jesús J

    2015-06-16

    Microplastics (microplastics in these matrices has not been investigated. Although efficient methods for the analysis of microplastics in sediment samples and marine organisms have been published, no methods have been developed for detecting these pollutants within organic-rich wastewater samples. In addition, there is no standardized method for analyzing microplastics isolated from environmental samples. In many cases, part of the identification protocol relies on visual selection before analysis, which is open to bias. In order to address this, a new method for the analysis of microplastics in wastewater was developed. A pretreatment step using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to remove biogenic material, and focal plane array (FPA)-based reflectance micro-Fourier-transform (FT-IR) imaging was shown to successfully image and identify different microplastic types (polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon-6, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene). Microplastic-spiked wastewater samples were used to validate the methodology, resulting in a robust protocol which was nonselective and reproducible (the overall success identification rate was 98.33%). The use of FPA-based micro-FT-IR spectroscopy also provides a considerable reduction in analysis time compared with previous methods, since samples that could take several days to be mapped using a single-element detector can now be imaged in less than 9 h (circular filter with a diameter of 47 mm). This method for identifying and quantifying microplastics in wastewater is likely to provide an essential tool for further research into the pathways by which microplastics enter the environment.

  2. ARCONS: A 2024 Pixel Optical through Near-IR Cryogenic Imaging Spectrophotometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, B A; Strader, M J; Bumble, B; O'Brien, K; Szypryt, P; Marsden, D; van Eyken, J C; Duggan, G E; Ulbricht, G; Stoughton, C; Johnson, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, construction, and commissioning results of ARCONS, the Array Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry. ARCONS is the first ground-based instrument in the optical through near-IR wavelength range based on Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are revolutionary cryogenic detectors, capable of detecting single photons and measuring their energy without filters or gratings, similar to an X-ray microcalorimeter. MKIDs are nearly ideal, noiseless photon detectors, as they do not suffer from read noise or dark current and have nearly perfect cosmic ray rejection. ARCONS is an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) containing a lens-coupled 2024 pixel MKID array yielding a 20"x20" field of view, and has been deployed on the Palomar 200" and Lick 120" telescopes for 24 nights of observing. We present initial results showing that ARCONS and its MKID arrays are now a fully operational and powerful tool for astronomical observations.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SABOCA NGC 3603 IRS 9A images (Hummel+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, C. A.; Stanke, T.; Galvan-Madrid, R.; Koribalski, B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Observations of NGC 3603 MM2 at 350um with the SABOCA bolometer array attached to the APEX telescope on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile were carried out on September 15, 2011, providing a beam FWHM of 7.8". The precipitable water vapor column was about 0.2mm during the observations, which lasted about 15 minutes for a spiral raster map of about 1.5 arcminutes in radius centered on IRS 9A. (2 data files).

  4. Modifications of the heliostat procedures for irradiance estimates from satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.G.; Costanzo, Claudio; Heinemann, Detlev [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 8 - Physik

    1996-03-01

    Images taken by geostationary satellites may be used to estimate solar irradiance fluxes at the earth`s surface. The Heliostat method is a widely applied procedure for this task. It is based on the empirical correlation between a satellite derived cloud index and the irradiance at the ground. Modifications to this procedure that may reduce the temporal variability of the correlation are presented. The modified method may open the way to the use of a generic relation of cloud index and global irradiance. (author)

  5. An Investigation on Water Quality of Darlik Dam Drinking Water using Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Darlik Dam supplies 15% of the water demand of Istanbul Metropolitan City of Turkey. Water quality (WQ in the Darlik Dam was investigated from Landsat 5 TM satellite images of the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 in order to determine land use/land cover changes in the watershed of the dam that may deteriorate its WQ. The images were geometrically and atmospherically corrected for WQ analysis. Next, an investigation was made by multiple regression analysis between the unitless planetary reflectance values of the first four bands of the June 2005 Landsat TM image of the dam and WQ parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, total dissolved matter, turbidity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen, measured at satellite image acquisition time at seven stations in the dam. Finally, WQ in the dam was studied from satellite images of the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 by pattern recognition techniques in order to determine possible water pollution in the dam. This study was compared to a previous study done by the authors in the Küçükçekmece water reservoir, also in Istanbul City.

  6. Fast segmentation of satellite images using SLIC, WebGL and Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; Gorelick, Noel; Eisemann, Elmar; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a parallel geospatial processing platform, which harmonizes access to petabytes of freely available satellite images. It provides a very rich API, allowing development of dedicated algorithms to extract useful geospatial information from these images. At the same time, modern GPUs provide thousands of computing cores, which are mostly not utilized in this context. In the last years, WebGL became a popular and well-supported API, allowing fast image processing directly in web browsers. In this work, we will evaluate the applicability of WebGL to enable fast segmentation of satellite images. A new implementation of a Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) algorithm using GPU shaders will be presented. SLIC is a simple and efficient method to decompose an image in visually homogeneous regions. It adapts a k-means clustering approach to generate superpixels efficiently. While this approach will be hard to scale, due to a significant amount of data to be transferred to the client, it should significantly improve exploratory possibilities and simplify development of dedicated algorithms for geoscience applications. Our prototype implementation will be used to improve surface water detection of the reservoirs using multispectral satellite imagery.

  7. Improving Sediment Transport Prediction by Assimilating Satellite Images in a Tidal Bay Model of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color data into a numerical model to improve sediment transport prediction in a tide-dominated bay in Hong Kong, Deep Bay. Two sea surface sediment datasets delineated from satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS were assimilated into a coastal ocean model of the bay for one tidal cycle. It was found that remote sensing sediment information enhanced the sediment transport model ability by validating the model results with in situ measurements. Model results showed that root mean square errors of forecast sediment both at the surface layer and the vertical layers from the model with satellite sediment assimilation are reduced by at least 36% over the model without assimilation.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL PROFILE AND GRANULOMETRIC MAPS IN EXTRACTION OF BUILDINGS IN VHR SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupidura Przemysław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the analysis of possibilities of using granulometric analysis methods: the morphological profile, and granulometric maps in detecting buildings on satellite images. It briefly explains the theoretical basis for granulometric analysis of image and compares two methods used in research. Tests were carried out on a fragment of QuickBird satellite scene – pansharpened multispectral image. 8 variants of classification differing in terms of the data and the model of classification were compared. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the different options for classification based on the analysis factor kappa values and omission and commission errors. The results indicate the significant potential of the proposed methods, and analysis of the observed imperfections allows to specify the possible fields of their development

  9. Very High Resolution Satellite Image Classification Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a detailed step-by-step method for classification of very high resolution urban satellite images (VHRSI into specific classes such as road, building, vegetation, etc., using fuzzy logic. In this study, object-based image analysis is used for image classification. The main problems in high resolution image classification are the uncertainties in the position of object borders in satellite images and also multiplex resemblance of the segments to different classes. In order to solve this problem, fuzzy logic is used for image classification, since it provides the possibility of image analysis using multiple parameters without requiring inclusion of certain thresholds in the class assignment process. In this study, an inclusive semi-automatic method for image classification is offered, which presents the configuration of the related fuzzy functions as well as fuzzy rules. The produced results are compared to the results of a normal classification using the same parameters, but with crisp rules. The overall accuracies and kappa coefficients of the presented method stand higher than the check projects.

  10. Sub-wavelength surface IR imaging of soft-condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, James H; Meech, Stephen R; Kuo, Paulina; Vodopyanov, Konstantin; Reading, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Outlined here is a technique for sub-wavelength infrared surface imaging performed using a phase matched optical parametric oscillator laser and an atomic force microscope as the detection mechanism. The technique uses a novel surface excitation illumination approach to perform simultaneously chemical mapping and AFM topography imaging with an image resolution of 200 nm. This method was demonstrated by imaging polystyrene micro-structures.

  11. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  12. Parallel algorithms of relative radiometric correction for images of TH-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Tingtao; Cheng, Jiasheng; Yang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    The first generation of transitive stereo-metric satellites in China, TH-1 Satellite, is able to gain stereo images of three-line-array with resolution of 5 meters, multispectral images of 10 meters, and panchromatic high resolution images of 2 meters. The procedure between level 0 and level 1A of high resolution images is so called relative radiometric correction (RRC for short). The processing algorithm of high resolution images, with large volumes of data, is complicated and time consuming. In order to bring up the processing speed, people in industry commonly apply parallel processing techniques based on CPU or GPU. This article firstly introduces the whole process and each step of the algorithm - that is in application - of RRC for high resolution images in level 0; secondly, the theory and characteristics of MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) parallel programming techniques is briefly described, as well as the superiority for parallel technique in image processing field; thirdly, aiming at each step of the algorithm in application and based on MPI+OpenMP hybrid paradigm, the parallelizability and the strategies of parallelism for three processing steps: Radiometric Correction, Splicing Pieces of TDICCD (Time Delay Integration Charge-Coupled Device) and Gray Level Adjustment among pieces of TDICCD are deeply discussed, and furthermore, deducts the theoretical acceleration rates of each step and the one of whole procedure, according to the processing styles and independence of calculation; for the step Splicing Pieces of TDICCD, two different strategies of parallelism are proposed, which are to be chosen with consideration of hardware capabilities; finally, series of experiments are carried out to verify the parallel algorithms by applying 2-meter panchromatic high resolution images of TH-1 Satellite, and the experimental results are analyzed. Strictly on the basis of former parallel algorithms, the programs in the experiments

  13. Cuckoo search algorithm based satellite image contrast and brightness enhancement using DWT-SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, A K; Soni, V; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a new contrast enhancement approach which is based on Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm and DWT-SVD for quality improvement of the low contrast satellite images. The input image is decomposed into the four frequency subbands through Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and CS algorithm used to optimize each subband of DWT and then obtains the singular value matrix of the low-low thresholded subband image and finally, it reconstructs the enhanced image by applying IDWT. The singular value matrix employed intensity information of the particular image, and any modification in the singular values changes the intensity of the given image. The experimental results show superiority of the proposed method performance in terms of PSNR, MSE, Mean and Standard Deviation over conventional and state-of-the-art techniques. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IR image quality assessment and real-time optimum seeking method based on dynamic visual characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Gang; Gao, Yongmin; Lei, Hao; Wu, Haiying; Wang, Yu; Rong, Xiaolong

    2016-10-01

    Image quality is an important factor that influences the dynamic target information perception; it is the key factor of real-time target state analysis and judgment. In order to solve the multi-observation station comparison and video optimum seeking problem in the process of target information perception and recognition, an image quality assessment method based on visual characteristics is proposed for infrared target tracking. First, it analyses the basic infrared target image characteristics and application requirements, analyses the status and problems of the multi station optimum seeking technology. According to the expected research results, the processing flow of image processing is established. Then, the image quality objective assessment index is established, which reflects the basic characteristics of the target image, and the assessment index is integrated into the normalized assessment function. According to the quality assessment function, the infrared image quality assessment based on infrared target recognition and image analysis processing is realized, which is mainly characterized by the region of interest and dynamic visual characteristics. And on the basis of this technology, the real-time optimum seeking of multi station infrared target tracking image is completed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method and the practical application effect, it designs the quality assessment and comparison of different station infrared images. Example shows that the method proposed in this paper can realize multi-observation station infrared image assessment comparison, image quality sorting, the optimum seeking of the infrared image based on the quality assessment. The results accord with the characteristics of infrared target image and dynamic visual characteristics.

  15. Modeling of solar irradiance using satellite images and direct terrestrial measurements with PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukhov, Igor; Schakhramanyan, Michael; Strebkov, Dmitry; Tikhonov, Anton; Vignola, Frank

    2009-08-01

    A simple, affordable and efficient multifaceted system with technical software programs, "Kosmos 3M", was developed for taking images of the Earth from NOAA satellites and for handling this images and analyzing many geographical and meteorological parameters. Technical software programs have been developed that utilize the "Kosmos 3M" Receiver system. Basic capabilities of the multifaceted "Kosmos 3M" system include: receiving signal from NOAA satellites; digital processing of space images with geographical fixing, superposition of maps of cities and coordinate grid; finding of geographical coordinates at any point of space image; finding of temperature of underlying surface at given points; finding of albedo (reflection coefficient) at any point of space image; finding of upper boundary of clouds (cloudiness); forecasting of dangerous weather phenomena; defining wind fields in cyclones; precipitations forecast; measuring distances between given points; measuring surfaces (areas); and forming of electronic library of images of the Earth. Work is underway to use the "Kosmos 3M" cloudiness images to estimate the incident solar radiation values for evaluating terrestrial solar energy performance in real time. Such kind of system would have a wide variety of uses from the classroom to the field.

  16. Determination of the Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Lands using Multi-temporal Satellite Sensor Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the history, agricultural activities have been performed close to urban areas. Main reason behind this phenomenon is the need of fast marketing of the agricultural production to urban residents and financial provision. Thus, using the areas nearby cities for agricultural activities brings out advantage of easy transportation of productions and fast marketing. For decades, heavy migration to cities has directly and negatively affected natural grasslands, forests and agricultural lands. This pressure has caused agricultural lands to be changed into urban areas. Dense urbanization causes increase in impervious surfaces, heat islands and many other problems in addition to destruction of agricultural lands. Considering the negative impacts of urbanization on agricultural lands and natural resources, a periodic monitoring of these changes becomes indisputably important. At this point, satellite images are known to be good data sources for land cover / use change monitoring with their fast data acquisition, large area coverages and temporal resolution properties. Classification of the satellite images provides thematic the land cover / use maps of the earth surface and changes can be determined with GIS based analysis multi-temporal maps. In this study, effects of heavy urbanization over agricultural lands in Istanbul, metropolitan city of Turkey, were investigated with use of multi-temporal Landsat TM satellite images acquired between 1984 and 2011. Images were geometrically registered to each other and classified using supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Resulting thematic maps were exported to GIS environment and destructed agricultural lands by urbanization were determined using spatial analysis.

  17. Direct Geolocation of Satellite Images with the EO-CFI Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Eduardo; Prado, Elena; Estebanez, Monica; Martin, Ana I.; Gonzalez, Malena

    2016-08-01

    The INTA Remote Sensing Laboratory has implemented a tool for the direct geolocation of satellite images. The core of the tool is a C code based on the "Earth Observation Mission CFI SW" from ESA. The tool accepts different types of inputs for satellite attitude (euler angles, quaternions, default attitude models). Satellite position can be provided either in ECEF or ECI coordinates. The line of sight of each individual detector is imported from an external file or is generated by the tool from camera parameters. Global DEM ACE2 is used to define ground intersection of the LOS.The tool has been already tailored for georeferencing images from the forthcoming Spanish Earth Observation mission SEOSat/Ingenio, and for the camera APIS onboard the INTA cubesat OPTOS. The next step is to configure it for the geolocation of Sentinel 2 L1b images.The tool has been internally validated by different means. This validation shows that the tool is suitable for georeferencing images from high spatial resolution missions. As part of the validation efforts, a code for simulating orbital info for LEO missions using EO-CFI has been produced.

  18. Multi-MHz time-of-flight electronic bandstructure imaging of graphene on Ir(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusche, C., E-mail: c.tusche@fz-juelich.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Goslawski, P.; Engel, D.; Jankowiak, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kutnyakhov, D.; Elmers, H. J.; Chernov, S.; Wallauer, R.; Schönhense, G. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ellguth, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Medjanik, K. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); MAX IV Laboratory, Ole Römers vag 1, 22363 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-06-27

    In the quest for detailed spectroscopic insight into the electronic structure at solid surfaces in a large momentum range, we have developed an advanced experimental approach. It combines the 3D detection scheme of a time-of-flight momentum microscope with an optimized filling pattern of the BESSY II storage ring. Here, comprehensive data sets covering the full surface Brillouin zone have been used to study faint substrate-film hybridization effects in the electronic structure of graphene on Ir(111), revealed by a pronounced linear dichroism in angular distribution. The method paves the way to 3D electronic bandmapping with unprecedented data recording efficiency.

  19. Detection of Burn Area and Severity with MODIS Satellite Images and Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Kavzoglu, T.; Tonbul, H.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of forest fires and implications are one of the most important natural disasters all over the world. Statistical data observed that forest fires had a variable structure in the last century in Turkey, but correspondingly the population growth amount of forest fires and burn area increase widely in recent years. Depending on this, erosion, landslides, desertification and mass loss come into existence. In addition; after forest fires, renewal of forests and vegetation are very important for land management. Classic methods used for detection of burn area and severity requires a long and challenging process due to time and cost factors. Thanks to advanced techniques used in the field of Remote Sensing, burn area and severity can be determined with high detail and precision. The purpose of this study based on blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectradiometer) satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques together, thus detect burn area and severity absolutely. In this context, spatial autocorrelation statistics like Moran's I and Get is-Ord Local Gi indexes were used to measure and analyze to burned area characteristics. Prefire and postfire satellite images were used to determine fire severity depending on spectral indexes corresponding to biomass loss and carbon emissivity intensities. Satellite images have used for identification of fire damages and risks in terms of fire management for a long time. This study was performed using prefire and postfire satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques to determining and analyzing forest fires in Antalya, Turkey region which serious fires occurred. In this context, this approach enables the characterization of distinctive texture of burned area and helps forecasting more precisely. Finally, it is observed that mapping of burned area and severity could be performed from local scale to national scale. Key Words: Spatial autocorrelation, MODIS, Fire, Burn Severity

  20. Foodstuff Survey Around a Major Nuclear Facility with Test of Satellite Image Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-07-16

    'A foodstuff survey was performed around the Savannah River Site, Aiken SC. It included a census of buildings and fields within 5 km of the boundary and determination of the locations and amounts of crops grown within 80 km of SRS center. Recent information for this region was collected on the amounts of meat, poultry, milk, and eggs produced, of deer hunted, and of sports fish caught. The locations and areas devoted to growing each crop were determined in two ways: by the usual process of assuming uniform crop distribution in each county on the basis of agricultural statistics reported by state agencies, and by analysis of two LANDSAT TM images obtained in May and September. For use with environmental radionuclide transfer and radiation dose calculation codes, locations within 80 km were defined for 64 sections by 16 sectors centered on the Site and by 16-km distance intervals from 16 km to 80 km. Most locally-raised foodstuff was distributed regionally and not retained locally for consumption. For four food crops, the amounts per section based on county agricultural statistics prorated by area were compared with the amounts per section based on satellite image analysis. The median ratios of the former to the latter were 0.6 - 0.7, suggesting that the two approaches are comparable but that satellite image analysis gave consistently higher amounts. Use of satellite image analysis is recommended on the basis of these findings to obtain site-specific, as compared to area-averaged, information on crop locations in conjunction with radionuclide pathway modelling. Some improvements in technique are suggested for satellite image application to characterize additional crops.'

  1. NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

    2013-01-12

    Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ≤SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (≤SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

  2. A four class model for digital breast histopathology using high-definition Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shachi; Wrobel, Tomasz P.; Leslie, L. S.; Kadjacsy-Balla, Andre; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-03-01

    High-definition (HD) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that not only enables chemistry-based visualization of tissue constituents, and label free extraction of biochemical information but its higher spatial detail makes it a potentially useful platform to conduct digital pathology. This methodology, along with fast and efficient data analysis, can enable both quantitative and automated pathology. Here we demonstrate a combination of HD FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of breast tissue microarrays (TMAs) with data analysis algorithms to perform histologic analysis. The samples comprise four tissue states, namely hyperplasia, dysplasia, cancerous and normal. We identify various cell types which would act as biomarkers for breast cancer detection and differentiate between them using statistical pattern recognition tools i.e. Random Forest (RF) and Bayesian algorithms. Feature optimization is integrally carried out for the RF algorithm, reducing computation time as well as redundant spectral features. We achieved an order of magnitude reduction in the number of features with comparable prediction accuracy to that of the original feature set. Together, the demonstration of histology and selection of features paves the way for future applications in more complex models and rapid data acquisition.

  3. Image and Processing Models for Satellite Detection in Images Acquired by Space-based Surveillance-of-Space Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    software. Résumé …..... Dans le cadre de la surveillance de l’espace, les objets spatiaux connus en orbite (OSO), i.e., satellites actifs ou débris...SAPPHIRE et NEOSSat. Ce document contient des modèles qui décrivent la formation des images et le processus d’acquisition de capteurs , basés au sol ou dans

  4. Contrail frequency over Europe from NOAA-satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gayler

    Full Text Available Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods September 1979 - December 1981 and September 1989 - August 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 °N (of almost 2% and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2% in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1% in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods, which are separated by one decade, shows there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are found preferentially in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which usually last for more than a day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed.

  5. Contrail frequency over Europe from NOAA-satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, S.; Betancor, M.; Gayler, V.; Graßl, H.

    1994-10-01

    Contrail cloudiness over Europe and the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean was analyzed for the two periods September 1979 - December 1981 and September 1989 - August 1992 by visual inspection of quicklook photographic prints of NOAA/AVHRR infrared images. The averaged contrail cover exhibits maximum values along the transatlantic flight corridor around 50 °N (of almost 2%) and over western Europe resulting in 0.5% contrail cloudiness on average. A strong yearly cycle appears with a maximum (<2%) in spring and summer over the Atlantic and a smaller maximum (<1%) in winter over southwestern Europe. Comparing the two time periods, which are separated by one decade, shows there is a significant decrease in contrail cloudiness over western Europe and a significant increase over the North Atlantic between March and July. Contrail cloud cover during daytime is about twice as high as during nighttime. Contrails are found preferentially in larger fields of 1000 km diameter which usually last for more than a day. Causes, possible errors and consequences are discussed.

  6. A New Method for Wide-Field Near-IR Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Momcheva, Ivelina G; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel B; Mackenty, John; Nelson, Erica J; Leja, Joel; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We present a new technique for wide and shallow observations using the near-infrared channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide-field near-IR surveys with HST are generally inefficient, as guide star acquisitions make it impractical to observe more than one pointing per orbit. This limitation can be circumvented by guiding with gyros alone, which is possible as long as the telescope has three functional gyros. The method presented here allows us to observe mosaics of eight independent WFC3-IR pointings in a single orbit by utilizing the fact that HST drifts by only a very small amount in the 25 seconds between non-destructive reads of unguided exposures. By shifting the reads and treating them as independent exposures the full resolution of WFC3 can be restored. We use this "drift and shift" (DASH) method in the Cycle 23 COSMOS-DASH program, which will obtain 456 WFC3 $H_{160}$ pointings in 57 orbits, covering an area of 0.6 degree$^2$ in the COSMOS field down to $H_{160} ...

  7. GNSS Carrier Phase Integer Ambiguity Resolution with Camera and Satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Ambiguity Resolution is the key to high precision position and attitude determination with GNSS. However, ambiguity resolution of kinematic receivers becomes challenging in environments with substantial multipath, limited satellite availability and erroneous cycle slip corrections. There is a need for other sensors, e.g. inertial sensors that allow an independent prediction of the position. The change of the predicted position over time can then be used for cycle slip detection and correction. In this paper, we provide a method to improve the initial ambiguity resolution for RTK and PPP with vision-based position information. Camera images are correlated with geo-referenced aerial/ satellite images to obtain an independent absolute position information. This absolute position information is then coupled with the GNSS and INS measurements in an extended Kalman filter to estimate the position, velocity, acceleration, attitude, angular rates, code multipath and biases of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. The camera and satellite images are matched based on some characteristic image points (e.g. corners of street markers). We extract these characteristic image points from the camera images by performing the following steps: An inverse mapping (homogenous projection) is applied to transform the camera images from the driver's perspective to bird view. Subsequently, we detect the street markers by performing (a) a color transformation and reduction with adaptive brightness correction to focus on relevant features, (b) a subsequent morphological operation to enhance the structure recognition, (c) an edge and corner detection to extract feature points, and (d) a point matching of the corner points with a template to recognize the street markers. We verified the proposed method with two low-cost u-blox LEA 6T GPS receivers, the MPU9150 from Invensense, the ASCOS RTK corrections and a PointGrey camera. The results show very precise and seamless position and attitude

  8. Fusion between Satellite and Geophysical images in the study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Tsokas, G. N.; Petrou, M.; Maggidis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work various image fusion techniques are used between one satellite (Quickbird) and one geophysical (electric resistivity) image to create various combinations with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant images provide more information about possible buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is located in mainland Greece near the city of Boetia at the acropolis of Gla. The acropolis was built on a flat-topped bedrock outcrop at the north-eastern edge of the Kopais basin. When Kopais was filled with water, Glas was emerging as an island. At the end of 14th century the two palaces of Thebes and Orchomenos jointly utilized a large scale engineering project in order to transform the Kopais basin into a fertile plain. They used the acropolis to monitor the project, and as a warehouse to storage the harvest. To examine the Acropolis for potential archaeological remnants we use one Quickbird satellite image that covers the surrounding area of Gla. The satellite image includes one panchromatic (8532x8528 pixels) and one multispectral (2133x2132 pixels) image, collected on 30th of August 2011, covering an area of 20 square kilometers. On the other hand, geophysical measurements were performed using the electric resistivity method to the south west part of the Acropolis. To combine these images we investigate mean-value fusion, wavelets fusion, and curvelet fusion. In the cases of wavelet and curvelet fusion we apply as the fusion criterion the maximum frequency rule. Furthermore, the two original images, and excavations near the area suggest that the dominant orientations of the buried features are north-south and east-west. Therefore, in curvelet fusion method, in curvelet domain we enhance the image details along these specific orientations, additionally to the fusion. The resultant fused images succeed to map linear and rectangular features that were not easily visible in the original images

  9. Persistent scatterers detection on synthetic aperture radar images acquired by Sentinel-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dǎnişor, Cosmin; Popescu, Anca; Datcu, Mihai

    2016-12-01

    Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PS-InSAR) has become a popular method in remote sensing because of its capability to measure terrain deformations with very high accuracy. It relies on multiple Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions, to monitor points with stable proprieties over time, called Persistent Scatterers (PS)[1]. These points are unaffected by temporal decorrelation, therefore by analyzing their interferometric phase variation we can estimate the scene's deformation rates within a given time interval. In this work, we apply two incoherent detection algorithms to identify Persistent Scatterers candidates in the city of Focșani, Romania. The first method studies the variation of targets' intensities along the SAR acquisitions and the second method analyzes the spectral proprieties of the scatterers. The algorithms were implemented on a dataset containing 11 complex images of the region covering Buzău, Brăila and Focșani cities. Images were acquired by Sentinel-1 satellite in a time span of 5 months, from October 2014 to February 2015. The processing chain follows the requirements imposed by the new C-band SAR images delivered by the Sentinel-1 satellite (launched in April 2014) imaging in Interferometric Wide (IW) mode. Considering the particularities of the TOPS (Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans in Azimuth) imaging mode[2], special requirements had to be considered for pre-processing steps. The PS detection algorithms were implemented in Gamma RS program, a software which contains various function packages dedicated to SAR images focalization, analysis and processing.

  10. A data mining based approach to predict spatiotemporal changes in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, W.; Farah, I. R.; Ettabaa, K. Saheb; Solaiman, B.; Ghézala, H. Ben

    2011-06-01

    The interpretation of remotely sensed images in a spatiotemporal context is becoming a valuable research topic. However, the constant growth of data volume in remote sensing imaging makes reaching conclusions based on collected data a challenging task. Recently, data mining appears to be a promising research field leading to several interesting discoveries in various areas such as marketing, surveillance, fraud detection and scientific discovery. By integrating data mining and image interpretation techniques, accurate and relevant information (i.e. functional relation between observed parcels and a set of informational contents) can be automatically elicited. This study presents a new approach to predict spatiotemporal changes in satellite image databases. The proposed method exploits fuzzy sets and data mining concepts to build predictions and decisions for several remote sensing fields. It takes into account imperfections related to the spatiotemporal mining process in order to provide more accurate and reliable information about land cover changes in satellite images. The proposed approach is validated using SPOT images representing the Saint-Denis region, capital of Reunion Island. Results show good performances of the proposed framework in predicting change for the urban zone.

  11. Effects of rubber shock absorber on the flywheel micro vibration in the satellite imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changcheng; Mu, Deqiang; Jia, Xuezhi; Li, Zongxuan

    2016-12-01

    When a satellite is in orbit, its flywheel will generate micro vibration and affect the imaging quality of the camera. In order to reduce this effect, a rubber shock absorber is used, and a numerical model and an experimental setup are developed to investigate its effect on the micro vibration in the study. An integrated model is developed for the system, and a ray tracing method is used in the modeling. The spot coordinates and displacements of the image plane are obtained, and the modulate transfer function (MTF) of the system is calculated. A satellite including a rubber shock absorber is designed, and the experiments are carried out. Both simulation and experiments results show that the MTF increases almost 10 %, suggesting the rubber shock absorber is useful to decrease the flywheel vibration.

  12. A Low-Complexity UEP Methodology Demonstrated on a Turbo-Encoded Wavelet Image Satellite Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemi Eric

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizing high-quality digital image transmission via a satellite link, while optimizing resource distribution and minimizing battery consumption, is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology to optimize a turbo-encoded wavelet-based satellite downlink progressive image transmission system with unequal error protection (UEP techniques. To achieve that goal, we instantiate a generic UEP methodology onto the system, and demonstrate that the proposed solution has little impact on the average performance, while greatly reducing the run-time complexity. Based on a simple design-time distortion model and a low-complexity run-time algorithm, the provided solution can dynamically tune the system's configuration to any bitrate constraint or channel condition. The resulting system outperforms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, a state-of-the-art, fine-tuned equal error protection (EEP solution by as much as 2 dB.

  13. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  14. Investigation of Interpolation for Solar Irradiation in Non-Observed Point Based on Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Fujisawa, Sei; Seki, Tomomichi

    Penetrating the Photovoltaic Power Generation System (PV) on an enormous scale over a next decade has some crucial problems which affect on, for example, power grid stabilization and operation including existing power stations for electric power utilities. It would be therefore important for future operation to estimate power output generated by PV in advance. We focus on interpolation using observed solar irradiation (SI) and brightness of pixel on a satellite visible image for estimating SI even in non-observed point. Our results by single regression analysis between observed SI and brightness on a satellite image as cloudiness show that a shift of highest determination coefficient on each hour would represent solar movement and this higher determination coefficient would indicate a position which SI and cloud would cross. Finally assessment of error in this interpolation shows enough accuracy at least in daytime period, which is important for electricity utilities.

  15. Digital elevation model and satellite images an assessment of soil erosion potential in the Pcinja catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milevski Ivica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pcinja is large left tributary of Vardar River (135 km long, 2877,3 km2 catchment’s area, which drainages surface waters from northeastern Macedonia, and small part of southeastern Serbia. Because of suitable physical-geographic factors (geology, terrain morphology, climate, hydrology, vegetation coverage, soil composition, and high human impact, some parts of the catchment’s suffer significant erosion process. For this reason, it is necessary to research properly spatial distribution of erosion, then influence of physical and anthropogenic factors for the intensity of soil erosion, related erosion landforms (with morphology, genesis, evolution, soil erosion protection etc.. Earlier researches in the area have been performed generally with combination of cartographic and classic field analysis. But in last decades, there are new possibilities available like satellite images and digital elevation models. In this work has been presented the methodology of utilization of satellite images and DEM for erosion research, with analysis and comparisons of outcome data.

  16. Charge carrier Density Imaging / IR lifetime mapping of Si wafers by Lock-In Thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivated silicon wafers for photovoltaic cells has been developed for the public Pieken in de Delta project geZONd. CONCLUSIONS Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivatedsilicon wafers is released

  17. Charge carrier Density Imaging / IR lifetime mapping of Si wafers by Lock-In Thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivated silicon wafers for photovoltaic cells has been developed for the public Pieken in de Delta project geZONd. CONCLUSIONS Minority carrier lifetime imaging by lock-in thermography of passivatedsilicon wafers is released t

  18. A novel super resolution scheme to acquire and process satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dong-yu; Su, Xiao-feng; Lin, Jian-chun; Wang, Gan-quan; Kuang, Ding-bo

    2013-09-01

    Geosynchronous satellite has obvious limitations for the weight and the scale of payloads, and large aperture optical system is not permitted. The optical diffraction limit of small aperture optical system has an adverse impact on the resolution of the acquired images. Therefore, how to get high resolution images using super-resolution technique with the acquired low resolution images becomes a popular problem investigated by researchers. Here, we present a novel scheme to acquire low resolution images and process them to achieve a high resolution image. Firstly, to acquire low resolution images, we adopt a special arrangement pattern of four CCD staggered arrays on the focal plane in the remote sensing satellite framework .These four CCD linear arrays are parallelized with a 0.25√2 pixel shift along the CCD direction and a 1.25 pixel shift along the scanning direction. The rotation angle between the two directions is 45 degree. The tilting sampling mode and the special arrangement pattern allow the sensor to acquire images with a smaller sampling interval which can give the resolution a greater enhancement. Secondly, to reconstruct a high resolution image of pretty good quality with a magnification factor 4, we propose a novel algorithm based on the iterative-interpolation super resolution algorithm (IISR) and the new edge-directed interpolation algorithm (NEDI). The new algorithm makes a critical improvement to NEDI and introduces it into the multi-frame interpolation in IISR. The algorithm can preserve the edges well and requires a relatively small number of low-resolution images to achieve better reconstruction accuracy .In the last part of the paper, we carry out a simulation experiment, and use MSE as the quality measure. The results demonstrate that our new scheme substantially improves the image resolution with both better quantitative quality and visual quality compared with some previous normal methods.

  19. In vivo near-IR imaging of occlusal lesions at 1310 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Chan, Kenneth H.

    2011-03-01

    Several in vitro studies have demonstrated the potential for transillumination imaging and optical coherence tomography operating at 1310-nm for imaging caries lesions on tooth proximal and occlusal surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated that lesions on proximal surfaces could be imaged in vivo using NIR transillumination and that PS-OCT can be used in vivo to measure early demineralization on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces. In this paper we report the first in vivo measurements using OCT and NIR imaging of occlusal lesions that have been scheduled for restoration. Occlusal lesions were chosen that were scheduled for restoration based on conventional diagnosis that consists of visual and tactile examination. Occlusal lesions were visible in the NIR. OCT looks promising for confirming the lateral spread of occlusal caries under the dentinal-enamel junction adjacent to fissures. These studies suggest that both near infrared transillumination imaging at 1310-nm and OCT provide valuable information about the severity of caries lesions.

  20. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woess, Claudia; Unterberger, Seraphin Hubert; Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with time

  1. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43−at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43− from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with

  2. Quantitative measurements of Jupiter, Saturn, their rings and satellites made from Voyager imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. A.; Bunker, A. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft cameras use selenium-sulfur slow scan vidicons to convert focused optical images into sensible electrical signals. The vidicon-generated data thus obtained are the basis of measurements of much greater precision than was previously possible, in virtue of their superior linearity, geometric fidelity, and the use of in-flight calibration. Attention is given to positional, radiometric, and dynamical measurements conducted on the basis of vidicon data for the Saturn rings, the Saturn satellites, and the Jupiter atmosphere.

  3. IoSiS: a radar system for imaging of satellites in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirousek, M.; Anger, S.; Dill, S.; Schreiber, E.; Peichl, M.

    2017-05-01

    Space debris nowadays is one of the main threats for satellite systems especially in low earth orbit (LEO). More than 700,000 debris objects with potential to destroy or damage a satellite are estimated. The effects of an impact often are not identifiable directly from ground. High-resolution radar images are helpful in analyzing a possible damage. Therefor DLR is currently developing a radar system called IoSiS (Imaging of Satellites in Space), being based on an existing steering antenna structure and our multi-purpose high-performance radar system GigaRad for experimental investigations. GigaRad is a multi-channel system operating at X band and using a bandwidth of up to 4.4 GHz in the IoSiS configuration, providing fully separated transmit (TX) and receive (RX) channels, and separated antennas. For the observation of small satellites or space debris a highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) is mounted close to the TX antenna feed. For the experimental phase IoSiS uses a 9 m TX and a 1 m RX antenna mounted on a common steerable positioner. High-resolution radar images are obtained by using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) techniques. The guided tracking of known objects during overpass allows here wide azimuth observation angles. Thus high azimuth resolution comparable to the range resolution can be achieved. This paper outlines technical main characteristics of the IoSiS radar system including the basic setup of the antenna, the radar instrument with the RF error correction, and the measurement strategy. Also a short description about a simulation tool for the whole instrument and expected images is shown.

  4. Estimating Advective Near-surface Currents from Ocean Color Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    K., Arnone, R.A., et al. (2014). Forecasting the ocean’s optical environment using the BioCast system. Oceanography , 27, 46–57. 14 H. Yang et al...satellite images 0602435N 73-9358-09-5 Haoping Yang, Robert Arnone, Jason Jolliff Naval Research Laboratory Oceanography Division Stennis Space Center...U.S. East and Gulf coasts. The MCC calculation is validated in a series of Bio- Optical Forecasting (BioCast) experiments with predetermined synthetic

  5. Optimizing the Attitude Control of Small Satellite Constellations for Rapid Response Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Given the increasingly accurate attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, small spacecraft now have the ability to slew and point within few minutes of notice. In spite of hardware development in CubeSats at the payload (e.g. NASA InVEST) and subsystems (e.g. Blue Canyon Technologies), software development for tradespace analysis in constellation design (e.g. Goddard's TAT-C), planning and scheduling development in single spacecraft (e.g. GEO-CAPE) and aerial flight path optimizations for UAVs (e.g. NASA Sensor Web), there is a gap in open-source, open-access software tools for planning and scheduling distributed satellite operations in terms of pointing and observing targets. This paper will demonstrate results from a tool being developed for scheduling pointing operations of narrow field-of-view (FOV) sensors over mission lifetime to maximize metrics such as global coverage and revisit statistics. Past research has shown the need for at least fourteen satellites to cover the Earth globally everyday using a LandSat-like sensor. Increasing the FOV three times reduces the need to four satellites, however adds image distortion and BRDF complexities to the observed reflectance. If narrow FOV sensors on a small satellite constellation were commanded using robust algorithms to slew their sensor dynamically, they would be able to coordinately cover the global landmass much faster without compensating for spatial resolution or BRDF effects. Our algorithm to optimize constellation satellite pointing is based on a dynamic programming approach under the constraints of orbital mechanics and existing attitude control systems for small satellites. As a case study for our algorithm, we minimize the time required to cover the 17000 Landsat images with maximum signal to noise ratio fall

  6. Contributions to the Data Warehouse 2 and Prospects of the IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Venkataraman, V. Raghu; Makiola, Jens

    2016-08-01

    During 2015 and 2016, the IRS program has significantly contributed to the CSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors on board of Resourcesat-2 have been provided. Resourcesat-2 so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first and second coverage of HR_IMAGE_2015 and several monthly MR coverages for MR_IMAGE_2015 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  7. A Bayesian approach for solar resource potential assessment using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguet, L.; Atif, J.

    2014-03-01

    The need for a more sustainable and more protective development opens new possibilities for renewable energy. Among the different renewable energy sources, the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by solar photovoltaic (PV) technology seems to be the most promising and represents a technically viable solution to energy demands. But implantation and deployment of PV energy need solar resource data for utility planning, accommodating grid capacity, and formulating future adaptive policies. Currently, the best approach to determine the solar resource at a given site is based on the use of satellite images. However, the computation of solar resource (non-linear process) from satellite images is unfortunately not straightforward. From a signal processing point of view, it falls within non-stationary, non-linear/non-Gaussian dynamical inverse problems. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach combining satellite images and in situ data. We propose original observation and transition functions taking advantages of the characteristics of both the involved type of data. A simulation study of solar irradiance is carried along with this method and a French Guiana solar resource potential map for year 2010 is given.

  8. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  9. Potential application of Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracker on satellite images for automatic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tasneem; Singh, Dharmendra; Raman, Balasubramanian

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring agricultural areas is still a very challenging task. Various models and methodologies have been developed for monitoring the agricultural areas with satellite images, but their practical applicability is limited due to the complexity in processing and dependence on a priori information. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility of the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracker, which is generally useful for tracking objects in video images, for monitoring agricultural areas. The KLT tracker was proposed to deal with the problem of image registration, but the use of the KLT tracker in satellite images for land cover monitoring is rarely reported. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) data has been used to identify and track the agricultural areas. The tracked pixels were compared with the agriculture pixels obtained from a decision tree algorithm and both results are closely matched. An image differencing change detection technique has been applied after KLT tracker implementation to observe the "change" and "no change" pixels in agricultural areas. It is observed that two kinds of changes are being detected. The areas where agriculture was not there earlier, but now is present, the changes are called positive changes. In the areas where agriculture was present earlier, but now is not present, those changes are referred to as negative changes. Unchanged areas retrieved from both the images are labeled as "no change" pixels. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that it uses a simplified version of the KLT tracker to efficiently select and track the agriculture features on the basis of their spatial information and does not require a priori information every time.

  10. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  11. Automated Astrometric Analysis of Satellite Observations using Wide-field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuljan, J.; Kay, J.

    2016-09-01

    An observational trial was conducted in the South Island of New Zealand from 24 to 28 February 2015, as a collaborative effort between the United Kingdom and New Zealand in the area of space situational awareness. The aim of the trial was to observe a number of satellites in low Earth orbit using wide-field imaging from two separate locations, in order to determine the space trajectory and compare the measurements with the predictions based on the standard two-line elements. This activity was an initial step in building a space situational awareness capability at the Defence Technology Agency of the New Zealand Defence Force. New Zealand has an important strategic position as the last land mass that many satellites selected for deorbiting pass before entering the Earth's atmosphere over the dedicated disposal area in the South Pacific. A preliminary analysis of the trial data has demonstrated that relatively inexpensive equipment can be used to successfully detect satellites at moderate altitudes. A total of 60 satellite passes were observed over the five nights of observation and about 2600 images were collected. A combination of cooled CCD and standard DSLR cameras were used, with a selection of lenses between 17 mm and 50 mm in focal length, covering a relatively wide field of view of 25 to 60 degrees. The CCD cameras were equipped with custom-made GPS modules to record the time of exposure with a high accuracy of one millisecond, or better. Specialised software has been developed for automated astrometric analysis of the trial data. The astrometric solution is obtained as a two-dimensional least-squares polynomial fit to the measured pixel positions of a large number of stars (typically 1000) detected across the image. The star identification is fully automated and works well for all camera-lens combinations used in the trial. A moderate polynomial degree of 3 to 5 is selected to take into account any image distortions introduced by the lens. A typical RMS

  12. Evaluation of dispersion state of the two racemic compounds of troglitazone in pharmaceutical granules using IR-to-THz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemochi, Etsuo; Furuyama, Naho; Bunko, Mika; Moriwaki, Taro; Ikemoto, Yuka; Terada, Katsuhide

    2008-05-01

    Troglitazone exists as four isomers in equal amount and these isomers compose two racemic compounds, RR/SS and RS/SR. The objective of this study was to discriminate between the racemic compounds and between the crystal and amorphous forms of troglitazone in solid dispersions (SDs) using IR-to-THz imaging. SDs of troglitazone with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, carrier) were prepared by the closed melting method. SDs were heated at various temperatures and water content. The mid-to-far infrared measurements for the powder samples were performed by using the synchrotron radiation source at the BL43IR in SPring-8. Crystalline RR/SS (L) and RS/SR (H) showed different spectra, that is, each form had a specific peak, respectively. However, amorphous forms prepared from each crystalline form exhibited the same spectra. Using the chemo-metric analysis, the existing component was decided in each pixel and the distribution of crystalline L, H and amorphous troglitazone in SDs could be illustrated. For the sample heated at 105 °C, 75%RH, scattered plots of H and amorphous against PVP showed the trend for H was negative; on the other hand, amorphous showed positive correlation. This result suggested that H existed separately, whereas amorphous would be dissolved in PVP. Based on these evaluations, it was clear that the physical state and distribution of troglitazone in SDs, including the discrimination between L, H, and amorphous, reflect the preparation conditions. Chemical imaging can observe a difference in the dispersed state of drug and ingredient in a visible image by performing statistical processing.

  13. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  14. Near-IR imaging of interproximal lesions from occlusal surfaces and the influence of stains and plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2006-02-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR (NIR). Our previous work demonstrated that NIR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) and that it can also be used to image decay in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth where most new dental decay occurs. Early occlusal lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of lesion development due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. Stains and non-calcified plaque are not visible in the NIR enabling better discrimination of demineralized areas. We also demonstrate that interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above). Moreover, multiple illumination and detector angles can be exploited for optimal contrast between caries and sound tissue. These measurements suggest that NIR imaging offers significant advantages over the conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and other optical caries detection and imaging techniques.

  15. True Color Images of the Earth created with the Geostationary Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Maximilian

    2013-04-01

    One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With geostationary satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type images from geostationary satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) true colour composite images will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6μm), NIR008 (0.8μm) and NIR016 (1.6μm). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false colour composite images of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true colour images. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting images satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-coloured, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such images are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false colour composite images. The images can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.

  16. TESIS experiment on XUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bogachev, S. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Pertsov, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

    We present a brief description of new complex of space telescopes and spectrographs, TESIS, which will be placed aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The complex is intended for high-resolution imaging observation of full Sun in the coronal spectral lines and in the spectral lines of the solar transition region. TESIS will be launched at the end of 2007 - early of 2008. About 25 % of the daily TESIS images will be free for use and for downloading from the TESIS data center that is planned to open 2 months before the TESIS launching at http://www.tesis.lebedev.ru

  17. Visible to Near-IR Imaging Spectroscopy of Mars Using HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Wolff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained new 530-1030 nm high resolution imaging spectroscopic observations of Mars from the Hubble Space Telescope. Initial results and interpretations concerning ferric and ferrous mineralogy of the Martian surface are presented.

  18. On-Chip hyperspetral imaging system for portable IR spectroscopy applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hyperspectral middlewave infrared and longwave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) imaging systems capable of obtaining hundreds of narrow band (10-15 nm) spectral information of...

  19. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 μm) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ∼0.06″, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August, 20

  20. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 μm) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ∼0.06″, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August,

  1. Accelerating Satellite Image Based Large-Scale Settlement Detection with GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlolla, Dilip Reddy [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Weaver, Jeanette E [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision algorithms for image analysis are often computationally demanding. Application of such algorithms on large image databases\\---- such as the high-resolution satellite imagery covering the entire land surface, can easily saturate the computational capabilities of conventional CPUs. There is a great demand for vision algorithms running on high performance computing (HPC) architecture capable of processing petascale image data. We exploit the parallel processing capability of GPUs to present a GPU-friendly algorithm for robust and efficient detection of settlements from large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery. Feature descriptor generation is an expensive, but a key step in automated scene analysis. To address this challenge, we present GPU implementations for three different feature descriptors\\-- multiscale Historgram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) Contrast and local pixel intensity statistics. We perform extensive experimental evaluations of our implementation using diverse and large image datasets. Our GPU implementation of the feature descriptor algorithms results in speedups of 220 times compared to the CPU version. We present an highly efficient settlement detection system running on a multiGPU architecture capable of extracting human settlement regions from a city-scale sub-meter spatial resolution aerial imagery spanning roughly 1200 sq. kilometers in just 56 seconds with detection accuracy close to 90\\%. This remarkable speedup gained by our vision algorithm maintaining high detection accuracy clearly demonstrates that such computational advancements clearly hold the solution for petascale image analysis challenges.

  2. Search for astronomical sites suitable for infrared observations using GOES satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducati, Jorge R.; Feijo, Eleandro S.

    2003-04-01

    Images from GOES satellite were used to develop a method to search for sites suitable to astronomical observations in the infrared. An area of study located in the Peruvian Andes was chosen, with altitudes above 2500 m. Forty-three images from the GOES meteorological satellite in channels 3, 4 and 5 were used. The GOES images, spanning an 11-day period, in each channel, were combined to produced images expressing the surface visibility in each channel. Atmospheric turbulence could be estimated from the variation of visibility over six-hour periods, with one image per hour. As criteria to classify sites on the Andes, we combined information on altitude, visibility of the surface in the infrared, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, and atmospheric turbulence. Results of this new method showed that the region of Moquegua, in South Peru, is to be preferred in surveys for astronomical sites. Comparisons with results from other investigators, which used other approaches, indicated that this methodology can produce valid results and can be applied to studies covering larger periods. The general results of this study indicate that the method is valid and can effectively be used as an important resource in surveys for infrared astronomical sites.

  3. Search for astronomical sites suitable for infrared observations using goes satellite images release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducati, J. R.; Feijó, E.

    2003-08-01

    Astronomical sites are traditionally found after studies performed over many years, including preliminary selection of places based in general information on climate, clear skies and logistical adequacy. It follows extensive "in situ" monitoring of seeing and cloudiness. Theses procedures are long and expensive, and alternatives can be looked for. In this study, images from GOES meteorological satellite were used to develop a method to search for sites suitable to astronomical observations in the infrared. An area of study located in the Peruvian Andes was chosen, with altitudes above 2500 m. 43 images from the GOES meteorological satellite in chanels 3, 4 and 5 were used. The GOES images, spanning a 11-day period, in each channel, were combined to produced images expressing the surface visibility in each channel. Atmospheric turbulence could be estimated from the variation of visibility over six-hour periods, with one image per hour. As criteria to classify sites on the Andes, we combined information on altitude, visibility of the surface in the infrared, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, and atmospheric turbulence. Results of this new method showed that the region of Moquegua, in South Peru, is to be preferred in surveys for astronomical sites. Comparisons with results from other investigators, which used other approaches, indicated that this methodology produces valid results and can be used to studies spanning larger periods. The general results of this study indicate that the method can efectively be used as an important resource in surveys for infrared astronomical sites

  4. a New Algorithm for Void Filling in a Dsm from Stereo Satellite Images in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib Bafghi, Z.; Tian, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    Digital Surface Models (DSM) derived from stereo-pair satellite images are the main sources for many Geo-Informatics applications like 3D change detection, object classification and recognition. However since occlusion especially in urban scenes result in some deficiencies in the stereo matching phase, these DSMs contain some voids. In order to fill the voids a range of algorithms have been proposed, mainly including interpolation alone or along with auxiliary DSM. In this paper an algorithm for void filling in DSM from stereo satellite images has been developed. Unlike common previous approaches we didn't use any external DSM to fill the voids. Our proposed algorithm uses only the original images and the unfilled DSM itself. First a neighborhood around every void in the unfilled DSM and its corresponding area in multispectral image is defined. Then it is analysed to extract both spectral and geometric texture and accordingly to assign labels to each cell in the voids. This step contains three phases comprising shadow detection, height thresholding and image segmentation. Thus every cell in void has a label and is filled by the median value of its co-labelled neighbors. The results for datasets from WorldView-2 and IKONOS are shown and discussed.

  5. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR VOID FILLING IN A DSM FROM STEREO SATELLITE IMAGES IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gharib Bafghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Surface Models (DSM derived from stereo-pair satellite images are the main sources for many Geo-Informatics applications like 3D change detection, object classification and recognition. However since occlusion especially in urban scenes result in some deficiencies in the stereo matching phase, these DSMs contain some voids. In order to fill the voids a range of algorithms have been proposed, mainly including interpolation alone or along with auxiliary DSM. In this paper an algorithm for void filling in DSM from stereo satellite images has been developed. Unlike common previous approaches we didn’t use any external DSM to fill the voids. Our proposed algorithm uses only the original images and the unfilled DSM itself. First a neighborhood around every void in the unfilled DSM and its corresponding area in multispectral image is defined. Then it is analysed to extract both spectral and geometric texture and accordingly to assign labels to each cell in the voids. This step contains three phases comprising shadow detection, height thresholding and image segmentation. Thus every cell in void has a label and is filled by the median value of its co-labelled neighbors. The results for datasets from WorldView-2 and IKONOS are shown and discussed.

  6. Surveillance of waste disposal activity at sea using satellite ocean color imagers: GOCI and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Yang, Dong Beom; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sung Ryull; Chung, Hee Woon; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang Soo; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Park, Young-Je; Moon, Jeong-Eon

    2012-09-01

    Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e.g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships.

  7. Imager-to-radiometer inflight cross calibration: RSP radiometric comparison with airborne and satellite sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. McCorkel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a method to compare the radiometric calibration between a radiometer and imagers hosted on aircraft and satellites. The radiometer is the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP that takes multi-angle, photo-polarimetric measurements in several spectral channels. The RSP measurements used in this work were coincident with measurements made by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS, which was on the same aircraft. These airborne measurements were also coincident with an overpass of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI. First we compare the RSP and OLI radiance measurements to AVIRIS since the spectral response of the multispectral instruments can be used to synthesize a spectrally equivalent signal from the imaging spectrometer data. We then explore a method that uses AVIRIS as a transfer between RSP and OLI to show that radiometric traceability of a satellite-based imager can be used to calibrate a radiometer despite differences in spectral channel sensitivities. This calibration transfer shows agreement within the uncertainty of both the various instruments for most spectral channels.

  8. The influence of topographic structures on night-time surface temperatures: Evaluation of a satellite thermal image of the upper Rhine plain and the surrounding highlands. [Germany and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite data supplied the same information as aerial IR registrations with corresponding averaging for all studies requiring a survey of the thermal pattern within an area measuring 10 km x 10 km ore more, provided that sufficiently precise control points could be established for the purpose of geometric rectification in the surroundings of the area observed. Satellite thermal data are more comprehensive than aircraft data for studies on a regional, rather than a local scale, since airborne images often obscure the basic correlation in thermal patterns because of a variety of irrelevant topographical detail. The satellite data demonstrate the dependence of surface temperature on relief more clearly than comparable airborne imagery.

  9. SATURNʼS INNER SATELLITES: ORBITS, MASSES, AND THE CHAOTIC MOTION OF ATLAS FROM NEW CASSINI IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Nicholas J; Renner, Stéfan; Murray, Carl D; Evans, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    We present numerically derived orbits and mass estimates for the inner Saturnian satellites, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus from a fit to 2580 new Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem...

  10. Multifractal analysis of satellite images. (Polish Title: Multifraktalna analiza zobrazowan satelitarnych)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, A.; Krupiński, M.; Drzewiecki, W.; Aleksandrowicz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Research presented in this paper is focused on the efficiency assessment of multifractal description as a tool for Image Information Mining. Large datasets of very high spatial resolution satellite images (WorldView-2 and EROS-A) have been analysed. The results have confirmed the superiority of multifractals as global image descriptors in comparison to monofractals. Moreover, their usefulness in image classification by using decision trees classifiers was confirmed, also in comparison with textural features. Filtration process preceding fractal and multifractal features estimations was also proved to improve classification results. Additionally, airborne hyperspectral data have been initially analysed. Fractal dimension shows high potential for the description of hyperspectral data. To summarise all conducted tests indicate the usefulness of multifractal formalism in various aspects of remote sensing. Prepared methodology can be further developed and used for more specific tasks, for example in change detection or in the description of hyperspectal data complexity.

  11. Detection of Degradation Effects in Field-Aged c-Si Solar Cells through IR Thermography and Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaplani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast expansion of photovoltaic (PV module production nowadays, a great interest is shown in factors affecting PV performance and efficiency under real conditions. Particular attention is being given to degradation effects of PV cells and modules, which during the last decade are seen to be responsible for significant power losses observed in PV systems. This paper presents and analyses degradation effects observed in severely EVA discoloured PV cells from field-aged modules operating already for 18–22 years. Temperature degradation effects are identified through IR thermography in bus bars, contact solder bonds, blisters, hot spots, and hot areas. I-V curve analysis results showed an agreement between the source of electrical performance degradation and the degradation effects in the defected cell identified by the IR thermography. Finally, an algorithm was developed to automatically detect EVA discoloration in PV cells through processing of the digital image alone in a way closely imitating human perception of color. This nondestructive and noncostly solution could be applied in the detection of EVA discoloration in existing PV installations and the automatic monitoring and remote inspection of PV systems.

  12. Application of IR and NIR fiber optic imaging in thermographic and spectroscopic diagnosis of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques: preliminary experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, Morteza; Khan, Tania; Gu, Bujin; Soller, Babs R.; Melling, Peter; Asif, Mohammed; Gul, Khawar; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, S. W.; Willerson, James T.

    2000-12-01

    Despite major advances in cardiovascular science and technology during the past three decades, approximately half of all myocardial infarctions and sudden deaths occur unexpectedly. It is widely accepted that coronary atherosclerotic plaques and thrombotic complications resulting from their rupture or erosion are the underlying causes of this major health problem. The majority of these vulnerable plaques exhibit active inflammation, a large necrotic lipid core, a thin fibrous cap, and confer a stenosis of less than 70%. These lesions are not detectable by stress testing or coronary angiography. Our group is exploring the possibility of a functional classification based on physiological variables such as plaque temperature, pH, oxygen consumption, lactate production etc. We have shown that heat accurately locates the inflamed plaques. We also demonstrated human atherosclerotic plaques are heterogeneous with regard to pH and hot plaques and are more likely to be acidic. To develop a nonsurgical method for locating the inflamed plaques, we are developing both IR fiber optic imaging and NIR spectroscopic systems in our laboratory to detect hot and acidic plaque in atherosclerotic arterial walls. Our findings introduce the possibility of an isolated/combined IR and NIR fiber optic catheter that can bring new insight into functional assessment of atherosclerotic plaque and thereby detection of active and inflamed lesions responsible for heart attacks and strokes.

  13. Contribution To The Data Warehouse And Prospects Of The IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Haydn, Rupert; Parmar, Manish; Makiola, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Over the past two years, the IRS program has again significantly contributed to the GSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, multispectral data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors have been provided. Both cameras are implemented on board of Resourcesat-1 and Resourcesat-2 respectively. Despite reduced capacities, the Resourcesat constellation of satellites so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first HR coverage of CORE_001 and several monthly MR coverages for CORE_008 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  14. Tree detection in orchards from VHR satellite images using scale-space theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahour, Milad; Tolpekin, Valentyn; Stein, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on extracting reliable and detailed information from very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images for the detection of individual trees in orchards. The images contain detailed information on spectral and geometrical properties of trees. Their scale level, however, is insufficient for spectral properties of individual trees, because adjacent tree canopies interlock. We modeled trees using a bell shaped spectral profile. Identifying the brightest peak was challenging due to sun illumination effects caused 1 by differences in positions of the sun and the satellite sensor. Crown boundary detection was solved by using the NDVI from the same image. We used Gaussian scale-space methods that search for extrema in the scale-space domain. The procedures were tested on two orchards with different tree types, tree sizes and tree observation patterns in Iran. Validation was done using reference data derived from an UltraCam digital aerial photo. Local extrema of the determinant of the Hessian corresponded well to the geographical coordinates and the size of individual trees. False detections arising from a slight asymmetry of trees were distinguished from multiple detections of the same tree with different extents. Uncertainty assessment was carried out on the presence and spatial extents of individual trees. The study demonstrated how the suggested approach can be used for image segmentation for orchards with different types of trees. We concluded that Gaussian scale-space theory can be applied to extract information from VHR satellite images for individual tree detection. This may lead to improved decision making for irrigation and crop water requirement purposes in future studies.

  15. Best period for high spatial resolution satellite images for the detection of marks of buried structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kaimaris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in sensor technology in recent decades led to the creation of ground, air and space imaging systems, whose data can be used in archaeological studies. Greece is one of the lucky areas that are rich in archaeological heritage. The detection of prehistoric/historic undiscovered constructions on satellite images or aerial photos is a complex and complicated matter. These marks are not visible from the ground, they can, however, be traced on satellite or aerial images, because of the differences in tone and texture. These differences appear as crop, soil and shadow marks. Undoubtedly, the detection of buried structures requires a suitable spatial resolution image, taken under appropriate meteorological conditions and during the best period of the vegetation growing cycle. According to the pertinent literature, detecting covered memorials may be achieved either accidentally or, usually, after a systematic investigation based on historical narratives. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that facilitate or hinder the detection of buried structures through high spatial resolution satellite imagery. In this study, pan sharpened images from the QuickBird-2 satellite were used, of a spatial resolution of 0.60-0.70 m. This study concerns the detection of marks of the ancient Via Egnatia, from the ancient Amphipolis to Philippi (Eastern Macedonia, Greece. We studied different types of vegetation in the region and their phenological cycle. Taking into account the vegetation phenological cycle of the study area as well as the meteorological data, four pan sharpened QuickBird-2 images of a spatial resolution of 0.60–0.70 m. were used, during four different seasons. By processing the four images, we can determine the one acquired during the most appropriate conditions for the detection of buried structures. The application of this methodology in the study area had positive results, and not only was the main purpose of this

  16. Differential Spatio-temporal Multiband Satellite Image Clustering using K-means Optimization With Reinforcement Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Erlyn Wina Rachmawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestration is one of the crucial issues in Indonesia because now Indonesia has world's highest deforestation rate. In other hand, multispectral image delivers a great source of data for studying spatial and temporal changeability of the environmental such as deforestration area. This research present differential image processing methods for detecting nature change of deforestration. Our differential image processing algorithms extract and indicating area automatically. The feature of our proposed idea produce extracted information from multiband satellite image and calculate the area of deforestration by years with calculating data using temporal dataset. Yet, multiband satellite image consists of big data size that were difficult to be handled for segmentation. Commonly, K- Means clustering is considered to be a powerfull clustering algorithm because of its ability to clustering big data. However K-Means has sensitivity of its first generated centroids, which could lead into a bad performance. In this paper we propose a new approach to optimize K-Means clustering using Reinforcement Programming in order to clustering multispectral image. We build a new mechanism for generating initial centroids by implementing exploration and exploitation knowledge from Reinforcement Programming. This optimization will lead a better result for K-means data cluster. We select multispectral image from Landsat 7 in past ten years in Medawai, Borneo, Indonesia, and apply two segmentation areas consist of deforestration land and forest field. We made series of experiments and compared the experimental results of K-means using Reinforcement Programming as optimizing initiate centroid and normal K-means without optimization process. Keywords: Deforestration, Multispectral images, landsat, automatic clustering, K-means.

  17. A Study on the Optimized Test Condition of Lock-in IR Thermography by Image Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Jin [Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, it was studies the utilization of LIT(lock-in infrared thermography) which can detect defects in welded parts of ship and offshore structures. Quantitative analysis was used through methods of filtering and texture measurement of image processing techniques to find the optimized experimental condition. We verified reliability in our methods by applying image processing techniques in order to normalize evaluations of comparative images that show phase difference. In addition, low to mid exposure showed good results whereas high exposure did not provide significant results in regards to intensity of light exposure on surface. Lock-in frequency was satisfactory around 0.1 Hz regardless of intensity of light source we had. In addition, having the integration time of thermography camera inversely proportional to intensity of exposed light source during the experiment allowed good outcome of results.

  18. The Orion fingers: Near-IR spectral imaging of an explosive outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Youngblood, Allison; Bally, John

    2016-01-01

    We present near-IR (1.1-2.4 micron) position-position-velocity cubes of the 500-year-old Orion BN/KL explosive outflow with spatial resolution 1" and spectral resolution 86 km/s. We construct integrated intensity maps free of continuum sources of 15 H2 and [Fe II] lines while preserving kinematic information of individual outflow features. Included in the detected H2 lines are the 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 Q(3) transitions, allowing extinction measurements across the outflow. Additionally, we present dereddened flux ratios for over two dozen outflow features to allow for the characterization of the true excitation conditions of the BN/KL outflow. All ratios show the dominance of shock excitation of the H2 emission, although some features exhibit signs of fluorescent excitation from stellar radiation or J-type shocks. We also detect tracers of the PDR/ionization front north of the Trapezium stars in [O I] and [Fe II] and analyze other observed outflows not associated with the BN/KL outflow.

  19. Science with FORCAST, the mid-IR imager and grism spectrometer for SOFIA (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, L. Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) is a dual-channel mid-infrared camera and spectrograph sensitive from 5-40 µm. The Short Wave Camera (SWC) uses a Si:As blocked-impurity band (BIB) array optimized for λ BIB array is optimized for λ < 25 µm. Observations can be made through either of the two channels individually or, by use of a dichroic mirror, with both channels simultaneously across most of the range. Spectroscopy is also possible using a suite of four grisms, which provide coverage from 5-40 µm with a low spectral resolution of R = λ =Δλ 200. Since it's commissioning FORCAST has made a number of exciting observations, including the discovery of dust that survived the reverse shock in the supernova remnant Sgr A East, the identification of an asteroid belt analog surrounding ɛ Eridani, and some of the highest resolution mid-IR observations of the transient Galactic circumnuclear ring to date. Here I present a selection of recent SOFIA FORCAST observations and discuss their relevance to a variety of today's most pressing astronomical topics.

  20. Detecting coherent patterns in a flume by using PIV and IR imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurka, Roi [Multiphase Flow Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Technion-IIT, 32000, Haifa (Israel); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Liberzon, Alex [Multiphase Flow Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Technion-IIT, 32000, Haifa (Israel); Institute of Hydromechanics and Water Resources Management, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Hetsroni, Gad [Multiphase Flow Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Technion-IIT, 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the flow field in a turbulent boundary layer in a flume, by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Hot-Foil Infrared Imaging (HFIRI) techniques. Coherent patterns in the flow were identified and characterized by using instantaneous velocity and temperature fields. The velocity fields in the streamwise-spanwise plane were measured in parallel to the temperature distribution of the flume bottom. The identified patterns are represented by means of their spatial characteristics - a non-dimensional spatial separation between streamwise patterns, {lambda}{sup +}. (orig.)

  1. Twenty-five years of aerodynamic research with IR imaging: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared imaging used in aerodynamic research evolved during the last 25 years into a rewarding experimental technique for investigation of body-flow viscous interactions, such as heat flux determination and boundary layer transition. The technique of infrared imaging matched well its capability to produce useful results, with the expansion of testing conditions in the entire spectrum of wind tunnels, from hypersonic high-enthalpy facilities to cryogenic transonic wind tunnels. With unique achievements credited to its past, the current trend suggests a change in attitude towards this technique: from the perception as an exotic, project-oriented tool, to the status of a routine experimental procedure.

  2. Attenuated total reflectance FT-IR imaging and quantitative energy dispersive-electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques for single particle analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, JiYeon; Ro, Chul-Un

    2009-08-15

    This work demonstrates the practical applicability of the combined use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR imaging and low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) techniques for the characterization of individual aerosol particles. These two single particle analytical techniques provide complementary information on the physicochemical characteristics of the same individual particles, that is, the low-Z particle EPMA for the information on the morphology and elemental concentration and the ATR-FT-IR imaging on the functional group, molecular species, and crystal structure. It was confirmed that the ATR-FT-IR imaging technique can provide sufficient FT-IR absorption signals to perform molecular speciation of individual particles of micrometer size when applied to artificially generated aerosol particles such as ascorbic acid and NaNO(3) aerosols. An exemplar indoor atmospheric aerosol sample was investigated to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the combined application of ATR-FT-IR imaging and low-Z particle EPMA techniques for the characterization of individual airborne particles.

  3. An anti-image interference quadrature IF architecture for satellite receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Weidong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals span a wide range of frequency, wireless signals coming from other communication systems may be aliased and appear as image interference. In quadrature intermediate frequency (IF receivers, image aliasing due to in-phase and quadrature (I/Q channel mismatches is always a big problem. I/Q mismatches occur because of gain and phase imbalances between quadrature mixers and capacitor mismatches in analog-to-digital converters (ADC. As a result, the dynamic range and performance of a receiver are severely degraded. In this paper, several popular receiver architectures are summarized and the image aliasing problem is investigated in detail. Based on this analysis, a low-IF architecture is proposed for a single-chip solution and a novel and feasible anti-image algorithm is investigated. With this anti-image digital processing, the image reject ratio (IRR can reach approximately above 50 dB, which relaxes image rejection specific in front-end circuit designs and allows cheap and highly flexible analog front-end solutions. Simulation and experimental data show that the anti-image algorithm can work effectively, robustly, and steadily.

  4. An anti-image interference quadrature IF architecture for satellite receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Weidong; Lu Xiaochun; He Chengyan; James Torley

    2014-01-01

    Since Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals span a wide range of frequency, wireless signals coming from other communication systems may be aliased and appear as image interference. In quadrature intermediate frequency (IF) receivers, image aliasing due to in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) channel mismatches is always a big problem. I/Q mismatches occur because of gain and phase imbalances between quadrature mixers and capacitor mismatches in ana-log-to-digital converters (ADC). As a result, the dynamic range and performance of a receiver are severely degraded. In this paper, several popular receiver architectures are summarized and the image aliasing problem is investigated in detail. Based on this analysis, a low-IF architecture is pro-posed for a single-chip solution and a novel and feasible anti-image algorithm is investigated. With this anti-image digital processing, the image reject ratio (IRR) can reach approximately above 50 dB, which relaxes image rejection specific in front-end circuit designs and allows cheap and highly flexible analog front-end solutions. Simulation and experimental data show that the anti-image algorithm can work effectively, robustly, and steadily.

  5. A Framework for Satellite Image Enhancement Using Quantum Genetic and Weighted IHS+Wavelet Fusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. HAMED

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available this paper examined the applicability of quantum genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems posed by satellite image enhancement techniques, particularly super-resolution, and fusion. We introduce a framework starting from reconstructing the higher-resolution panchromatic image by using the subpixel-shifts between a set of lower-resolution images (registration, then interpolation, restoration, till using the higher-resolution image in pan-sharpening a multispectral image by weighted IHS+Wavelet fusion technique. For successful super-resolution, accurate image registration should be achieved by optimal estimation of subpixel-shifts. Optimal-parameters blind restoration and interpolation should be performed for the optimal quality higher-resolution image. There is a trade-off between spatial and spectral enhancement in image fusion; it is difficult for the existing methods to do the best in both aspects. The objective here is to achieve all combined requirements with optimal fusion weights, and use the parameters constraints to direct the optimization process. QGA is used to estimate the optimal parameters needed for each mathematic model in this framework “Super-resolution and fusion.” The simulation results show that the QGA-based method can be used successfully to estimate automatically the approaching parameters which need the maximal accuracy, and achieve higher quality and efficient convergence rate more than the corresponding conventional GA-based and the classic computational methods.

  6. Focal plane array detectors with micro-bolometer structure and its application in IR and THz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Mou, Wenchao; Gou, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector has characteristics of low cost, operating at room temperature, compatibility with the silicon CMOS technology, and high detecting performance, therefore it becomes a hot spot in infrared (IR) or terahertz (THz) detect field recently. However, the tradition structure of micro-bolometer has the conflict of the pixel size and thermal performance. In order to improve the detecting performance of small pixel size bolometer, high fill factor and low thermal conductance design should be considered. In IR detecting, double layers structure is an efficient method to improve the absorption of micro-bolometer and reduce thermal conductance. The three-dimension model of small size micro-bolometer was built in this article. The thermal and mechanical characters of those models were simulated and optimized, and finally the double layer structure micro-bolometer was fabricated with multifarious semiconductor recipes on the readout integrated chip wafer. For THz detecting, to improve the detecting performance, different dimension THz detectors based on micro-bridge structure were designed and fabricated to get optimizing micro-bolometer parameters from the test results of membrane deformation. A nanostructured titanium thin film absorber is integrated in the micro-bridge structure of the VOx micro-bolometer to enhance the absorption of THz radiation. Continuous-wave THz detection and imaging are demonstrated with a 2.52 THz far infrared CO2 laser and fabricated 320×240 vanadium oxide micro-bolometer focal plane array with optimized cell structure. With this detecting system, THz imaging of metal concealed in wiping cloth and envelope is demonstrated.

  7. Post launch calibration and testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United State's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  8. Utilizing Chinese high-resolution satellite images for inspection of unauthorized constructions in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeRen; WANG Mi; HU Fen

    2009-01-01

    After Beijing wins the bit to host the 29th Olympic Games, in order to manifest the technical support advantages and capabilities of the autonomously-developed RS and GIS based change detection techniques in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, and from the standpoints of executing new city planning, relieving the traffic congestion as well as maintaining the historic features, an automatic satellite monitoring system has been studied and established to accomplish the mission of unauthorized construction inspection within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing city quarterly, by adopting the CBERS-2 satellite images and combining technologies of GIS, GPS, etc. This article discusses the applicable procedures and key issues when utilizing such Chinese satellite images and relevant techniques to discover the illegal constructions, and introduces the monitoring system from both the design and implementation aspects; additionally, some typical application cases in the practice of the system are also illustrated. The monitoring system can timely supply abundant information to facilitate the policy-making of relevant planning departments, thus providing consolidate technical support to eliminate the illegal constructing behaviors in the blossom. During the five years' excellent performance, it has helped China save large amounts of expenditures for processing of unauthorized constructed buildings.

  9. Image-processing techniques in precisely measuring positions of Saturn and its satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Qingyu; (彭青玉)

    2003-01-01

    After overcoming the deficiencies of previous image-processing techniques, a novel technique based on the edge-detection of Saturnian ring is developed to precisely measure Saturn's position. Furthermore, the scattering light (i.e. halo light) of Saturn and its ring is removed effectively based on its center symmetry. Therefore, we have much more opportunities to accurately measure the positions of Mimas and Enceladus-- two satellites very close to the Saturn. Experimental tests with 127 frames of CCD images obtained on the 1-meter telescope at the Yunnan Observatory over three nights show that the geometric center of the Saturnian ring and its 4 satellites (Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Titan) have the same positional precision, and the standard error for a single observation is less than ±0.05 arcsec. It is believed that these new techniques would have important impetus to the positional measurement of both Saturn by using a CCD meridian instrument and its faint satellites by using a long focal length telescope.

  10. Imaging the Spatial Fluctuations in Cosmic IR Background from Reionization with CIBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Chris; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Kawada, M.; Kim, M.; Lee, D.; Levenson, L.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsumuura, S.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Renbarger, T.; Smidt, J.; Sullivan, I.; Arai, T.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a rocket-born absolute photometry imaging and spectroscopy experiment optimized to detect unresolved infrared signatures of first-light galaxies that were present during reionization. The signatures from reionization are theorized to be dominant at the wavelengths upon which CIBER surveys. CIBER consists of two wide field imagers to measure the extragalactic background fluctuations in the H and I-Bands (1.6 and 0.9 microns respectively) of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) as well as two spectrometers designed to take measurements of the foreground zodiacal light and the absolute Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) spectrum They imagers are capable of examining high-redshift (z 10-20) CIB fluctuations which will facilitate in the study of surface densities of sources associated with reionization. Studies of galaxies with similar redshift parameters (z > 6) are largely unaccounted for. The spectrometer configuration consists of one low resolution spectrometer and one narrow band spectrometer. They are respectively designed to take measurements of the absolute Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) spectrum, and foreground zodiacal light. In this poster we present the specifications for both CIBER imagers and detail how the fluctuations from galaxies during reionization will be measured.

  11. The Orion Fingers: Near-IR Adaptive Optics Imaging of an Explosive Protostellar Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, John; Silvia, Devin; Youngblood, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Adaptive optics images are used to test the hypothesis that the explosive BN/KL outflow from the Orion OMC1 cloud core was powered by the dynamical decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars. Methods. Narrow-band H2, [Fe II], and broad-band Ks obtained with the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system GeMS and near-infrared imager GSAOI are presented. The images reach resolutions of 0.08 to 0.10", close to the 0.07" diffraction limit of the 8-meter telescope at 2.12 microns. Comparison with previous AO-assisted observations of sub-fields and other ground-based observations enable measurements of proper motions and the investigation of morphological changes in H2 and [Fe II] features with unprecedented precision. The images are compared with numerical simulations of compact, high-density clumps moving ~1000 times their own diameter through a lower density medium at Mach 1000. Results. Several sub-arcsecond H2 features and many [Fe ii] 'fingertips' on the projected outskirts of th...

  12. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Bitewing radiography is still considered state-of-the-art diagnostic technology for assessing cavitation within approximal carious dental lesions, even though radiographs cannot resolve cavitated surfaces but instead are used to measure lesion depth in order to predict cavitation. Clinicians need new technologies capable of determining whether approximal carious lesions have become cavitated because not all lesions progress to cavitation. Assessing lesion cavitation from near-infrared (NIR) imaging methods holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel in the NIR region from λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. The objective of this study was to measure the change in lesion appearance between non-cavitated and cavitated lesions in artificially generated lesions using NIR imaging modalities (two-dimensional) at λ=1300-nm and λ=1450-nm and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) (thee-dimensional) λ=1300-nm. Extracted human posterior teeth with sound proximal surfaces were chosen for this study and imaged before and after artificial lesions were made. A high speed dental hand piece was used to create artificial cavitated proximal lesions in sound samples and imaged. The cavitated artificial lesions were then filled with hydroxyapatite powder to simulate non-cavitated proximal lesions.

  13. A graph-based approach to detect spatiotemporal dynamics in satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttler, Fabio; Ienco, Dino; Nin, Jordi; Teisseire, Maguelonne; Poncelet, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Enhancing the frequency of satellite acquisitions represents a key issue for Earth Observation community nowadays. Repeated observations are crucial for monitoring purposes, particularly when intra-annual process should be taken into account. Time series of images constitute a valuable source of information in these cases. The goal of this paper is to propose a new methodological framework to automatically detect and extract spatiotemporal information from satellite image time series (SITS). Existing methods dealing with such kind of data are usually classification-oriented and cannot provide information about evolutions and temporal behaviors. In this paper we propose a graph-based strategy that combines object-based image analysis (OBIA) with data mining techniques. Image objects computed at each individual timestamp are connected across the time series and generates a set of evolution graphs. Each evolution graph is associated to a particular area within the study site and stores information about its temporal evolution. Such information can be deeply explored at the evolution graph scale or used to compare the graphs and supply a general picture at the study site scale. We validated our framework on two study sites located in the South of France and involving different types of natural, semi-natural and agricultural areas. The results obtained from a Landsat SITS support the quality of the methodological approach and illustrate how the framework can be employed to extract and characterize spatiotemporal dynamics.

  14. Multi Resolution Analysis (MRA of satellite images of oil spill disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Hussain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill disasters monitoring and mitigation requires availability of state of the art applications and tools. Conventional technology gets benefit from latest trends and research in satellite imaginary. This research highlights multi-resolution wavelet analysis of satellite images of oil spill disasters. Multi-resolution analysis is one of the powerful techniques to analyze information content of images. This analysis enables us to have a scale-invariant interpretation of the image. At each resolution level, both smooth and detailed signals carry all the necessary information to reconstruct the smooth signal at the next level. The wavelet decomposition results in detail and approximate threshold coefficients. Multi resolution wavelet decomposition is used to analyze the image in both time and frequency domain. It provides better frequency resolution and poor time resolution for lower frequency; better time resolution and poor frequency resolution for higher frequency. This condition is fortunately suited for real applications; as signals have high frequency components for very short period of the interval and low frequency components for longer durations.

  15. Amazon Rainforest Deforestation Daily Detection Tool Using Artificial Neural Networks and Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Cazella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA [1] sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides the parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to find the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrixes to determine the degree of success of the network. Part of the municipality of Porto Velho, in Rondônia state, is located inside the tile H11V09 of the MODIS/TERRA sensor, which was used as the study area. A spectrum-temporal analysis of this area was made on 57 images from 20 of May to 15 of July 2003 using the trained neural network. This analysis allowed us to verify the quality of the implemented neural network classification as well as helping our understanding of the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest. The great potential of neural networks for image classification was perceived with this work. However, the generation of consistent alarms, in other words, detecting predatory actions at the beginning; instead of firing false alarms is a complex task that has not yet been solved. Therefore, the major contribution of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis and practical use of neural networks and satellite images to combat illegal deforestation.

  16. Absorption Spectroscopy and Imaging from the Visible through Mid-IR with 20 nm Resolution Using AFM probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrone, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Correlated nanoscale composition and optical property maps are important to engineer nanomaterials in applications ranging from photovoltaics to sensing and therapeutics. Wavelengths (λs) from the visible to near-IR probe electronic transitions in materials, providing information regarding band gap and defects while light in mid-IR probes vibrational transitions and provide chemical composition. However, light diffraction limits the lateral resolution of conventional micro-spectroscopic techniques to approximately λ/2, which is insufficient to image nanomaterials. Additionally, the λ-dependent resolution impedes direct comparison of spectral maps from different spectral ranges. Photo Thermal Induced Resonance (PTIR) is a novel technique that circumvents light diffraction by employing an AFM tip as a local detector for measuring light absorption with λ-independent nanoscale resolution. Our PTIR setup combines an AFM microscope with three lasers providing λ-tunability from 500 nm to 16000 nm continuously. The AFM tip transduces locally the sample thermal expansion induced by light absorption into large cantilever oscillations. Local absorption spectra (electronic or vibrational) and maps are obtained recording the amplitude of the tip deflection as a function of λ and position, respectively. The working principles of the PTIR technique will be described first, and nano-patterned polymer samples will be used to evaluate its lateral resolution, sensitivity and linearity. Results show that the PTIR signal intensity is proportional to the local absorbed energy suggesting applicability of this technique for quantitative chemical analysis at nanoscale, at least for thin (less than 1000 nm thick) samples. Additionally, a λ-independent resolution as high as 20 nm is demonstrated across the whole spectral range. In the second part of the talk, PTIR will be applied to image the dark plasmonic resonance of gold Asymmetric Split Ring Resonators (A-SRRs) in the mid-IR

  17. Triple Linear-array Imaging Geometry Model of ZiYuan-3 Surveying Satellite and its Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Xinming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 surveying satellite is the first civilian high-resolution stereo mapping satellite of China. Its objective is oriented to plot the 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 topographic maps. Comparing with foreign commercial mapping satellite imagery, the establishment of our own imaging geometry model is the core technical problem for different products and various applications of ZY-3 surveying satellite. This paper analyses the key problem on precision geometry processing based on the overall design, and proposes the ZY-3 Surveying satellite imaging geometry model with the technology of virtual CCD line-array imaging. In addition, this paper utilizes the first orbit imagery of ZY-3 satellite with coverage of the region of Dalian, and produces forward, backward and nadir cameras calibration products. Different ground control points are selected for the block adjustment experiment, and the Digital Surface Model (DSM, Digital Ortho Map (DOM are generated. The accuracy is validated by check points. It can be seen from the experiment that the planar and vertical accuracy are better than 3 meters and 2 meters, respectively. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of ZY-3 surveying satellite imaging geometry model

  18. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; Lohani, B.

    2014-11-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the targets using the principle of photogrammetry. The constraints of cost and low-payload restrict the applicability of this approach using UAV platforms. This paper proposes a methodology for determining the geolocation of a target tracked from an aerial platform in a partially GPS devoid environment. The method utilises automatic feature based registration technique of a georeferenced satellite image with an ae rial image which is already stored in UAV's database to retrieve the geolocation of the target. Since it is easier to register subsequent aerial images due to similar viewing parameters, the subsequent overlapping images are registered together sequentially thus resulting in the registration of each of the images with georeferenced satellite image thus leading to geolocation of the target under interest. Using the proposed approach, the target can be tracked in all the frames in which it is visible. The proposed concept is verified experimentally and the results are found satisfactory. Using the proposed method, a user can obtain location of target of interest as well features on ground without requiring any POS on-board the aerial platform. The proposed approach has applications in surveillance for target tracking, target geolocation as well as in disaster management projects like search and rescue operations.

  19. Imaging AOTFs with Low RF Power in Deep-UV and Mid-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, S.; Ward, J.; Pannell, C.; Johnson, N.

    Acousto-Optic Tunable Filters (AOTFs) are commonly used for applications where high speed tuning and narrow spectral resolu- tion are required. The RF drive power for peak diffraction efficiency increases as λ2 and depends on the acousto-optic figure of merit (M2), which is material dependent. In the VIS-IR region between 450 nm and 4.5 μm tellurium dioxide (TeO2) is the common material of choice due to the high M2. At longer wavelengths (up to about 12 μm) the mercurous halides and single crystal tellurium show promise. In both cases the λ2 dependency dominates the RF power consumption and for wavelengths beyond 3.5 μm the RF power consumption is above the practical limit (>5W) for larger aperture AOTF(> 10 mm × 10 mm). In the UV range (200 nm - 400 nm) the λ2 dependency is no longer dominant and the power consumption depends mainly on the M2,however, for most materials transparent in the UV the M2 is poor and thus the drive power will again be excessive (>5W). In order to reduce the RF power requirement to reach peak diffraction efficiency, a resonant configuration in crystal quartz shows promise, especially in the UV range due to its low acoustic attenuation. We describe an AOTF operating in resonance made of crystal quartz, where the reduction of RF power consumption will be reduced by a factor between 15 and 20 compared to a conventional AOTF, thus reducing the power consumption to be within the practical limit (<5W).

  20. Solar resources estimation combining digital terrain models and satellite images techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.L.; Batlles, F.J. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120-Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, G. [EPS-Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important steps to make use of any renewable energy is to perform an accurate estimation of the resource that has to be exploited. In the designing process of both active and passive solar energy systems, radiation data is required for the site, with proper spatial resolution. Generally, a radiometric stations network is used in this evaluation, but when they are too dispersed or not available for the study area, satellite images can be utilized as indirect solar radiation measurements. Although satellite images cover wide areas with a good acquisition frequency they usually have a poor spatial resolution limited by the size of the image pixel, and irradiation must be interpolated to evaluate solar irradiation at a sub-pixel scale. When pixels are located in flat and homogeneous areas, correlation of solar irradiation is relatively high, and classic interpolation can provide a good estimation. However, in complex topography zones, data interpolation is not adequate and the use of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) information can be helpful. In this work, daily solar irradiation is estimated for a wide mountainous area using a combination of Meteosat satellite images and a DTM, with the advantage of avoiding the necessity of ground measurements. This methodology utilizes a modified Heliosat-2 model, and applies for all sky conditions; it also introduces a horizon calculation of the DTM points and accounts for the effect of snow covers. Model performance has been evaluated against data measured in 12 radiometric stations, with results in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10%, and a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of +2%, both expressed as a percentage of the mean value measured. (author)

  1. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  2. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  3. Detection and Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Satellites Images with Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzouai, Siham; Smara, Youcef

    2010-12-01

    The advent of satellite images allows now a regular and a fast digitizing and update of geographic data, especially roads which are very useful for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications such as transportation, urban pollution, geomarketing, etc. For this, several studies have been conducted to automate roads extraction in order to minimize the manual processes [4]. In this work, we are interested in roads extraction from satellite imagery with high spatial resolution (at best equal to 10 m). The method is semi automatic and follows a linear approach where road is considered as a linear object. As roads extraction is a pattern recognition problem, it is useful, above all, to characterize roads. After, we realize a pre-processing by applying an Infinite Size Edge Filter -ISEF- and processing method based on dynamic programming concept, in particular, Fishler algorithm designed by F*.

  4. 红外高光谱成像的光谱聚焦%Spectrally focusing in hyperspectral imaging IR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟卫华; 倪国强; 高昆; 向静波; 项建胜

    2013-01-01

      文中将光学系统中能量聚焦的概念引申至光谱维,提出在红外高光谱成像系统中通过信号处理获取感兴趣目标与其环境的光谱特征差异,结合调控目标函数得到光谱聚焦调控参数,进而控制成像系统中的可调谐部件自适应调谐到最有利探测和识别的若干个光谱通道,实现光谱聚焦。文中提出了一种可实现光谱聚焦的系统构型,重点探讨了光谱聚焦的机制和实现途径,给出了关键分系统的技术方案。利用光谱聚焦可以实现光谱自适应探测,提高光谱成像信息利用效率,降低信息处理的资需求,有助提高系统的实时性和小型化,对弹载、无人机载等高实时性、无人参与的应用具有十分重要意义。%Focusing in optics was extended to spectral dimension in this paper, and the method of spectrally focusing was proposed. The spectrally focusing was implemented by adaptively tuning of a F-P optical cavity tunable filter, which was controlled by the parameters from the regulation and control function driven by the differences between interesting object and its background. An hyperspectral imaging IR system with spectrally focusing was introduced, and the practical scheme of main subsystem was contrived, the mechanism and approach to spectrally focusing were investigated. With spectrally focusing, spectrally adaptive detection can be achieved, the hyperspectral images can be utilized more efficiently, and thereby the ability demand for image processing is reduced. Spectrally focusing conduces to make hyperspectral imaging IR system more rapid and compact, which suits with the utilization in missile or UAV.

  5. Fast Road Network Extraction in Satellite Images Using Mathematical Morphology and Markov Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Géraud

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast method for road network extraction in satellite images. It can be seen as a transposition of the segmentation scheme “watershed transform + region adjacency graph + Markov random fields” to the extraction of curvilinear objects. Many road extractors which are composed of two stages can be found in the literature. The first one acts like a filter that can decide from a local analysis, at every image point, if there is a road or not. The second stage aims at obtaining the road network structure. In the method we propose to rely on a “potential” image, that is, unstructured image data that can be derived from any road extractor filter. In such a potential image, the value assigned to a point is a measure of its likelihood to be located in the middle of a road. A filtering step applied on the potential image relies on the area closing operator followed by the watershed transform to obtain a connected line which encloses the road network. Then a graph describing adjacency relationships between watershed lines is built. Defining Markov random fields upon this graph, associated with an energetic model of road networks, leads to the expression of road network extraction as a global energy minimization problem. This method can easily be adapted to other image processing fields, where the recognition of curvilinear structures is involved.

  6. Comparing Manual and Semi-Automated Landslide Mapping Based on Optical Satellite Images from Different Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hölbling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Object-based image analysis (OBIA has been increasingly used to map geohazards such as landslides on optical satellite images. OBIA shows various advantages over traditional image analysis methods due to its potential for considering various properties of segmentation-derived image objects (spectral, spatial, contextual, and textural for classification. For accurately identifying and mapping landslides, however, visual image interpretation is still the most widely used method. The major question therefore is if semi-automated methods such as OBIA can achieve results of comparable quality in contrast to visual image interpretation. In this paper we apply OBIA for detecting and delineating landslides in five selected study areas in Austria and Italy using optical Earth Observation (EO data from different sensors (Landsat 7, SPOT-5, WorldView-2/3, and Sentinel-2 and compare the OBIA mapping results to outcomes from visual image interpretation. A detailed evaluation of the mapping results per study area and sensor is performed by a number of spatial accuracy metrics, and the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches for landslide mapping on optical EO data are discussed. The analyses show that both methods produce similar results, whereby the achieved accuracy values vary between the study areas.

  7. Comparision of Clustering Algorithms usingNeural Network Classifier for Satellite Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Praveena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid clustering algorithm and feed-forward neural network classifier for land-cover mapping of trees, shade, building and road. It starts with the single step preprocessing procedure to make the image suitable for segmentation. The pre-processed image is segmented using the hybrid genetic-Artificial Bee Colony(ABC algorithm that is developed by hybridizing the ABC and FCM to obtain the effective segmentation in satellite image and classified using neural network . The performance of the proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with the algorithms like, k-means, Fuzzy C means(FCM, Moving K-means, Artificial Bee Colony(ABC algorithm, ABC-GA algorithm, Moving KFCM and KFCM algorithm.

  8. Object-Based Forest Cover Monitoring Using GAOFEN-2 High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. M.; Li, Z. Y.; Chen, E. X.; Liu, Q. W.

    2016-10-01

    Forest cover monitoring is an important part of forest management in local or regional area. The structure and tones of forest can be identified in high spatial remote sensing images. When forests cover change, the spectral characteristics of forests is also changed. In this paper a method on object-based forest cover monitoring with data transformation from time series of high resolution images is put forward. First the NDVI difference image and the composite of PC3,PC4, PC5 of the stacked 8 layers of time series of high resolution satellites are segmented into homogeneous objects. With development of the object-based ruleset classification system, the spatial extent of deforestation and afforestation can be identified over time across the landscape. Finally the change accuracy is achieved with reference data.

  9. High-resolution satellite image segmentation using Hölder exponents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Chakraborty; Gautam Kumar Sen; Sugata Hazra

    2009-10-01

    Texture in high-resolution satellite images requires substantial amendment in the conventional segmentation algorithms. A measure is proposed to compute the Hölder exponent (HE) to assess the roughness or smoothness around each pixel of the image. The localized singularity information is incorporated in computing the HE. An optimum window size is evaluated so that HE reacts to localized singularity. A two-step iterative procedure for clustering the transformed HE image is adapted to identify the range of HE, densely occupied in the kernel and to partition Hölder exponents into a cluster that matches with the range. Hölder exponent values (noise or not associated with the other cluster) are clubbed to a nearest possible cluster using the local maximum likelihood analysis.

  10. Recognization of Satellite Images of Large Scale Data Based on Map- Reduce Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Jadhav,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today in the world of cloud and grid computing integration of data from heterogeneous databases is inevitable.This will become complex when size of the database is very large. M-R is a new framework specifically designed for processing huge datasets on distributed sources. Apache’s Hadoop is an implementation of M-R.Currently Hadoop has been applied successfully for file based datasets. This project proposes to utilize the parallel and distributed processing capability of Hadoop M-R for handling Images on large datasets.The presented methodology of land-cover recognition provides a scalable solution for automatic satellite imagery analysis, especially when GIS data is not readily available, or surface change may occur due to catastrophic events such as flooding, hurricane, and snow storm, etc.Here,we are using algorithms such as Image Differentiation,Image Duplication,Zoom-In,Gray-Scale.

  11. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  12. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  13. Determination of quasi-static microaccelerations onboard a satellite using video images of moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levtov, V. L.; Romanov, V. V.; Boguslavsky, A. A.; Sazonov, V. V.; Sokolov, S. M.; Glotov, Yu. N.

    2009-12-01

    A space experiment aimed at determination of quasi-static microaccelerations onboard an artificial satellite of the Earth using video images of the objects executing free motion is considered. The experiment was carried out onboard the Foton M-3 satellite. Several pellets moved in a cubic box fixed on the satellite’s mainframe and having two transparent adjacent walls. Their motion was photographed by a digital video camera. The camera was installed facing one of the transparent walls; a mirror was placed at an angle to another transparent wall. Such an optical system allowed us to have in a single frame two images of the pellets from differing viewpoints. The motion of the pellets was photographed on time intervals lasting 96 s. Pauses between these intervals were also equal to 96 s. A special processing of a separate image allowed us to determine coordinates of the pellet centers in the camera’s coordinate system. The sequence of frames belonging to a continuous interval of photography was processed in the following way. The time dependence of each coordinate of every pellet was approximated by a second degree polynomial using the least squares method. The coefficient of squared time is equal to a half of the corresponding microacceleration component. As has been shown by processing made, the described method of determination of quasi-static microaccelerations turned out to be sufficiently sensitive and accurate.

  14. Combined Use of Multi-Temporal Optical and Radar Satellite Images for Grassland Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Dusseux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of optical images, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images and the combination of both types of data to discriminate between grasslands and crops in agricultural areas where cloud cover is very high most of the time, which restricts the use of visible and near-infrared satellite data. We compared the performances of variables extracted from four optical and five SAR satellite images with high/very high spatial resolutions acquired during the growing season. A vegetation index, namely the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and two biophysical variables, the LAI (Leaf Area Index and the fCOVER (fraction of Vegetation Cover were computed using optical time series and polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH. The polarization ratio and polarimetric decomposition (Freeman–Durden and Cloude–Pottier were calculated using SAR time series. Then, variables derived from optical, SAR and both types of remotely-sensed data were successively classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM technique. The results show that the classification accuracy of SAR variables is higher than those using optical data (0.98 compared to 0.81. They also highlight that the combination of optical and SAR time series data is of prime interest to discriminate grasslands from crops, allowing an improved classification accuracy.

  15. Integrated use of satellite images, DEMs, soil and substrate data in studying mountainous lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Fabio; Montanarella, Luca; Salandin, Roberto

    A method based on the integration into a GIS of satellite images of different spatial resolution (Landsat TM and SPOT), Digital Elevation Models, geo-lithological maps and some soil-landscape data was developed and applied to a test area on a sector of the Italian northwestern Alps in the Piemonte region (Pellice, Po, Varaita and Maira valleys southwest of Torino). The main working steps performed (using GIS software) in this area were: (1) acquisition of geo-lithological and geomorphological maps available and a first definition of homogeneous zones obtained by joining different classes with pedogenic criteria; (2) processing and classification of satellite images to define homogeneous areas with reference to prevailing land cover, land use pattern, relief shape and spectral characters; (3) integration of the previous two layers to obtain a first set of cartographic units showing a distinctive and often repetitive pattern of land form, land cover and parent material; and (4) processing DEMs (slope and aspect), soil or soil-landscape data in order to refine data and characterise the units. The resulting cartographic units were superimposed on a soil-landscape map realised by means of stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs by IPLA at the same scale (1:250,000). This comparison was used to verify the correctness of the satellite image processing steps and consistency with the map scale used. A larger scale application was also developed for grassland at 1:50,000 scale to demonstrate the practical use of remote sensing and GIS data in assisting mountainous land development.

  16. Solar irradiance assessment in insular areas using Himawari-8 satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liandrat, O.; Cros, S.; Turpin, M.; Pineau, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The high amount of surface solar irradiance (SSI) in the tropics is an advantage for a profitable PV production. It will allow many tropical islands to pursue their economic growth with a clean, affordable and locally produced energy. However, the local meteorological conditions induce a very high variability which is problematic for a safe and gainful injection into the power grid. This issue is even more critical in non-interconnected territories where network stability is an absolute necessity. Therefore, the injection of PV power is legally limited in some European oversea territories. In this context, intraday irradiance forecasting (several hours ahead) is particularly useful to mitigate the production variability by reducing the cost of power storage management. At this time scale, cloud cover evolves with a stochastic behaviour not properly represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Analysing cloud motion using images from geostationary meteorological satellites is a well-known alternative to forecasting SSI up to 6 hours ahead with a better accuracy than NWP models. In this study, we present and apply our satellite-based solar irradiance forecasting methods over two measurement sites located in the field of view of the satellite Himawari-8: Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) and New Caledonia (France). In particular, we converted 4 months of images from Himawari-8 visible channel into cloud index maps. Then, we applied an algorithm computing a cloud motion vector field from a short sequence of consecutive images. Comparisons between forecasted SSI at 1 hour of time horizon and collocated pyranometric measurements show a relative RMSE between 20 and 27%. Error sources related to the tropic insular context (coastal area heterogeneity, sub-pixel scale orographic cloud appearance, convective situation…) are discussed at every implementation step for the different methods.

  17. Evaluation of Satellite Image Correction Methods Caused by Differential Terrain Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama Budi Santosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem due to differential terrain illumination on satellite imagery is experienced by most of areas which are on mountainous terrain. This may cause variations in reflectance of similar ground features which lead to a misclassification of land cover classes due to different topographic positions. This phenomenon most commonly occurred in the areas which are located on southern and northern hemisphere because of the low sun inclination. This problem has been a major interest for researchers to be solved prior to the land cover classification process. For satellite images which experience this kind of problem, topographic correction need to be applied in order to reduce the illumination effects prior to land cover classification process. This research is aimed at conducting topographic correction of multi spectral SPOT satellite data as well as evaluating the three topographic correction methods. They are Cosine which is based on Lambertian reflectance assumption, as well as Minnaert correction and C correction methods which are based on non-Lambertian reflectance assumption. The data used in this study are two scenes of SPOT images of forested mountainous area of Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Research steps had been conducted in this study including geometric correction, sample data collection for calculating Minnaert constants and C constants at location which represents the whole study area, topographic correction for two scenes SPOT images, and results analysis. The results show that Cosine method did not show good performance for the study area which is topographically dominated by rugged terrain. Whereas Minnaert method and C method gave satisfactory results as is indicated by the statistical data as well as visual interpretation. However the Minnaert correction method showed slightly better performance than the C correction method.

  18. Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Jerome; Michihiro, Takami; Karr, Jennifer; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We present new high-resolution (approximately 0.09) H-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0.15 (approximately 20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of approximately 90 AU, an inclination of approximately 35 deg from the plane of the sky, and an approximate PA of 15 deg for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2. 5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1 (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an unseen brown dwarf, but our results do not exclude the explanation that these tails are outflow cavities or jets.

  19. Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Jerome; Michihiro, Takami; Karr, Jennifer; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We present new high-resolution (approximately 0.09) H-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0.15 (approximately 20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of approximately 90 AU, an inclination of approximately 35 deg from the plane of the sky, and an approximate PA of 15 deg for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2. 5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1 (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an unseen brown dwarf, but our results do not exclude the explanation that these tails are outflow cavities or jets.

  20. Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, Jerome; Karr, Jennifer L; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Eiji; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Usuda, Tomonori; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E; Feldt, Markus; Follette, Katherine; Grady, Carol A; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; McElwain, Michael W; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    We present new high-resolution ($\\sim$0\\farcs09) $H$-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0\\farcs15 ($\\sim$20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of $\\sim$90 AU, an inclination of $\\sim$35$\\degr$ from the plane of the sky, and an approximate P.A. of 15$\\degr$ for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2\\farcs5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1\\arcsec (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an uns...

  1. IR intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output.......Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output....

  2. Bulk growth and surface characterization of epitaxy ready cadmium zinc telluride substrates for use in IR imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, J. P.; Martinez, B.; Betz, T. E. M.; MacKenzie, J.; Kumar, F. J.; Bindley, G.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is an important compound semiconductor material upon which Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) layers are deposited epitaxially to form structures that are used in high performance detectors covering a wide infrared (IR) spectral band. The epitaxial growth of high quality MCT layers presents many technical challenges and a critical determinant of material performance is the quality of the underlying bulk CZT substrate. CZT itself is a difficult material to manufacture where traditional methods of bulk growth are complex and low yielding, which constrains the supply of commercially available substrates. In this work we report on the epitaxy-ready finishing of Travelling Heather Method (THM) grown Cd0.96Zn0.04Te substrates. The THM method is well established for the growth of high quality CZT crystals used in nuclear, X-ray and spectroscopic imaging applications and in this work we demonstrate the application of this technique to the growth of IR specification CZT substrates with areas of up to 5 cm x 5 cm square. We will discuss the advantages of the THM method over alternative methods of bulk CZT growth where the high yield and material uniformity advantages of this technique will be demonstrated. Chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) of 4 cm x 4 cm CZT substrates reveals that III-V (InSb/GaSb) like levels of epitaxy-ready surface finishing may be obtained with modified process chemistries. Surface quality assessments will be made by various surface analytical and microscopy techniques from which the suitability of the material for subsequent assessment of quality by epitaxial growth will be ascertained.

  3. Utilization of satellite images to understand the dynamics of Pampas shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aliaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze satellite images of different spatial resolutions to interpret the morphometric behavior of six shallow lakes of the Pampas, Argentina. These are characterized by having different rainfall regimes. Morphometric response considering each location, site conditions and dry and wet extreme events is analyzed. Standardized Precipitation Index (IEP for determination of wet, dry and normal years was used. This analysis showed that the Pampas shallow lakes do not behave in the same way to the rainfall events. Its origin, socio-economic use and rainfall patterns affect their spatiotemporal variation and morphometric.

  4. Monitoring an air pollution episode in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-07-01

    Urban air pollution is influenced not only by local emission sources including industry and vehicles, but also greatly by regional atmospheric pollutant transportation from the surrounding areas, especially in developed city clusters, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Taking an air pollution episode in Shenzhen as an example, this paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of the pollution episode and identifies the transport pathways of air pollutants in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Results show that this pollution episode is mainly caused by the local emission of pollutants in PRD and oceanic air masses under specific weather conditions.

  5. Determination of Destructed and Infracted Forest Areas with Multi-temporal High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Unal, A.; Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.

    2015-12-01

    Migration from rural areas to city centers and their surroundings is an important problem of not only our country but also the countries that under development stage. This uncontrolled and huge amount of migration brings out urbanization and socio - economic problems. The demand on settling the industrial areas and commercial activities nearby the city centers results with a negative change in natural land cover on cities. Negative impacts of human induced activities on natural resources and land cover has been continuously increasing for decades. The main human activities that resulted with destruction and infraction of forest areas can be defined as mining activities, agricultural activities, industrial / commercial activities and urbanization. Temporal monitoring of the changes in spatial distribution of forest areas is significantly important for effective management and planning progress. Changes can occur as spatially large destructions or small infractions. Therefore there is a need for reliable, fast and accurate data sources. At this point, satellite images proved to be a good data source for determination of the land use /cover changes with their capability of monitoring large areas with reasonable temporal resolutions. Spectral information derived from images provides discrimination of land use/cover types from each other. Developments in remote sensing technology in the last decade improved the spatial resolution of satellites and high resolution images were started to be used to detect even small changes in the land surface. As being the megacity of Turkey, Istanbul has been facing a huge migration for the last 20 years and effects of urbanization and other human based activities over forest areas are significant. Main focus of this study is to determine the destructions and infractions in forest areas of Istanbul, Turkey with 2.5m resolution SPOT 5 multi-temporal satellite imagery. Analysis was mainly constructed on threshold based classification of

  6. Attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaguang; Wang, Zhigang

    2005-11-01

    To achieve the high accuracy of attitude determination for three-axis stabilized geostationary meteorological satellite image navigation, a new approach combined gyro with star trackers is proposed, and a real-time algorithm for attitude estimation is designed. This algorithm begins with a prediction for angular rate model errors induced by gyro drifting error, and ends with the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for attitude estimation of three-axis. A Matlab-based time domain simulation model is developed to evaluate the attitude determination performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has characteristics of high accuracy, rapid convergence and strong robustness.

  7. Online self-service processing system of ZY-3 satellite: a prospective study of image cloud services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Huabin; Shi, Shaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The strong demands for satellite images are increasing not only in professional fields, but also in the non-professionals. But the online map services with up-to-date satellite images can serve few demands. One challenge is how to provide online processing service, which need to handle real-time online data-intensive geospatial computation and visualization. Under the background of the development of cloud computing technology, the problem can be figured out partly. The other challenge is how to implement user-customized online processing without professional background and knowledge. An online self-service processing system of ZY-3 Satellite images is designed to implement an on-demand service mode in this paper. It will work with only some simple parameters being set up for the non-professionals without having to care about the specific processing steps. And the professionals can assemble the basic processing services to a service chain, which can work out a more complex processing and a better result. This intelligent self-service online system for satellite images processing, which is called the prototype of satellite image cloud service in this paper, is accelerated under the development of cloud computing technology and researches on data-intensive computing. To realize the goal, the service mode and framework of the online self-service processing system of ZY-3 Satellite images are figured out in this paper. The details of key technologies are also discussed, including user space virtualization management, algorithm-level parallel image processing, image service chain construction, etc. And the experimental system is built up as a prospective study of image cloud services.

  8. New materials and new techniques for imaging of long wavelength IR radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, L. E.

    1990-11-01

    Work on this program was directed towards the preliminary verification of the possibility of a completely new type of long wavelength infrared imaging system. This study proposed to explore the change in polarized reflectance from the pyro-optic surface, making use of the exceptional sensitivity of the newer ellipsometric techniques for reflectance studies. Cardinal advantages for the pyro-optic reflectance method are the following: (1) thermally sensitive film need only be thick enough to support the evanescent wave on reflection, so that pixel volume (mass) can be exceedingly small; (2) films can be mounted upon a critically dehydrated gel substrate which is transparent to visible light but affords near perfect thermal isolation; (3) there is no need for contacts to individual pixel elements as in the pyroelectric imagers; and (4) calculations show that for a film 0.1 micron meter thick, mounted on a silica gel substrate, the thermal efficiency is such that if the thermometric sensitivity of the film is sufficient to detect a temperature change of 1mK then for a system with f(1) optics this could correspond to a temperature difference in the object plane of 0.1K. The studies on this program were in two parts. The first objective was to verify the high values of temperature derivative of refractive index which has been reported in bismuth vanadate BiVO4, molybdenum MoS2, and antimony sulphur iodide SbSI. The second objective was to design and build a compact thermoelectric heater cooler which could be used to impart a known small AC temperature change to explore the detectivity limit for a pyro-optic application.

  9. Near-IR Imaging of Thermal Changes in Enamel during Laser Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Linn H; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-03-05

    The objective of this work was to observe the various thermal-induced optical changes that occur in the near-infrared (NIR) during drilling in dentin and enamel with the laser and the high-speed dental handpiece. Tooth sections of ~ 3 mm-thickness were prepared from extracted human incisors (N=60). Samples were ablated with a mechanically scanned CO(2) laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3-µm, a 300-Hz laser pulse repetition rate, and a laser pulse duration of 10-20 µs. An InGaAs imaging camera was used to acquire real-time NIR images at 1300-nm of thermal and mechanical changes (cracks). Enamel was rapidly removed by the CO(2) laser without peripheral thermal damage by mechanically scanning the laser beam while a water spray was used to cool the sample. Comparison of the peripheral thermal and mechanical changes produced while cutting with the laser and the high-speed hand-piece suggest that enamel and dentin can be removed at high speed by the CO(2) laser without excessive peripheral thermal or mechanical damage. Only 2 of the 15 samples ablated with the laser showed the formation of small cracks while 9 out of 15 samples exhibited crack formation with the dental hand-piece. The first indication of thermal change is a decrease in transparency due to loss of the mobile water from pores in the enamel which increase light-scattering. To test the hypothesis that peripheral thermal changes were caused by loss of mobile water in the enamel, thermal changes were intentionally induced by heating the surface. The mean attenuation coefficient of enamel increased significantly from 2.12 ± 0.82 to 5.08 ± 0.98 with loss of mobile water due to heating.

  10. Satellite Image Pansharpening Using a Hybrid Approach for Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Hoan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS, Brovey Transform (BT, and Smoothing-Filter-Based-Intensity Modulation (SFIM algorithms were used to pansharpen GeoEye-1 imagery. The pansharpened images were then segmented in Berkeley Image Seg using a wide range of segmentation parameters, and the spatial and spectral accuracy of image segments was measured. We found that pansharpening algorithms that preserve more of the spatial information of the higher resolution panchromatic image band (i.e., IHS and BT led to more spatially-accurate segmentations, while pansharpening algorithms that minimize the distortion of spectral information of the lower resolution multispectral image bands (i.e., SFIM led to more spectrally-accurate image segments. Based on these findings, we developed a new IHS-SFIM combination approach, specifically for object-based image analysis (OBIA, which combined the better spatial information of IHS and the more accurate spectral information of SFIM to produce image segments with very high spatial and spectral accuracy.

  11. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, F.

    2015-11-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable to the wider public. For this study, animated image sequences were created for four regions in the central Karakoram mountain range over a 25-year time period (1990-2015) from freely available image quick-looks of orthorectified Landsat scenes. The animations play automatically in a web browser and reveal highly complex patterns of glacier flow and surge dynamics that are difficult to obtain by other methods. In contrast to other regions, surging glaciers in the Karakoram are often small (10 km2 or less), steep, debris-free, and advance for several years to decades at relatively low annual rates (about 100 m a-1). These characteristics overlap with those of non-surge-type glaciers, making a clear identification difficult. However, as in other regions, the surging glaciers in the central Karakoram also show sudden increases of flow velocity and mass waves travelling down glacier. The surges of individual glaciers are generally out of phase, indicating a limited climatic control on their dynamics. On the other hand, nearly all other glaciers in the region are either stable or slightly advancing, indicating balanced or even positive mass budgets over the past few decades.

  12. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  13. TIRCIS: Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Imaging Using a Small-Satellite Compliant Fourier-Transform Imaging Spectrometer, for Natural Hazard Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural hazards, including wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and, from the perspective of climate-related hazards, urban heat islands, could be better quantified via the routine availability of hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing data from orbit. However, no sensors are currently in operation that provide such data at high-to-moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat-class resolution). In this presentation we will describe a prototype instrument, developed using funding provided by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, that can make these important measurements. Significantly, the instrument has been designed such that its size, mass, power, and cost are consistent with its integration into small satellite platforms, or deployment as part of small satellite constellations. The instrument, TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data cubes. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. Neither the focal plane nor the optics need to be cooled, and the instrument has a mass of <10 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm. Although the prototype has four moving parts, this can easily be reduced to one. The current optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 90 spectral samples are possible, by varying the physical design of the interferometer. Our performance model indicates signal-to-noise ratios of the order of about 200 to 300:1. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the instrument design, fabrication, results from our initial laboratory characterization, and some of the application areas in which small-satellite-ready instruments such as TIRCIS could make a valuable contribution to the study of natural hazards.

  14. The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) Instrument, the Satellite-Based Element of an Investigation to Benefit Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Maps of airborne particulate matter (PM) derived from satellite instruments, including MISR and MODIS, have provided key contributions to many health-related investigations. Although it is well established that PM exposure increases the risks of cardiovascular and respiratory disease, adverse birth outcomes, and premature deaths, our understanding of the relative toxicity of specific PM types—mixtures having different size distributions and compositions—is relatively poor. To address this, the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) investigation was proposed to NASA's third Earth Venture Instrument (EVI-3) solicitation. MAIA was selected for funding in March 2016. The satellite-based MAIA instrument is one element of the scientific investigation, which will combine WRF-Chem transport model estimates of the abundances of different aerosol types with the data acquired from Earth orbit. Geostatistical models derived from collocated surface and MAIA retrievals will be used to relate retrieved fractional column aerosol optical depths to near-surface concentrations of major PM constituents. Epidemiological analyses of geocoded birth, death, and hospital records will be used to associate exposure to PM types with adverse health outcomes. The MAIA instrument obtains its sensitivity to particle type by building upon the legacies of many satellite sensors; observing in the UV, visible, near-IR, and shortwave-IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; acquiring images at multiple angles of view; determining the degree to which the scattered light is polarized; and integrating these capabilities at moderately high spatial resolution. The instrument concept is based on the first and second generation Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imagers, AirMSPI and AirMSPI-2. MAIA incorporates a pair of pushbroom cameras on a two-axis gimbal to provide regional multiangle observations of selected, globally distributed target areas. A set of Primary Target Areas (PTAs) on five

  15. Deep and shallow structures in the Arctic region imaged by satellite magnetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Carmen; Panet, Isabelle; Shephard, Grace

    2016-07-01

    , volcanic crust, but, as in the case of other oceanic Large Igneous Provinces, only deep sea drilling will be able to reveal the true nature of the underlying crust at the core of the Arctic. The oldest continental crust, usually found in the cratonic areas and as Proterozoic accreted crust, generates the largest positive magnetic anomalies. This crust contains large and deep volcanic bodies in the North American shield, Greenland, the Baltic shield in Eurasia and the Siberian platform in NE Asia, and are imaged by the satellite data. Furthermore, satellite data is not only restricted to revealing crustal and lithospheric depths. Recent workflows have shown that subducted remnants of ocean basins, now located in the lower mantle, as well as large, antipodal features on the core-mantle boundary, can be imaged by satellite gravity. Seismic tomography provides evidence for an extinct Mesozoic Arctic ocean lying around 1400 km under present-day Greenland. However, the variable resolution of seismic tomography at high latitudes, as well as ambiguity in plate reconstructions, renders the existence of the slab open to interpretation. Critically, the current location of the slab also matches perturbations in long-wavelength gravity gradients, providing further support for a deep density anomaly and a slab origin. Gravity data therefore provides a complementary and independent link in linking surface events and deep mantle structure in frontier regions like the Arctic. By revealing the present-day structure, satellite-derived magnetics and gravity offer a critical component in our understanding of Arctic history, over timescales of millions of years and scales of thousands of kilometers.

  16. Effects of Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet on atherosclerotic plaque phenotype in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice: FT-IR and Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, T P; Marzec, K M; Chlopicki, S; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, I; Moszkowski, T; Kostogrys, R B; Baranska, M

    2015-09-22

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet displays pro-atherogenic effects, however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, with the use of vibrational imaging, such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (RS) spectroscopies, we characterize biochemical content of plaques in Brachiocephalic Arteries (BCA) from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet as compared to control, recomended by American Institute of Nutrition, AIN diet. FT-IR images were taken from 6-10 sections of BCA from each mice and were complemented with RS measurements with higher spatial resolution of chosen areas of plaque sections. In aortic plaques from LCHP fed ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, the content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters was increased, while that of proteins was decreased as evidenced by global FT-IR analysis. High resolution imaging by RS identified necrotic core/foam cells, lipids (including cholesterol crystals), calcium mineralization and fibrous cap. The decreased relative thickness of the outer fibrous cap and the presence of buried caps were prominent features of the plaques in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet. In conclusion, FT-IR and Raman-based imaging provided a complementary insight into the biochemical composition of the plaque suggesting that LCHP diet increased plaque cholesterol and cholesterol esters contents of atherosclerotic plaque, supporting the cholesterol-driven pathogenesis of LCHP-induced atherogenesis.

  17. The digital mapping of satellite images under no ground control and the distribution of landform, blue ice and meteorites in the Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家抦; 霍东民; 周军其; 孙朝辉

    2001-01-01

    The colorful satellite image maps with the scale of 1∶100 000 were made by processing the parameters-on-satellite under the condition of no data of field surveying. The purpose is to ensure the smooth performance of the choice of expedition route, navigation and research task before the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) first made researches on the Grove Mountains. Moreover, on the basis of the visual interpretation of the satellite image, we preliminarily analyze and discuss the relief and landform, blue ice and meteorite distribution characteristics in the Grove Mountains. Key words Grove Mountains, parameters-on-satellite, satellite image, digital mapping, blue ice, meteorites distribution.

  18. The Orbits of Saturn's Small Satellites Derived from Combined Historic and Cassini Imaging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, J. N.; Jacobson, R. A.; Porco, C. C.; Owen, W. M., Jr.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the orbits of the small, inner Saturnian satellites, either recovered or newly discovered in recent Cassini imaging observations. The orbits presented here reflect improvements over our previously published values in that the time base of Cassini observations has been extended, and numerical orbital integrations have been performed in those cases in which simple precessing elliptical, inclined orbit solutions were found to be inadequate. Using combined Cassini and Voyager observations, we obtain an eccentricity for Pan 7 times smaller than previously reported because of the predominance of higher quality Cassini data in the fit. The orbit of the small satellite (S/2005 S1 [Daphnis]) discovered by Cassini in the Keeler gap in the outer A ring appears to be circular and coplanar; no external perturbations are apparent. Refined orbits of Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus are based on Cassini , Voyager, Hubble Space Telescope, and Earth-based data and a numerical integration perturbed by all the massive satellites and each other. Atlas is significantly perturbed by Prometheus, and to a lesser extent by Pandora, through high-wavenumber mean-motion resonances. Orbital integrations involving Atlas yield a mass of GMAtlas=(0.44+/-0.04)×10-3 km3 s -2, 3 times larger than reported previously (GM is the product of the Newtonian constant of gravitation G and the satellite mass M). Orbital integrations show that Methone is perturbed by Mimas, Pallene is perturbed by Enceladus, and Polydeuces librates around Dione's L5 point with a period of about 791 days. We report on the nature and orbits of bodies sighted in the F ring, two of which may have persisted for a year or more.

  19. Near-IR Imaging Polarimetry toward a Bright-Rimmed Cloud: Magnetic Field in SFO 74

    CERN Document Server

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Miao, Jingqi; Tamura, Motohide; Sato, Yaeko; Kwon, Jungmi; Watanabe, Makoto; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sato, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We have made near-infrared (JHKs) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim), and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ~90 uG, is stronger than that far inside, ~30 uG. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV radiation induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip, and thus increases the str...

  20. Standoff aircraft IR characterization with ABB dual-band hyper spectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Lantagne, Stéphane; Bullis, Ritchie D.; Roy, Claude; Vallières, Christian; Levesque, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing infrared characterization of rapidly evolving events generally involves the combination of a spectro-radiometer and infrared camera(s) as separated instruments. Time synchronization, spatial coregistration, consistent radiometric calibration and managing several systems are important challenges to overcome; they complicate the target infrared characterization data processing and increase the sources of errors affecting the final radiometric accuracy. MR-i is a dual-band Hyperspectal imaging spectro-radiometer, that combines two 256 x 256 pixels infrared cameras and an infrared spectro-radiometer into one single instrument. This field instrument generates spectral datacubes in the MWIR and LWIR. It is designed to acquire the spectral signatures of rapidly evolving events. The design is modular. The spectrometer has two output ports configured with two simultaneously operated cameras to either widen the spectral coverage or to increase the dynamic range of the measured amplitudes. Various telescope options are available for the input port. Recent platform developments and field trial measurements performances will be presented for a system configuration dedicated to the characterization of airborne targets.

  1. USE SATELLITE IMAGES AND IMPROVE THE ACCURACY OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE WITH THE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Javadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The best technique to extract information from remotely sensed image is classification. The problem of traditional classification methods is that each pixel is assigned to a single class by presuming all pixels within the image. Mixed pixel classification or spectral unmixing, is a process that extracts the proportions of the pure components of each mixed pixel. This approach is called spectral unmixing. Hyper spectral images have higher spectral resolution than multispectral images. In this paper, pixel-based classification methods such as the spectral angle mapper, maximum likelihood classification and subpixel classification method (linear spectral unmixing were implemented on the AVIRIS hyper spectral images. Then, pixel-based and subpixel based classification algorithms were compared. Also, the capabilities and advantages of spectral linear unmixing method were investigated. The spectral unmixing method that implemented here is an effective technique for classifying a hyperspectral image giving the classification accuracy about 89%. The results of classification when applying on the original images are not good because some of the hyperspectral image bands are subject to absorption and they contain only little signal. So it is necessary to prepare the data at the beginning of the process. The bands can be stored according to their variance. In bands with a high variance, we can distinguish the features from each other in a better mode in order to increase the accuracy of classification. Also, applying the MNF transformation on the hyperspectral images increase the individual classes accuracy of pixel based classification methods as well as unmixing method about 20 percent and 9 percent respectively.

  2. Correction of ZY-3 image distortion caused by satellite jitter via virtual steady reimaging using attitude data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mi; Zhu, Ying; Jin, Shuying; Pan, Jun; Zhu, Quansheng

    2016-09-01

    ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3), the first Chinese civilian stereo mapping satellite, suffers from 0.67 Hz satellite jitter that deteriorates its geometric performance in mapping, resource monitoring and other applications. This paper proposes a distortion correction method based on virtual steady reimaging (VSRI) using attitude data to eliminate the negative influence caused by satellite jitter in satellite data preprocessing. VSRI helps linear array pushbroom cameras rescan the ground with a uniform integral time and smooth attitude. In this method, a VSRI model is proposed, and the geometric relationship between the original and corrected image is determined in terms of geolocation consistency based on a rigorous geometric model. Thus, the corrected image is obtained by resampling from the original one. Three areas of ZY-3 three-line images suffering from satellite jitter were used to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. First, different attitude interpolation methods were compared. It is found that the Lagrange polynomial model and the cubic piecewise polynomial model have higher interpolation accuracy for original imagery. Then, the replacement accuracy of the rational function model (RFM) for ZY-3 was analyzed with 0.67 Hz satellite jitter. The results indicate that attitude oscillation reduces the fitting precision of the RFM for the rigorous imaging model. Finally, the relative orientation accuracy of the three-line images and the geo-positioning accuracy with ground control points (GCPs) before and after distortion correction were compared. The results show that the distortion caused by satellite jitter is corrected efficiently, and the accuracy of the three experimental datasets is improved in both the image space and the ground space.

  3. Two-lens designs for modern uncooled and cooled IR imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert; Franks, John

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, thermal detectors with a 17 μm pixel pitch have become well-established for use in various applications, such as thermal imaging in cars. This has allowed the civilian infrared market to steadily mature. The main cost for these lens designs comes from the number of lenses used. The development of thermal detectors, which are less sensitive than quantum detectors, has compelled camera manufacturers to demand very fast F-numbers such as f/1.2 or faster. This also minimizes the impact of diffraction in the 8-12 μmm waveband. The freedom afforded by the choice of the stop position in these designs has been used to create high-resolution lenses that operate near the diffraction limit. Based on GASIR®1, a chalcogenide glass, two-lens designs have been developed for all pixel counts and fields of view. Additionally, all these designs have been passively athermalized, either optically or mechanically. Lenses for cooled quantum detectors have a defined stop position called the cold stop (CS) near the FPA-plane. The solid angle defined by the CS fixes not only the F-number (which is less fast than for thermal detectors), but determines also the required resolution. The main cost driver of these designs is the lens diameter. Lenses must be sufficiently large to avoid any vignetting of ray bundles intended to reach the cooled detector. This paper studies the transfer of approved lens design principles for thermal detectors to lenses for cooled quantum detectors with CS for same pixel count at three horizontal fields of view: a 28° medium field lens, an 8° narrow field lens, and a 90° wide field lens. The lens arrangements found for each category have similar lens costs.

  4. NEAR-IR IMAGING POLARIMETRY TOWARD A BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUD: MAGNETIC FIELD IN SFO 74

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Miao, Jingqi [Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Tamura, Motohide; Kwon, Jungmi [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sato, Yaeko [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mikata, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Watanabe, Makoto [Department of Cosmosciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nishiyama, Shogo [Faculty of Education, Miyagi University of Education, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Sato, Shuji [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We have made near-infrared (JHK {sub s}) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim) and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ∼90 μG, is stronger than that far inside, ∼30 μG. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV-radiation-induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip and thus increases the strength of the magnetic field. The magnetic pressure seems to be comparable to the turbulent one just inside the tip rim, implying a significant contribution of the magnetic field to the total internal pressure. The mass-to-flux ratio was estimated to be close to the critical value just inside the tip rim. We speculate that the flat-topped bright rim of SFO 74 could be formed by the magnetic field effect.

  5. Analysis Of Usefulness Of Satellite Image Processing Methods For Investigations Of Cultural Heritage Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osińska-Skotak, Katarzyna; Zapłata, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the analysis of usefulness of WorldView-2 satellite image processing, which enhance information concerning the cultural heritage objects. WorldView-2 images are characterised by the very high spatial resolution and high spectral resolution; that is why they create new possibilities for many applications, including investigations of the cultural heritage. The vicinities of Iłża have been selected as the test site for presented investigations. The presented results of works are the effect of research works, which were performed in the frames of the scientific project "Utilisation of laser scanning and remote sensing in protection, investigations and inventory of the cultural heritage. Development of non-invasive, digital methods of documenting and recognising the architectural and archaeological heritage", as the part of "The National Programme for the Development of Humanities" of the Minister of Science and Higher Education in the period of 2012-2015.

  6. Satellite Images-based Obstacle Recognition and Trajectory Generation for Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bodur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method for the generation of tracking trajectory points, detection and positioning of obstacles in agricultural fields have been presented. Our principal contribution is to produce traceable GPS trajectories for agricultural vehicles to be utilized by path planning algorithms, rather than a new path planning algorithm. The proposed system works with minimal initialization requirements, specifically, a single geographical coordinate entry of an agricultural field. The automation of agricultural plantation requires many aspects to be addressed, many of which have been covered in previous studies. Depending on the type of crop, different agricultural vehicles may be used in the field. However, regardless of their application, they all follow a specified trajectory in the field. This study takes advantage of satellite images for the detection and positioning of obstacles, and the generation of GPS trajectories in the agricultural realm. A set of image processing techniques is applied in Matlab for detection and positioning.

  7. Quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes using satellite image data at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    When aerial and satellite photographs and images are used in the quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes, either through direct observation of active processes or by analysis of landforms resulting from inferred active or dormant processes, a number of limitations in the use of such data must be considered. Active geomorphic processes work at different scales and rates. Therefore, the capability of imaging an active or dormant process depends primarily on the scale of the process and the spatial-resolution characteristic of the imaging system. Scale is an important factor in recording continuous and discontinuous active geomorphic processes, because what is not recorded will not be considered or even suspected in the analysis of orbital images. If the geomorphic process of landform change caused by the process is less than 200 m in x to y dimension, then it will not be recorded. Although the scale factor is critical, in the recording of discontinuous active geomorphic processes, the repeat interval of orbital-image acquisition of a planetary surface also is a consideration in order to capture a recurring short-lived geomorphic process or to record changes caused by either a continuous or a discontinuous geomorphic process.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.

  9. Genetic Optimization for Associative Semantic Ranking Models of Satellite Images by Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Kilicay-Ergin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Associative methods for content-based image ranking by semantics are attractive due to the similarity of generated models to human models of understanding. Although they tend to return results that are better understood by image analysts, the induction of these models is difficult to build due to factors that affect training complexity, such as coexistence of visual patterns in same images, over-fitting or under-fitting and semantic representation differences among image analysts. This article proposes a methodology to reduce the complexity of ranking satellite images for associative methods. Our approach employs genetic operations to provide faster and more accurate models for ranking by semantic using low level features. The added accuracy is provided by a reduction in the likelihood to reach local minima or to overfit. The experiments show that, using genetic optimization, associative methods perform better or at similar levels as state-of-the-art ensemble methods for ranking. The mean average precision (MAP of ranking by semantic was improved by 14% over similar associative methods that use other optimization techniques while maintaining smaller size for each semantic model.

  10. Measuring snow cover using satellite imagery during 1973 and 1974 melt season: North Santiam, Boise, and Upper Snake Basins, phase 1. [LANDSAT satellites, imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, E. J.; Evans, W. E.; Hadfield, R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements are examined of snow coverage during the snow-melt season in 1973 and 1974 from LANDSAT imagery for the three Columbia River Subbasins. Satellite derived snow cover inventories for the three test basins were obtained as an alternative to inventories performed with the current operational practice of using small aircraft flights over selected snow fields. The accuracy and precision versus cost for several different interactive image analysis procedures was investigated using a display device, the Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console. Single-band radiance thresholding was the principal technique employed in the snow detection, although this technique was supplemented by an editing procedure involving reference to hand-generated elevation contours. For each data and view measured, a binary thematic map or "mask" depicting the snow cover was generated by a combination of objective and subjective procedures. Photographs of data analysis equipment (displays) are shown.

  11. Fully automated extraction and analysis of surface Urban Heat Island patterns from moderate resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, I.; Kiranoudis, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    Comparison of thermal patterns across different cities is hampered by the lack of an appropriate methodology to extract the patterns and characterize them. What is more, increased attention by the urban climate community has been expressed to assess the magnitude and dynamics of the surface Urban Heat Island effect and to identify environmental impacts of large cities and "megacities". Motivated by this need, we propose an innovative object-based image analysis procedure to extract thermal patterns for the quantitative analysis of satellite-derived land surface temperature maps. The spatial and thermal attributes associated with these objects are then calculated and used for the analyses of the intensity, the position and the spatial extent of SUHIs. The output eventually builds up and populates a database with comparable and consistent attributes, allowing comparisons between cities as well as urban climate studies. The methodology is demonstrated over the Greater Athens Area, Greece, with more than 3000 LST images acquired by MODIS over a decade being analyzed. The approach can be potentially applied to current and future (e.g. Sentinel-3) level-2 satellite-derived land surface temperature maps of 1km spatial resolution acquired over continental and coastal cities.

  12. Earth Camp: Exploring Earth Change through the Use of Satellite Images and Scientific Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, A.; Buxner, S.; Crown, D. A.; Colodner, D.; Orchard, A.; King, B.; Schwartz, K.; Prescott, A.; Prietto, J.; Titcomb, A.

    2014-07-01

    Earth Camp is a NASA-funded program that gives students and teachers opportunities to explore local, regional, and global earth change through a combination of hands-on investigations and the use of satellite images. Each summer, 20 middle school and 20 high school students participate in a two-week leadership program investigating contemporary issues (e.g., changes in river sheds, water quality, and land use management) through hands-on investigations, analyzing remote sensing data, and working with experts. Each year, 20 teachers participate in a year-long professional development program that includes monthly workshops, field investigations on Mt. Lemmon in Tucson, Arizona, and a week-long summer design workshop. Teachers conduct investigations of authentic questions using satellite images and create posters to present results of their study of earth change. In addition, teachers design lesson plans to expand their students' ability to investigate earth change with 21st Century tools. Lessons can be used as classroom exercises or for after-school club programs. Independent evaluation has been an integral part of program development and delivery for all three audiences, enabling the program staff and participants to reflect on and continually improve their practice and learning over the three-year period.

  13. A new strategic sampling for offshore wind assessment using radar satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucage, P.; Lafrance, G.; Bernier, M.; Lafrance, J. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Choisnard, J. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite images have been used for offshore wind assessment. Several offshore wind farms are in operation or under construction in northern Europe. The European target for 2030 is 300 GW, of which half is intended for onshore and half for offshore development. Offshore projects in the east coast United States, the Gulf of Mexico and west coast of Canada are in the planning stage. Information obtained from SAR can be used to supplement current mapping methods of offshore wind energy resources. SAR is a useful tool to localize wind pattern over water surfaces. Other sources of offshore wind observations include meteorological stations such as buoys and masts; remote sensing instruments onboard satellites such as scatterometers (QuikSCAT, ASCAT) or passive microwave radiometers; and numerical weather prediction models. The synergy between scatterometers and SAR was discussed. The SAR system has been used for microscale resolution wind mapping in the Gaspe Peninsula. Strategic sampling zones were chosen in proximity to the QuikSCAT grid. It was concluded that 270 and 570 SAR images are needed to calculate average wind speed (U) and mean power output of a 3 MW wind turbine (P) over the Gaspe Peninsula region, respectively. It was concluded that microscale regional wind mapping can be produced at a lower cost with strategic sampling compared to random sampling. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Cadastral Resurvey using High Resolution Satellite Ortho Image - challenges: A case study in Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, P. K.; Sanabada, M. K.; Tripathi, S.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in satellite sensor technology enabling capturing of geometrically accurate images of earth's surface coupled with DGPS/ETS and GIS technology holds the capability of large scale mapping of land resources at cadastral level. High Resolution Satellite Images depict field bunds distinctly. Thus plot parcels are to be delineated from cloud free ortho-images and obscured/difficult areas are to be surveyed using DGPS and ETS. The vector datasets thus derived through RS/DGPS/ETS survey are to be integrated in GIS environment to generate the base cadastral vector datasets for further settlement/title confirmation activities. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the efficacy of a hybrid methodology employed in Pitambarpur Sasana village under Digapahandi Tahasil of Ganjam district, as a pilot project, particularly in Odisha scenario where the land parcel size is very small. One of the significant observations of the study is matching of Cadastral map area i.e. 315.454 Acres, the image map area i.e. 314.887 Acres and RoR area i.e. 313.815 Acre. It was revealed that 79 % of plots derived by high-tech survey method show acceptable level of accuracy despite the fact that the mode of area measurement by ground and automated method has significant variability. The variations are more in case of Government lands, Temple/Trust lands, Common Property Resources and plots near to river/nalas etc. The study indicates that the adopted technology can be extended to other districts and cadastral resurvey and updating work can be done for larger areas of the country using this methodology.

  15. Exploiting Deep Matching and SAR Data for the Geo-Localization Accuracy Improvement of Optical Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Merkle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the geo-localization of optical satellite images is an important pre-processing step for many remote sensing tasks like monitoring by image time series or scene analysis after sudden events. These tasks require geo-referenced and precisely co-registered multi-sensor data. Images captured by the high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite TerraSAR-X exhibit an absolute geo-location accuracy within a few decimeters. These images represent therefore a reliable source to improve the geo-location accuracy of optical images, which is in the order of tens of meters. In this paper, a deep learning-based approach for the geo-localization accuracy improvement of optical satellite images through SAR reference data is investigated. Image registration between SAR and optical images requires few, but accurate and reliable matching points. These are derived from a Siamese neural network. The network is trained using TerraSAR-X and PRISM image pairs covering greater urban areas spread over Europe, in order to learn the two-dimensional spatial shifts between optical and SAR image patches. Results confirm that accurate and reliable matching points can be generated with higher matching accuracy and precision with respect to state-of-the-art approaches.

  16. Effects of Per-Pixel Variability on Uncertainties in Bathymetric Retrievals from High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Botha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased sophistication of high spatial resolution multispectral satellite sensors provides enhanced bathymetric mapping capability. However, the enhancements are counter-acted by per-pixel variability in sunglint, atmospheric path length and directional effects. This case-study highlights retrieval errors from images acquired at non-optimal geometrical combinations. The effects of variations in the environmental noise on water surface reflectance and the accuracy of environmental variable retrievals were quantified. Two WorldView-2 satellite images were acquired, within one minute of each other, with Image 1 placed in a near-optimal sun-sensor geometric configuration and Image 2 placed close to the specular point of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF. Image 2 had higher total environmental noise due to increased surface glint and higher atmospheric path-scattering. Generally, depths were under-estimated from Image 2, compared to Image 1. A partial improvement in retrieval error after glint correction of Image 2 resulted in an increase of the maximum depth to which accurate depth estimations were returned. This case-study indicates that critical analysis of individual images, accounting for the entire sun elevation and azimuth and satellite sensor pointing and geometry as well as anticipated wave height and direction, is required to ensure an image is fit for purpose for aquatic data analysis.

  17. 新型染料IR-808靶向肿瘤近红外荧光成像的体内研究%Tumor targeting study of new dye IR-808 by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田迎; 孙晶; 王建东; 卢光明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨近红外荧光染料IR-808在移植瘤动物模型中特异性的肿瘤靶向示踪作用.方法 建立人肺癌细胞系NCI-H460、结肠癌细胞系HCT-116及鼠源肝癌细胞系Hepa 1-6皮下移植瘤裸小鼠模型,未接种癌细胞的裸小鼠作对照.尾静脉注射同等剂量染料IR-808,分别在不同时间点对裸小鼠正常组织及肿瘤组织进行近红外荧光成像,追踪染料在裸小鼠体内的分布,评价其肿瘤靶向作用.结果 在未接种的裸小鼠体内,IR-808染料首先在肝脏、心脏聚集,随后信号减弱,48h后基本代谢排出体外;在荷瘤裸小鼠模型体内,IR-808染料注入24h后开始靶向肿瘤,72h后荧光信号仍很稳定;取荷瘤裸小鼠组织进行近红外荧光成像,发现仅肿瘤组织有信号,其他组织无信号.全部实验小鼠状态良好,未见明显毒性反应.结论 近红外荧光染料IR-808能特异性靶向肿瘤成像,且信号稳定,无明显毒性,具有重要的应用前景.%Objective To study the tumor targeting properties of near-infrared ( NIR) fluorescence dye IR-808 in tumor xeno-grafts by in vivo optical imaging system. Methods Human lung cancer cell line( NCI-H460) , human colon cancer cell line(HCT-116) and murine hepatoma cancer cell line ( Hepa 1-6) were established as subcutaneous tumor xenograft models by injection into BAIB/C-nu/nu female nude mice with 3 X 106 ( NCI-H460 and HCT-116) and 2 X 105 ( Hepa 1-6). Meanwhile, mice that had not been injected with cancer cells were used as control. Normal and tumor tissues were subjected to NIR imaging at different time points after iv injection of IR-808 at the same dose. The distribution and tumor targeting effect of the dye were observed successively in vivo. Results The preferential organs for uptake and retention of the dye were liver and heart in normal mice and the dye was basically excreted after 4Sh. The NIR signal started to condense in tumor at 24h after dye injection and was still stable

  18. Fast Fractal Compression of Satellite and Medical Images Based on Domain-Range Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu Inampudi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal image Compression is a lossy compression technique developed in the early 1990s. It makes use of the local self-similarity property existing in an image and finds a contractive mapping affine transformation (fractal transformT, such that the fixed point of T is close to the given image in a suitable metric. It has generated much interest due to its promise of high compression ratios with good decompression quality. The other advantage is its multi resolution property, i.e. an image can be decoded at higher or lower resolutions than the original without much degradation in quality. However, the encoding time is computationally intensive. In this paper, a fast fractal image compression method based on the domain-range entropy is proposed to reduce the encoding time, while maintaining the fidelity and compression ratio of the decoded image. The method is a two-step process. First, domains that are similar i.e. domains having nearly equal variances are eliminated from the domain pool. Second, during the encoding phase, only domains and ranges having equal entropies (with an adaptive error threshold, λdepth for each quadtree depth are compared for a match within the rms error tolerance. As a result, many unqualified domains are removed from comparison and a significant reduction in encoding time is expected. The method is applied for compression of satellite and medical images (512x512, 8-bit gray scale. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields superior performance over Fisher’s classified search and other methods.

  19. Multispectral Snapshot Imagers Onboard Small Satellite Formations for Multi-Angular Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Hewagama, Tilak; Georgiev, Georgi; Pasquale, Bert; Aslam, Shahid; Gatebe, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    Multispectral snapshot imagers are capable of producing 2D spatial images with a single exposure at selected, numerous wavelengths using the same camera, therefore operate differently from push broom or whiskbroom imagers. They are payloads of choice in multi-angular, multi-spectral imaging missions that use small satellites flying in controlled formation, to retrieve Earth science measurements dependent on the targets Bidirectional Reflectance-Distribution Function (BRDF). Narrow fields of view are needed to capture images with moderate spatial resolution. This paper quantifies the dependencies of the imagers optical system, spectral elements and camera on the requirements of the formation mission and their impact on performance metrics such as spectral range, swath and signal to noise ratio (SNR). All variables and metrics have been generated from a comprehensive, payload design tool. The baseline optical parameters selected (diameter 7 cm, focal length 10.5 cm, pixel size 20 micron, field of view 1.15 deg) and snapshot imaging technologies are available. The spectral components shortlisted were waveguide spectrometers, acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF), electronically actuated Fabry-Perot interferometers, and integral field spectrographs. Qualitative evaluation favored AOTFs because of their low weight, small size, and flight heritage. Quantitative analysis showed that waveguide spectrometers perform better in terms of achievable swath (10-90 km) and SNR (greater than 20) for 86 wavebands, but the data volume generated will need very high bandwidth communication to downlink. AOTFs meet the external data volume caps well as the minimum spectral (wavebands) and radiometric (SNR) requirements, therefore are found to be currently feasible in spite of lower swath and SNR.

  20. A learning tool for optical and microwave satellite image processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashondhi, Gaurav K.; Mohanty, Jyotirmoy; Eeti, Laxmi N.; Bhattacharya, Avik; De, Shaunak; Buddhiraju, Krishna M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a self-learning tool, which contains a number of virtual experiments for processing and analysis of Optical/Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The tool is named Virtual Satellite Image Processing and Analysis Lab (v-SIPLAB) Experiments that are included in Learning Tool are related to: Optical/Infrared - Image and Edge enhancement, smoothing, PCT, vegetation indices, Mathematical Morphology, Accuracy Assessment, Supervised/Unsupervised classification etc.; Basic SAR - Parameter extraction and range spectrum estimation, Range compression, Doppler centroid estimation, Azimuth reference function generation and compression, Multilooking, image enhancement, texture analysis, edge and detection. etc.; SAR Interferometry - BaseLine Calculation, Extraction of single look SAR images, Registration, Resampling, and Interferogram generation; SAR Polarimetry - Conversion of AirSAR or Radarsat data to S2/C3/T3 matrix, Speckle Filtering, Power/Intensity image generation, Decomposition of S2/C3/T3, Classification of S2/C3/T3 using Wishart Classifier [3]. A professional quality polarimetric SAR software can be found at [8], a part of whose functionality can be found in our system. The learning tool also contains other modules, besides executable software experiments, such as aim, theory, procedure, interpretation, quizzes, link to additional reading material and user feedback. Students can have understanding of Optical and SAR remotely sensed images through discussion of basic principles and supported by structured procedure for running and interpreting the experiments. Quizzes for self-assessment and a provision for online feedback are also being provided to make this Learning tool self-contained. One can download results after performing experiments.

  1. Precision Navigation of Cassini Images Using Rings, Icy Satellites, and Fuzzy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Robert S.; Showalter, Mark R.; Gordon, Mitchell K.

    2016-10-01

    Before images from the Cassini spacecraft can be analyzed, errors in the published pointing information (up to ~110 pixels for the Imaging Science Subsystem Narrow Angle Camera) must be corrected so that the line of sight vector for each pixel is known. This complicated and labor-intensive process involves matching the image contents with known features such as stars, rings, or moons. Metadata, such as lighting geometry or ring radius and longitude, must be computed for each pixel as well. Both steps require mastering the SPICE toolkit, a highly capable piece of software with a steep learning curve. Only after these steps are completed can the actual scientific investigation begin.We have embarked on a three-year project to perform these steps for all 400,000+ Cassini ISS images as well as images taken by the VIMS, UVIS, and CIRS instruments. The result will be a series of SPICE kernels that include accurate pointing information and a series of backplanes that include precomputed metadata for each pixel. All data will be made public through the PDS Ring-Moon Systems Node (http://www.pds-rings.seti.org). We expect this project to dramatically decrease the time required for scientists to analyze Cassini data.In a previous poster (French et al. 2014, DPS #46, 422.01) we discussed our progress navigating images using stars, simple ring models, and well-defined icy bodies. In this poster we will report on our current progress including the use of more sophisticated ring models, navigation of "fuzzy" bodies such as Titan and Saturn, and use of crater matching on high-resolution images of the icy satellites.

  2. High-throughput thermal stability analysis of a monoclonal antibody by attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Byrne, Bernadette; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2014-10-07

    The use of biotherapeutics, such as monoclonal antibodies, has markedly increased in recent years. It is thus essential that biotherapeutic production pipelines are as efficient as possible. For the production process, one of the major concerns is the propensity of a biotherapeutic antibody to aggregate. In addition to reducing bioactive material recovery, protein aggregation can have major effects on drug potency and cause highly undesirable immunological effects. It is thus essential to identify processing conditions which maximize recovery while avoiding aggregation. Heat resistance is a proxy for long-term aggregation propensity. Thermal stability assays are routinely performed using various spectroscopic and scattering detection methods. Here, we evaluated the potential of macro attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging as a novel method for the high-throughput thermal stability assay of a monoclonal antibody. This chemically specific visualization method has the distinct advantage of being able to discriminate between monomeric and aggregated protein. Attenuated total reflection is particularly suitable for selectively probing the bottom of vessels, where precipitated aggregates accumulate. With focal plane array detection, we tested 12 different buffer conditions simultaneously to assess the effect of pH and ionic strength on protein thermal stability. Applying the Finke model to our imaging kinetics allowed us to determine the rate constants of nucleation and autocatalytic growth. This analysis demonstrated the greater stability of our immunoglobulin at higher pH and moderate ionic strength, revealing the key role of electrostatic interactions. The high-throughput approach presented here has significant potential for analyzing the stability of biotherapeutics as well as any other biological molecules prone to aggregation.

  3. Image jitter detection and compensation using a high-frequency angular displacement method for Yaogan-26 remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mi; Fan, Chengcheng; Pan, Jun; Jin, Shuying; Chang, Xueli

    2017-08-01

    Satellite platform jitter is an important factor restricting the imaging quality of high-resolution (HR) optical satellite images. To address the critical issue of compensation for attitude jitter in HR images, this paper proposes a steady-state reimaging model using high-frequency angular displacement data to detect and compensate for the attitude jitter of HR images. The bidirectional Kalman filter and overall weighted smoothing method helps realizing information fusion of star sensor and angular displacement sensor and obtaining the high-frequency attitude for image jitter detection. Then, the steady reimaging model is used to correct the distorted image with geolocation consistency based on a rigorous geometric model. The Yaogan-26 remote sensing satellite's distorted panchromatic images of airports, targets and calibration fields affected by platform jitter were used to validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. The compensation results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the relative geometric quality of images affected by platform jitter, with the images' jitter distortion being clearly eliminated. Compared to the conventional compensation method that bundle adjustment with GCPs, the absolute geometric accuracy can also be improved.

  4. Object Based and Pixel Based Classification Using Rapideye Satellite Imager of ETI-OSA, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Oluwafunmilayo Makinde

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been carried out to find an appropriate method to classify the remote sensing data. Traditional classification approaches are all pixel-based, and do not utilize the spatial information within an object which is an important source of information to image classification. Thus, this study compared the pixel based and object based classification algorithms using RapidEye satellite image of Eti-Osa LGA, Lagos. In the object-oriented approach, the image was segmented to homogenous area by suitable parameters such as scale parameter, compactness, shape etc. Classification based on segments was done by a nearest neighbour classifier. In the pixel-based classification, the spectral angle mapper was used to classify the images. The user accuracy for each class using object based classification were 98.31% for waterbody, 92.31% for vegetation, 86.67% for bare soil and 90.57% for Built up while the user accuracy for the pixel based classification were 98.28% for waterbody, 84.06% for Vegetation 86.36% and 79.41% for Built up. These classification techniques were subjected to accuracy assessment and the overall accuracy of the Object based classification was 94.47%, while that of Pixel based classification yielded 86.64%. The result of classification and accuracy assessment show that the object-based approach gave more accurate and satisfying results

  5. On the Use of Machine Vision Techniques to Detect Human Settlements in Satellite Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C; Sengupta, S K; Poland, D; Futterman, J A H

    2003-01-10

    The automated production of maps of human settlement from recent satellite images is essential to studies of urbanization, population movement, and the like. The spectral and spatial resolution of such imagery is often high enough to successfully apply computer vision techniques. However, vast amounts of data have to be processed quickly. In this paper, we propose an approach that processes the data in several different stages. At each stage, using features appropriate to that stage, we identify the portion of the data likely to contain information relevant to the identification of human settlements. This data is used as input to the next stage of processing. Since the size of the data has reduced, we can now use more complex features in this next stage. These features can be more representative of human settlements, and also more time consuming to extract from the image data. Such a hierarchical approach enables us to process large amounts of data in a reasonable time, while maintaining the accuracy of human settlement identification. We illustrate our multi-stage approach using IKONOS 4-band and panchromatic images, and compare it with the straight-forward processing of the entire image.

  6. Learning Oriented Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks for Building Detection in Satellite Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Gong, W.; Hu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Ding, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The automated building detection in aerial images is a fundamental problem encountered in aerial and satellite images analysis. Recently, thanks to the advances in feature descriptions, Region-based CNN model (R-CNN) for object detection is receiving an increasing attention. Despite the excellent performance in object detection, it is problematic to directly leverage the features of R-CNN model for building detection in single aerial image. As we know, the single aerial image is in vertical view and the buildings possess significant directional feature. However, in R-CNN model, direction of the building is ignored and the detection results are represented by horizontal rectangles. For this reason, the detection results with horizontal rectangle cannot describe the building precisely. To address this problem, in this paper, we proposed a novel model with a key feature related to orientation, namely, Oriented R-CNN (OR-CNN). Our contributions are mainly in the following two aspects: 1) Introducing a new oriented layer network for detecting the rotation angle of building on the basis of the successful VGG-net R-CNN model; 2) the oriented rectangle is proposed to leverage the powerful R-CNN for remote-sensing building detection. In experiments, we establish a complete and bran-new data set for training our oriented R-CNN model and comprehensively evaluate the proposed method on a publicly available building detection data set. We demonstrate State-of-the-art results compared with the previous baseline methods.

  7. Improving a DWT-based compression algorithm for high image-quality requirement of satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, Carole; Latry, Christophe; Camarero, Roberto; Cazanave, Grégory

    2011-10-01

    Past and current optical Earth observation systems designed by CNES are using a fixed-rate data compression processing performed at a high-rate in a pushbroom mode (also called scan-based mode). This process generates fixed-length data to the mass memory and data downlink is performed at a fixed rate too. Because of on-board memory limitations and high data rate processing needs, the rate allocation procedure is performed over a small image area called a "segment". For both PLEIADES compression algorithm and CCSDS Image Data Compression recommendation, this rate allocation is realised by truncating to the desired rate a hierarchical bitstream of coded and quantized wavelet coefficients for each segment. Because the quantisation induced by truncation of the bit planes description is the same for the whole segment, some parts of the segment have a poor image quality. These artefacts generally occur in low energy areas within a segment of higher level of energy. In order to locally correct these areas, CNES has studied "exceptional processing" targeted for DWT-based compression algorithms. According to a criteria computed for each part of the segment (called block), the wavelet coefficients can be amplified before bit-plane encoding. As usual Region of Interest handling, these multiplied coefficients will be processed earlier by the encoder than in the nominal case (without exceptional processing). The image quality improvement brought by the exceptional processing has been confirmed by visual image analysis and fidelity criteria. The complexity of the proposed improvement for on-board application has also been analysed.

  8. Quantification of gadolinium-DTPA concentrations for different inversion times using an IR-turbo flash pulse sequence: a study on optimizing multislice perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill; Ring, P B;

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an inversion-recovery (IR) turbo fast low-angle shot (FLASH) for multislice imaging by evaluating the accuracy of calculated the relaxation-rate (R1) for different inversion times (TI). This is important for tracer kinetic modeling because it requires...... a system responding linearly to input. R1 are linearly related to changes in the concentration of gadolinium (Gd)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and R1 is a parameter that can be derived from the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. The accuracy of calculated R1 using an IR turbo fast low-angle shot...... were similar, indicating that these curves, rather than signal curves, are more suitable even for qualitative perfusion evaluation. It is concluded that the results can be incorporated in a multislice IR turbo fast low-angle shot using the first slice (with a short TI) for assessment of both...

  9. Effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution and multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodent brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanckaert, P.; Burvenich, I.; Bruyne, S. de; Moerman, L.; Wyffels, L.; Vos, F. de [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Gent (Belgium); Staelens, S. [Ghent University - IBBT, MEDISIP, Faculty of Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an efflux protein found amongst other locations in the blood-brain barrier. It is important to investigate the effect of Pgp modulation on clinically used brain tracers, because brain uptake of the tracer can be altered by blocking of the Pgp efflux transporter. The function of Pgp can be blocked with cyclosporin A. We investigated the effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodents, and the effect of Pgp blocking on the quality of multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging with [{sup 123}I]R91150. The influence of increasing doses of cyclosporin A on the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 was investigated in NMRI mice. A biodistribution study with [{sup 123}I]R91150 was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with cyclosporin A and not pretreated. Brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 after cyclosporin A injection was compared to the brain uptake in untreated animals, and a displacement study with ketanserin was performed in both groups. A multipinhole {mu}SPECT brain imaging study was also performed using a Milabs U-SPECT-II camera in male Sprague-Dawley rats. To exclude the effect of possible metabolites, a metabolite study was also performed. At the highest cyclosporin A dose (50 mg/kg), a sevenfold increase in brain radioactivity concentration was observed in NMRI mice. Also, a dose-response relationship was established between the dose of cyclosporin A and the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in mice. Compared to the control group, a five-fold increase in [{sup 123}I]R91150 radioactivity concentration was observed in the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats after cyclosporin A treatment (50 mg/kg). Radioactivity concentration in the frontal cortex increased from 0.24{+-}0.0092 to 1.58{+-}0.097% injected dose per gram of tissue after treatment with cyclosporin A (at the 1-h time-point). Blood radioactivity concentrations did not increase to the same extent. The cortical activity was displaced by

  10. Assessment of temporal variations of water quality in inland water bodies using atmospheric corrected satellite remotely sensed image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G; Clayton, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Although there have been many studies conducted on the use of satellite remote sensing for water quality monitoring and assessment in inland water bodies, relatively few studies have considered the problem of atmospheric intervention of the satellite signal. The problem is especially significant when using time series multi-spectral satellite data to monitor water quality surveillance in inland waters such as reservoirs, lakes, and dams because atmospheric effects constitute the majority of the at-satellite reflectance over water. For the assessment of temporal variations of water quality, the use of multi-date satellite images is required so atmospheric corrected image data must be determined. The aim of this study is to provide a simple way of monitoring and assessing temporal variations of water quality in a set of inland water bodies using an earth observation- based approach. The proposed methodology is based on the development of an image-based algorithm which consists of a selection of sampling area on the image (outlet), application of masking and convolution image processing filter, and application of the darkest pixel atmospheric correction. The proposed method has been applied in two different geographical areas, in UK and Cyprus. Mainly, the method has been applied to a series of eight archived Landsat-5 TM images acquired from March 1985 up to November 1985 of the Lower Thames Valley area in the West London (UK) consisting of large water treatment reservoirs. Finally, the method is further tested to the Kourris Dam in Cyprus. It has been found that atmospheric correction is essential in water quality assessment studies using satellite remotely sensed imagery since it improves significantly the water reflectance enabling effective water quality assessment to be made.

  11. Crop classification using multi-temporal HJ satellite images: case study in Kashgar, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The HJ satellite constellation, characterized as high temporal resolution (4 day revisit frequency), has high potential to obtain cloud-free images covering all cruel periods for crop classification during growing season. In this paper, three HJ images (in May, July and September) were acquired, the performances of different multi-spectral HJ CCD data combinations for crop classification in Kashgar, Xinjiang were estimated using library for Support Vector Machine (LIBSVM), and ground reference data obtained in 2011 field work were used as training and validation samples. The result showed that multi-temporal HJ data has a potential to classify crops with an overall classification accuracy of 93.77%. Among the three time periods utilized in this research, the image acquired in July achieved the highest overall accuracy (86.98%) because all summer crops were under dense canopy closure. Cotton could be accurately extracted in May image (both user and produce accuracy are above 90%) because of its lower canopy closure compared with spring, the rotate crop (wheat_maize) and winter crop (wheat) at the time period. Then, the July and September combination performed as good as that of all threetime- period combination, which indicated that images obtained at cruel time periods are enough to identify crops, and the additional images improve little on classification accuracy. In addition, multi-temporal NDVI in cruel time periods of the growing season is testified efficient to classify crops with significant phenonlogical variances since they achieved similar overall accuracy to that of multi-temporal multi-spectral combination.

  12. An Object-Based Image Analysis Approach for Detecting Penguin Guano in very High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandi Witharana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The logistical challenges of Antarctic field work and the increasing availability of very high resolution commercial imagery have driven an interest in more efficient search and classification of remotely sensed imagery. This exploratory study employed geographic object-based analysis (GEOBIA methods to classify guano stains, indicative of chinstrap and Adélie penguin breeding areas, from very high spatial resolution (VHSR satellite imagery and closely examined the transferability of knowledge-based GEOBIA rules across different study sites focusing on the same semantic class. We systematically gauged the segmentation quality, classification accuracy, and the reproducibility of fuzzy rules. A master ruleset was developed based on one study site and it was re-tasked “without adaptation” and “with adaptation” on candidate image scenes comprising guano stains. Our results suggest that object-based methods incorporating the spectral, textural, spatial, and contextual characteristics of guano are capable of successfully detecting guano stains. Reapplication of the master ruleset on candidate scenes without modifications produced inferior classification results, while adapted rules produced comparable or superior results compared to the reference image. This work provides a road map to an operational “image-to-assessment pipeline” that will enable Antarctic wildlife researchers to seamlessly integrate VHSR imagery into on-demand penguin population census.

  13. Winter mass balance of Drangajökull ice cap (NW Iceland) derived from satellite sub-meter stereo images

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. C. Belart; E. Berthier; E. Magnússon; Anderson, L.S.; F. Pálsson; Thorsteinsson, T; Howat, I. M.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Jóhannesson, T.; A. H. Jarosch

    2017-01-01

    Sub-meter resolution, stereoscopic satellite images allow for the generation of accurate and high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) over glaciers and ice caps. Here, repeated stereo images of Drangajökull ice cap (NW Iceland) from Pléiades and WorldView2 (WV2) are combined with in situ estimates of snow density and densification of firn and fresh snow to provide the first estimates of the glacier-wide geodetic winter mass balance obtained from satellite imagery. Sta...

  14. Application of image cross-correlation to the measurement of glacier velocity using satellite image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambos, Theodore A.; Dutkiewicz, Melanie J.; Wison, Jeremy C.; Bindschadler, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A high-resolution map of the velocity field of the central portion of Ice Stream E in West Antarctica, generated by the displacement-measuring technique, is presented. The use of cross-correlation software is found to be a significant improvement over previous manually based photogrammetric methods for velocity measurement, and is far more cost-effective than in situ methods in remote polar areas. A hue-intensity-saturation image of Ice Stream E and its velocity field is shown.

  15. Reprocessing the Historical Satellite Passive Microwave Record at Enhanced Spatial Resolutions using Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.; Paget, A. C.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning in 1978, the satellite passive microwave data record has been a mainstay of remote sensing of the cryosphere, providing twice-daily, near-global spatial coverage for monitoring changes in hydrologic and cryospheric parameters that include precipitation, soil moisture, surface water, vegetation, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration and sea ice motion. Currently available global gridded passive microwave data sets serve a diverse community of hundreds of data users, but do not meet many requirements of modern Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) or Climate Data Records (CDRs), most notably in the areas of intersensor calibration, quality-control, provenance and consistent processing methods. The original gridding techniques were relatively primitive and were produced on 25 km grids using the original EASE-Grid definition that is not easily accommodated in modern software packages. Further, since the first Level 3 data sets were produced, the Level 2 passive microwave data on which they were based have been reprocessed as Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs) with improved calibration and documentation. We are funded by NASA MEaSUREs to reprocess the historical gridded data sets as EASE-Grid 2.0 ESDRs, using the most mature available Level 2 satellite passive microwave (SMMR, SSM/I-SSMIS, AMSR-E) records from 1978 to the present. We have produced prototype data from SSM/I and AMSR-E for the year 2003, for review and feedback from our Early Adopter user community. The prototype data set includes conventional, low-resolution ("drop-in-the-bucket" 25 km) grids and enhanced-resolution grids derived from the two candidate image reconstruction techniques we are evaluating: 1) Backus-Gilbert (BG) interpolation and 2) a radiometer version of Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR). We summarize our temporal subsetting technique, algorithm tuning parameters and computational costs, and include sample SSM/I images at enhanced resolutions of up to 3 km. We are actively

  16. Global thermochemical imaging of the lithosphere using satellite and terrestrial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullea, Javier; Lebedev, Sergei; Martinec, Zdenek; Celli, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Conventional methods of seismic tomography, topography, gravity and electromagnetic data analysis and geodynamic modelling constrain distributions of seismic velocity, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity at depth, all depending on temperature and composition of the rocks within the Earth. However, modelling and interpretation of multiple data sets provide a multifaceted image of the true thermochemical structure of the Earth that needs to be appropriately and consistently integrated. A simple combination of gravity, electromagnetic, geodynamics, petrological and seismic models alone is insufficient due to the non-uniqueness and different sensitivities of these models, and the internal consistency relationships that must connect all the intermediate parameters describing the Earth involved. Thermodynamic and petrological links between seismic velocities, density, electrical conductivity, viscosity, melt, water, temperature, pressure and composition within the Earth can now be modelled accurately using new methods of computational petrology and data from laboratory experiments. The growth of very large terrestrial and satellite (e.g., Swarm and GOCE ESA missions) geophysical data sets over the last few years, together with the advancement of petrological and geophysical modelling techniques, now present an opportunity for global, thermochemical and deformation 3D imaging of the lithosphere and underlying upper mantle with unprecedented resolution. This project combines state-of-the-art seismic waveform tomography (using both surface and body waves), newly available global gravity satellite data (geoid and gravity anomalies and new gradiometric measurements from ESA's GOCE mission) and surface heat flow and elevation within a self-consistent thermodynamic framework. The aim is to develop a method for detailed and robust global thermochemical image of the lithosphere and underlying upper mantle. In a preliminary study, we convert a state-of-the-art global

  17. Direct imaging of thermally-activated grain-boundary diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange-bias structures using atom-probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, F.; Lardé, R.; Le Breton, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.lebreton@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Lechevallier, L. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Département de GEII, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-28

    Magnetic devices are often subject to thermal processing steps, such as field cooling to set exchange bias and annealing to crystallize amorphous magnetic electrodes. These processing steps may result in interdiffusion and the subsequent deterioration of magnetic properties. In this study, we investigated thermally-activated diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange biased polycrystalline thin-film structures using atom probe tomography. Images taken after annealing at 400 °C for 60 min revealed Mn diffusion into Co grains at the Co/IrMn interface and along Pt grain boundaries for the IrMn/Pt stack, i.e., a Harrison type C regime. Annealing at 500 °C showed further Mn diffusion into Co grains. At the IrMn/Pt interface, annealing at 500 °C led to a type B behavior since Mn diffusion was detected both along Pt grain boundaries and also into Pt grains. The deterioration of the films' exchange bias properties upon annealing was correlated to the observed diffusion. In particular, the topmost Pt capping layer thickness turned out to be crucial since a faster deterioration of the exchange bias properties for thicker caps was observed. This is consistent with the idea that Pt acts as a getter for Mn, drawing Mn out of the IrMn layer.

  18. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  19. Feasibility of anomaly occurrence in aerosols time series obtained from MODIS satellite images during hazardous earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondzadeh, Mehdi; Jahani Chehrebargh, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    Earthquake is one of the most devastating natural disasters that its prediction has not materialized comprehensive. Remote sensing data can be used to access information which is closely related to an earthquake. The unusual variations of lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere parameters before the main earthquakes are considered as earthquake precursors. To date the different precursors have been proposed. This paper examines one of the parameters which can be derived from satellite imagery. The mentioned parameter is Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that this article reviews its relationship with earthquake. Aerosol parameter can be achieved through various methods such as AERONET ground stations or using satellite images via algorithms such as the DDV (Dark Dense Vegetation), Deep Blue Algorithm and SYNTAM (SYNergy of Terra and Aqua Modis). In this paper, by analyzing AOD's time series (derived from MODIS sensor on the TERRA platform) for 16 major earthquakes, seismic anomalies were observed before and after earthquakes. Before large earthquakes, rate of AOD increases due to the pre-seismic changes before the strong earthquake, which produces gaseous molecules and therefore AOD increases. Also because of aftershocks after the earthquake there is a significant change in AOD due to gaseous molecules and dust. These behaviors suggest that there is a close relationship between earthquakes and the unusual AOD variations. Therefore the unusual AOD variations around the time of earthquakes can be introduced as an earthquake precursor.

  20. [Design and study of a high resolution vacuum ultraviolet imaging spectrometer carried by satellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Lin, Guan-yu; Qu, Yi; Wang, Shu-rong; Wang, Long-qi

    2011-12-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet imaging spectrometer prototype carried by satellite applied to the atmosphere detection of particles distribution in 115-300 nm was developed for remote sensing. First, based on the analysis of advanced loads, the optical system including an off-axis parabolic mirror as the telescope and Czerny-Turner structure as the imaging spectrometer was chosen Secondly, the 2-D photon counting detector with MCP was adopted for the characteristic that the radiation is weak in vacuum ultraviolet waveband. Then the geometric method and 1st order differential calculation were introduced to improve the disadvantages that aberrations in the traditional structure can not be corrected homogeneously to achieve perfect broadband imaging based on the aberration theory. At last, an advanced example was designed. The simulation and calculation of results demonstrate that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of total field of view is more than 0.6 in the broadband, and the spectral resolution is 1.23 nm. The structure is convenient and predominant. It proves that the design is feasible.

  1. Neural Network Change Detection Model for Satellite Images Using Textural and Spectral Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Helmy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Change detection is the process of identifying difference of the state of an object or phenomena by observing it at different time. Essentially, it involves the ability to quantify temporal effects using multi-temporal data sets. Information about change is necessary for evaluating land cover and the management of natural resources. Approach: A neural network model based on both spectral and textural analysis is developed. Change detection system in this study is presented using modified version of back-propagation-training algorithm with dynamic learning rate and momentum. Through proposed model, the two images at different dates are fed into the input layer of neural network, in addition with Variance, Skewness and Eculedian for each image that represent different texture measure. This leads to better discrimination process. Results: The results showed that the trained network with texture measures achieve 23% higher accuracy than that without textural parameters. Conclusion: Adding textural parameters of satellite images through training phase increases the efficiently of change detection process also, it provides adequate information about the type of changes. It also found, when using dynamic momentum and learning rate, time and effort needed to select their appropriate value is reduced.

  2. Trend Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Change of Tehran Heat Island Using Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, M. R.; Sherafati, Sh.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous investigations on Urban Heat Island (UHI) show that land cover change is the main factor of increasing Land Surface Temperature (LST) in urban areas, especially conversion of vegetation and bare soil to concrete, asphalt and other man-made structures. On the other hand, other human activities like those which cause to burning fossil fuels, that increase the amount of carbon dioxide, may raise temperature in global scale in comparison with small scales (urban areas). In this study, multiple satellite images with different spatial and temporal resolutions have been used to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST) variability in Tehran metropolitan area. High temporal resolution of AVHRR images have been used as the main data source when investigating temperature variability in the urban area. The analysis shows that UHI appears more significant at afternoon and night hours. But the urban class temperature is almost equal to its surrounding vegetation and bare soil classes at around noon. It also reveals that there is no specific difference in UHI intense during the days throughout the year. However, it can be concluded that in the process of city expansion in years, UHI has been grown both spatially and in magnitude. In order to locate land-cover types and relate them to LST, Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been exploited. The influence of elevation on the LST has also been studied, using digital elevation model derived from SRTM database.

  3. TREND ASSESSMENT OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHANGE OF TEHRAN HEAT ISLAND USING SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Saradjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations on Urban Heat Island (UHI show that land cover change is the main factor of increasing Land Surface Temperature (LST in urban areas, especially conversion of vegetation and bare soil to concrete, asphalt and other man-made structures. On the other hand, other human activities like those which cause to burning fossil fuels, that increase the amount of carbon dioxide, may raise temperature in global scale in comparison with small scales (urban areas. In this study, multiple satellite images with different spatial and temporal resolutions have been used to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST variability in Tehran metropolitan area. High temporal resolution of AVHRR images have been used as the main data source when investigating temperature variability in the urban area. The analysis shows that UHI appears more significant at afternoon and night hours. But the urban class temperature is almost equal to its surrounding vegetation and bare soil classes at around noon. It also reveals that there is no specific difference in UHI intense during the days throughout the year. However, it can be concluded that in the process of city expansion in years, UHI has been grown both spatially and in magnitude. In order to locate land-cover types and relate them to LST, Thematic Mapper (TM images have been exploited. The influence of elevation on the LST has also been studied, using digital elevation model derived from SRTM database.

  4. Real time deforestation detection using ann and satellite images the Amazon rainforest study case

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes Kehl, Thiago; Roberto Veronez, Maurício; Cesar Cazella, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The foremost aim of the present study was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to select the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrices to determine the degree of success of the network. A spectrum-temporal analysis of the study area was done on 57 images from May 20 to July 15, 2003 using the trained neural network. The analysis enabled verification of quality of the implemented neural network classification and also aided in understanding the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, thereby highlighting the vast potential of neural networks for image classification. However, the complex task of detection of predatory actions at the beginning, i.e., generation of consistent alarms, instead of false alarms has not bee...

  5. Feasibility study on UV/visible imaging spectrograph (Geo-OPUS) for GOAL satellite proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Kita, K.; Toshimi, T.; Okumura, S.; Shiomi, K.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.

    Geo-OPUS geostationary ozone and air pollution monitoring UV visible spectrometer is a core instrument of GOAL geostationary observation of atmospheric chemistry and lightning satellite proposal Geo-OPUS is an imaging spectrograph to scan earth disk 20km x 20 km nadir pixel 512 north-south pixels IFOV and whole disk FOV within 1 hour observation cycle which observes 270-450 nm with 0 3 nm spectral sampling Onboard spectral calibration 0 01 nm accuracy is carried out using Hg lamp and solar lines Radio Diffuser plates are used for radiometric calibration Primary observation targets are total column of NO2 SO2 O3 also stratospheric profile HCHO and aerosols It also measures stratospheric species OClO BrO etc High SNR and spectral calibration stability are required to derive species such as tropospheric O3 column in 10-20 accuracy required by IGOS-P IGACO

  6. Target Matching Recognition for Satellite Images Based on the Improved FREAK Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing image target matching recognition exhibits poor robustness and accuracy because of the unfit feature extractor and large data quantity. To address this problem, we propose a new feature extraction algorithm for fast target matching recognition that comprises an improved feature from accelerated segment test (FAST feature detector and a binary fast retina key point (FREAK feature descriptor. To improve robustness, we extend the FAST feature detector by applying scale space theory and then transform the feature vector acquired by the FREAK descriptor from decimal into binary. We reduce the quantity of data in the computer and improve matching accuracy by using the binary space. Simulation test results show that our algorithm outperforms other relevant methods in terms of robustness and accuracy.

  7. Origins and features of oil slicks in the Bohai Sea detected from satellite SAR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Cao, Conghua; Huang, Juan; Song, Yan; Liu, Guiyan; Wu, Lingjuan; Wan, Zhenwen

    2016-05-15

    Oil slicks were detected using satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in 2011. We investigated potential origins and regional and seasonal features of oil slick in the Bohai Sea. Distance between oil slicks and potential origins (ships, seaports, and oil exploitation platforms) and the angle at which oil slicks move relative to potential driving forces were evaluated. Most oil slicks were detected along main ship routes rather than around seaports and oil exploitation platforms. Few oil slicks were detected within 20km of seaports. Directions of oil slicks movement were much more strongly correlated with directions of ship routes than with directions of winds and currents. These findings support the premise that oil slicks in the Bohai Sea most likely originate from illegal disposal of oil-polluted wastes from ships. Seasonal variation of oil slicks followed an annual cycle, with a peak in August and a trough in December.

  8. Monitoring the Water Quality of Lake Koronia Using Long Time-Series of Multispectral Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perivolioti, Triantafyllia-Maria; Mouratidis, Antonios; Doxani, Georgia; Bobori, Dimitra

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive 30-year (1984-2016) water quality parameter database for lake Koronia - one of the most important Ramsar wetlands of Greece - was compiled from Landsat imagery. The reliability of the data was evaluated by comparing water Quality Element (QE) values computed from Landsat data against in-situ data. Water quality algorithms developed from previous studies, specifically for the determination of Water Temperature, pH, Transparency/Secchi Disk Depth (SDD), Chlorophyll a and Conductivity, were applied to Landsat images. In addition, Water Depth, as well as the distribution of floating vegetation and cyanobacterial blooms were mapped. The performed comprehensive analysis posed certain questions, regarding the applicability of single empirical models across multi- temporal, multi-sensor datasets, towards the accurate prediction of key water quality indicators for shallow inland systems. This assessment demonstrates that satellite imagery can provide an accurate method for obtaining comprehensive spatial and temporal coverage of key water quality characteristics.

  9. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the res