Sample records for satellite interferometric synthetic

  1. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation (United States)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.


    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  2. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio


    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  3. General adaptive-neighborhood technique for improving synthetic aperture radar interferometric coherence estimation. (United States)

    Vasile, Gabriel; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Ciuc, Mihai; Buzuloiu, Vasile


    A new method for filtering the coherence map issued from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric data is presented. For each pixel of the interferogram, an adaptive neighborhood is determined by a region-growing technique driven by the information provided by the amplitude images. Then pixels in the derived adaptive neighborhood are complex averaged to yield the filtered value of the coherence, after a phase-compensation step is performed. An extension of the algorithm is proposed for polarimetric interferometric SAR images. The proposed method has been applied to both European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite SAR images and airborne high-resolution polarimetric interferometric SAR images. Both subjective and objective performance analysis, including coherence edge detection, shows that the proposed method provides better results than the standard phase-compensated fixed multilook filter and the Lee adaptive coherence filter.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Min; Zhang Chuanwu; Huang Shunji


    The change of the equivalent baseline and interferometric phase of cluster SAR satellites is analyzed when the constellation circles around the Earth and the satellites rotate around the center at the same time. The letter provides assessment of baseline error and phase error which influence the precision of height measurement in the across-track interferometric mode. The mathematical model of cluster satellite movement is built, simulation analyses and the curve of height error are presented. The simulation results show that height measurement error can be compensated by the formulae derived in this letter, therefore, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are recovered accurately.

  5. Growth of a young pingo in the Canadian Arctic observed by RADARSAT-2 interferometric satellite radar


    Samsonov, Sergey V.; Lantz, Trevor C.; Kokelj, Steven V; Zhang, Yu


    Advancements in radar technology are increasing our ability to detect Earth surface deformation in permafrost environments. In this paper we use satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) to describe the growth of a large, relatively young pingo in the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands. High-resolution RADARSAT-2 imagery (2011–2014) analyzed with the Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) DInSAR revealed a maximum 2.7 cm yr−1 of domed uplift locate...

  6. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery of the Gulf Stream (United States)

    Ainsworth, T. L.; Cannella, M. E.; Jansen, R. W.; Chubb, S. R.; Carande, R. E.; Foley, E. W.; Goldstein, R. M.; Valenzuela, G. R.


    The advent of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) imagery brought to the ocean remote sensing field techniques used in radio astronomy. Whilst details of the interferometry differ between the two fields, the basic idea is the same: Use the phase information arising from positional differences of the radar receivers and/or transmitters to probe remote structures. The interferometric image is formed from two complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. These two images are of the same area but separated in time. Typically the time between these images is very short -- approximately 50 msec for the L-band AIRSAR (Airborne SAR). During this short period the radar scatterers on the ocean surface do not have time to significantly decorrelate. Hence the two SAR images will have the same amplitude, since both obtain the radar backscatter from essentially the same object. Although the ocean surface structure does not significantly decorrelate in 50 msec, surface features do have time to move. It is precisely the translation of scattering features across the ocean surface which gives rise to phase differences between the two SAR images. This phase difference is directly proportional to the range velocity of surface scatterers. The constant of proportionality is dependent upon the interferometric mode of operation.

  7. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy: Computed Imaging for Scanned Coherent Microscopy

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    Stephen A. Boppart


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional image formation in microscopy is greatly enhanced by the use of computed imaging techniques. In particular, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM allows the removal of out-of-focus blur in broadband, coherent microscopy. Earlier methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT, utilize interferometric ranging, but do not apply computed imaging methods and therefore must scan the focal depth to acquire extended volumetric images. ISAM removes the need to scan the focus by allowing volumetric image reconstruction from data collected at a single focal depth. ISAM signal processing techniques are similar to the Fourier migration methods of seismology and the Fourier reconstruction methods of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR. In this article ISAM is described and the close ties between ISAM and SAR are explored. ISAM and a simple strip-map SAR system are placed in a common mathematical framework and compared to OCT and radar respectively. This article is intended to serve as a review of ISAM, and will be especially useful to readers with a background in SAR.

  8. Hierarchical model-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar image registration (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Huang, Haifeng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing


    With the rapid development of spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar technology, classical image registration methods are incompetent for high-efficiency and high-accuracy masses of real data processing. Based on this fact, we propose a new method. This method consists of two steps: coarse registration that is realized by cross-correlation algorithm and fine registration that is realized by hierarchical model-based algorithm. Hierarchical model-based algorithm is a high-efficiency optimization algorithm. The key features of this algorithm are a global model that constrains the overall structure of the motion estimated, a local model that is used in the estimation process, and a coarse-to-fine refinement strategy. Experimental results from different kinds of simulated and real data have confirmed that the proposed method is very fast and has high accuracy. Comparing with a conventional cross-correlation method, the proposed method provides markedly improved performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maghsoudi


    Full Text Available Geomorphology is briefly the study of landforms and their formative processes on the surface of the planet earth as human habitat. The landforms evolution and the formative processes can best be studied by technologies with main application in study of elevation. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is the appropriate technology for this application. With phase differences calculations in radar waves, the results of this technology can extensively be interpreted for geomorphologic researches. The purpose of the study is to review the geomorphologic studies using InSAR and also the technical studies about InSAR with geomorphologic interpretations. This study states that the InSAR technology can be recommended to be employed as a fundamental for geomorphology researches.

  10. Asynchronous rotation scan for synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ji; ZHANG Cheng; LIU Hao; SUN WeiYing


    Synthetic aperture interferometric technique has wide applications in optics, radio astronomy and mi-crowave remote sensing areas. With the increasing demands of high resolution imaging observation, a new time-sharing sampling scheme of asynchronous rotation scan is proposed to meet the technical challenge of achieving a large equivalent aperture and overcome the operating barriers of space borne application. This configuration is basically composed by two asynchronously and concentrically ro-tating antenna groups, whose revolving radii and speeds are different. The synthetic aperture system with asynchronous rotation scanning scheme can effectively solve the trade-off problem of system complexity, and greatly simplify the system hardware at the cost of sacrificing a certain time resolution. The basic rules and design methods of asynchronous rotation scan are investigated The Gridding method is introduced to inverse the spiral sampling data for image reconstruction. The potential ap-plications of geostationary orbit (GEO) earth observation and solar polar orbit (SPO) plasma cloud observation are explored with numerical simulations to validate the significance and feasibility of this new imaging configuration.

  11. Asynchronous rotation scan for synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Synthetic aperture interferometric technique has wide applications in optics,radio astronomy and mi-crowave remote sensing areas.With the increasing demands of high resolution imaging observation,a new time-sharing sampling scheme of asynchronous rotation scan is proposed to meet the technical challenge of achieving a large equivalent aperture and overcome the operating barriers of space borne application.This configuration is basically composed by two asynchronously and concentrically ro-tating antenna groups,whose revolving radii and speeds are different.The synthetic aperture system with asynchronous rotation scanning scheme can effectively solve the trade-off problem of system complexity,and greatly simplify the system hardware at the cost of sacrificing a certain time resolution.The basic rules and design methods of asynchronous rotation scan are investigated The Gridding method is introduced to inverse the spiral sampling data for image reconstruction.The potential ap-plications of geostationary orbit(GEO)earth observation and solar polar orbit(SPO)plasma cloud observation are explored with numerical simulations to validate the significance and feasibility of this new imaging configuration.

  12. Monitoring water level using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images (United States)

    Stavroulaki, Eleni; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.


    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) methodology can successfully detect phase variations related to water level changes and produce corresponding water level maps. Two lakes located in Western Crete, Greece, namely Lake Kournas and Lake Agia were used as case studies to study water level change with means of SAR interferometry. The change of the water surface in the lake is examined over a period of two years, 2015-2016 using Sentinel 1 IW mode images and in situ water level data. Initially, all the SAR images were preprocessed in terms of atmospheric and radiometric corrections. Various interferograms were developed to study the multi-temporal regime of water level in both lakes. Optical satellite sensor data (Landsat 8) were used to study the vegetation regime and how this affect the interferogram processing. The results denoted the fact that the combination of SAR backscattering intensity and unwrapped phase water level data can provide additional insight into hydrological state. It is also shown that integrated analysis of the backscattering mechanism and interferometric characteristics can considerably enhance the reliability of the water-level retrieval scheme and optimize the capture of hydrological patterns spatial distribution. Keywords: Sentinel-1, interferogram, water level, Backscattering

  13. Current Measurements in Rivers by Spaceborne Along-Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Romeiser, R.; Gruenler, S.; Stammer, D.


    The along-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (along-track InSAR) technique permits a high-resolution imaging of ocean surface current fields all over the world from satellites. Results of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in early 2000 and theoretical findings indicate that spaceborne along-track InSARs are also suitable for current retrievals in rivers if the water surface is at least 200-300 m wide and sufficiently rough for microwave backscattering at slanting incidence. Accordingly, the technique is quite attractive for global river runoff monitoring, where it can complement water level and surface slope measurements by advanced radar altimeters and other efforts. The German satellite TerraSAR-X, which was launched in June 2007, will permit along-track interferometry in an experimental mode of operation. This will be the first opportunity for repeated current measurements from space at selected test sites during a period of several years. In this presentation we give an overview of basic principles and theoretical limits of current measurements by along-track InSAR, example results from SRTM, and predicted along-track InSAR capabilities of TerraSAR-X. An SRTM-derived surface current field in the lower Elbe river (Germany) agrees well with numerical hydrodynamic model results; characteristic lateral current variations around a pronounced main flow channel in the 1500 m wide river are resolved. Despite clearly suboptimal instrument parameters, TerraSAR-X simulations indicate an even better data quality. Depending on width, surface roughness, and relative flow direction of a river, current estimates with an accuracy better than 0.1 m/s will be possible with an effective spatial resolution of a few hundred meters to kilometers.

  14. Digital Synthetic-heterodyne Interferometric Demodulation Based on Embedded System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Ju; WANG Jin-hai; CHEN Cai-he; ZHANG Cheng


    Optical fiber acceleration seismometer as an important instrument can offer high sensitivity,anti-jamming and non-touched advantage which has an extensive application field. Its signal processing ability will decide whole system's performance to some extent because it will affect directly the factors such as resolving power,precision and dynamic range. The signal processing is usually realized by analog circuits which was more inferior in stability,flexibility and anti-jamming to digital processing system. A digital processing system of optical fiber acceleration seismometer has been designed based on the embedded system design scheme. Synthetic-heterodyne demodulation has been studied,and signal processing has been realized. The double processors of ARM and DSP are employed to implement respectively the system control and signal processing,and to provide the output interfaces such as LCD,DAC and Ethernet interface. This system can vary with the measured signal in real time and linearly,and its work frequency bandwidth is between 10 Hz and 1 kHz. The system has better anti-jamming ability and can work normally when the SNR is 40 dB.

  15. Time-series analysis of surface deformation at Brady Hot Springs geothermal field (Nevada) using interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Akerley, J. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Baluyut, E. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cardiff, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Davatzes, N. C. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science; Feigl, K. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Foxall, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratta, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spielman, P. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Wang, H. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zemach, E. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)


    We analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014, by the ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellite missions to measure and characterize time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada due to extraction of fluids. The long axis of the ~4 km by ~1.5 km elliptical subsiding area coincides with the strike of the dominant normal fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, likely associated with damaged regions where fault segments mechanically interact. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing a high permeability conduit to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We also explore mechanisms that could potentially cause the observed deformation, including thermal contraction of rock, decline in pore pressure and dissolution of minerals over time.

  16. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar using two satellites (United States)

    Tomiyasu, K.


    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of a bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR) utilizing two satellites. The proposed BISAR assumes that the direction of the two narrow antenna beams are programmed to coincide over the desired area to be imaged. Functionally, the transmitter and receiver portions can be interchanged between the two satellites. The two satellites may be in one orbit plane or two different orbits such as geosynchronous and low-earth orbits. The pulse repetition frequency and imaging geometry are constrained by contours of isodops and isodels. With two images of the same area viewed from different angles, it is possible in principle to derive three-dimensional stereo images. Applications of BISAR include topography, water resource management, and soil moisture determination.. Advantages of BISAR over a monostatic SAR are mentioned, including lower transmitter power and greater ranges in incidence angle and coverage.

  17. Removal of systematic seasonal atmospheric signal from interferometric synthetic aperture radar ground deformation time series (United States)

    Samsonov, Sergey V.; Trishchenko, Alexander P.; Tiampo, Kristy; González, Pablo J.; Zhang, Yu; Fernández, José


    Applying the Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset interferometric synthetic aperture radar algorithm to about 1500 Envisat and RADARSAT-2 interferograms spanning 2003-2013, we computed time series of ground deformation over Naples Bay Area in Italy. Two active volcanoes, Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, are located in this area in close proximity to the densely populated city of Naples. For the first time, and with remarkable clarity, we observed decade-long elevation-dependent seasonal oscillations of the vertical displacement component with a peak-to-peak amplitude of up to 3.0 cm, substantially larger than the long-term deformation rate (Vesuvius previously observed by geodetic techniques.

  18. Monitoring delta subsidence with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) (United States)

    Higgins, S.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.


    Can subsidence in river deltas be monitored in near real-time at the spatial and temporal resolution needed for informing critical management decisions? Interferometric Synthetic Radar Aperture (InSAR) is a satellite-based technique that can map ground deformation with millimeter-scale vertical resolution over thousands of square kilometers. InSAR has enormous potential to shed light on the dynamics of actively subsiding deltas, but the technique is not commonly applied outside of major cities due to the difficulty of performing InSAR in wet, vegetated settings. Given these limitations, how can InSAR best serve the global effort to monitor sinking deltas? Here, an overview of InSAR processing is provided that addresses delta-specific challenges, including frequent cloud-cover in tropical areas; noisy signals in wetlands and flooded fields; dense forests that interact unpredictably with different radar wavelengths; flat landscapes that hinder image stacking algorithms; rapid urban development that can render Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) inaccurate; and a lack of in situ GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers for InSAR calibration. InSAR has unique value for monitoring subsidence in deltas, and some natural and anthropogenic drivers of subsidence can be resolved by InSAR. High-resolution InSAR measurements from the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) are then presented and validated against GPS data. Surface motion is shown to reflect subsurface stratigraphy, and sediment compaction is shown to be the most important factor in this delta on short (non-tectonic) timescales. Average compaction rates throughout the eastern delta range from 0 to > 18 mm/y, varying by more than an order of magnitude depending on the ages and grain sizes of surface and subsurface sediment layers. Fastest subsidence is observed in Holocene organic-rich mud, and slowest subsidence is observed along the Meghna River and in areas with surface or subsurface sand deposits. Although groundwater

  19. The integrated cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite (United States)

    Wu, Yinong; Liu, EnGuang; Jiang, Zhenhua; Yang, Baoyu; Mu, Yongbin


    The cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite includes a Stirling cryocooler, a radiant cooler, a cryogenic heat pipe and some flexible thermal links as well. These cryogenic elements were integrated together in order to decrease the background radiation and maximize the sensitivity with high efficiency and high reliability. This paper summarizes the cryogenic integration design, technical challenges, and the results of thermal and performance testing.

  20. Interferometric Imaging of Geostationary Satellites: Signal-to-Noise Considerations (United States)


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  1. Atmospheric corrections in interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation - a case study of the city of Mendoza, Argentina (United States)

    Balbarani, S.; Euillades, P. A.; Euillades, L. D.; Casu, F.; Riveros, N. C.


    Differential interferometry is a remote sensing technique that allows studying crustal deformation produced by several phenomena like earthquakes, landslides, land subsidence and volcanic eruptions. Advanced techniques, like small baseline subsets (SBAS), exploit series of images acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors during a given time span. Phase propagation delay in the atmosphere is the main systematic error of interferometric SAR measurements. It affects differently images acquired at different days or even at different hours of the same day. So, datasets acquired during the same time span from different sensors (or sensor configuration) often give diverging results. Here we processed two datasets acquired from June 2010 to December 2011 by COSMO-SkyMed satellites. One of them is HH-polarized, and the other one is VV-polarized and acquired on different days. As expected, time series computed from these datasets show differences. We attributed them to non-compensated atmospheric artifacts and tried to correct them by using ERA-Interim global atmospheric model (GAM) data. With this method, we were able to correct less than 50% of the scenes, considering an area where no phase unwrapping errors were detected. We conclude that GAM-based corrections are not enough for explaining differences in computed time series, at least in the processed area of interest. We remark that no direct meteorological data for the GAM-based corrections were employed. Further research is needed in order to understand under what conditions this kind of data can be used.

  2. Rapid raw data simulation for fixed-receiver bistatic interferometric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Yan, Feifei; Chang, Wenge; Li, Xiangyang


    Raw data simulation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is useful for system designing, mission planning, and testing of imaging algorithms. According to the two-dimensional (2-D) frequency spectrum of the fixed-receiver bistatic SAR system, a rapid raw data simulation approach is proposed. With the combination of 2-D inverse Stolt transform in the 2-D frequency domain and phase compensation in the range-Doppler frequency domain, our approach can significantly reduce the simulation time. Therefore, simulations of extended scenes can be performed much more easily. Moreover, the proposed algorithm offers high accuracy of phase distribution, therefore, it can be used for single-pass fixed-receiver bistatic interferometric usage. The proposal is verified by extensive simulations of point targets and extended scene, in which the results indicate the feasibility as well as the effectiveness of our approach. In the end, the accuracy of phase distribution of the proposed algorithm is further examined with simulations of synthetic aperture radar interferometry.

  3. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy implementation on a floating point multi-core digital signal processer (United States)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Ali, Murtaza; South, Fredrick; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Adie, Steven G.; Shemonski, Nathan; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.


    The transition of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology from the lab environment towards the more challenging clinical and point-of-care settings is continuing at a rapid pace. On one hand this translation opens new opportunities and avenues for growth, while on the other hand it also presents a new set of challenges and constraints under which OCT systems have to operate. OCT systems in the clinical environment are not only required to be user friendly and easy to operate, but should also be portable, have a smaller form factor coupled with low cost and reduced power consumption. Digital signal processors (DSP) are in a unique position to satisfy the computational requirements for OCT at a much lower cost and power consumption compared to the existing platforms such as CPU and graphics processing units (GPUs). In this work, we describe the implementation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) processing on a floating point multi-core DSP (C6678, Texas Instruments). ISAM is a computationally intensive data processing technique that is based on the re-sampling of the Fourier space of the data to yield spatially invariant transverse resolution in OCT. Preliminary results indicate that 2DISAM processing at 70,000 A-lines/sec and OCT at 180,000 A-lines/sec can be achieved with the current implementation using available DSP hardware.

  4. Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT at Barrow, Alaska Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

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    Kevin Schaefer


    Full Text Available Active layer thickness (ALT is a critical parameter for monitoring the status of permafrost that is typically measured at specific locations using probing, in situ temperature sensors, or other ground-based observations. Here we evaluated the Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT product that uses the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar technique to measure seasonal surface subsidence and infer ALT around Barrow, Alaska. We compared ReSALT with ground-based ALT obtained using probing and calibrated, 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar at multiple sites around Barrow. ReSALT accurately reproduced observed ALT within uncertainty of the GPR and probing data in ~76% of the study area. However, ReSALT was less than observed ALT in ~22% of the study area with well-drained soils and in ~1% of the area where soils contained gravel. ReSALT was greater than observed ALT in some drained thermokarst lake basins representing ~1% of the area. These results indicate remote sensing techniques based on InSAR could be an effective way to measure and monitor ALT over large areas on the Arctic coastal plain.

  5. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and its applications to study volcanoes, part 1: Principles of InSAR (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Zhang, Jixian; Zhang, Yonghong


    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar is an ability to measure the surface deformation of remote sensing technology, in a huge area, its deformation measurement with sub-centimeter accuracy, and spatial resolution in the tens of meters or less. In this paper, the basic theory of InSAR technology is reviewed, its working principle is clarified, and the related problems of surface deformation measurement using InSAR technology are discussed.

  6. Continuous monitoring of biophysical Eucalyptus sp. parameters using interferometric synthetic aperture radar data in P and X bands (United States)

    Gama, Fábio Furlan; dos Santos, João Roberto; Mura, José Claudio


    This work aims to verify the applicability of models obtained using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for estimation of biophysical Eucalyptus saligna parameters [diameter of breast height (DBH), total height and volume], as a method of continuous forest inventory. In order to obtain different digital elevation models, and the interferometric height (Hint) to retrieve the tree heights, SAR surveying was carried out by an airborne interferometric SAR in two frequencies X and P bands. The study area, located in the Brazilian southeast region (S 22°53‧22″/W 45°26‧16″ and S 22°53‧22″/W 45°26‧16″), comprises 128.64 hectares of Eucalyptus saligna stands. The methodological procedures encompassed: forest inventory, topographic surveying, radar mapping, radar processing, and multivariable regression techniques to build Eucalyptus volume, DBH, and height models. The statistical regression pointed out Hint and interferometric coherence as the most important variables for the total height and DBH estimation; for the volume model, however, only the Hint variable was selected. The performance of the biophysical models from the second campaign, two years later (2006), were consistent and its results are very promising for updating annual inventories needed for managing Eucalyptus plantations.

  7. Fault Creep along the Southern San Andreas from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Permanent Scatterers, and Stacking (United States)

    Lyons, Suzanne; Sandwell, David


    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides a practical means of mapping creep along major strike-slip faults. The small amplitude of the creep signal (less than 10 mm/yr), combined with its short wavelength, makes it difficult to extract from long time span interferograms, especially in agricultural or heavily vegetated areas. We utilize two approaches to extract the fault creep signal from 37 ERS SAR images along the southem San Andreas Fault. First, amplitude stacking is utilized to identify permanent scatterers, which are then used to weight the interferogram prior to spatial filtering. This weighting improves correlation and also provides a mask for poorly correlated areas. Second, the unwrapped phase is stacked to reduce tropospheric and other short-wavelength noise. This combined processing enables us to recover the near-field (approximately 200 m) slip signal across the fault due to shallow creep. Displacement maps fiom 60 interferograms reveal a diffuse secular strain buildup, punctuated by localized interseismic creep of 4-6 mm/yr line of sight (LOS, 12-18 mm/yr horizontal). With the exception of Durmid Hill, this entire segment of the southern San Andreas experienced right-lateral triggered slip of up to 10 cm during the 3.5-year period spanning the 1992 Landers earthquake. The deformation change following the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake was much smaller (4 cm) and broader than for the Landers event. Profiles across the fault during the interseismic phase show peak-to-trough amplitude ranging from 15 to 25 mm/yr (horizontal component) and the minimum misfit models show a range of creeping/locking depth values that fit the data.

  8. Persistent scatterers detection on synthetic aperture radar images acquired by Sentinel-1 satellite (United States)

    Dǎnişor, Cosmin; Popescu, Anca; Datcu, Mihai


    Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PS-InSAR) has become a popular method in remote sensing because of its capability to measure terrain deformations with very high accuracy. It relies on multiple Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions, to monitor points with stable proprieties over time, called Persistent Scatterers (PS)[1]. These points are unaffected by temporal decorrelation, therefore by analyzing their interferometric phase variation we can estimate the scene's deformation rates within a given time interval. In this work, we apply two incoherent detection algorithms to identify Persistent Scatterers candidates in the city of Focșani, Romania. The first method studies the variation of targets' intensities along the SAR acquisitions and the second method analyzes the spectral proprieties of the scatterers. The algorithms were implemented on a dataset containing 11 complex images of the region covering Buzău, Brăila and Focșani cities. Images were acquired by Sentinel-1 satellite in a time span of 5 months, from October 2014 to February 2015. The processing chain follows the requirements imposed by the new C-band SAR images delivered by the Sentinel-1 satellite (launched in April 2014) imaging in Interferometric Wide (IW) mode. Considering the particularities of the TOPS (Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans in Azimuth) imaging mode[2], special requirements had to be considered for pre-processing steps. The PS detection algorithms were implemented in Gamma RS program, a software which contains various function packages dedicated to SAR images focalization, analysis and processing.

  9. Advanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar (InSAR) for Dune Mapping (United States)

    Havivi, Shiran; Amir, Doron; Schvartzman, Ilan; August, Yitzhak; Mamman, Shimrit; Rotman, Stanely R.; Blumberg, Dan G.


    Aeolian morphologies are formed in the presence of sufficient wind energy and available lose particles. These processes occur naturally or are further enhanced or reduced by human intervention. The dimensions of change are dependent primarily on the wind energy and surface properties. Since the 1970s, remote sensing imagery, both optical and radar, have been used for documentation and interpretation of the geomorphologic changes of sand dunes. Remote sensing studies of aeolian morphologies is mostly useful to document major changes, yet, subtle changes, occurring in a period of days or months in scales of centimeters, are very difficult to detect in imagery. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring Earth's surface topography and deformation. InSAR images are produced by measuring the radar phase difference between two separated antennas that view the same surface area. Classical InSAR is based on high coherence between two or more images. The output (interferogram) can show subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimeters to centimeters. Very little work has been done on measuring or identifying the changes in dunes using InSAR methods. The reason is that dunes tend to be less coherent than firm, stable, surfaces. This work aims to demonstrate how interferometric decorrelation can be used for identifying dune instability. We hypothesize and demonstrate that the loss of radar coherence over time on dunes can be used as an indication of the dune's instability. When SAR images are acquired at sufficiently close intervals one can measure the time it takes to lose coherence and associate this time with geomorphic stability. To achieve our goals, the coherence change detection method was used, in order to identify dune stability or instability and the dune activity level. The Nitzanim-Ashdod coastal dunes along the Mediterranean, 40 km south of Tel-Aviv, Israel, were chosen as a case study. The dunes in this area are of

  10. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens


    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  11. Synthetically adaptive robust filtering for satellite orbit determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Yuanxi


    The quality of the satellite orbit determination is rested on the knowledge of perturbing forces acting on the satellite and stochastic properties of the observations, and the ability of controlling various kinds of errors. After a brief discussion on the dynamic and geometric orbit determinations, Sage adaptive filtering and robust filtering are reviewed. A new synthetically adaptive robust filtering based on a combination of robust filtering and Sage filtering is developed. It is shown, by derivations and calculations, that the synthetically adaptive robust filtering for orbit determination is not only robust but also simple in calculation. It controls the effects of the outliers of tracking observations and the satellite dynamical disturbance on the parameter estimates of the satellite orbit.

  12. Time-Dependent Deformation at Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Field (Nevada) Measured With Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Modeled with Multiple Working Hypotheses of Coupled Behavior (United States)

    Feigl, K. L.; Ali, S. T.; Akerley, J.; Baluyut, E.; Cardiff, M. A.; Davatzes, N. C.; Foxall, W.; Fratta, D.; Kreemer, C.; Mellors, R. J.; Lopeman, J.; Spielman, P.; Wang, H. F.


    To measure time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada, we analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014 by five satellite missions, including: ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X. The resulting maps of deformation show an elliptical subsiding area that is ~4 km by ~1.5 km. Its long axis coincides with the strike of the dominant normal-fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, that are probably associated with damaged regions where faults interact via thermal (T), hydrological (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing high-permeability conduits to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We explore first-order models to calculate the time-dependent deformation fields produced by coupled processes, including: thermal contraction of rock (T-M coupling), decline in pore pressure (H-M coupling), and dissolution of minerals over time (H-C-M coupling). These processes are related to the heterogeneity of hydro-geological and material properties at the site. This work is part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" (PoroTomo)

  13. Integrated Analysis of Interferometric SAR, Satellite Altimetry and Hydraulic Modeling to Quantify Louisiana Wetland Dynamics (United States)

    Lee, Hyongki; Kim, Jin-woo; Lu, Zhong; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Alsdorf, Doug


    Wetland loss in Louisiana has been accelerating due primarily to anthropogenic and nature processes, and is being advocated as a problem with national importance. Accurate measurement or modeling of wetland-wide water level changes, its varying extent, its storage and discharge changes resulting in part from sediment loads, erosion and subsidence are fundamental to assessment of hurricane-induced flood hazards and wetland ecology. Here, we use innovative method to integrate interferometric SAR (InSAR) and satellite radar altimetry for measuring absolute or geocentric water level changes and applied the methodology to remote areas of swamp forest in coastal Louisiana. Coherence analysis of InSAR pairs suggested that the HH polarization is preferred for this type of observation, and polarimetric analysis can help to identi:fy double-bonnce backscattering areas in the wetland. Envisat radar altimeter-measured 18- Hz (along-track sampling of 417 m) water level data processed with regional stackfile method have been used to provide vertical references for water bodies separated by levees. The high-resolution (approx.40 m) relative water changes measured from ALOS PALSAR L-band and Radarsat-l C-band InSAR are then integrated with Envisat radar altimetry to obtain absolute water level. The resulting water level time series were validated with in situ gauge observations within the swamp forest. Furthermore, we compare our water elevation changes with 2D flood modeling from LISFLOOD hydrodynamic model. Our study demonstrates that this new technique allows retrospective reconstruction and concurrent monitoring of water conditions and flow dynamics in wetlands, especially those lacking gauge networks.

  14. Monitoring coastal inundation with Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite data (United States)

    Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Rangoonwala, Amina; Ramsey, Elijah W.


    Maps representing the presence and absence of surface inundation in the Louisiana coastal zone were created from available satellite scenes acquired by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Advanced Land Observing Satellite and by the European Space Agency's Envisat from late 2006 through summer 2009. Detection of aboveground surface flooding relied on the well-documented and distinct signature of decreased backscatter in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which is indicative of inundated marsh in the Gulf of Mexico. Even though decreases in backscatter were distinctive, the multiplicity of possible interactions between changing flood depths and canopy height yielded complex SAR-based representations of the marshes.

  15. Fine resolution topographic mapping of the Jovian moons: a Ka-band high resolution topographic mapping interferometric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Carsey, Frank D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.


    The topographic data set obtained by MOLA has provided an unprecedented level of information about Mars' geologic features. The proposed flight of JIMO provides an opportunity to accomplish a similar mapping of and comparable scientific discovery for the Jovian moons through us of an interferometric imaging radar analogous to the Shuttle radar that recently generated a new topographic map of Earth. A Ka-band single pass across-track synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometer can provide very high resolution surface elevation maps. The concept would use two antennas mounted at the ends of a deployable boom (similar to the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapper) extended orthogonal to the direction of flight. Assuming an orbit altitude of approximately 100 km and a ground velocity of approximately 1.5 km/sec, horizontal resolutions at the 10 meter level and vertical resolutions at the sub-meter level are possible.

  16. Image registration of interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging system based on joint respective window sampling and modified motion compensation (United States)

    Tian, Biao; Shi, Si; Liu, Yang; Xu, Shiyou; Chen, Zengping


    We propose a new image registration method based on joint respective window sampling (RWS) and modified motion compensation (MMC) in an interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar (InISAR) imaging system using two antennas. The causation and quantitative analysis of the offset between two ISAR images of different antennas along the baseline are analyzed. In the proposed method, the RWS method, according to the measured distance between the target and different antennas, compensates the offset in the range direction. The MMC method is adopted to eliminate the offset in the Doppler direction. Simulation results demonstrate that the offset between the two ISAR images can be compensated effectively, consequently achieving a high-quality three-dimensional InISAR image.

  17. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using observations of land subsidence from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishant Gupta; Tajdarul H Syed; Ashiihrii Athiphro


    Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India’s vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (DInSAR) technique has been utilized to monitor subsurface coal fires in the Jharia coalfield. Results showed that majority of the coal fire-related subsidence were concentrated on the eastern and western boundaries of the coalfield. The magnitude of subsidence observed was classified into high (10–27.8 mm), low (0–10 mm) and upliftment (−10–0 mm). The results were strongly supported by in situ observations and satellite-based thermal imagery analysis. Major subsidence was observed in the areas with repeated sightings of coal fire. Further, the study highlighted on the capability of the methodology for predicting potential coal fire zones on the basis of land surface subsidence only. The results from this study have major implications for demarcating the hazardous coal fire areas as well as effective implementation of public safety measures.

  18. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-GPS integration: Interseismic strain accumulation across the Hunter Mountain fault in the eastern California shear zone (United States)

    Gourmelen, Noel; Amelung, Falk; Lanari, Riccardo


    The principal limitations of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to measure subtle, long-wavelength deformation are uncertainties associated with the satellite orbits. We propose a method to remove orbital phase errors from the InSAR data by integrating InSAR and continuous GPS time series. We model the along-track variation of the baseline errors as second-order polynomials and estimate the coefficients using the continuous GPS measurements. We apply this method to a 600 km long region encompassing the Basin and Range and the eastern California shear zone. Comparison of the corrected InSAR velocities with independent GPS data shows that this method removes the long-wavelength InSAR errors. The InSAR data reveal a region of sharp variation in the line-of-sight velocity across the Hunter Mountain fault. We model the deformation as interseismic elastic strain accumulation across a strike-slip fault. The modeling suggests a fault slip rate of 4.9 ± 0.8 mm/yr and a locking depth of 2 ± 0.4 km. The shallow locking depth suggests that the Hunter Mountain fault is a transfer fault between low angle normal faults in the area.

  19. Investigation of land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas by using the Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, 1993-2000 (United States)

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Kasmarek, Mark C.; Brandt, Justin; Middleton, Clifton S.


    Since the early 1900s, groundwater has been the primary source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water supplies for the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. The region's combination of hydrogeology and nearly century-long use of groundwater has resulted in one of the largest areas of subsidence in the United States; by 1979, as much as 3 meters (m) of subsidence had occurred, and approximately 8,300 square kilometers of land had subsided more than 0.3 m. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, used interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data obtained for four overlapping scenes from European remote sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 to analyze land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas. The InSAR data were processed into 27 interferograms that delineate and quantify land-subsidence patterns and magnitudes. Contemporaneous data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) were reprocessed by the National Geodetic Survey and analyzed to support, verify, and provide temporal resolution to the InSAR investigation.

  20. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using observations of land subsidence from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) (United States)

    Gupta, Nishant; Syed, Tajdarul H.; Athiphro, Ashiihrii


    Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India's vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (DInSAR) technique has been utilized to monitor subsurface coal fires in the Jharia coalfield. Results showed that majority of the coal fire-related subsidence were concentrated on the eastern and western boundaries of the coalfield. The magnitude of subsidence observed was classified into high (10-27.8 mm), low (0-10 mm) and upliftment (-10-0 mm). The results were strongly supported by in situ observations and satellite-based thermal imagery analysis. Major subsidence was observed in the areas with repeated sightings of coal fire. Further, the study highlighted on the capability of the methodology for predicting potential coal fire zones on the basis of land surface subsidence only. The results from this study have major implications for demarcating the hazardous coal fire areas as well as effective implementation of public safety measures.

  1. Rupture parameters of the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8), Algeria, earthquake from joint inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar, coastal uplift, and GPS (United States)

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, C.; Cakir, Z.; Meghraoui, M.


    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May 2003 (M w = 6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the Algiers region since 1716. The thrust earthquake mechanism and related surface deformation revealed an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ??55-km-long coastline. We obtain coseismic interferograms using Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST4) data from both the ascending and descending orbits of Envisat satellite, whereas the RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the earthquake area, Envisat data cover only the western half of the rupture zone. Although the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum coseismic deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, differential GPS, leveling, and GPS). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half-space. We invert the coseismic slip using first, a planar surface and second, a curved fault, both constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The best fit of InSAR, coastal uplift, and GPS data corresponds to a 65-km-long fault rupture dipping 40?? to 50?? SE, located at 8 to 13 km offshore with a change in strike west of Boumerdes from N60??-65?? to N95??-105??. The inferred rupture geometry at depth correlates well with the seismological results and may have critical implications for the seismic hazard assessment of the Algiers region. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Surface Deformation of Los Humeros Caldera, Mexico, Estimated by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). (United States)

    Santos Basurto, R.; Lopez Quiroz, P.; Carrasco Nuñez, G.; Doin, M. P.


    Los Humeros caldera is located in the eastern part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, to the north of the state of Puebla and bordering the west side of the state of Veracruz. The study of the caldera, is of great interest because there is a geothermal field currently working inside of it. In fact, Los Humeros, is the third more important geothermal field in Mexico. In this work, we used InSAR to estimate the surface deformation on the caldera, aiming to contribute to its modeling and to help preventing subsidence related hazards on the geothermal field and surroundings. On this study, we calculated 34 interferograms from 21 SAR images of the ENVISAT European Space Agency Mission. The analysis of the interferograms, allow us to detect, decorrelation of the interferometric signal increased, when time spans were greater than 70 days. Also, for those with good signal correlation, the atmospheric signal dominated the interferogram, masking completely the deformation. Moreover, residual orbital ramps were detected, in some of the calculated interferograms. An algorithm capable to remove all the interferogram signal contributions but the deformation related, has been implemented. Resulting deformation and its correlation with several variables like the geology, the hydrogeology and the seismic records, were analysed through its integration in a Geographic Information System.

  3. Interseismic Deformation of the Altyn Tagh Fault Determined by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhu


    Full Text Available The Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF is one of the major left-lateral strike-slip faults in the northeastern area of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the interseismic deformation across the ATF at 85°E was measured using 216 interferograms from 33 ENVISAT advanced synthetic aperture radar images on a descending track acquired from 2003 to 2010, and 66 interferograms from 15 advanced synthetic aperture radar images on an ascending track acquired from 2005 to 2010. To retrieve the pattern of interseismic strain accumulation, a global atmospheric model (ERA-Interim provided by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast and a global network orbital correction approach were applied to remove atmospheric effects and the long-wavelength orbital errors in the interferograms. Then, the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR time series with atmospheric estimation model was used to obtain a deformation rate map for the ATF. Based on the InSAR velocity map, the regional strain rates field was calculated for the first time using the multi-scale wavelet method. The strain accumulation is strongly focused on the ATF with the maximum strain rate of 12.4 × 10−8/year. We also show that high-resolution 2-D strain rates field can be calculated from InSAR alone, even without GPS data. Using a simple half-space elastic screw dislocation model, the slip-rate and locking depth were estimated with both ascending and descending surface velocity measurements. The joint inversion results are consistent with a left-lateral slip rate of 8.0 ± 0.7 mm/year on the ATF and a locking depth of 14.5 ± 3 km, which is in agreement with previous results from GPS surveys and ERS InSAR results. Our results support the dynamic models of Asian deformation requiring low fault slip rate.

  4. Using temporarily coherent point interferometric synthetic aperture radar for land subsidence monitoring in a mining region of western China (United States)

    Fan, Hongdong; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Zhongbo; Du, Sen


    Yuyang mine is located in the semiarid western region of China where, due to serious land subsidence caused by underground coal exploitation, the local ecological environment has become more fragile. An advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique, temporarily coherent point InSAR, is applied to measure surface movements caused by different mining conditions. Fifteen high-resolution TerraSAR-X images acquired between October 2, 2012, and March 27, 2013, were processed to generate time-series data for ground deformation. The results show that the maximum accumulated values of subsidence and velocity were 86 mm and 162 mm/year, respectively; these measurements were taken above the fully mechanized longwall caving faces. Based on the dynamic land subsidence caused by the exploitation of one working face, the land subsidence range was deduced to have increased 38 m in the mining direction with 11 days' coal extraction. Although some mining faces were ceased in 2009, they could also have contributed to a small residual deformation of overlying strata. Surface subsidence of the backfill mining region was quite small, the maximum only 21 mm, so backfill exploitation is an effective method for reducing the land subsidence while coal is mined.

  5. Numerical simulation and validation of ocean waves measured by an Along-Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Biao; HE Yijun; Paris W.VACHON


    A new nonlinear integral transform of ocean wave spectra into Along-Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (ATI-SAR )image spectra is described.ATI-SAR phase image spectra are calculated for various sea states and radar configurations based on the nonlinear integral transform.The numerical simulations show that the slant range to velocity ratio(R/V),significant wave height to ocean wavelength ratio(Hs/λ),the baseline (2B) and incident angle(θ)affect ATI-SAR imaging.The ATI-SAR imaging theory is validated by means of Two X-band,HH-polarized ATI-SAR phase images of ocean waves and eight C-band,HH-polarized ATI-SAR phase image spectra of ocean waves.It is shown that ATI-SAR phase image spectra are in agreement with those calculated by forward mapping in situ directional wave soectra collected simultaneously with available ATI-SAR observations.ATI-SAR spectral correlation coefficients between observed and simulated are greater than 0.6 and ale not sensitive to the degree of nonlinearity.However,the ATI-SAR phase image spectral turns towards the range direction.even if the real ocean wave direction is 30°.It is also shown that the ATI-SAR imaging mechanism is significantly affected by the degree of velocity bunching nonlinearity,especially for high values of R/V and Hs/λ.

  6. Forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using general model-based decomposition for polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar images (United States)

    Minh, Nghia Pham; Zou, Bin; Cai, Hongjun; Wang, Chengyi


    The estimation of forest parameters over mountain forest areas using polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) images is one of the greatest interests in remote sensing applications. For mountain forest areas, scattering mechanisms are strongly affected by the ground topography variations. Most of the previous studies in modeling microwave backscattering signatures of forest area have been carried out over relatively flat areas. Therefore, a new algorithm for the forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using the general model-based decomposition (GMBD) for PolInSAR image is proposed. This algorithm enables the retrieval of not only the forest parameters, but also the magnitude associated with each mechanism. In addition, general double- and single-bounce scattering models are proposed to fit for the cross-polarization and off-diagonal term by separating their independent orientation angle, which remains unachieved in the previous model-based decompositions. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated with simulated data from PolSARProSim software and ALOS-PALSAR spaceborne PolInSAR datasets over the Kalimantan areas, Indonesia. Experimental results indicate that forest height could be effectively estimated by GMBD.

  7. Ground settlement of Chek Lap Kok Airport, Hong Kong,detected by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is used to investigate the slowly accumulating ground settlement at the new Chek Lap Kok Airport in Hong Kong. Most of the land occupied by the airport was reclaimed from the sea and therefore certain ground settlement in the area has been expected. A pair of ERS-2 SAR images spanning nearly a year is used in the study. The high spatial resolution (20 m× 20 m) ground settlement map derived indicates that the settlement that occurred in the area over the time period is as large as 50 mm. The SAR measurement results agree with the levelling measurements at some benchmarks in the area to well within 1 cm(rms error),and the overall correlation between the two types of results is 0.89. The paper presents some brief background of interferometric SAR, and outlines the data processing methods and results.

  8. Detecting land subsidence near metro lines in the Baoshan district of Shanghai with multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Guoxiang Liu; Hui Lin; Rui Zhang; Hongguo Jia; Bing Yu


    Land subsidence is a major factor that affects metro line (ML) stability. In this study, an improved multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) (MTI) method to detect land subsidence near MLs is pre-sented. In particular, our multi-temporal InSAR method provides surface subsidence measurements with high observation density. The MTI method tracks both point-like targets and distributed targets with temporal radar back-scattering steadiness. First, subsidence rates at the point targets with low-amplitude dispersion index (ADI) values are extracted by applying a least-squared estimator on an optimized freely connected network. Second, to reduce error propagation, the pixels with high-ADI values are classified into several groups according to ADI intervals and processed using a Pearson correlation coefficient and hierarchical analysis strategy to obtain the distributed targets. Then, nonlinear subsidence components at all point-like and dis-tributed targets are estimated using phase unwrapping and spatiotemporal filtering on the phase residuals. The proposed MTI method was applied to detect land subsidence near MLs of No. 1 and 3 in the Baoshan district of Shanghai using 18 TerraSAR-X images acquired between April 21, 2008 and October 30, 2010. The results show that the mean subsidence rates of the stations distributed along the two MLs are -12.9 and -14.0 mm/year. Furthermore, three subsidence funnels near the MLs are discovered through the hierarchical analysis. The testing results demonstrate the satisfactory capacity of the proposed MTI method in pro-viding detailed subsidence information near MLs.

  9. Study of a passive companion microsatellite to the SAOCOM-1B satellite of Argentina, for bistatic and interferometric SAR applications (United States)

    Barbier, Christian; Derauw, Dominique; Orban, Anne; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.


    We report the results of a preparatory study aimed at exploring candidate applications that could benefit from a passive micro-satellite accompanying the L-band SAOCOM-1B satellite of Argentina, and to carry out a limited demonstration, based on data acquired during ESA airborne campaigns, of selected applications. In a first step of the study, the potential applications were identified and prioritized based on the mission context and strategic applications, scientific need, and feasibility. The next step of the study was to carry out some demonstrations using data sets acquired during the BioSAR 2007-2009, TropiSAR 2009 and IceSAR 2007 campaigns. A P-band InSAR digital elevation model was generated from BioSAR 2007 data. Time-series of interferometric coherence maps were obtained as a tool for change detection and monitoring. PolInSAR processing was carried out on BioSAR 2007 and IceSAR data.

  10. Interferometric vs Spectral IASI Radiances: Effective Data-Reduction Approaches for the Satellite Sounding of Atmospheric Thermodynamical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grieco


    Full Text Available Abstract: Two data-reduction approaches for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer satellite instrument are discussed and compared. The approaches are intended for the purpose of devising and implementing fast near real time retrievals of atmospheric thermodynamical parameters. One approach is based on the usual selection of sparse channels or portions of the spectrum. This approach may preserve the spectral resolution, but at the expense of the spectral coverage. The second approach considers a suitable truncation of the interferogram (the Fourier transform of the spectrum at points below the nominal maximum optical path difference. This second approach is consistent with the Shannon-Whittaker sampling theorem, preserves the full spectral coverage, but at the expense of the spectral resolution. While the first data-reduction acts within the spectraldomain, the second can be performed within the interferogram domain and without any specific need to go back to the spectral domain for the purpose of retrieval. To assess the impact of these two different data-reduction strategies on retrieval of atmospheric parameters, we have used a statistical retrieval algorithm for skin temperature, temperature, water vapour and ozone profiles. The use of this retrieval algorithm is mostly intended for illustrative purposes and the user could choose a different inverse strategy. In fact, the interferogram-based data-reduction strategy is generic and independent of any inverse algorithm. It will be also shown that this strategy yields subset of interferometric radiances, which are less sensitive to potential interfering effects such as those possibly introduced by the day-night cycle (e.g., the solar component, and spectroscopic effect induced by sun energy and unknown trace gases variability.

  11. Coastal sea level from inland CryoSat-2 interferometric SAR altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulaitijiang, Adili; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars


    The European Space Agency's CryoSat-2 satellite can operate in a novel synthetic aperture radar interferometric (SARIn) mode where its nominal footprint (swath) is observed by two antennas and the phase difference between the signals is used to determination the exact location of the scatterer th...

  12. Three-dimensional interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging of maneuvering target based on the joint cross modified Wigner-Ville distribution (United States)

    Lv, Qian; Su, Tao; Zheng, Jibin; Zhang, Jiancheng


    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) can achieve high-resolution two-dimensional images of maneuvering targets. However, due to the indeterminate relative motion between radar and target, ISAR imaging does not provide the three-dimensional (3-D) position information of a target and suffers from great difficulty in target recognition. To tackle this issue, a 3-D interferometric ISAR (InISAR) imaging algorithm based on the joint cross modified Wigner-Ville distribution (MWVD) is presented to form 3-D images of maneuvering targets. First, we form two orthogonal interferometric baselines with three receiving antennas to establish an InISAR imaging system. Second, after the uniform range alignment and phase adjustment, the joint cross MWVD is used for all range cell of each antenna pair to generate the separation of the scatterer as well as preserve the phase that contains position information of the scatterer. At last, the 3-D images of the target can be directly reconstructed from the distribution. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposal.

  13. Potential of sinkhole precursor detection through interferometric SAR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, Andre


    Full Text Available detection through interferometric SAR Theron, A.1, 2, Engelbrecht, J.1 and Kemp, J.2 1 Remote Sensing Research Unit, CSIR Meraka Institute, 2 Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Stellenbosch University...]. However, the location and timing of sinkholes is typically unpredictable. The in situ monitoring of large areas for small scale subsidence is therefore not feasible. Satellite remote sensing, specifically Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), is a unique...

  14. Small-scale loess landslide monitoring with small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique-case study of Xingyuan landslide, Shaanxi, China (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoying; Zhang, Qin; He, Yang; Peng, Jianbing; Yang, Chengsheng; Kang, Ya


    Small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique is analyzed to detect and monitor the loess landslide in the southern bank of the Jinghe River, Shaanxi province, China. Aiming to achieve the accurate preslide time-series deformation results over small spatial scale and abrupt temporal deformation loess landslide, digital elevation model error, coherence threshold for phase unwrapping, and quality of unwrapping interferograms must be carefully checked in advance. In this experience, land subsidence accompanying a landslide with the distance <1 km is obtained, which gives a sound precursor for small-scale loess landslide detection. Moreover, the longer and continuous land subsidence has been monitored while deformation starting point for the landslide is successfully inverted, which is key to monitoring the similar loess landslide. In addition, the accelerated landslide deformation from one to two months before the landslide can provide a critical clue to early warning of this kind of landslide.

  15. Rapid damage mapping for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake using synthetic aperture radar data from COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-2 satellites (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Ho; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Owen, Susan; Webb, Frank; Simons, Mark; Sacco, Patrizia; Gurrola, Eric; Manipon, Gerald; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric; Milillo, Pietro; Hua, Hook; Coletta, Alessandro


    The 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake caused more than 8000 fatalities and widespread building damage in central Nepal. The Italian Space Agency’s COSMO–SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite acquired data over Kathmandu area four days after the earthquake and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 SAR satellite for larger area nine days after the mainshock. We used these radar observations and rapidly produced damage proxy maps (DPMs) derived from temporal changes in Interferometric SAR coherence. Our DPMs were qualitatively validated through comparison with independent damage analyses by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research’s United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme, and based on our own visual inspection of DigitalGlobe’s WorldView optical pre- versus postevent imagery. Our maps were quickly released to responding agencies and the public, and used for damage assessment, determining inspection/imaging priorities, and reconnaissance fieldwork.

  16. A Synthetic Aperture System Based on Backscattering Signals of Compass Navigation Satellite: Concept and Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hai-yang


    Full Text Available A concept of a bi-static geosynchronous synthetic aperture system, which is formed by reusing backscattered signals of Compass Navigation Satellite System (CNSS, is proposed. The geometric relations of a geostationary satellite of CNSS, located on a geosynchronous satellite receiver, which is illuminated by the backscattered energy of a satellite of CNSS, and a ground station is built up, and following the relations as well as principle of synthetic aperture radar, we expatiate the feasibility of the system by considering parameters such as imaging resolution, ratio of signal to noise and link budget, etc.. Besides, the potential remote sensing applications for measurement of terrain humidity, characteristics of space-time dynamics of changing of terrain surface and atmospheric characteristic, etc..

  17. Graph theory for analyzing pair-wise data: application to geophysical model parameters estimated from interferometric synthetic aperture radar data at Okmok volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Reinisch, Elena C.; Cardiff, Michael; Feigl, Kurt L.


    Graph theory is useful for analyzing time-dependent model parameters estimated from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in the temporal domain. Plotting acquisition dates (epochs) as vertices and pair-wise interferometric combinations as edges defines an incidence graph. The edge-vertex incidence matrix and the normalized edge Laplacian matrix are factors in the covariance matrix for the pair-wise data. Using empirical measures of residual scatter in the pair-wise observations, we estimate the relative variance at each epoch by inverting the covariance of the pair-wise data. We evaluate the rank deficiency of the corresponding least-squares problem via the edge-vertex incidence matrix. We implement our method in a MATLAB software package called GraphTreeTA available on GitHub ( We apply temporal adjustment to the data set described in Lu et al. (Geophys Res Solid Earth 110, 2005) at Okmok volcano, Alaska, which erupted most recently in 1997 and 2008. The data set contains 44 differential volumetric changes and uncertainties estimated from interferograms between 1997 and 2004. Estimates show that approximately half of the magma volume lost during the 1997 eruption was recovered by the summer of 2003. Between June 2002 and September 2003, the estimated rate of volumetric increase is (6.2 ± 0.6) × 10^6~m^3/year . Our preferred model provides a reasonable fit that is compatible with viscoelastic relaxation in the five years following the 1997 eruption. Although we demonstrate the approach using volumetric rates of change, our formulation in terms of incidence graphs applies to any quantity derived from pair-wise differences, such as range change, range gradient, or atmospheric delay.

  18. Graph theory for analyzing pair-wise data: application to geophysical model parameters estimated from interferometric synthetic aperture radar data at Okmok volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Reinisch, Elena C.; Cardiff, Michael; Feigl, Kurt L.


    Graph theory is useful for analyzing time-dependent model parameters estimated from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in the temporal domain. Plotting acquisition dates (epochs) as vertices and pair-wise interferometric combinations as edges defines an incidence graph. The edge-vertex incidence matrix and the normalized edge Laplacian matrix are factors in the covariance matrix for the pair-wise data. Using empirical measures of residual scatter in the pair-wise observations, we estimate the relative variance at each epoch by inverting the covariance of the pair-wise data. We evaluate the rank deficiency of the corresponding least-squares problem via the edge-vertex incidence matrix. We implement our method in a MATLAB software package called GraphTreeTA available on GitHub ( We apply temporal adjustment to the data set described in Lu et al. (Geophys Res Solid Earth 110, 2005) at Okmok volcano, Alaska, which erupted most recently in 1997 and 2008. The data set contains 44 differential volumetric changes and uncertainties estimated from interferograms between 1997 and 2004. Estimates show that approximately half of the magma volume lost during the 1997 eruption was recovered by the summer of 2003. Between June 2002 and September 2003, the estimated rate of volumetric increase is (6.2 ± 0.6) × 10^6 m^3/year . Our preferred model provides a reasonable fit that is compatible with viscoelastic relaxation in the five years following the 1997 eruption. Although we demonstrate the approach using volumetric rates of change, our formulation in terms of incidence graphs applies to any quantity derived from pair-wise differences, such as range change, range gradient, or atmospheric delay.

  19. Mapping Offshore Winds Around Iceland Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar and Mesoscale Model Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Nawri, Nikolai


    The offshore wind climate in Iceland is examined based on satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR), coastal meteorological station measurements, and results from two atmospheric model data sets, HARMONIE and NORA10. The offshore winds in Iceland are highly influenced by the rugged coastline. Lee...

  20. Heterogeneous Fault Mechanisms of the 6 October 2008 MW 6.3 Dangxiong (Tibet Earthquake Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Xu


    Full Text Available Most current crustal deformation models do not account for topographic effects, crustal lateral variations, and complex fault geometries. To overcome these limitations, we apply finite element models constrained by interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR images of co-seismic displacements to the 2008 Mw 6.3 Dangxiong earthquake that occurred in Yadong–Gulu rift, southern Tibet. For mountainous plateau environments, InSAR observations are advantageous for studying crustal deformation and crustal medium structure. We evaluate the effect of topography and variations in Poisson’s ratio and elastic moduli on estimation of coseismic deformation from InSAR observations. The results show that coseismic surface displacements are more sensitive to variations in Young’s modulus than to variations in topography and Poisson’s ratio. Therefore, with constant Poisson’s ratio and density, we change the Young’s modulus on each side of the fault to obtain the model that best fits the observations. This is attained when the Young’s moduli in the eastern and western sides of the fault were 2.6 × 1010 Pa and 7.8 × 1010 Pa, respectively. The result is consistent with previous field surveys that the medium on either side of the fault is different.

  1. Detecting and Measuring Land Subsidence in Houston-Galveston, Texas using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System Data, 2012-2016 (United States)

    Reed, A.; Baker, S.


    Several cities in the Houston-Galveston (HG) region in Texas have subsided up to 13 feet over several decades due to natural and anthropogenic processes [Yu et al. 2014]. Land subsidence, a gradual sinking of the Earth's surface, is an often human-induced hazard and a major environmental problem expedited by activities such as mining, oil and gas extraction, urbanization and excessive groundwater pumping. We are able to detect and measure subsidence in HG using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and global positioning systems (GPS). Qu et al. [2015] used ERS, Envisat, and ALOS-1 to characterize subsidence in HG from 1995 to 2011, but a five-year gap in InSAR measurements exists due to a lack of freely available SAR data. We build upon the previous study by comparing subsidence patterns detected by Sentinel-1 data starting in July 2015. We used GMT5SAR to generate a stack of interferograms with perpendicular baselines less than 100 meters and temporal baselines less than 100 days to minimize temporal and spatial decorrelation. We applied the short baseline subset (SBAS) time series processing using GIAnT and compared our results with GPS measurements. The implications of this work will strengthen land subsidence monitoring systems in HG and broadly aid in the development of effective water resource management policies and strategies.

  2. Remote sensing satellite formation for bistatic synthetic aperture radar observation (United States)

    D'Errico, Marco; Moccia, Antonio


    In recent years the Italian Space Agency has been proceeding to the definition and launch of small missions. In this ambit, the BISSAT mission was proposed and selected along with five other missions for a competitive Phase A study. BISSAT mission concept consists in flying a passive SAR on board a small satellite, which observes the area illuminated by an active SAR, operating on an already existing large platform. Several scientific applications of bistatic measurements can be envisaged: improvement of image classification and pattern recognition, derivation of medium-resolution digital elevation models, velocity measurements, measurements of sea-wave spectra. BISSAT payload is developed on the basis of the X-band SAR of the COSMO/SkyMed mission, while BISSAT bus is based on an upgrade of MITA. Orbit design has been performed, leading to the same orbit parameters apart from the ascending node right ascension (5.24 degree(s) shift) and the time of the passage on the ascending node (1.17s shift). A minimum distance at the passage of the orbit crossing point of about 42 km (5.7s) is computed. To maintain adequate swath overlap along the orbit, attitude maneuver or antenna electronic steering must be envisaged and traded-off taking into account radar performance and cost of hardware upgrade.

  3. A Study of Current Interseismic Deformation of San Andreas Fault, San Bernardino Mountain section, using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Nee, P.; Funning, G. J.


    The San Andreas fault (SAF) system accommodates a significant fraction of the relative movement between the Pacific and North American plates. In the past 250 years, no significant earthquake was recorded on the southernmost section of the SAF, and thus there exists a substantial ongoing earthquake hazard. Estimates of its slip deficit rate, made with various geologic and geodetic observations typically fall in the range 15-25 mm/yr, in the vicinity of the San Bernadino Mountains. Assuming the fault system slips at a constant rate of 20mm/yr, a slip deficit of 5 m would have accumulated since the last event, equivalent to a potential Mw 7.5 or larger earthquake. To understand how much strain is accumulating on the southern SAF system during the current interseismic period, we investigate the surface deformation using radar interferometry. We use the entire catalog of ERS and Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from a descending track well oriented for the SAF (track 399). 53 images from ERS spanning 1992 to late 2000, and 50 images from Envisat spanning 2003 to 2010 are used. We perform ratemap inversion (Biggs et al. 2007, GJI) to obtain an estimate of interseismic slip deficit rate, and Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) analysis to investigate the tectonic and non-tectonic surface displacements across the region. The ratemap inversion algorithm involves simultaneous estimation of long wavelength orbital errors, construction of a ratemap by finding the best fitting rate of each pixel, and estimation of slip deficit rate using a half-space elastic dislocation model (Okada 1985, BSSA) calculated from a representative fault model. We constructed and tested different conceptual models based on the SCEC rectangular community fault model (CFM-R). We find that our ERS data are strongly affected by the postseismic deformation of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers Earthquake. We therefore estimate the slip rate using the Envisat dataset, which is much less affected by the

  4. Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-InSAR); a new way to quantify three-dimensional structure of Earth and planetary surfaces Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will employ a three phased approach: SAR image formation and calibration. DBSAR polarimetric and interferometric data analysis. PolInSAR algorithm...

  5. Cross-calibration of interferometric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen


    Generation of digital elevation models from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is a well established technique. Achieving a high geometric fidelity calls for a calibration accounting for inaccurate navigation data and system parameters as well as system imperfections. Fully...

  6. Canopy reconstruction from interferometric SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, C.


    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is investigated as a method for 3D tree mapping. When operational, the method may be important for monitoring forests with a persistent cloud cover such as tropical rain forests. The problem of crown displacement due to lay-over in a vegetation with a

  7. Offshore wind resource mapping for Europe by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete


    For the New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) project with 8 participating countries during5 years (March 2015 – March 2020) we will develop a new wind atlas covering most of the European countries as well as most of the offshore areas in Europe. For the offshore atlas we will rely on a combination...... of satellite remote sensing observations and atmospheric modelling. The satellite data include Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from the European Space Agency from Envisat and the Copernicus mission Sentinel-1. SAR has the advantage of high spatial resolution such that we can cover near-coastal areas where many...... wind farms are planned. In the Danish RUNE project near-shore offshore winds are investigate from SAR, atmospheric modelling and ground-based remote sensing lidar. In the European Space Agency project ResGrow SAR wind resource maps at various locations in the European Seas are used to estimate the wind...

  8. Human artificial chromosome assembly by transposon-based retrofitting of genomic BACs with synthetic alpha-satellite arrays. (United States)

    Basu, Joydeep; Willard, Huntington F; Stromberg, Gregory


    The development of methodologies for the rapid assembly of synthetic alpha-satellite arrays recapitulating the higher-order periodic organization of native human centromeres permits the systematic investigation of the significance of primary sequence and sequence organization in centromere function. Synthetic arrays with defined mutations affecting sequence and/or organization may be evaluated in a de novo human artificial chromosome assay. This unit describes strategies for the assembly of custom built alpha-satellite arrays containing any desired mutation as well as strategies for the construction and manipulation of alpha satellite-based transposons. Transposons permit the rapid and reliable retrofitting of any genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) with synthetic alpha-satellite arrays and other functional components, thereby facilitating conversion into BAC-based human artificial chromosome vectors. These techniques permit identification and optimization of the critical parameters underlying the unique ability of alpha-satellite DNA to facilitate de novo centromere assembly, and they will establish the foundation for the next generation of human artificial chromosome vectors.

  9. Interferometric shoreline mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, C.G. van; Groot, J.S.; Vogelzang, J.; Dierikx-Platschorre, Y.


    Information on the location and evolution of shorelines is valuable. This information can be obtained from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. Direct, unsupervised classifications methods give poor results because of the high noise level in SAR images and the scattering properties of (

  10. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.


    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alipour Fard


    Full Text Available This study concerned with fusion of synthetic aperture radar and optical satellite imagery. Due to the difference in the underlying sensor technology, data from synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical sensors refer to different properties of the observed scene and it is believed that when they are fused together, they complement each other to improve the performance of a particular application. In this paper, two category of features are generate and six classifier fusion operators implemented and evaluated. Implementation results show significant improvement in the classification accuracy.

  12. Applications of interferometrically derived terrain slopes: Normalization of SAR backscatter and the interferometric correlation coefficient (United States)

    Werner, Charles L.; Wegmueller, Urs; Small, David L.; Rosen, Paul A.


    Terrain slopes, which can be measured with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry either from a height map or from the interferometric phase gradient, were used to calculate the local incidence angle and the correct pixel area. Both are required for correct thematic interpretation of SAR data. The interferometric correlation depends on the pixel area projected on a plane perpendicular to the look vector and requires correction for slope effects. Methods for normalization of the backscatter and interferometric correlation for ERS-1 SAR are presented.

  13. Routine Ocean Monitoring With Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Obtained From the Alaska Satellite Facility (United States)

    Pichel, W. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Li, X.; Friedman, K.; Monaldo, F.; Thompson, D.; Wackerman, C.; Scott, C.; Jackson, C.; Beal, R.; McGuire, J.; Nicoll, J.


    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has been processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for research and for near-real-time applications demonstrations since shortly after the launch of the European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite in 1991. The long coastline of Alaska, the vast extent of ocean adjacent to Alaska, a scarcity of in-situ observations, and the persistence of cloud cover all contribute to the need for all-weather ocean observations in the Alaska region. Extensive experience with SAR product processing algorithms and SAR data analysis techniques, and a growing sophistication on the part of SAR data and product users have amply demonstrated the value of SAR instruments in providing this all-weather ocean observation capability. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been conducting a near-real-time applications demonstration of SAR ocean and hydrologic products in Alaska since September 1999. This Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO) has shown the value of SAR-derived, high-resolution (sub kilometer) ocean surface winds to coastal weather forecasting and the understanding of coastal wind phenomena such as gap winds, barrier jets, vortex streets, and lee waves. Vessel positions and ice information derived from SAR imagery have been used for management of fisheries, protection of the fishing fleet, enforcement of fisheries regulations, and protection of endangered marine mammals. Other ocean measurements, with potentially valuable applications, include measurement of wave state (significant wave height, dominant wave direction and wavelength, and wave spectra), mapping of oil spills, and detection of shallow-water bathymetric features. In addition to the AKDEMO, ASF-processed SAR imagery is being used: (1) in the Gulf of Mexico for hurricane wind studies, and post-hurricane oil-spill and oil-platform analyses (the latter employing ship-detection algorithms for detection of changes in oil-platform locations); (2) in the North Pacific

  14. Demonstration of Interferometric SAR Onboard Processing for Planetary Mapping Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This task will enable future planetary mapping missions through a technique called interferometric synthetic aperture radar, using microwave and triangulation to...

  15. Spatiotemporal interpolation of discharge across a river network by using synthetic SWOT satellite data (United States)

    Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Durand, Michael T.; Hossain, Faisal


    Recent efforts have sought to estimate river discharge and other surface water-related quantities using spaceborne sensors, with better spatial coverage but worse temporal sampling as compared with in situ measurements. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will provide river discharge estimates globally from space. However, questions on how to optimally use the spatially distributed but asynchronous satellite observations to generate continuous fields still exist. This paper presents a statistical model (River Kriging-RK), for estimating discharge time series in a river network in the context of the SWOT mission. RK uses discharge estimates at different locations and times to produce a continuous field using spatiotemporal kriging. A key component of RK is the space-time river discharge covariance, which was derived analytically from the diffusive wave approximation of Saint Venant's equations. The RK covariance also accounts for the loss of correlation at confluences. The model performed well in a case study on Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River system in Bangladesh using synthetic SWOT observations. The correlation model reproduced empirically derived values. RK (R2=0.83) outperformed other kriging-based methods (R2=0.80), as well as a simple time series linear interpolation (R2=0.72). RK was used to combine discharge from SWOT and in situ observations, improving estimates when the latter is included (R2=0.91). The proposed statistical concepts may eventually provide a feasible framework to estimate continuous discharge time series across a river network based on SWOT data, other altimetry missions, and/or in situ data.

  16. Benefits and limitations of imaging multiples: Interferometric and resonant migration

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    The benefits and limitations of imaging multiples are reviewed for interferometric migration and resonant migration. Synthetic and field data examples are used to characterize the effectiveness of the methods.

  17. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J


    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  18. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini


    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  19. Nanosar-case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.; Sundaramoorthy, P.; Gill, E.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.


    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite's payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially

  20. Nanosar-case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.; Sundaramoorthy, P.; Gill, E.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.


    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite's payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially ruli

  1. Formation flying orbit design for the distributed synthetic aperture radar satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; ZHOU Yinqing; LI Chunsheng


    Formation flying orbit design is one of the key technologies for system design and performance analysis of the distributed SAR satellites. The approximately analytic solution of the passive stable formation flying orbit elements is explored based on the expansion form of Kepler's equation. A new method of orbital parameters design for three-dimensional formation flying SAR satellites is presented, and the precision of the orbital elements is analyzed. Formation flying orbit elements are calculated for the L-Band distributed SAR satellites using the formulas deduced in this paper. The accuracy of the orbital elements is validated by the computer simulation results presented in this paper.

  2. Monitoring of Arctic Conditions from a Virtual Constellation of Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites (United States)


    radars to monitor the melting and freezing cycles of the Arctic Ocean north of 65o. Satellite data collections will support in-situ buoy clusters and... ice -type, and lead expansion/contraction with temporal resolutions from hours to days. Ultimately provide a routine Arctic coverage and generate...OBJECTIVES a) Provide daily Arctic situational awareness from the CSTARS SAR satellite constellation. b) Develop a Neural Network algorithm for ice -type

  3. Monitoring of Arctic Conditions from a Virtual Constellation of Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites (United States)


    of glaciers and the speed of motion. h) Monitoring of the Northwest Passage. APPROACH 2013 MIZ Pilot Program: Starting in June to end of...Flux Buoy (AOFB), and CRREL Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoy so comparisons of the in-situ data can be calculated with the SAR data. By tracking the...programming the satellite collections for the dynamic and sometimes erratic movements of the buoy was not trivial and required tasking the satellite

  4. Coastal flood inundation monitoring with Satellite C-band and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri


    Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm- and tidal-related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band SAR (PALSAR) (L-band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C-band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006-2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR- and ASAR-based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference-scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR-based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR-based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).

  5. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.


    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  6. NanoSAR – Case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.S.; Sundaramoorthy, P.P.; Gill, E.K.A.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.


    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite’s payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially

  7. Great Lakes Ice Cover Classification and Mapping Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data (United States)

    Nghiem, S.; Leshkevich, G.; Kwok, R.


    Owing to the size and extent of the Great Lakes and the variety of ice types features found there, the timely and objective qualities inherent in computer processing of satellite data make it well suited for monitoring and mapping ice cover.

  8. Interferometric star tracker Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to develop a high accuracy version of its interferometric star tracker capable of meeting the milli-arcsecond-level pointing...

  9. Application of Multifractal Analysis to Segmentation of Water Bodies in Optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite Images

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Victor Manuel San


    A method for segmenting water bodies in optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images is proposed. It makes use of the textural features of the different regions in the image for segmentation. The method consists in a multiscale analysis of the images, which allows us to study the images regularity both, locally and globally. As results of the analysis, coarse multifractal spectra of studied images and a group of images that associates each position (pixel) with its corresponding value of local regularity (or singularity) spectrum are obtained. Thresholds are then applied to the multifractal spectra of the images for the classification. These thresholds are selected after studying the characteristics of the spectra under the assumption that water bodies have larger local regularity than other soil types. Classifications obtained by the multifractal method are compared quantitatively with those obtained by neural networks trained to classify the pixels of the images in covered against uncovered b...

  10. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) Alaska (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) developed the Alaska Mapping Initiative (AMI) to collaborate with the State and other Federal...

  11. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) Alaska (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) developed the Alaska Mapping Initiative (AMI) to collaborate with the State and other Federal...

  12. Fifteen Years of Synthetic Aperture Radar Calibration Using Trihedral Reflectors at the Alaska Satellite Facility (United States)

    Albright, W.; Atwood, D.; Lawlor, O. S.; Utley, P.; Slater, C.


    For the past 15 years, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has provided calibration support for singly polarized SAR datasets in C-band (ERS-1, ERS-2, and RADARSAT-1 and L-Band (JERS-1. Passive point targets like trihedral corner reflectors offer a reliable and well established means to perform radiometric, geometric, and impulse response measurements for SAR calibration. Routine support of an array of corner reflectors in interior Alaska has permitted ASF an opportunity to monitor satellite health, calibrate SAR processors, and experiment with new reflector designs. Corner reflectors offer the advantages of low maintenance and low cost compared to active devices such as transponders. In order to maintain radar cross section, as the microwave wavelength get longer, so too does the size of the reflector. Increased size means decreased portability, exacerbating the difficulty of providing calibration support in remote locations. In response, ASF is developing low cost, light weight corner reflectors that can be deployed with minimal effort and no maintenance. These efforts will help to extend our present calibration efforts to more remote locations. But more importantly, these designs are expected to play an important role in Permanent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) methodology. The use of corner reflector arrays in support PS-InSAR may provide new means for monitoring terrain displacements in regions of heavy vegetation. This paper presents some long term measurements from ASF's array of corner reflectors, outlines improvements performed on trihedral corner reflectors, and describes current efforts at ASF to support the next generation of SAR missions and techniques.

  13. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J


    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  14. Interferometric Combination for Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Considering Interferometric Phase Noise and Its Application to Subsidence Monitoring%考虑干涉相位噪声的PSI组合及其沉降监测应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂运菊; 刘国祥; 石金峰; 于冰; 程朋根; 张瑞; 李涛


    为了提高PSI沉降监测的精度,在常用干涉组合方式的基础上,同时考虑空间基线和时间基线阈值以及各干涉对的干涉相位噪声限制,提出一种新的干涉组合方式.选取上海市局部区域作为实验区,以16幅TerraSAR-X(TSX)影像为数据源,采用考虑干涉相位噪声的PSI干涉组合方式进行地表沉降监测.研究结果表明,与已有的干涉组合方式相比,本文提出的干涉组合方式获取的干涉对数量最少(92对),PS个数最多(27 026个),与水准测量数据进行比较,年沉降速率中误差为±3.89 mm/a,比已有的干涉组合方式的精度平均提高1.86~3.00倍,证实了该干涉组合方式的有效性和可靠性.%In order to improve the accuracy of persistent scatterer interferometric (PSI) synthetic aperture radar for monitoring ground deformation,an improved interferometric combination mode was proposed by considering the thresholds of both spatial and temporal baselines,and taking into account the noise level in interferometric phases of all interferometric pairs.Experiments of subsidence monitoring using the proposed interferometric mode were performed using 16 high resolution SAR images collected by the X-band radar sensor onboard the German satellite TerraSAR-X over Shanghai.The results show that the minimum interferometric pairs (92) and the maximum persistent scatterer (PS) points (27 026) can be obtained by the proposed method.Compared with the ground-based measurements,the subsidence rate derived by the PSI technique has an error of + 3.89 mm/a,with a precision being 1.86-3.00 times higher than that of other available modes.This demonstrates the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed interferometric mode.

  15. An error prediction framework for interferometric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Merryman Boncori, John Peter


    Three of the major error sources in interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements of terrain elevation and displacement are baseline errors, atmospheric path length errors, and phase unwrapping errors. In many processing schemes, these errors are calibrated out by using ground control poi...

  16. Interferometric Calibration with Natural Distributed Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Christensen, Erik Lintz


    Cross-calibration is a fully automated algorithm for calibration of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) data. It has been developed for single-pass interferometry, but the principles may be applicable to multi-pass interferometry, too. The algorithm is based on natural distributed...... targets and it excels by neither requiring surveyed ground control points nor dedicated calibration scenes. However, the parameters to be calibrated must be stable during mapping. The algorithm has been applied to data from the Danish airborne SAR, EMISAR, and the performance has been assessed...

  17. Cross-calibration of interferometric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen


    Generation of digital elevation models from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is a well established technique. Achieving a high geometric fidelity calls for a calibration accounting for inaccurate navigation data and system parameters as well as system imperfections. Fully......, but not necessarily from map to map. It is based on natural distributed targets for which no a priori knowledge is needed. In particular, no DEM is required as in calibration techniques based on dedicated calibration scenes. To achieve absolute calibration, i.e. elimination of a constant elevation offset, a single...

  18. Interferometric SAR monitoring of the Vallcebre landslide (Spain using corner reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crosetto


    Full Text Available This paper describes the deformation monitoring of the Vallcebre landslide (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain using the Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR technique and corner reflectors (CRs. The fundamental aspects of this satellite-based deformation monitoring technique are described to provide the key elements needed to fully understand and correctly interpret its results. Several technical and logistic aspects related to the use of CRs are addressed including an analysis of the suitability of DInSAR data to monitor a specific landslide, a discussion on the choice of the type of CRs, suggestions for the installation of CRs and a description of the design of a CR network. This is followed by the description of the DInSAR data analysis procedure required to derive deformation estimates starting from the main observables of the procedure, i.e., the interferometric phases. The main observation equation is analysed, discussing the role of each phase component. A detailed discussion is devoted to the phase unwrapping problem, which has a direct impact on the deformation monitoring capability. Finally, the performance of CRs for monitoring ground displacements has been tested in the Vallcebre landslide (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain. Two different periods, which provide interesting results to monitor over time the kinematics of different parts of the considered landslide unit, are analysed and described.

  19. Interferometric SAR monitoring of the Vallcebre landslide (Spain) using corner reflectors (United States)

    Crosetto, M.; Gili, J. A.; Monserrat, O.; Cuevas-González, M.; Corominas, J.; Serral, D.


    This paper describes the deformation monitoring of the Vallcebre landslide (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain) using the Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique and corner reflectors (CRs). The fundamental aspects of this satellite-based deformation monitoring technique are described to provide the key elements needed to fully understand and correctly interpret its results. Several technical and logistic aspects related to the use of CRs are addressed including an analysis of the suitability of DInSAR data to monitor a specific landslide, a discussion on the choice of the type of CRs, suggestions for the installation of CRs and a description of the design of a CR network. This is followed by the description of the DInSAR data analysis procedure required to derive deformation estimates starting from the main observables of the procedure, i.e., the interferometric phases. The main observation equation is analysed, discussing the role of each phase component. A detailed discussion is devoted to the phase unwrapping problem, which has a direct impact on the deformation monitoring capability. Finally, the performance of CRs for monitoring ground displacements has been tested in the Vallcebre landslide (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain). Two different periods, which provide interesting results to monitor over time the kinematics of different parts of the considered landslide unit, are analysed and described.

  20. Multichannel Along-Track Interferometric SAR Systems: Moving Targets Detection and Velocity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Budillon


    Full Text Available Along-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (AT-InSAR systems are used to estimate the radial velocity of targets moving on the ground, starting from the interferometric phases, obtained by the combinations of two complex SAR images acquired by two antennas spatially separated along the platform moving direction. Since the radial velocity estimation obtained from a single-phase interferogram (single-channel suffers from ambiguities, multichannel AT-InSAR systems using more than one interferogram can be used. In this paper, we first analyze the moving target detection problem, evaluating the systems performance in terms of probability of detection and probability of false alarm obtained with different values of target radial velocity, signal-to-clutter ratio, and clutter-to-thermal noise ratio. Then, we analyze the radial velocity estimation accuracy in terms of Cramer-Rao lower bounds and of mean square error values, obtained by using a maximum likelihood estimation technique. We consider the cases of single-baseline and dual-baseline satellite systems, and we evaluate the detection and estimation performance improvement obtained in the dual-baseline case with respect to the single-baseline one. Sensitivity of the presented method with respect to the involved target and system parameters is also discussed.

  1. Self Calibrating Interferometric Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Schiøtt

    This thesis deals with the development of an optical sensor based on micro interferometric backscatter detection (MIBD). A price effective, highly sensitive and ready for mass production platform is the goal of this project. The thesis covers three areas. The first part of the thesis deals...... mask. The fabricated micro structures have been electroplated for later injection molding, showing the potential of the MIBD sensor to be mass produced with high reproducibility and sensitivity. In part three MIBD experiments on vital biological systems are described. Label–free binding studies of bio...

  2. Interferometric interpolation of sparse marine data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    We present the theory and numerical results for interferometrically interpolating 2D and 3D marine surface seismic profiles data. For the interpolation of seismic data we use the combination of a recorded Green\\'s function and a model-based Green\\'s function for a water-layer model. Synthetic (2D and 3D) and field (2D) results show that the seismic data with sparse receiver intervals can be accurately interpolated to smaller intervals using multiples in the data. An up- and downgoing separation of both recorded and model-based Green\\'s functions can help in minimizing artefacts in a virtual shot gather. If the up- and downgoing separation is not possible, noticeable artefacts will be generated in the virtual shot gather. As a partial remedy we iteratively use a non-stationary 1D multi-channel matching filter with the interpolated data. Results suggest that a sparse marine seismic survey can yield more information about reflectors if traces are interpolated by interferometry. Comparing our results to those of f-k interpolation shows that the synthetic example gives comparable results while the field example shows better interpolation quality for the interferometric method. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  3. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young Choi


    Full Text Available Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  4. Interferometric fiber optic sensors. (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Ha; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwan Seob; Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Myoung Jin; Rho, Byung Sup; Choi, Hae Young


    Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  5. Coastal Sea-Level in Norway from Cryosat-2 Interferometric SAR Altimetry (United States)

    Idzanovic, Martina; Ophaug, Vegard; Andersen, Ole B.


    Conventional altimeters determine the sea surface height with an accuracy of a few centimeters over the open ocean. Although satellite altimetry is a mature discipline, altimeter observations collected over coastal regions suffer from numerous effects which degrade their quality. The Norwegian coast adds further complications, due to many islands, mountains, and deep, narrow fjords. The European Space Agency (ESA) CryoSat-2 satellite carries a Synthetic aperture Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (SIRAL). Due to the SIRAL instrument, CryoSat-2 is able to observe closer to the coast than conventional altimeters. This motivates the current paper, in which we investigate the potential of CryoSat-2 data to provide improved observations in the Norwegian coastal zone. We make use of CryoSat-2 SARIn mode observations and determine sea surface heights at 23 tide gauges along the coast, and compare these with independent sea-level observations. Using standard CryoSat-2 geophysical (tide + IB) corrections gives a standard deviation of differences of ˜15 cm with respect to tide-gauge observations. Replacing standard corrections with refined corrections using tide-gauge information suggests an improvement of ˜5 cm. A special case study at the Stavanger tide-gauge shows an improvement of ˜3 cm comparing CryoSat-2 sites and conventional altimeter sites with respect to the tide-gauge. These results highlight a great development of satellite altimetry in coastal zones and raises expectations for future missions such as Sentinel-3.

  6. A practical algorithm for the retrieval of floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byongjun Hwang


    Full Text Available In this study, we present an algorithm for summer sea ice conditions that semi-automatically produces the floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Currently, floe size distribution data from satellite images are very rare in the literature, mainly due to the lack of a reliable algorithm to produce such data. Here, we developed the algorithm by combining various image analysis methods, including Kernel Graph Cuts, distance transformation and watershed transformation, and a rule-based boundary revalidation. The developed algorithm has been validated against the ground truth that was extracted manually with the aid of 1-m resolution visible satellite data. Comprehensive validation analysis has shown both perspectives and limitations. The algorithm tends to fail to detect small floes (mostly less than 100 m in mean caliper diameter compared to ground truth, which is mainly due to limitations in water-ice segmentation. Some variability in the power law exponent of floe size distribution is observed due to the effects of control parameters in the process of de-noising, Kernel Graph Cuts segmentation, thresholds for boundary revalidation and image resolution. Nonetheless, the algorithm, for floes larger than 100 m, has shown a reasonable agreement with ground truth under various selections of these control parameters. Considering that the coverage and spatial resolution of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data have increased significantly in recent years, the developed algorithm opens a new possibility to produce large volumes of floe size distribution data, which is essential for improving our understanding and prediction of the Arctic sea ice cover

  7. The fresnel interferometric imager (United States)

    Koechlin, Laurent; Serre, Denis; Deba, Paul; Pelló, Roser; Peillon, Christelle; Duchon, Paul; Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines; Karovska, Margarita; Désert, Jean-Michel; Ehrenreich, David; Hebrard, Guillaume; Lecavelier Des Etangs, Alain; Ferlet, Roger; Sing, David; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred


    The Fresnel Interferometric Imager has been proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) Cosmic Vision plan as a class L mission. This mission addresses several themes of the CV Plan: Exoplanet study, Matter in extreme conditions, and The Universe taking shape. This paper is an abridged version of the original ESA proposal. We have removed most of the technical and financial issues, to concentrate on the instrumental design and astrophysical missions. The instrument proposed is an ultra-lightweight telescope, featuring a novel optical concept based on diffraction focussing. It yields high dynamic range images, while releasing constraints on positioning and manufacturing of the main optical elements. This concept should open the way to very large apertures in space. In this two spacecraft formation-flying instrument, one spacecraft holds the focussing element: the Fresnel interferometric array; the other spacecraft holds the field optics, focal instrumentation, and detectors. The Fresnel array proposed here is a 3.6 ×3.6 m square opaque foil punched with 105 to 106 void “subapertures”. Focusing is achieved with no other optical element: the shape and positioning of the subapertures (holes in the foil) is responsible for beam combining by diffraction, and 5% to 10% of the total incident light ends up into a sharp focus. The consequence of this high number of subapertures is high dynamic range images. In addition, as it uses only a combination of vacuum and opaque material, this focussing method is potentially efficient over a very broad wavelength domain. The focal length of such diffractive focussing devices is wavelength dependent. However, this can be corrected. We have tested optically the efficiency of the chromatism correction on artificial sources (500 < λ < 750 nm): the images are diffraction limited, and the dynamic range measured on an artificial double source reaches 6.2 10 - 6. We have also validated numerical simulation algorithms for larger Fresnel

  8. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the RADARSAT-2 satellite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived high resolution wind products are calculated from high resolution SAR images of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the...

  9. Quantum Interferometric Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Kapale, K T; Lee, H; Kok, P; Dowling, J P; Kapale, Kishore T.; Didomenico, Leo D.; Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Dowling, Jonathan P.


    Quantum entanglement has the potential to revolutionize the entire field of interferometric sensing by providing many orders of magnitude improvement in interferometer sensitivity. The quantum-entangled particle interferometer approach is very general and applies to many types of interferometers. In particular, without nonlocal entanglement, a generic classical interferometer has a statistical-sampling shot-noise limited sensitivity that scales like $1/\\sqrt{N}$, where $N$ is the number of particles passing through the interferometer per unit time. However, if carefully prepared quantum correlations are engineered between the particles, then the interferometer sensitivity improves by a factor of $\\sqrt{N}$ to scale like 1/N, which is the limit imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. For optical interferometers operating at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight-order-of-magnitude improvement of signal to noise. This effect can translate into a tremendous s...

  10. Terahertz interferometric imaging of RDX (United States)

    Sinyukov, Alexander M.; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Zorych, Ivan; Zimdars, David; Federici, John F.


    Experimental results of homodyne terahertz interferometric 2-D imaging of RDX are presented. Continuous waves at 0.25-0.6 THz are used to obtain images of a C-4 sample at several THz frequencies. The performance of an N element detector array is imitated by only one detector placed at N positions. The distance between the C-4 sample and the detector array is ~30 cm. By taking interferometric images at several THz frequencies RDX can be recognized by the spectral peak at 0.82 THz. Simulations of interferometric images of two point sources of spherical waves are presented. The terahertz interferometric imaging method can be used in defense and security applications to detect concealed weapons, explosives as well as chemical and biological agents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour


    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  12. 干涉合成孔径雷达及其在火山研究中的应用(第一部分:InSAR原理)%Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and its applications to study volcanoes(part 1: Principles of InSAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路中; 张继贤


    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique capable of measuring ground surface deformation with sub-centimeter precision and spatial resolution in tens-of-meters over a large region. This paper reviews the basics of InSAR technique, illustrates how InSAR works, and discusses issues related to InSAR deformation mapping.%干涉合成孔径雷达是一项能够对地表变形进行测量的遥感技术,在一个巨大区域内,它的变形测量精度可达亚厘米级,而其空间分辨率则在数十米以内.本文回顾了InSAR技术的基本理论,阐明了它的工作原理,并对应用InSAR技术进行地表变形测量的相关问题进行了讨论.

  13. MEMS Gyroscope with Interferometric Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a novel MEMS gyroscope that uses micro-interferometric detection to measure the motion of the proof mass. Using an interferometric...

  14. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.

  15. Two-Wavelength Interferometric Keratometer (United States)

    Hochberg, Eric; Page, Norman


    Proposed interferometric keratometer measures shapes of corneas without touching them. Used to test strongly aspherical optics. Resembling present commercial lens-testing interferometers, generates interferograms representative of deviation of surfaces under test from sphericity. Such interferograms used to generate contour maps of surfaces. Measures corneal topography to diameters as large as 12 mm.

  16. Integrating interferometric SAR data with levelling measurements of land subsidence using geostatistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Stein, A.; Molenaar, M.


    Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometric (D-InSAR) data of ground surface deformation are affected by several error sources associated with image acquisitions and data processing. In this paper, we study the use of D-InSAR for quantifying land subsidence due to groundwater extract

  17. IRAN: interferometric remapped array nulling (United States)

    Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh; Abe, Lyu; Belu, Adrian; Lopez, Bruno; Lanteri, Henri; Schutz, A.; Menut, Jean-Luc


    This paper describes a method of beam-combination in the so-called hypertelescope imaging technique recently introduced by Labeyrie in optical interferometry. The method we propose is an alternative to the Michelson pupil reconfiguration that suffers from the loss of the classical object-image convolution relation. From elementary theory of Fourier optics we demonstrate that this problem can be solved by observing in a combined pupil plane instead of an image plane. The point-source intensity distribution (PSID) of this interferometric "image" tends towards a psuedo Airy disc (similar to that of a giant monolithic telescope) for a sufficiently large number of telescopes. Our method is applicable to snap-shot imaging of extended sources with a field comparable to the Airy pattern of single telescopes operated in a co-phased multi-aperture interferometric array. It thus allows to apply conveniently pupil plane coronagraphy. Our technique called Interferometric Remapped Array Nulling (IRAN) is particularly suitable for high dynamic imaging of extra-solar planetary companions, circumstellar nebulosities or extra-galactic objects where long baseline interferometry would closely probe the central regions of AGNs for instance.

  18. Computed Optical Interferometric Imaging: Methods, Achievements, and Challenges. (United States)

    South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A


    Three-dimensional high-resolution optical imaging systems are generally restricted by the trade-off between resolution and depth-of-field as well as imperfections in the imaging system or sample. Computed optical interferometric imaging is able to overcome these longstanding limitations using methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) which manipulate the complex interferometric data. These techniques correct for limited depth-of-field and optical aberrations without the need for additional hardware. This paper aims to outline these computational methods, making them readily available to the research community. Achievements of the techniques will be highlighted, along with past and present challenges in implementing the techniques. Challenges such as phase instability and determination of the appropriate aberration correction have been largely overcome so that imaging of living tissues using ISAM and CAO is now possible. Computed imaging in optics is becoming a mature technology poised to make a significant impact in medicine and biology.

  19. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes. (United States)

    Xie, Xianming


    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.

  20. The Deep Interferometric VSOP--Arecibo Survey (DIVAS) (United States)

    Edwards, P. G.; Hirabayashi, H.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Salter, C.; Ghosh, T.; Gurvits, L. I.; Fomalont, E. B.


    The Deep Interferometric VSOP-Arecibo Survey (DIVAS) program used space VLBI observations of a faint sample of flat-spectrum sources made with the HALCA satellite and the Arecibo telescope to provide the highest possible space VLBI sensitivity at 5 GHz. The main aim of the survey is to compare statistical results on the source structures (e.g., brightness temperatures, sizes, visibilities) with results from the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) Survey, to determine whether there are systematic differences in the compact structures of sources selected from samples with limiting flux densities differing by over an order of magnitude.

  1. Interferometric phase reconstruction using simplified coherence network (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Song, Ruiqing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Di; Wang, Hua


    Interferometric time-series analysis techniques, which extend the traditional differential radar interferometry, have demonstrated a strong capability for monitoring ground surface displacement. Such techniques are able to obtain the temporal evolution of ground deformation within millimeter accuracy by using a stack of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In order to minimize decorrelation between stacked SAR images, the phase reconstruction technique has been developed recently. The main idea of this technique is to reform phase observations along a SAR stack by taking advantage of a maximum likelihood estimator which is defined on the coherence matrix estimated from each target. However, the phase value of a coherence matrix element might be considerably biased when its corresponding coherence is low. In this case, it will turn to an outlying sample affecting the corresponding phase reconstruction process. In order to avoid this problem, a new approach is developed in this paper. This approach considers a coherence matrix element to be an arc in a network. A so-called simplified coherence network (SCN) is constructed to decrease the negative impact of outlying samples. Moreover, a pointed iterative strategy is designed to resolve the transformed phase reconstruction problem defined on a SCN. For validation purposes, the proposed method is applied to 29 real SAR images. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has an excellent computational efficiency and could obtain more reliable phase reconstruction solutions compared to the traditional method using phase triangulation algorithm.

  2. UVMULTIFIT: A versatile tool for fitting astronomical radio interferometric data (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Muller, S.; Casey, S.


    Context. The analysis of astronomical interferometric data is often performed on the images obtained after deconvolving the interferometer's point spread function. This strategy can be understood (especially for cases of sparse arrays) as fitting models to models, since the deconvolved images are already non-unique model representations of the actual data (i.e., the visibilities). Indeed, the interferometric images may be affected by visibility gridding, weighting schemes (e.g., natural vs. uniform), and the particulars of the (non-linear) deconvolution algorithms. Fitting models to the direct interferometric observables (i.e., the visibilities) is preferable in the cases of simple (analytical) sky intensity distributions. Aims: We present UVMULTIFIT, a versatile library for fitting visibility data, implemented in a Python-based framework. Our software is currently based on the CASA package, but can be easily adapted to other analysis packages, provided they have a Python API. Methods: The user can simultaneously fit an indefinite number of source components to the data, each of which depend on any algebraic combination of fitting parameters. Fits to individual spectral-line channels or simultaneous fits to all frequency channels are allowed. Results: We have tested the software with synthetic data and with real observations. In some cases (e.g., sources with sizes smaller than the diffraction limit of the interferometer), the results from the fit to the visibilities (e.g., spectra of close by sources) are far superior to the output obtained from the mere analysis of the deconvolved images. Conclusions: UVMULTIFIT is a powerful improvement of existing tasks to extract the maximum amount of information from visibility data, especially in cases close to the sensitivity/resolution limits of interferometric observations.

  3. Wideband Interferometric Sensing and Imaging Polarimetry (United States)

    Verdi, James Salvatore; Kessler, Otto; Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin


    Wideband Interferometric Sensing and Imaging Polarimetry (WISIP) has become an important, indispensible tool in wide area military surveillance and global environmental monitoring of the terrestrial and planetary covers. It enables dynamic, real time optimal feature extraction of significant characteristics of desirable targets and/or target sections with simultaneous suppression of undesirable background clutter and propagation path speckle at hitherto unknown clarity and never before achieved quality. WISIP may be adopted to the detection, recognition, and identification (DRI) of any stationary, moving or vibrating targets or distributed scatterer segments versus arbitrary stationary, dynamical changing and/or moving geo-physical/ecological environments, provided the instantaneous 2x2 phasor and 4x4 power density matrices for forward propagation/backward scattering, respectively, can be measured with sufficient accuracy. For example, the DRI of stealthy, dynamically moving inhomogeneous volumetric scatter environments such as precipitation scatter, the ocean/sea/lake surface boundary layers, the littoral coastal surf zones, pack ice and snow or vegetative canopies, dry sands and soils, etc. can now be successfully realized. A comprehensive overview is presented on how these modern high resolution/precision, complete polarimetric co-registered signature sensing and imaging techniques, complemented by full integration of novel navigational electronic tools, such as DGPS, will advance electromagnetic vector wave sensing and imaging towards the limits of physical realization. Various examples utilizing the most recent image data take sets of airborne, space shuttle, and satellite imaging systems demonstrate the utility of WISIP.

  4. Applications of Radar Interferometric Techniques to Assess Natural Hazards and their Controlling Factors (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Gebremichael, E.; Othman, A.; Emil, M.; Ahmed, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Pankratz, H. G.; Chouinard, K.


    Radar interferometric techniques including Persistent Scatterer (PS), Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), and two and three pass (differential interferometry) methods were applied to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) datasets. These include the European Space Agency (ESA) ERS-1, ERS-2, Environmental satellite (Envisat), and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to conduct the following: (1) map the spatial distribution of land deformation associated with a wide range of geologic settings, (2) quantify the rates of the observed land deformation, and (3) identify the factors controlling the observed deformation. The research topics/areas include: (1) subsidence associated with sediment compaction in a Delta setting (Nile Delta, Egypt), (2) deformation in a rifting setting (Red Sea rifting along the Red Sea coastal zone and proximal basement outcrops in Egypt and Saudi Arabia), (3) deformation associated with salt dome intrusion and the dissolution of sabkha deposits (Jazan area in Saudi Arabia), (4) mass transport associated with debris flows (Jazan area in Saudi Arabia), and (5) deformation preceding, contemporaneous with, or following large earthquakes (in Nepal; magnitude: 7.8; date: April, 25, 2015) and medium earthquakes (in Harrat Lunayyir volcanic field, central Saudi Arabia; magnitude: 5.7; date: May 19, 2009). The identification of the factor(s) controlling the observed deformation was attained through spatial correlation of extracted radar velocities with relevant temporal and static ground based and remotely sensed geological and cultural data sets (e.g., lithology, structure, precipitation, land use, and earthquake location, magnitude, and focal mechanism) in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment.

  5. Interferometric Measurement Of Residual Stress (United States)

    Danyluk, Steven; Andonian, A. T.


    Stress averaged through thickness of plate measured nondestructively. Theory of elasticity combined with laser interferometric technique into technique for measurement of residual stresses in solid objects - usually in thin, nominally-flat plates. Measurements particularly useful in inspection of wafers of single-crystal silicon for making solar cells or integrated circuits, because stresses remaining after crystal-growing process cause buckling or fracture. Used to predict deflections of plates caused by known applied loads under specified boundary condition, or to infer applied loads that cause known deflections. Also used to relate known deflections to residual stresses equivalent to stresses produced by fictitious applied loads.

  6. Damage Proxy Map from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Coherence (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Ho (Inventor); Fielding, Eric Jameson (Inventor); Webb, Frank H. (Inventor); Simons, Mark (Inventor)


    A method, apparatus, and article of manufacture provide the ability to generate a damage proxy map. A master coherence map and a slave coherence map, for an area prior and subsequent to (including) a damage event are obtained. The slave coherence map is registered to the master coherence map. Pixel values of the slave coherence map are modified using histogram matching to provide a first histogram of the master coherence map that exactly matches a second histogram of the slave coherence map. A coherence difference between the slave coherence map and the master coherence map is computed to produce a damage proxy map. The damage proxy map is displayed with the coherence difference displayed in a visually distinguishable manner.

  7. Techniques and Tools for Estimating Ionospheric Effects in Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data (United States)

    Rosen, P.; Lavalle, M.; Pi, X.; Buckley, S.; Szeliga, W.; Zebker, H.; Gurrola, E.


    The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) is a flexible, extensible software tool designed for the end-to-end processing and analysis of synthetic aperture radar data. ISCE inherits the core of the ROI_PAC interferometric tool, but contains improvements at all levels of the radar processing chain, including a modular and extensible architecture, new focusing approach, better geocoding of the data, handling of multi-polarization data, radiometric calibration, and estimation and correction of ionospheric effects. In this paper we describe the characteristics of ISCE with emphasis on the ionospheric modules. To detect ionospheric anomalies, ISCE implements the Faraday rotation method using quadpolarimetric images, and the split-spectrum technique using interferometric single-, dual- and quad-polarimetric images. The ability to generate co-registered time series of quad-polarimetric images makes ISCE also an ideal tool to be used for polarimetric-interferometric radar applications.

  8. Techniques and Tools for Estimating Ionospheric Effects in Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data (United States)

    Rosen, P.; Lavalle, M.; Pi, X.; Buckley, S.; Szeliga, W.; Zebker, H.; Gurrola, E.


    The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) is a flexible, extensible software tool designed for the end-to-end processing and analysis of synthetic aperture radar data. ISCE inherits the core of the ROI_PAC interferometric tool, but contains improvements at all levels of the radar processing chain, including a modular and extensible architecture, new focusing approach, better geocoding of the data, handling of multi-polarization data, radiometric calibration, and estimation and correction of ionospheric effects. In this paper we describe the characteristics of ISCE with emphasis on the ionospheric modules. To detect ionospheric anomalies, ISCE implements the Faraday rotation method using quadpolarimetric images, and the split-spectrum technique using interferometric single-, dual- and quad-polarimetric images. The ability to generate co-registered time series of quad-polarimetric images makes ISCE also an ideal tool to be used for polarimetric-interferometric radar applications.

  9. 基于激光干涉星间测距原理的下一代月球卫星重力测量计划需求论证%Demonstration of Requirement for Future Lunar Satellite Gravity Exploration Mission Based on Interferometric Laser Intersatellite Ranging Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 许厚泽; 钟敏; 员美娟


    development trend and focus of deep space exploration in the 21st century. The accurate measurement of lunar gravitational field is an important part of international lunar exploration mission , which determines the optimum design of lunar probe orbit and the suitable selection of ideal landing point from manned apacecraft in the lunar surface. Firstly, the future twin-satellite program for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory ( GRAIL) lunar gravitational field exploration is introduced , including general overview , pivotal payloads ,and scientific objectives and research direction. Secondly. the executive suggestions including the feasible demonstration of lunar satellite tracking modes, the optimal selection of key payloads from lunar satellite, the optimized design of lunar satellite orbital parameters, and the previous implementation of simulation research are expatiated. ( 1 ) Because the measurement accuracy of the medium-long-wavelength lunar gravitational field ia high based on the Satellite-to-Satellite High-Low/Low-Low Tracking associated with the Doppler and Very Long Baseline Interferometry mode ( SST-HL/LL-Doppler-VLBI) ,its technical requirement is low , the lunar gravitational field can be quickly , low-costly and high-efficiently determined , the successful experiences of integrated system from the dedicated Earth' s gravity satellite - the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment ( GRACE) are used for reference, the requirement to orbital accuracy is low, and the farside signals of lunar gravitational field can be obtained effectively , it is optimal to use the SST-HL/LL-Doppler-VLBI mode in the future first lunar satellite gravitational exploration mission in China. (2) The high-accuracy key paylaads including the interferometric laser ranging system, compensating system of nonconservative force from lunar gravity satellite and Earth ' s Doppler-VLBI system should be developed in advance. (3) The optimal design of orbit altitude (50 ~ 100 km) and

  10. Linking oil production to surface subsidence from satellite radar interferometry (United States)

    Xu, Haibin; Dvorkin, Jack; Nur, Amos

    Land subsidence over the Belridge and Lost Hills oil fields, Southern California, was measured using spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). During the 105-day period between 11/5/95 and 2/17/96, the subsidence in the center of the Lost Hills field reached 15 cm. We assume that this surface subsidence resulted from the vertical shrinkage of the reservoir, which in turn was due to oil production and the resulting pore pressure drop. We model this mechanical effect using an elastic deformation theoretical solution with input constants taken from relevant experiments. The modeled surface deformation matches the InSAR measured values. This result indicates that it is possible, in principle, to monitor hydrocarbon production using satellite-based measurements of earth deformation.

  11. Feasibility of sea ice typing with synthetic aperture radar (SAR): Merging of Landsat thematic mapper and ERS 1 SAR satellite imagery (United States)

    Steffen, Konrad; Heinrichs, John


    Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were acquired for the same area in the Beaufort Sea, April 16 and 18, 1992. The two image pairs were colocated to the same grid (25-m resolution), and a supervised ice type classification was performed on the TM images in order to classify ice free, nilas, gray ice, gray-white ice, thin first-year ice, medium and thick first-year ice, and old ice. Comparison of the collocated SAR pixels showed that ice-free areas can only be classified under calm wind conditions (less than 3 m/s) and for surface winds greater than 10 m/s based on the backscattering coefficient alone. This is true for pack ice regions during the cold months of the year where ice-free areas are spatially limited and where the capillary waves that cause SAR backscatter are dampened by entrained ice crystals. For nilas, two distinct backscatter classes were found at -17 dB and at -10 dB. The higher backscattering coefficient is attributed to the presence of frost flowers on light nilas. Gray and gray-white ice have a backscatter signature similar to first-year ice and therefore cannot be distinguished by SAR alone. First-year and old ice can be clearly separated based on their backscattering coefficient. The performance of the Geophysical Processor System ice classifier was tested against the Landsat derived ice products. It was found that smooth first-year ice and rough first-year ice were not significantly different in the backscatter domain. Ice concentration estimates based on ERS 1 C band SAR showed an error range of 5 to 8% for high ice concentration regions, mainly due to misclassified ice-free and smooth first-year ice areas. This error is expected to increase for areas of lower ice concentration. The combination of C band SAR and TM channels 2, 4, and 6 resulted in ice typing performance with an estimated accuracy of 90% for all seven ice classes.

  12. Michelsonův interferometr


    Rýc, Jan


    Diplomová práce se zabývá bezkontaktními optickými metodami měření vzdálenosti a rychlosti (vibrací). Je zde uveden základní přehled a teoretická rešerže těchto metod. Podrobně je zde rozebrána zejména problematika interferometrických metod pro měření vibrací. Obsahuje rozdělení interferometrů, popis principu jejich funkce a rovněž obsahuje kapitoly zabývající se prvky, které se v interferometrech používají, jako lasery, fotodetektory a prvky v optické trase paprsku (polarizátory, retardéry a...

  13. Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: A synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heimann


    Full Text Available Currently two polar orbiting satellite instruments measure CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, while other missions are planned for the coming years. In the future such instruments might become powerful tools for monitoring changes in the atmospheric CO2 abundance and to improve our quantitative understanding of the leading processes controlling this. At the moment, however, we are still in an exploratory phase where first experiences are collected and promising new space-based measurement concepts are investigated. This study assesses the potential of some of these concepts to improve CO2 source and sink estimates obtained from inverse modelling. For this purpose the performance of existing and planned satellite instruments is quantified by synthetic simulations of their ability to reduce the uncertainty of the current source and sink estimates in comparison with the existing ground-based network of sampling sites. Our high resolution inversion of sources and sinks (at 8º x 10º allows us to investigate the variation of instrument performance in space and time and at various temporal and spatial scales. The results of our synthetic tests clearly indicate that the satellite performance increases with increasing sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 near the Earth's surface, favoring the near infra-red technique. Thermal infrared instruments, on the contrary, reach a better global coverage, because the performance in the near infrared is reduced over the oceans owing to a low surface albedo. Near infra-red sounders can compensate for this by measuring in sun-glint, which will allow accurate measurements over the oceans, at the cost, however, of a lower measurement density. Overall, the sun-glint pointing near infrared instrument is the most promising concept of those tested. We show that the ability of satellite instruments to resolve fluxes at smaller temporal and spatial scales is also related to surface sensitivity. All the satellite

  14. Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Houweling


    Full Text Available Currently two polar orbiting satellite instruments measure CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, while other missions are planned for the coming years. In the future such instruments might become powerful tools for monitoring changes in the atmospheric CO2 abundance and to improve our quantitative understanding of the leading processes controlling this. At the moment, however, we are still in an exploratory phase where first experiences are collected and promising new space-based measurement concepts are investigated. This study assesses the potential of some of these concepts to improve CO2 source and sink estimates obtained from inverse modelling. For this purpose the performance of existing and planned satellite instruments is quantified by synthetic simulations of their ability to reduce the uncertainty of the current source and sink estimates in comparison with the existing ground-based network of sampling sites. Our high resolution inversion of sources and sinks (at 8°x10° allows us to investigate the variation of instrument performance in space and time and at various temporal and spatial scales. The results of our synthetic tests clearly indicate that the satellite performance increases with increasing sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 near the Earth's surface, favoring the near infra-red technique. Thermal infrared instruments, on the contrary, reach a better global coverage, because the performance in the near infrared is reduced over the oceans owing to a low surface albedo. Near infra-red sounders can compensate for this by measuring in sun-glint, which will allow accurate measurements over the oceans, at the cost, however, of a lower measurement density. Overall, the sun-glint pointing near infrared instrument is the most promising concept of those tested. We show that the ability of satellite instruments to resolve fluxes at smaller temporal and spatial scales is also related to surface sensitivity. All the satellite

  15. Seismic time-lapse imaging using Interferometric least-squares migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal


    One of the problems with 4D surveys is that the environmental conditions change over time so that the experiment is insufficiently repeatable. To mitigate this problem, we propose the use of interferometric least-squares migration (ILSM) to estimate the migration image for the baseline and monitor surveys. Here, a known reflector is used as the reference reflector for ILSM. Results with synthetic and field data show that ILSM can eliminate artifacts caused by non-repeatability in time-lapse surveys.

  16. Introduction to the 30m Ringy Interferometric Telescope (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Jin, Zhe-Yu; Lin, Jing; Li, Yan; Xu, Jun


    In order to meet the demands of exploring extra-terrestrial planets, black holes and other astronomical utmost observation in the near infrared and optical regions, several extremely large telescopes (optical and infrared) with the aperture diameter larger than 30m and the long baseline optical synthetic aperture imaging arrays have been proposed. We advise to build a ringy shape telescope with a large primary mirror, and the telescope with such formation is called Ringy Interferometric Telescope - RIT. The form of the RIT is between the forms of a traditional ELT and an interferometric array. The paper also shows our research results about the ringy aperture. We propose to build a segmented RIT with outer diameter 30m and effective ring width 1m. Because of the whole spatial-frequency coverage characteristic, images photographed by RIT can have the same spatial resolution with a 30m full aperture telescope, need only some simple processes. The resolution (FWHM) of RIT can reach to 0.003 arcsec, its light-gathering area equivalent to that of a 10m full aperture telescope. Since its simple configuration, the cost of building the 30m RIT will not exceed that of a 10m segmented telescope a lot.

  17. Interferometric SAR Persistent Scatterer Analysis of Mayon volcano, Albay, Philippines (United States)

    Bato, M. P.; Lagmay, A. A.; Paguican, E. R.


    Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) is a new method of interferometric processing that overcomes the limitations of conventional Synthetic Aperture Radar differential interferometry (DInSAR) and is capable of detecting millimeter scale ground displacements. PSInSAR eliminate anomalies due to atmospheric delays and temporal and geometric decorrelation eminent in tropical regions by exploiting the temporal and spatial characteristics of radar interferometric signatures derived from time-coherent point-wise targets. In this study, PSInSAR conducted in Mayon Volcano, Albay Province, Bicol, Philippines, reveal tectonic deformation passing underneath the volcano. Using 47 combined ERS and ENVISAT ascending and descending imageries, differential movement between the northern horst and graben on which Mayon volcano lies, is as much as 2.5 cm/year in terms of the line-of-sight (LOS) change in the radar signal. The northern horst moves in the northwest direction whereas the graben moves mostly downward. PSInSAR results when coupled with morphological interpretation suggest left-lateral oblique-slip movement of the northern bounding fault of the Oas graben. The PSInSAR results are validated with dGPS measurements. This work presents the functionality of PSInSAR in a humid tropical environment and highlights the probable landslide hazards associated with an oversteepened volcano that may have been further deformed by tectonic activity.

  18. Regional landslide forecasting model using interferometric SAR images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董育烦; 张发明; 高正夏; 蒯志要


    Method of obtaining landslide evaluating information by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique was discussed. More precision landslide surface deformation data extracted from InSAR image need take suitable SAR interferometric data selecting, path tracking, phase unwrapping processes. Then, the DEM model of scope and surface shape of the landslide was built. Combining with geological property of landslide and sliding displacements obtained from InSAR/D-InSAR images, a new landslide forecasting model called equal central angle slice method for those not obviously deformed landslides was put forward. This model breaks the limits of traditional research methods of geology. In this model, the landslide safety factor was calculated by equal central angle slice method, then considering the persistence ratio of the sliding surface based on plastic theory, the minimum safety factor was the phase when plastic area were complete persistence. This new model makes the application of InSAR/D-InSAR technology become more practical in geology hazard research.

  19. Super-virtual interferometric diffractions as guide stars

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei


    A significant problem in seismic imaging is seismically seeing below salt structures: large velocity contrasts and the irregular geometry of the salt-sediment interface strongly defocus both the downgoing and upgoing seismic wavefields. This can result in severely defocused migration images so as to seismically render some subsalt reserves invisible. The potential cure is a good estimate of the subsalt and salt velocity distributions, but that is also the problem: severe velocity contrasts prevent the appearance of coherent subsalt reflections in the surface records so that MVA or tomographic methods can become ineffective. We now present an interferometric method for extracting the diffraction signals that emanate from diffractors, also denoted as seismic guide stars. The signal-to-noise ratio of these interferometric diffractions is enhanced by N, where N is the number of source points coincident with the receiver points. Thus, diffractions from subsalt guide stars can then be rendered visible and so can be used for velocity analysis, migration, and focusing of subsalt reflections. Both synthetic and field data records are used to demonstrate the benefits and limitations of this method. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mérand


    Full Text Available El método de paralaje de pulsación, o método de Baade-Wesselink (BW, es una poderosa manera de medir distancias a Cefeidas en una manera pseudo-geométrica. En la búsqueda para obtener la más precisa distancia usando interferometría de gran línea de base (alcanzamos 1.5%, nosotros obtuvimos dos resultados quizás no tan insospechados. En primer lugar, nuestros estudios demuestran que alcanzamos un punto donde la suposición que la fotósfera que pulsa se puede aproximar usando modelos estáticos no es válida en el contexto del método BW. En segundo lugar, revelamos la presencia sistemática de envolturas circunestelares (CSE en escala de algunos diámetros estelares, como un leve exceso del infrarrojo cercano, que podría ser una indicación de que está ocurriendo una pérdida de masa. No sólo estos dos resultados representan un sesgo al método BW, y merece ser estudiado observacionalmente, sino también vierten nuevas luces a nuestro conocimiento de las cefeidas y requieren un extenso modelamiento.

  1. Interferometric estimation of ice sheet motion and topography (United States)

    Joughlin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, Mark; Winebrenner, Dale; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Gogenini, Prasad


    With ERS-1/2 satellite radar interferometry, it is possible to make measurements of glacier motion with high accuracy and fine spatial resolution. Interferometric techniques were applied to map velocity and topography for several outlet glaciers in Greenland. For the Humboldt and Petermann glaciers, data from several adjacent tracks were combined to make a wide-area map that includes the enhanced flow regions of both glaciers. The discharge flux of the Petermann glacier upstream of the grounding line was estimated, thereby establishing the potential use of ERS-1/2 interferometric data for monitoring ice-sheet discharge. Interferograms collected along a single track are sensitive to only one component of motion. By utilizing data from ascending and descending passes and by making a surface-parallel flow assumption, it is possible to measure the full three-dimensional vector flow field. The application of this technique for an area on the Ryder glacier is demonstrated. Finally, ERS-1/2 interferograms were used to observe a mini-surge on the Ryder glacier that occurred in autumn of 1995.

  2. Geometrical model fitting for interferometric data: GEM-FIND

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, D; Paladini, C; Hron, J; Wachter, G


    We developed the tool GEM-FIND that allows to constrain the morphology and brightness distribution of objects. The software fits geometrical models to spectrally dispersed interferometric visibility measurements in the N-band using the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method. Each geometrical model describes the brightness distribution of the object in the Fourier space using a set of wavelength-independent and/or wavelength-dependent parameters. In this contribution we numerically analyze the stability of our nonlinear fitting approach by applying it to sets of synthetic visibilities with statistically applied errors, answering the following questions: How stable is the parameter determination with respect to (i) the number of uv-points, (ii) the distribution of points in the uv-plane, (iii) the noise level of the observations?

  3. Effects of residual motion compensation errors on the performance of airborne along-track interferometric SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui ZHANG; Jun HONG; Xiao-lan QIU; Ji-chuan LI; Fang-fang LI; Feng MING


    Two approximations, center-beam approximation and reference digital elevation model (DEM) approximation, are used in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) motion compensation procedures. They usually introduce residual motion compensation errors for airborne single-antenna SAR imaging and SAR interferometry. In this paper, we investigate the effects of residual uncompensated motion errors, which are caused by the above two approximations, on the performance of airborne along-track interferometric SAR (ATI-SAR). The residual uncompensated errors caused by center-beam approximation in the absence and in the presence of elevation errors are derived, respectively. Airborne simulation parameters are used to verify the correctness of the analysis and to show the impacts of residual uncompensated errors on the interferometric phase errors for ATI-SAR. It is shown that the interferometric phase errors caused by the center-beam approximation with an accurate DEM could be neglected, while the interferometric phase errors caused by the center-beam approximation with an inaccurate DEM cannot be neglected when the elevation errors exceed a threshold. This research provides theoretical bases for the error source analysis and signal processing of airborne ATI-SAR.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Science and Technology Education Program Using Interferometric SAR (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Ikemitsu, H.; Nango, K.


    This paper proposes a science and technology education program to teach junior high school students to measure terrain changes by using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The objectives of the proposed program are to evaluate and use information technology by performing SAR data processing in order to measure ground deformation, and to incorporate an understanding of Earth sciences by analyzing interferometric SAR processing results. To draft the teaching guidance plan for the developed education program, this study considers both science and technology education. The education program was used in a Japanese junior high school. An educational SAR processor developed by the authors and the customized Delft object-oriented radar interferometric software package were employed. Earthquakes as diastrophism events were chosen as practical teaching materials. The selected events indicate clear ground deformation in differential interferograms with high coherence levels. The learners were able to investigate the ground deformations and disasters caused by the events. They interactively used computers and became skilled at recognizing the knowledge and techniques of information technology, and then they evaluated the technology. Based on the results of pre- and post-questionnaire surveys and self-evaluation by the learners, it was clarified that the proposed program was applicable for junior high school education, and the learners recognized the usefulness of Earth observation technology by using interferometric SAR. The usefulness of the teaching materials in the learning activities was also shown through the practical teaching experience.

  5. Radio Interferometric Calibration Using a Riemannian Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod


    In order to cope with the increased data volumes generated by modern radio interferometers such as LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) or SKA (Square Kilometre Array), fast and efficient calibration algorithms are essential. Traditional radio interferometric calibration is performed using nonlinear optimization techniques such as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in Euclidean space. In this paper, we reformulate radio interferometric calibration as a nonlinear optimization problem on a Riemannian manifold. The reformulated calibration problem is solved using the Riemannian trust-region method. We show that calibration on a Riemannian manifold has faster convergence with reduced computational cost compared to conventional calibration in Euclidean space.

  6. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic for the Kahiltna terrane, Alaska, 2007-2010 (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has initiated a multi-disciplinary study investigating the applicability of remote sensing technologies for geologic mapping and identification of prospective areas for base and precious metal deposits in remote parts of Alaska. The Kahiltna terrane in southwestern Alaska was selected for investigation because of its known mineral deposits and potential for additional mineral resources. An assortment of technologies is being investigated to aid in remote analysis of terrain, and includes imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral remote sensing), high spatial resolution electro-optical imagery, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). However, there are significant challenges to applying imaging spectroscopy and electro-optical imagery technologies in this area because of the low solar angle for parts of the year, seasonal periods of darkness and snow cover, and the frequently cloudy weather that characterizes Alaska. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was selected because this technology does not rely on solar illumination and has all-weather capability.

  7. Application of Synthetic Satellite Image of SPOT and TM D ata in Debris Flow Investigation%陆地卫星SPOT、TM数据复合影象在泥石流调查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article made synthetic image with rich colour and higherresolvi ng power out of satellite data of SPOT and TM, and extracted spectral informatio n characteristic and geologic body image characteristic. According to it, we dis tinguished and examined debris flow of the main ditch, and found its movi ng characteristic and developing trend.%将陆地卫星SPOT数据及TM数据进行复合,制成具有丰富色彩和较高分辨力的复合影象图,提取其光谱信息特征和地质体影纹特征。据此,对干沟泥石流进行判释和验证,查清了干沟泥石流运动特点及发展趋势。

  8. Note: Near infrared interferometric silicon wafer metrology. (United States)

    Choi, M S; Park, H M; Joo, K N


    In this investigation, two near infrared (NIR) interferometric techniques for silicon wafer metrology are described and verified with experimental results. Based on the transparent characteristic of NIR light to a silicon wafer, the fiber based spectrally resolved interferometry can measure the optical thickness of the wafer and stitching low coherence scanning interferometry can reconstruct entire surfaces of the wafer.

  9. Broadband circular interferometric millimetre-wave ISAR for threat detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertl


    Full Text Available To detect threats on a person's body surface the application of millimetre-waves is possible. In order to get a view of the person from all sides either the person has to be rotated standing on a turntable (Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar, ISAR or a sensor is moved on a circular path around the person (Synthetic Aperture Radar, SAR. The goal of the reconstruction is to obtain information about the shape of the threats and their positions in all three dimensions. At first the reconstruction is done along range and azimuth, which span the principal surface given by the sensor configuration. This paper reports on two methods to obtain the third spatial dimension. Due to the circular shape and its 3D focussing ability of the aperture this information can be obtained by the evaluation of the image focus. Secondly, if two coherent receiving channels are used, a possibility to achieve 3D spatial resolution is the processing of the interferometric phase. A comparison between these two will be presented.

  10. SAR Interferogram Filtering of Shearlet Domain Based on Interferometric Phase Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong He


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new filtering approach for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR interferometric phase noise reduction in the shearlet domain, depending on the coherent statistical characteristics. Shearlets provide a multidirectional and multiscale decomposition that have advantages over wavelet filtering methods when dealing with noisy phase fringes. Phase noise in SAR interferograms is directly related to the interferometric coherence and the look number of the interferogram. Therefore, an optimal interferogram filter should incorporate information from both of them. The proposed method combines the phase noise standard deviation with the shearlet transform. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the interferogram noise while maintaining the spatial resolution, especially in areas with low coherence.

  11. Joint Three-dimensional Location Algorithm for Airborne Interferometric SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yong-fei


    Full Text Available Joint three-dimensional location algorithm aims to get the north, east and height coordinates of each pixel in several adjacent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR scenes simultaneously. Joint calibration is a key procedure to achieve an accurate three-dimensional location. It can ensure the continuity of three-dimensional location among adjacent scenes, and achieve the location of large areas with few Ground Control Points (GCPs by using Tie Points (TPs. In this paper, a new joint calibration algorithm for airborne interferometric SAR is proposed. It calibrates north, east and height coordinates simultaneously. It employs weighted optimization method to carry out calibration, and introduces weights to calibration to discriminate GCPs and TPs with different coherences and locations. The experimental results on airborne InSAR data show that the three-dimensional location accuracy by using the proposed calibration algorithm is better than that by the traditional method.

  12. THz reflection spectroscopy of C-4 explosive and its detection through interferometric imaging (United States)

    Sengupta, Amartya; Bandyopadhyay, Aparajita; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Federici, John F.


    In recent times, Terahertz (1 THz = 10 12 cycles/sec and 300 μm in wavelength) spectroscopy has become a promising technique for spectroscopic identification of different materials having contemporary interest. In this study we report a direct measurement of reflection spectra of the explosive C-4, which shows significant absorption around 0.8 THz, using THz time domain spectroscopic techniques. A contrast in reflection of around 8% has also been observed between the neighboring frequencies of 0.7 THz and 0.9 THz. The spectral data have been used to create realistic synthetic images for use in simulations of interferometric detection in a stand-off THz imaging system. The results obtained are analyzed using Artificial Neural Networks for positive identification of the agents with an interferometric array of few linear detectors in near field mode.

  13. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  14. Methods of satellite oceanography (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  15. Calibration of mixed-polarization interferometric observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Conway, John; Zensus, Anton J


    Heterodyne receivers register the sky signal on either a circular polarization basis (where it is split into left-hand and right-hand circular polarization) or a linear polarization basis (where it is split into horizontal and vertical linear polarization). We study the problem of interferometric observations performed with telescopes that observe on different polarization bases, hence producing visibilities that we call "mixed basis" (i.e., linear in one telescope and circular in the other). We present novel algorithms for the proper calibration and treatment of such interferometric observations and test our algorithms with both simulations and real data. The use of our algorithms will be important for the optimum calibration of forthcoming observations with the Atacama Large mm/submm Array (ALMA) in very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mode. Our algorithms will also allow us to optimally calibrate future VLBI observations at very high data rates (i.e., wide bandwidths), where linear-polarization feeds w...

  16. Measurement of sea ice and icebergs topography using satellite imagery (United States)

    Zakharov, I.; Power, D.; Prasad, S.


    Sea ice topography represents geospatial information on the three-dimensional geometrical attributes of the ice surface including height and shape of various ice features. The features interest consist of deformed (pressure ridges, rubbles and hummocks) and level sea ice as well as glacial ice. Sea ice topography is important for scientific research and climate studies because it helps characterise ice volume and thickness and it influences the near-surface atmospheric transport by impacting the drag coefficients. It also represents critical information to marine operational applications, such as ships navigation and risks assessment for offshore infrastructures. The several methods were used to measure sea ice topography from a single satellite image as well as multiple images. The techniques based on the single image, acquired by optical or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites, derive the height and shape information from shadow and shading. Optical stereo images acquired by very high resolution (0.5 m) satellites were used to extract highly detailed digital elevation model (DEM). SAR imagery allowed extraction of DEM using stereo-radargrammetry and interferometry. The images from optical satellites WorldView, Pleiades, GeoEye, Spot, and Landsat-8 were used to measure topography of sea ice deformation features and glacial ice including icebergs and ice islands. These features were mapped in regions of the Central Arctic, Baffin Bay and the coast of Greenland. SAR imagery including interferometric TanDEM-X data and full polarimetric Radarsat-2 were used to extract ridge frequency and measure spatial parameters of glacial features. The accuracy was evaluated by comparison of the results from different methods demonstrating their strengths and limitations. Ridge height and frequency were also compared with the high resolution results from the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE), regionally implemented for Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea.

  17. Analysis of the interferometric Ronchi test. (United States)

    Malacara, D


    It is well known that the Ronchi test has two equivalent interpretations, Physical, as an interferometer, or geometrical, as if the fringes were just shadows from the fringes on the ruling. The second interpretation is nearly always used in practice because it is simpler. However, the disadvantage is that the irradiance profile of the fringes cannot be calculated with this theory. Here, the interferometric interpretation of the test will be used to obtain the irradiance profile and the sharpness of the fringes.

  18. Digital Detection of Exosomes by Interferometric Imaging



    Exosomes, which are membranous nanovesicles, are actively released by cells and have been attributed to roles in cell-cell communication, cancer metastasis, and early disease diagnostics. The small size (30–100 nm) along with low refractive index contrast of exosomes makes direct characterization and phenotypical classification very difficult. In this work we present a method based on Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) that allows multiplexed phenotyping and ...

  19. Three-dimensional Reconstruction Method Study Based on Interferometric Circular SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Liying


    Full Text Available Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can acquire targets’ scattering information in all directions by a 360° observation, but a single-track CSAR cannot efficiently obtain height scattering information for a strong directive scatter. In this study, we examine the typical target of the three-dimensional circular SAR interferometry theoryand validate the theory in a darkroom experiment. We present a 3D reconstruction of the actual tank metal model of interferometric CSAR for the first time, verify the validity of the method, and demonstrate the important potential applications of combining 3D reconstruction with omnidirectional observation.

  20. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing


    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  1. Improving terrain height estimates from RADARSAT interferometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, P.A.; Eichel, P.H.; Calloway, T.M.


    The authors describe two methods of combining two-pass RADAR-SAT interferometric phase maps with existing DTED (digital terrain elevation data) to produce improved terrain height estimates. The first is a least-squares estimation procedure that fits the unwrapped phase data to a phase map computed from the DTED. The second is a filtering technique that combines the interferometric height map with the DTED map based on spatial frequency content. Both methods preserve the high fidelity of the interferometric data.

  2. Improvements in the data quality of the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases. (United States)

    Walden, Von P; Tanamachi, Robin L; Rowe, Penny M; Revercomb, Henry E; Tobin, David C; Ackerman, Steven A


    The Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG) operated aboard the polar-orbiting Advanced Earth Observing Satellite from October 1996 through June 1997. The IMG measured upwelling infrared radiance at fine spectral resolution. This paper identifies previously undocumented issues with IMG interferograms and describes procedures for correcting the majority of the affected data. In particular, single-sided interferograms should be used to avoid large noise bursts, and phase ambiguities must be resolved in uncalibrated spectra before radiometric calibration. The corrections are essential for studies that require accurately calibrated radiance spectra, including those that track atmospheric changes globally on decadal time scales.

  3. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.


    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  4. Three-dimensional interferometric, spectrometric, and planetary views of Procyon

    CERN Document Server

    Chiavassa, A; Kervella, P; Matter, A; Lopez, B; Collet, R; Magic, Z; Asplund, M


    We used a new realistic 3D radiative-hydrodynamical model atmosphere of Procyon generated with the Stagger Code and synthetic spectra computed with the radiative transfer code Optim3D to re-analyze interferometric and spectroscopic data from the optical to the infrared of Procyon. We compute intensity maps in two optical filters centered at 500 and 800 nm (MARK III) and one infrared filter centered at 2200 nm (VINCI). We constructed stellar disk images accounting for the center-to-limb variations and used them to derive visibility amplitudes and closure phases. We provide 3D limb-darkening coefficients in the optical as well as in the infrared. We show that visibility curves and closure phases show clear deviations from circular symmetry from the 3rd lobe on. These deviations are detectable with current interferometers using closure phases. We derive new angular diameters at different wavelengths with two independent methods based on 3D simulations. We find a diameter_Vinci = 5.390 \\pm 0.03 mas that this is c...

  5. Model Order Selection in Multi-baseline Interferometric Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Gini


    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR is a powerful technique to derive three-dimensional terrain images. Interest is growing in exploiting the advanced multi-baseline mode of InSAR to solve layover effects from complex orography, which generate reception of unexpected multicomponent signals that degrade imagery of both terrain radar reflectivity and height. This work addresses a few problems related to the implementation into interferometric processing of nonlinear algorithms for estimating the number of signal components, including a system trade-off analysis. Performance of various eigenvalues-based information-theoretic criteria (ITC algorithms is numerically investigated under some realistic conditions. In particular, speckle effects from surface and volume scattering are taken into account as multiplicative noise in the signal model. Robustness to leakage of signal power into the noise eigenvalues and operation with a small number of looks are investigated. The issue of baseline optimization for detection is also addressed. The use of diagonally loaded ITC methods is then proposed as a tool for robust operation in the presence of speckle decorrelation. Finally, case studies of a nonuniform array are studied and recommendations for a proper combination of ITC methods and system configuration are given.

  6. The linearized inversion of the generalized interferometric multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    The generalized interferometric multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure can be used to image duplex waves and other higher order internal multiples. Imaging duplex waves could help illuminate subsurface zones that are not easily illuminated by primaries such as vertical and nearly vertical fault planes, and salt flanks. To image first-order internal multiple, the GIMI framework consists of three datuming steps, followed by applying the zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition. However, the standard GIMI procedure yields migrated images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and cross-talk noise. To alleviate these problems, we propose a least-squares GIMI framework in which we formulate the first two steps as a linearized inversion problem when imaging first-order internal multiples. Tests on synthetic datasets demonstrate the ability to localize subsurface scatterers in their true positions, and delineate a vertical fault plane using the proposed method. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed framework when imaging the scatterers or the vertical fault plane with erroneous migration velocities.

  7. Super-Virtual Refraction Interferometric Redatuming: Enhancing the Refracted Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    onshore seismic data processing. Refraction tomography is becoming a common way to estimate an accurate near surface velocity model. One of the problems with refraction tomography is the low signal to noise ration in far offset data. To improve, we propose using super-virtual refraction interferometry to enhance the weak energy at far offsets. We use Interferometric Green\\'s functions to redatum sources by cross-correlating two traces recorded at receiver stations, A and B, from a source at location W. The result is a redatumed trace with a virtual source at A and a receiver at B, which can also be obtained by correlating two traces recorded at A and B from different shots. Stacking them would enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of this "virtual" trace. We next augment redatuming with convolution and stacking. The trace recorded at B from a virtual source at A is convolved with the original trace recorded at A from a source at W. The result is a "super-virtual" trace at B in the far-offset from a source at W. Stacking N traces gives a vN-improvement. We applied our method to noisy synthetic and field data recorded over a complex near-surface and we could pick more traces at far offsets. It was possible to accommodate more picks resulting in a better subsurface coverage

  8. Speckle interferometric observations of close binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K; Yeswanth, L; Anbazhagan, P


    Speckle interferometric technique is employed to record a series of hundreds of short-exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter (m) Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India. The data are recorded sequentially by a Peltier-cooled intensified CCD camera with 10 ms exposure. The auto-correlation method is applied to determine the angular separations and position angles of these binary systems.

  9. The response of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Lee Samuel


    The standard derivation of the response of interferometric gravitational wave detectors makes a series of erroneous approximations regarding the coordinate trajectory of the light and the parameterization of the null geodesic it travels along. These errors appear to have remained unrecognized for at least thirty five years. We provide, in full detail, a correct derivation of the response of a single-bounce Michelson interferometer to gravitational waves, compare it to the "standard", but incorrect, derivation, and show where the earlier mistakes were made. By a fortuitous set of circumstances, not generally so, the final result is the same.

  10. Light-pulse atom interferometric device (United States)

    Biedermann, Grant; McGuinness, Hayden James Evans; Rakholia, Akash; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Schwindt, Peter; Wheeler, David R.


    An atomic interferometric device useful, e.g., for measuring acceleration or rotation is provided. The device comprises at least one vapor cell containing a Raman-active chemical species, an optical system, and at least one detector. The optical system is conformed to implement a Raman pulse interferometer in which Raman transitions are stimulated in a warm vapor of the Raman-active chemical species. The detector is conformed to detect changes in the populations of different internal states of atoms that have been irradiated by the optical system.

  11. Digital Detection of Exosomes by Interferometric Imaging (United States)

    Daaboul, George G.; Gagni, Paola; Benussi, Luisa; Bettotti, Paolo; Ciani, Miriam; Cretich, Marina; Freedman, David S.; Ghidoni, Roberta; Ozkumur, Ayca Yalcin; Piotto, Chiara; Prosperi, Davide; Santini, Benedetta; Ünlü, M. Selim; Chiari, Marcella


    Exosomes, which are membranous nanovesicles, are actively released by cells and have been attributed to roles in cell-cell communication, cancer metastasis, and early disease diagnostics. The small size (30–100 nm) along with low refractive index contrast of exosomes makes direct characterization and phenotypical classification very difficult. In this work we present a method based on Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) that allows multiplexed phenotyping and digital counting of various populations of individual exosomes (>50 nm) captured on a microarray-based solid phase chip. We demonstrate these characterization concepts using purified exosomes from a HEK 293 cell culture. As a demonstration of clinical utility, we characterize exosomes directly from human cerebrospinal fluid (hCSF). Our interferometric imaging method could capture, from a very small hCSF volume (20 uL), nanoparticles that have a size compatible with exosomes, using antibodies directed against tetraspanins. With this unprecedented capability, we foresee revolutionary implications in the clinical field with improvements in diagnosis and stratification of patients affected by different disorders. PMID:27853258

  12. Synthetic environments (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.


    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  13. Research on interferometric photonic crystal fiber hydrophone (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Zhang, Zhen-hui; Wang, Fu-yin; Xiong, Shui-dong


    Current research on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for acoustic sensing was focused on the PCF's pressure sensitivity enhancement. However, whether the enhancement of the PCF's pressure sensitivity can be actually realized is still controversial. Practical hydrophone, utilizing PCFs, to manifest its superior sensitivity to normal single mode fibers (SMFs) for acoustic sensing, should be made. Account to this point of view, actual hydrophone was fabricated. Index guiding PCF was used, the fiber core is solid silicon dioxide (SiO2), and the cladding is SiO2 filled with lots of periodical transverse circular air hollows. The PCF, mounted on an air-backed mandrel for structural sensitivity enhancement, was used as a sensing arm of the fiber Michelson interferometer. The other arm, so called reference arm, was made of SMF. Faraday rotator mirrors (FRM) were spliced in the end of each interferometric arm account for polarization induced phase fading, which is a common scheme in fiber interferometric sensing systems. A similar hydrophone, with all the same structure except that the PCF was exchanged into SMF, was also fabrication to make the contrast. The narrowlinewidth and frequency-tunable optical fiber laser was used to achieve high accuracy optical interferometric measurement. Meanwhile, the phase generated carrier (PGC) modulation-demodulation scheme was adopted to interrogate the measurand signal. Experiment was done by using acoustic standing-wave test apparatus. Linearity characteristics of the two hydrophones were measured at frequency 100Hz, 500Hz, and 1000Hz, experimental results showed that the maximum error of the linearity was 10%, a little larger than the theoretical results. Pressure sensitivities of the PCF hydrophone and the SMF hydrophone were measured using a reference standard PZT hydrophone in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 1600 Hz, the measurement data showed that the sensitivity of the PCF hydrophone was about -162.8 dB re. rad/μPa, with a

  14. Review: Advances in delta-subsidence research using satellite methods (United States)

    Higgins, Stephanie A.


    Most of the world's major river deltas are sinking relative to local sea level. The effects of subsidence can include aquifer salinization, infrastructure damage, increased vulnerability to flooding and storm surges, and permanent inundation of low-lying land. Consequently, determining the relative importance of natural vs. anthropogenic pressures in driving delta subsidence is a topic of ongoing research. This article presents a review of knowledge with respect to delta surface-elevation loss. The field is rapidly advancing due to applications of space-based techniques: InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar), GPS (global positioning system), and satellite ocean altimetry. These techniques have shed new light on a variety of subsidence processes, including tectonics, isostatic adjustment, and the spatial and temporal variability of sediment compaction. They also confirm that subsidence associated with fluid extraction can outpace sea-level rise by up to two orders of magnitude, resulting in effective sea-level rise that is one-hundred times faster than the global average rate. In coming years, space-based and airborne instruments will be critical in providing near-real-time monitoring to facilitate management decisions in sinking deltas. However, ground-based observations continue to be necessary for generating complete measurements of surface-elevation change. Numerical modeling should seek to simulate couplings between subsidence processes for greater predictive power.

  15. Synthetic foldamers. (United States)

    Guichard, Gilles; Huc, Ivan


    Foldamers are artificial folded molecular architectures inspired by the structures and functions of biopolymers. This highlight focuses on important developments concerning foldamers produced by chemical synthesis and on the perspectives that these new self-organized molecular scaffolds offer. Progress in the field has led to synthetic objects that resemble small proteins in terms of size and complexity yet that may not contain any α-amino acids. Foldamers have introduced new tools and concepts to develop biologically active substances, synthetic receptors and novel materials.

  16. Interferometric Plasmonic Lensing with Nanohole Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.


    Nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) of nanohole arrays in gold films maps propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from lithographically patterned structures. Strong near field photoemission patterns are observed in the PEEM images, recorded following low angle of incidence irradiation of nanohole arrays with sub-15 fs laser pulses centered at 780 nm. The recorded photoemission patterns are attributed to constructive and destructive interferences between PSPs launched from the individual nanoholes which comprise the array. By exploiting the wave nature of PSPs, we demonstrate how varying the array geometry (hole diameter, pitch, and number of rows/columns) ultimately yields intense localized photoemission. Through a combination of PEEM and finite-difference time-domain simulations, we identify the optimal array geometry for efficient light coupling and interferometric plasmonic lensing. We show a preliminary application of inteferometric plasmonic lensing by enhancing the photoemission from the vertex of a gold triangle using nanohole array.

  17. The case for optical interferometric polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Nicholas M; Schmitt, Henrique R; Jorgensen, Anders M; Ireland, Michael J; Perraut, Karine


    Within the last 10 years, long-baseline optical interferometry (LBOI) has benefited significantly from increased sensitivity, spatial resolution, and spectral resolution, e.g., measuring the diameters and asymmetries of single stars, imaging/fitting the orbits of multiple stars, modeling Be star disks, and modeling AGN nuclei. Similarly, polarimetry has also yielded excellent astrophysical results, e.g., characterizing the atmospheres and shells of red giants/supergiants, modeling the envelopes of AGB stars, studying the morphology of Be stars, and monitoring the short- and long- term behavior of AGNs. The next logical evolutionary step in instrumentation is to combine LBOI with polarimetry, which is called optical interferometric polarimetry (OIP). In other words, measurements of spatial coherence are performed simultaneously with measurements of coherence between orthogonal polarization states.

  18. The 2010 Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Duvert, Gilles; Lawson, Peter; Chiavassa, Andrea; Young, John; Baron, Fabien; Buscher, David; Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Kloppenborg, Brian; Vannier, Martin; Mugnier, Laurent


    We present the results of the fourth Optical/IR Interferometry Imaging Beauty Contest. The contest consists of blind imaging of test data sets derived from model sources and distributed in the OI-FITS format. The test data consists of spectral data sets on an object "observed" in the infrared with spectral resolution. There were 4 different algorithms competing this time: BSMEM the Bispectrum Maximum Entropy Method by Young, Baron & Buscher; RPR the Recursive Phase Reconstruction by Rengaswamy; SQUEEZE a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm by Baron, Monnier & Kloppenborg; and, WISARD the Weak-phase Interferometric Sample Alternating Reconstruction Device by Vannier & Mugnier. The contest model image, the data delivered to the contestants and the rules are described as well as the results of the image reconstruction obtained by each method. These results are discussed as well as the strengths and limitations of each algorithm.

  19. uvmcmcfit: Parametric models to interferometric data fitter (United States)

    Bussmann, Shane; Leung, Tsz Kuk (Daisy); Conley, Alexander


    Uvmcmcfit fits parametric models to interferometric data. It is ideally suited to extract the maximum amount of information from marginally resolved observations with interferometers like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), Submillimeter Array (SMA), and Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). uvmcmcfit uses emcee (ascl:1303.002) to do Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and can measure the goodness of fit from visibilities rather than deconvolved images, an advantage when there is strong gravitational lensing and in other situations. uvmcmcfit includes a pure-Python adaptation of Miriad’s (ascl:1106.007) uvmodel task to generate simulated visibilities given observed visibilities and a model image and a simple ray-tracing routine that allows it to account for both strongly lensed systems (where multiple images of the lensed galaxy are detected) and weakly lensed systems (where only a single image of the lensed galaxy is detected).

  20. An interferometric view of hot star disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faes, Daniel Moser


    Optical long baseline interferometry was recently established as a technique capable of resolving stars and their circumstellar environments at the milliarcsecond (mas) resolution level. This high-resolution opens an entire new window to the study of astrophysical systems, providing information inaccessible by other techniques. Astrophysical disks are observed in a wide variety of systems, from galaxies up to planetary rings, commonly sharing similar physical processes. Two particular disk like systems are studied in the thesis: (i) B He-rich stars that exhibits magnetic fields in order of kG and that trap their winds in structures called magnetospheres; and (ii) Be stars, fast rotating stars that create circumstellar viscous disks. This study uses the interferometric technique to investigate both the photosphere proper and the circumstellar environment of these stars. The objective is to combine interferometry with other observational techniques (such as spectroscopy and polarimetry) to perform a complete an...

  1. The 2012 interferometric imaging beauty contest (United States)

    Baron, Fabien; Cotton, William D.; Lawson, Peter R.; Ridgway, Steve T.; Aarnio, Alicia; Monnier, John D.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Thiébaut, Eric; Soulez, Férréol; Mary, David; Millour, Florentin; Vannier, Martin; Young, John; Elias, Nicholas M.; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Rengaswamy, Sridharan


    We present the results of the fifth Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest. The contest consists in blind imaging of test data sets derived from model sources and distributed in the OIFITS format. Two scenarios of imaging with CHARA/MIRC-6T were offered for reconstruction: imaging a T Tauri disc and imaging a spotted red supergiant. There were eight different teams competing this time: Monnier with the software package MACIM; Hofmann, Schertl and Weigelt with IRS; Thiebaut and Soulez with MiRA ; Young with BSMEM; Mary and Vannier with MIROIRS; Millour and Vannier with independent BSMEM and MiRA entries; Rengaswamy with an original method; and Elias with the radio-astronomy package CASA. The contest model images, the data delivered to the contestants and the rules are described as well as the results of the image reconstruction obtained by each method. These results are discussed as well as the strengths and limitations of each algorithm.

  2. The 2012 Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Fabien; Lawson, Peter R; Ridgway, Steve T; Aarnio, Alicia; Monnier, John D; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Thiébaut, Eric; Soulez, Férréol; Mary, David; Millour, Florentin; Vannier, Martin; Young, John; Elias, Nicholas M; Schmitt, Henrique R; Rengaswamy, Sridharan


    We present the results of the fifth Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest. The contest consists in blind imaging of test data sets derived from model sources and distributed in the OIFITS format. Two scenarios of imaging with CHARA/MIRC-6T were offered for reconstruction: imaging a T Tauri disc and imaging a spotted red supergiant. There were eight different teams competing this time: Monnier with the software package MACIM; Hofmann, Schertl and Weigelt with IRS; Thi\\'ebaut and Soulez with MiRA ; Young with BSMEM; Mary and Vannier with MIROIRS; Millour and Vannier with independent BSMEM and MiRA entries; Rengaswamy with an original method; and Elias with the radio-astronomy package CASA. The contest model images, the data delivered to the contestants and the rules are described as well as the results of the image reconstruction obtained by each method. These results are discussed as well as the strengths and limitations of each algorithm.

  3. Fundamentals of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Saulson, Peter R


    LIGO's recent discovery of gravitational waves was headline news around the world. Many people will want to understand more about what a gravitational wave is, how LIGO works, and how LIGO functions as a detector of gravitational waves.This book aims to communicate the basic logic of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to students who are new to the field. It assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of physics, but no special familiarity with gravitational waves, with general relativity, or with the special techniques of experimental physics. All of the necessary ideas are developed in the book.The first edition was published in 1994. Since the book is aimed at explaining the physical ideas behind the design of LIGO, it stands the test of time. For the second edition, an Epilogue has been added; it brings the treatment of technical details up to date, and provides references that would allow a student to become proficient with today's designs.

  4. Compression of interferometric radio-astronomical data

    CERN Document Server

    Offringa, A R


    The volume of radio-astronomical data is a considerable burden in the processing and storing of radio observations with high time and frequency resolutions and large bandwidths. Lossy compression of interferometric radio-astronomical data is considered to reduce the volume of visibility data and to speed up processing. A new compression technique named "Dysco" is introduced that consists of two steps: a normalization step, in which grouped visibilities are normalized to have a similar distribution; and a quantization and encoding step, which rounds values to a given quantization scheme using a dithering scheme. Several non-linear quantization schemes are tested and combined with different methods for normalizing the data. Four data sets with observations from the LOFAR and MWA telescopes are processed with different processing strategies and different combinations of normalization and quantization. The effects of compression are measured in image plane. The noise added by the lossy compression technique acts ...

  5. Interferometric Approach to Probing Fast Scrambling

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Norman Y; Swingle, Brian; Lukin, Mikhail D; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M; Moore, Joel E; Demler, Eugene A


    Out-of-time-order correlation functions provide a proxy for diagnosing chaos in quantum systems. We propose and analyze an interferometric scheme for their measurement, using only local quantum control and no reverse time evolution. Our approach utilizes a combination of Ramsey interferometry and the recently demonstrated ability to directly measure Renyi entropies. To implement our scheme, we present a pair of cold-atom-based experimental blueprints; moreover, we demonstrate that within these systems, one can naturally realize the transverse-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (TFSK) model, which exhibits certain similarities with fast scrambling black holes. We perform a detailed numerical study of scrambling in the TFSK model, observing an interesting interplay between the fast scrambling bound and the onset of spin-glass order.

  6. Matched filtering with interferometric 21 cm experiments (United States)

    White, Martin; Padmanabhan, Nikhil


    A new generation of interferometric instruments is emerging, which aims to use intensity mapping of redshifted 21 cm radiation to measure the large-scale structure of the Universe at z ≃ 1-2 over wide areas of the sky. While these instruments typically have limited angular resolution, they cover huge volumes and thus can be used to provide large samples of rare objects. In this paper we study how well such instruments could find spatially extended large-scale structures, such as cosmic voids, using a matched filter formalism. Such a formalism allows us to work in Fourier space, the natural space for interferometers, and to study the impact of finite u - v coverage, noise and foregrounds on our ability to recover voids. We find that in the absence of foregrounds, such instruments would provide enormous catalogs of voids, with high completeness, but that control of foregrounds is key to realizing this goal.

  7. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.


    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  8. Satellite Communication. (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985


    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  9. Synthetic Astrobiology (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.


    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  10. Synthetic Astrobiology (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.


    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  11. Weighted-elastic-wave interferometric imaging of microseismic source location (United States)

    Li, Lei; Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiu-Ming


    Knowledge of the locations of seismic sources is critical for microseismic monitoring. Time-window-based elastic wave interferometric imaging and weighted-elastic-wave (WEW) interferometric imaging are proposed and used to locate modeled microseismic sources. The proposed method improves the precision and eliminates artifacts in location profiles. Numerical experiments based on a horizontally layered isotropic medium have shown that the method offers the following advantages: It can deal with low-SNR microseismic data with velocity perturbations as well as relatively sparse receivers and still maintain relatively high precision despite the errors in the velocity model. Furthermore, it is more efficient than conventional traveltime inversion methods because interferometric imaging does not require traveltime picking. Numerical results using a 2D fault model have also suggested that the weighted-elastic-wave interferometric imaging can locate multiple sources with higher location precision than the time-reverse imaging method.

  12. Spectroscopic and Interferometric Measurements of Nine K Giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, Ellyn K; Guenther, Eike W; Hatzes, Artie P; Hrudkovu, Marie; van Belle, Gerard T


    We present spectroscopic and interferometric measurements for a sample of nine K giant stars. These targets are of particular interest because they are slated for stellar oscillation observations. Our improved parameters will directly translate into reduced errors in the final masses for these stars when interferometric radii and asteroseismic densities are combined. Here we determine each star's limb-darkened angular diameter, physical radius, luminosity, bolometric flux, effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and mass. When we compare our interferometric and spectroscopic results, we find no systematic offsets in the diameters and the values generally agree within the errors. Our interferometric temperatures for seven of the nine stars are hotter than those determined from spectroscopy with an average difference of about 380 K.

  13. Laser frequency stabilization based on Sagnac interferometric spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yan; Guoqing Yang; Jin Wang; Mingsheng Zhan


    @@ A simple method based on Sagnac interferometric spectroscopy (SIS) is applied for frequency stabilization of diode lasers. Sagnac interferometric spectra of rubidium vapor are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The interference signal at the output of the Sagnac interferometer displays a sharp dispersion feature near the atomic resonance. This dispersion curve is used as the feedback error signal to stabilize the laser frequency. Linewidth of a diode laser is stabilized down to 1 MHz by this modulation-free method.

  14. Interferometric SAR imaging by transmitting stepped frequency chaotic noise signals (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Gu, Xiang; Zhai, Wenshuai; Dong, Xiao; Shi, Xiaojin; Kang, Xueyan


    Noise radar has been applied in many fields since it was proposed more than 50 years ago. However, it has not been applied to interferometric SAR imaging yet as far as we know. This paper introduces our recent work on interferometric noise radar. An interferometric SAR system was developed which can transmit both chirp signal and chaotic noise signal (CNS) at multiple carrier frequencies. An airborne experiment with this system by transmitting both signals was carried out, and the data were processed to show the capability of interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The results shows that although the interferometric phase quality of CNS is degraded due to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is lower compared with that of chirp signal, we still can get satisfied DEM after multi-looking processing. Another work of this paper is to apply compressed sensing (CS) theory to the interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The CS theory states that if a signal is sparse, then it can be accurately reconstructed with much less sampled data than that regularly required according to Nyquist Sampling Theory. To form a structured random matrix, if the transmitted signal is of fixed waveform, then random subsampling is needed. However, if the transmitted signal is of random waveform, then only uniform subsampling is needed. This is another advantage of noise signal. Both the interferometric phase images and the DEMs by regular method and by CS method are processed with results compared. It is shown that the degradation of interferometric phases due to subsampling is larger than that of amplitude image.

  15. Synthetic chromosomes. (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten


    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  16. Oceanography from satellites (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.


    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  17. Filtering of Interferometric SAR Phase Images as a Fuzzy Matching-Pursuit Blind Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchini Massimo


    Full Text Available We present an original application of fuzzy logic to restoration of phase images from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR, which are affected by zero-mean uncorrelated noise, whose variance depends on the underlying coherence, thereby yielding a nonstationary random noise process. Spatial filtering of the phase noise is recommended, either before phase unwrapping is accomplished, or simultaneously with it. In fact, phase unwrapping basically relies on a smoothness constraint of the phase field, which is severely hampered by the noise. Space-varying linear MMSE estimation is stated as a problem of matching pursuit, in which the estimator is obtained as an expansion in series of a finite number of prototype estimators, fitting the spatial features of the different statistical classes encountered, for example, fringes and steep slope areas. Such estimators are calculated in a fuzzy fashion through an automatic training procedure. The space-varying coefficients of the expansion are stated as degrees of fuzzy membership of a pixel to each of the estimators. Neither a priori knowledge on the noise variance is required nor particular signal and noise models are assumed. Filtering performances on simulated phase images show a steady SNR improvement over conventional box filtering. Applications of the proposed filter to interferometric phase images demonstrate a superior ability of restoring fringes yet preserving their discontinuities, together with an effective noise smoothing performance, irrespective of locally varying coherence characteristics.

  18. Validation of Forested Inundation Extent Revealed by L-Band Polarimetric and Interferometric SAR Data (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Celi, Jorge; Hamilton, Steve; McDonald, Kyle


    UAVSAR, NASA's airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), conducted an extended observational campaign in Central and South America in March 2013, primarily related to volcanic deformations along the Andean Mountain Range but also including a large number of flights studying other scientific phenomena. During this campaign, the L-Band SAR collected data over the Napo River in Ecuador. The objectives of this experiment were to acquire polarimetric and interferometric L-Band SAR data over an inundated tropical forest in Ecuador simultaneously with on-the-ground field work ascertaining the extent of inundation, and to then derive from this data a quantitative estimate for the error in the SAR-derived inundation extent. In this paper, we will first describe the processing and preliminary analysis of the SAR data. The polarimetric SAR data will be classified by land cover and inundation state. The interferometric SAR data will be used to identify those areas where change in inundation extent occurred, and to measure the change in water level between two observations separated by a week. Second, we will describe the collection of the field estimates of inundation, and have preliminary comparisons of inundation extent measured in the field field versus that estimated from the SAR data.

  19. Understanding magnetic structures in permanent magnets via in situ Lorentz microscopy, interferometric and non-interferometric phase-reconstructions. (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Volkov, V V; De Graef, M


    We present our observations of field- and orientation-dependence of magnetic domains and their reversal nucleation at grain boundaries in polycrystalline Nd2Fe14B, using Fresnel- and Foucault-Lorentz microscopy. The local magnetization associated with the domain and domain-wall in Nd2Fe14B and in precipitated Fe particles was mapped using an interferometric holography as well as a novel non-interferometric method based on the 'transport of intensity' equation.

  20. Acoustic vs Interferometric Measurements of Lightning (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Erives, H.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Stanley, M. A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Lapierre, J. L.; Stock, M.; Jensen, D.; Morris, K.


    During the summer of 2015 we acquired acoustic and RF data on severalflashes from thunderstorms over Fort Morgan CO. and Langmuir Laboratoryin the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico. The acoustic arrayswere located at a distance of roughly 150 m from the interferometers.Lightning mapping array and slow antenna data were also obtained. Theacoustic arrays consist of arrays of five audio-range and six infrasoundmicrophones operating at 50 KHz and 1 KHz respectively. The lightninginterferometer at Fort Morgan CO. consists of three flat-plate, 13" diameterantennas at the vertices of an equilateral 50 m per side triangle. Theinterferometer at Langmuir Laboratory consists of three 13" dishes separatedby about 15 m. Both interferometers, operating at 180 Megasamples persecond, use the analysis software and digitizer hardware pioneered byStanley, Stock et al. The high data rate allows for excellent spatialresolution of high speed (and typically high current) processes such asK-changes, return strokes and dart-leaders. In previous studies, we haveshown the usefulness of acoustic recordings to locate thunder sources aswell as infrasound pulses from lightning. This work will present acomparison of Acoustic and Interferometric measurements from lightning,using some interesting flashes, including a positive cloud to ground,that occurred in these campaigns.

  1. The 2016 interferometric imaging beauty contest (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Thiébaut, E.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Heininger, M.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Millour, F.; Schutz, A.; Ferrari, A.; Vannier, M.; Mary, D.; Young, J.


    Image reconstruction in optical interferometry has gained considerable importance for astrophysical studies during the last decade. This has been mainly due to improvements in the imaging capabilities of existing interferometers and the expectation of new facilities in the coming years. However, despite the advances made so far, image synthesis in optical interferometry is still an open field of research. Since 2004, the community has organized a biennial contest to formally test the different methods and algorithms for image reconstruction. In 2016, we celebrated the 7th edition of the "Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest". This initiative represented an open call to participate in the reconstruction of a selected set of simulated targets with a wavelength-dependent morphology as they could be observed by the 2nd generation of VLTI instruments. This contest represents a unique opportunity to benchmark, in a systematic way, the current advances and limitations in the field, as well as to discuss possible future approaches. In this contribution, we summarize: (a) the rules of the 2016 contest; (b) the different data sets used and the selection procedure; (c) the methods and results obtained by each one of the participants; and (d) the metric used to select the best reconstructed images. Finally, we named Karl-Heinz Hofmann and the group of the Max-Planck-Institut f ur Radioastronomie as winners of this edition of the contest.

  2. An interferometric view of binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J


    The study of binary stars is critical to apprehend many of the most interesting classes of stars. Moreover, quite often, the study of stars in binary systems is our only mean to constrain stellar properties, such as masses and radii. Unfortunately, a great fraction of the most interesting binaries are so compact that they can only be apprehended by high-resolution techniques, mostly by interferometry. I present some results highlighting the use of interferometry in the study of binary stars, from finding companions and deriving orbits, determining the mass and radius of stars, to studying mass transfer in symbiotic stars, and tackling luminous blue variables. In particular, I show how interferometric studies using the PIONIER instrument have allowed us to confirm a dichotomy within symbiotic stars, obtain masses of stars with a precision better than 1%, and help us find a new Eta Carinae-like system. I will also illustrate the benefits for the study of binary stars one would get from upgrading the VLT Interfe...

  3. Calibration Errors in Interferometric Radio Polarimetry (United States)

    Hales, Christopher A.


    Residual calibration errors are difficult to predict in interferometric radio polarimetry because they depend on the observational calibration strategy employed, encompassing the Stokes vector of the calibrator and parallactic angle coverage. This work presents analytic derivations and simulations that enable examination of residual on-axis instrumental leakage and position-angle errors for a suite of calibration strategies. The focus is on arrays comprising alt-azimuth antennas with common feeds over which parallactic angle is approximately uniform. The results indicate that calibration schemes requiring parallactic angle coverage in the linear feed basis (e.g., the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) need only observe over 30°, beyond which no significant improvements in calibration accuracy are obtained. In the circular feed basis (e.g., the Very Large Array above 1 GHz), 30° is also appropriate when the Stokes vector of the leakage calibrator is known a priori, but this rises to 90° when the Stokes vector is unknown. These findings illustrate and quantify concepts that were previously obscure rules of thumb.

  4. Using Open-Source Components to Process Interferometric TerraSAR-X Spotlight Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jendryke


    Full Text Available We address the processing of interferometric TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X spotlight data. Processing steps necessary to derive interferograms at high spatial resolution from bi- and monostatic satellite images will be explained. The spotlight image mode is a beam steering technique focusing the antenna on a specific ground area. This results in a linear Doppler shift frequency in azimuth direction, which has to be matched to the master image. While shifting the interpolation kernel in azimuth during resampling, the frequency spectrum of the slave image is aligned to the master image. We show how to process bistatic TanDEM-X images and propose an integrated processing option for monostatic TerraSAR-X data in the Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (DORIS. The paper focuses on the implementation of this algorithm for high-resolution spotlight InSAR in a public domain tool; hence, it becomes available to a larger research community. The results are presented for three test areas: Uluru in Australia, Las Vegas in the USA, and Lüneburg in Germany.

  5. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  6. Single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy by red-green-blue multiplexing. (United States)

    Calabuig, Alejandro; Micó, Vicente; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev; Ferreira, Carlos


    We present single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy (SESRIM) as a novel approach capable of providing one-dimensional (1-D) super-resolution (SR) imaging in holographic microscopy using a single illumination shot. The single-exposure SR working principle is achieved by combining angular and wavelength multiplexing incoming from a set of tilted beams with different wavelengths where each wavelength is tuned with the red-green-blue (RGB) channels of a color CCD. Thus, the information included in each color channel is retrieved by holographic recording using a single-color CCD capture and by analyzing the RGB channels. Finally, 1-D SR imaging is obtained after the digital postprocessing stage yielding the generation of a synthetic aperture. Experimental results are reported validating the proposed SESRIM approach while an extension of the proposed approach to the two-dimensional case is considered.

  7. Single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy by RGB multiplexing in lensless configuration (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Ferreira, Carlos; Zalevsky, Zeev; García, Javier; Micó, Vicente


    Single-Exposure Super-Resolved Interferometric Microscopy (SESRIM) reports on a way to achieve one-dimensional (1-D) superresolved imaging in digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by a single illumination shot and digital recording. SESRIM provides color-coded angular multiplexing of the accessible sample's range of spatial frequencies and it allows their recording in a single CCD (color or monochrome) snapshot by adding 3 RGB coherent reference beams at the output plane. In this manuscript, we extend the applicability of SESRIM to the field of digital in-line holographic microscopy (DIHM), that is, working without lenses. As consequence of the in-line configuration, an additional restriction concerning the object field of view (FOV) must be imposed to the technique. Experimental results are reported for both a synthetic object (USAF resolution test target) and a biological sample (swine sperm sample) validating this new kind of superresolution imaging method named as lensless SESRIM (L-SESRIM).

  8. Synthetic Cannabinoids. (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth


    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  9. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E


    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  10. A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Provides for Disaster Management, Measurement of Soil Moisture, and Measurement of Earth-Surface Dynamics (United States)

    Madsen, Soren; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)


    A GEO-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) could provide daily coverage of basically all of North and South America with very good temporal coverage within the mapped area. This affords a key capability to disaster management, tectonic mapping and modeling, and vegetation mapping. The fine temporal sampling makes this system particularly useful for disaster management of flooding, hurricanes, and earthquakes. By using a fairly long wavelength, changing water boundaries caused by storms or flooding could be monitored in near real-time. This coverage would also provide revolutionary capabilities in the field of radar interferometry, including the capability to study the interferometric signature immediately before and after an earthquake, thus allowing unprecedented studies of Earth-surface dynamics. Preeruptive volcano dynamics could be studied as well as pre-seismic deformation, one of the most controversial and elusive aspects of earthquakes. Interferometric correlation would similarly allow near real-time mapping of surface changes caused by volcanic eruptions, mud slides, or fires. Finally, a GEO SAR provides an optimum configuration for soil moisture measurement that requires a high temporal sampling rate (1-2 days) with a moderate spatial resolution (1 km or better). From a technological point of view, the largest challenges involved in developing a geosynchronous SAR capability relate to the very large slant range distance from the radar to the mapped area. This leads to requirements for large power or alternatively very large antenna, the ability to steer the mapping area to the left and right of the satellite, and control of the elevation and azimuth angles. The weight of this system is estimated to be 2750 kg and it would require 20 kW of DC-power. Such a system would provide up to a 600 km ground swath in a strip-mapping mode and 4000 km dual-sided mapping in a scan-SAR mode.

  11. How can we Optimize Global Satellite Observations of Glacier Velocity and Elevation Changes? (United States)

    Willis, M. J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Zheng, W.


    We have started a global compilation of glacier surface elevation change rates measured by altimeters and differencing of Digital Elevation Models and glacier velocities measured by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical feature tracking as well as from Interferometric SAR (InSAR). Our goal is to compile statistics on recent ice flow velocities and surface elevation change rates near the fronts of all available glaciers using literature and our own data sets of the Russian Arctic, Patagonia, Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica, the Himalayas, and other locations. We quantify the percentage of the glaciers on the planet that can be regarded as fast flowing glaciers, with surface velocities of more than 50 meters per year, while also recording glaciers that have elevation change rates of more than 2 meters per year. We examine whether glaciers have significant interannual variations in velocities, or have accelerated or stagnated where time series of ice motions are available. We use glacier boundaries and identifiers from the Randolph Glacier Inventory. Our survey highlights glaciers that are likely to react quickly to changes in their mass accumulation rates. The study also identifies geographical areas where our knowledge of glacier dynamics remains poor. Our survey helps guide how frequently observations must be made in order to provide quality satellite-derived velocity and ice elevation observations at a variety of glacier thermal regimes, speeds and widths. Our objectives are to determine to what extent the joint NASA and Indian Space Research Organization Synthetic Aperture Radar mission (NISAR) will be able to provide global precision coverage of ice speed changes and to determine how to optimize observations from the global constellation of satellite missions to record important changes to glacier elevations and velocities worldwide.

  12. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.


    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  13. Wavemill Product Assessment- Defining Products and Evaluating Potential Performance from a Novel Spaceborne Interferometric SAR (United States)

    Cotton, P. D.; Gommenginger, C.; Martin, A.; Marquez, J.; Burbidge, G.; Quilfen, Y.; Chapron, B.; Reppucci, A.; Buck, C.


    Ocean Surface Currents are one of the most important ocean properties for oceanographers and operators in the maritime domain. Improved monitoring of ocean currents is systematically the number one requirement that emerges from any science or end user requirement surveys.Wavemill is a novel hybrid interferometric SAR system first proposed by ESA/ESTEC [Buck, 2005]. It offers the possibility of generating two-dimensional wide swath, high resolution, high precision maps of surface current vectors and ocean topography [Buck et al., 2009]. Based on a single spacecraft, it avoids the difficulties of synchronisation and baseline estimation associated with other interferometric SAR systems based on two or more satellites (e.g. the "cartwheel" or "helix" concept).The Wavemill concept has developed steadily since its first inception in 2005. A number of Wavemill studies in recent years have gradually put together facts and figures to support the case for Wavemill as a possible space-borne mission.The Wavemill Product Assessment study (WaPA) aimed to define the scientific capabilities and limitations of a spaceborne Wavemill instrument in preparation for a possible submission of the Wavemill concept as a candidate Earth Explorer Core mission. The WaPA project team brought together expert scientists and engineers in the field of SAR imaging of ocean currents, and included the National Oceanography Centre (UK), Starlab (Spain), IFREMER (France) and Airbus Defence and Space (UK). Overall project management was provided by Satellite Oceanographic Consultants (UK). The approach taken included:- A review of SAR imaging of ocean currents in along-track interferometric mode to learn from previous experiments and modelling what key phenomena need to be accounted for to determine the true performance of a spaceborne Wavemill system- Validation of proposed Wavemill primary products based on Wavemill airborne proof-of-concept data and numerical simulations to determine the capabilities

  14. Anti-Satellite Weapons, Countermeasures, and Arms Control (United States)


    From Kosmos 1500 38 3-3. Imagery Obtained by Synthetic-Aperture Satellite Radar 40 Chapter 3 MILSATs, ASATs, and National Security THE ROLE AND...satellite capabil- ities, such as resolution. For example, Soviet oceanographic radar satellites of the Kosmos - 1500 class can obtain radar imagery with...surveillance satellite ( Kosmos 1500) equipped with a side-looking radar and in the same year placed two satellites (Venera 15 and Venera 16) equipped

  15. Atom-interferometric measurement of Stark level splittings

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linjie; Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang


    Multiple adiabatic/diabatic passages through avoided crossings in the Stark map of cesium Rydberg atoms are employed as beam splitters and recombiners in an atom-interferometric measurement of energy-level splittings. We subject cold cesium atoms to laser-excitation, electric-field and detection sequences that constitute an (internal-state) atom interferometer. For the read-out of the interferometer we utilize state-dependent collisions, which selectively remove atoms of one kind from the detected signal. We investigate the dependence of the interferometric signal on timing and field parameters, and find good agreement with time-dependent quantum simulations of the interferometer. Fourier analysis of the interferometric signals yield coherence frequencies that agree with corresponding energy-level differences in calculated Stark maps. The method enables spectroscopy of states that are inaccessible to direct laser-spectroscopic observation, due to selection rules, and has applications in field metrology.

  16. The minimization of ac phase noise in interferometric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Ignacy; Gordon, R A


    A simple step-by-step procedure, including several novel techniques discussed in the Appendices, is given for minimizing ac phase noise in typical interferometric systems such as two-beam interferometers, holographic setups, four-wave mixers, etc. Special attention is given to index of refraction...... fluctuations, direct mechanical coupling, and acoustic coupling, whose importance in determining ac phase noise in interferometric systems has not been adequately treated. The minimization procedure must be carried out while continuously monitoring the phase noise which can be done very simply by using...... with the optical table will also have to be carefully carried out regardless of the type of interferometric system employed.It is recommended that this be followed by a simple, inexpensive change to a novel type of interferometer discussed in Appendix A which is inherently less sensitive to mechanical vibration...

  17. Refractive Index Compensation in Over-Determined Interferometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Buchta


    Full Text Available We present an interferometric technique based on a differential interferometry setup for measurement under atmospheric conditions. The key limiting factor in any interferometric dimensional measurement are fluctuations of the refractive index of air representing a dominating source of uncertainty when evaluated indirectly from the physical parameters of the atmosphere. Our proposal is based on the concept of an over-determined interferometric setup where a reference length is derived from a mechanical frame made from a material with a very low thermal coefficient. The technique allows one to track the variations of the refractive index of air on-line directly in the line of the measuring beam and to compensate for the fluctuations. The optical setup consists of three interferometers sharing the same beam path where two measure differentially the displacement while the third evaluates the changes in the measuring range, acting as a tracking refractometer. The principle is demonstrated in an experimental setup.

  18. UVMULTIFIT: A versatile tool for fitting astronomical radio interferometric data

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Muller, S; Casey, S


    The analysis of astronomical interferometric data is often performed on the images obtained after deconvolution of the interferometer's point spread function (PSF). This strategy can be understood (especially for cases of sparse arrays) as fitting models to models, since the deconvolved images are already non-unique model representations of the actual data (i.e., the visibilities). Indeed, the interferometric images may be affected by visibility gridding, weighting schemes (e.g., natural vs. uniform), and the particulars of the (non-linear) deconvolution algorithms. Fitting models to the direct interferometric observables (i.e., the visibilities) is preferable in the cases of simple (analytical) sky intensity distributions. In this paper, we present UVMULTIFIT, a versatile library for fitting visibility data, implemented in a Python-based framework. Our software is currently based on the CASA package, but can be easily adapted to other analysis packages, provided they have a Python API. We have tested the sof...

  19. Interferometric detection of single gold nanoparticles calibrated against TEM size distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lixue; Christensen, Sune; Bendix, Pól Martin


    Single nanoparticle analysis: An interferometric optical approach calibrates sizes of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from the interference intensities by calibrating their interferometric signals against the corresponding transmission electron microscopy measurements. This method is used to investigate...

  20. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul


    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  1. Dynamics of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors (United States)

    Rakhmanov, Malik


    Dynamics of fields and mirrors in the new laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors is described. The dynamics of fields is formulated in terms of difference equations, which take into account the large delay due to the light transit time in the interferometer arm cavities. Solutions of these field equations are found in both transient and steady-state regimes. The solutions for fields in the transient regime can be used for the measurement of the parameters of Fabry-Perot cavities. The solutions for fields in the steady-state regime can be used for the analysis of noise performance of Fabry-Perot cavities. The dynamics of the mirrors is described in terms of two normal coordinates: the cavity length and its center of mass. Such dynamics is strongly affected by the radiation pressure of light circulating in the cavity. The forces of radiation pressure are nonlinear and nonconservative. These two effects introduce instabilities and give rise to a violation of conservation of energy for the motion of the suspended mirrors. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations of the dynamics are done with applications to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). The dynamics of signal recycling and power recycling interferometers is analyzed using the field equations. The response of the interferometers to the input laser field and motion of its mirrors is calculated. Several basic transfer functions are found. These correspond to either a single or a nested cavity. A nested cavity appears either in the dynamics of the differential mode in signal recycling interferometers or in the dynamics of the common mode of power recycling interferometers. The poles of transfer functions of these nested cavities are found. The response of the interferometers to gravitational waves is described: the analysis is done in the rest frame of a local observer which is a natural coordinate system of the detector. This response is given by the interferometer

  2. Compression of interferometric radio-astronomical data (United States)

    Offringa, A. R.


    Context. The volume of radio-astronomical data is a considerable burden in the processing and storing of radio observations that have high time and frequency resolutions and large bandwidths. For future telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), the data volume will be even larger. Aims: Lossy compression of interferometric radio-astronomical data is considered to reduce the volume of visibility data and to speed up processing. Methods: A new compression technique named "Dysco" is introduced that consists of two steps: a normalization step, in which grouped visibilities are normalized to have a similar distribution; and a quantization and encoding step, which rounds values to a given quantization scheme using a dithering scheme. Several non-linear quantization schemes are tested and combined with different methods for normalizing the data. Four data sets with observations from the LOFAR and MWA telescopes are processed with different processing strategies and different combinations of normalization and quantization. The effects of compression are measured in image plane. Results: The noise added by the lossy compression technique acts similarly to normal system noise. The accuracy of Dysco is depending on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the data: noisy data can be compressed with a smaller loss of image quality. Data with typical correlator time and frequency resolutions can be compressed by a factor of 6.4 for LOFAR and 5.3 for MWA observations with less than 1% added system noise. An implementation of the compression technique is released that provides a Casacore storage manager and allows transparent encoding and decoding. Encoding and decoding is faster than the read/write speed of typical disks. Conclusions: The technique can be used for LOFAR and MWA to reduce the archival space requirements for storing observed data. Data from SKA-low will likely be compressible by the same amount as LOFAR. The same technique can be used to compress data from

  3. Application of synthetic aperture radar interferometry for mine subsidence monitoring in the western United States (United States)

    Wempen, Jessica Michelle

    Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR), a satellite-based remote sensing technique, is a practical method for measuring deformation of the earth's surface. In this investigation, the application of DInSAR for monitoring mine subsidence was evaluated for active underground mining regions in the Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah. Interferograms were generated using X-band (3-cm wavelength) Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the TerraSAR-X mission and L-band (24-cm wavelength) Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite. In general, the DInSAR data have high spatial and temporal resolutions and show gradual, progressive subsidence. In the Green River Basin, displacements were estimated using both L-band and X-band data. In the Wasatch Plateau, displacements were only estimated using L-band data; areas affected by subsidence are identifiable in the X-band data, but precisely quantifying subsidence magnitudes is difficult as a result of significant phase noise. In the Green River Basin, the maximum subsidence magnitude was 150 cm over 690 days, estimated using L-band DInSAR. In the Wasatch Plateau, the maximum subsidence magnitude was 180 cm over 414 days. In both regions, as a result of low coherence in the areas with large displacements, the maximum displacements may be underestimated by tens of centimeters. Additionally, relationships between surface deformations measured by DInSAR and mining-induced seismicity (MIS) in the Green River Basin and the Wasatch Plateau were explored. Both regions exhibit large magnitude, relatively rapid subsidence, but the characteristics (rates and magnitudes) of MIS in the Wasatch Plateau study region and the Green River Basin are significantly different. In the Wasatch Plateau study region, surface displacements tend to precede seismicity, event rates tend to be high, and event magnitudes tend to be relatively low. In the Green River

  4. Validation of Orthorectified Interferometric Radar Imagery and Digital Elevation Models (United States)

    Smith Charles M.


    This work was performed under NASA's Verification and Validation (V&V) Program as an independent check of data supplied by EarthWatch, Incorporated, through the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) Program. This document serves as the basis of reporting results associated with validation of orthorectified interferometric interferometric radar imagery and digital elevation models (DEM). This validation covers all datasets provided under the first campaign (Central America & Virginia Beach) plus three earlier missions (Indonesia, Red River: and Denver) for a total of 13 missions.

  5. Synthetic Astrobiology (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.


    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  6. The contribution of satellite SAR-derived displacement measurements in landslide risk management practices (United States)

    Raspini, Federico; Bardi, Federica; Bianchini, Silvia; Ciampalini, Andrea; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Farina, Paolo; Ferrigno, Federica; Solari, Lorenzo; Casagli, Nicola


    Landslides are common phenomena that occur worldwide and are a main cause of loss of life and damage to property. The hazards associated with landslides are a challenging concern in many countries, including Italy. With 13% of the territory prone to landslides, Italy is one of the European countries with the highest landslide hazard, and on a worldwide scale, it is second only to Japan among the technologically advanced countries. Over the last 15 years, an increasing number of applications have aimed to demonstrate the applicability of images captured by space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors in slope instability investigations. InSAR (SAR Interferometry) is currently one of the most exploited techniques for the assessment of ground displacements, and it is becoming a consolidated tool for Civil Protection institutions in addressing landslide risk. We present a subset of the results obtained in Italy within the framework of SAR-based programmes and applications intended to test the potential application of C- and X-band satellite interferometry during different Civil Protection activities (namely, prevention, prevision, emergency response and post-emergency phases) performed to manage landslide risk. In all phases, different benefits can be derived from the use of SAR-based measurements, which were demonstrated to be effective in the field of landslide analysis. Analysis of satellite-SAR data is demonstrated to play a major role in the investigation of landslide-related events at different stages, including detection, mapping, monitoring, characterization and prediction. Interferometric approaches are widely consolidated for analysis of slow-moving slope deformations in a variety of environments, and exploitation of the amplitude data in SAR images is a somewhat natural complement for rapid-moving landslides. In addition, we discuss the limitations that still exist and must be overcome in the coming years to manage the transition of satellite SAR

  7. An Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor (AGIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.


    We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. The terrestrial experiment with baseline {approx} 1 km can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment with baseline {approx} 1000 km can probe the same frequency spectrum as LISA with comparable strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations, acceleration noise, and significantly reduces spacecraft control requirements. We analyze the backgrounds in this configuration and discuss methods for controlling them to the required levels.

  8. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy...

  9. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Orthorectified Radar Image Alaska: 2010-2012 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) developed the Alaska Mapping Initiative (AMI) to collaborate with the State and other Federal...

  10. Determining Snow Depth Using Airborne Multi-Pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)


    sufficient snow depth, relatively obstacle free, clear view of sky, relatively flat i.e. no steep slopes relative to the resolution, accessibility, and...coordinate system is a matter of geometry/ trigonometry and can be seen in Figure 27. 58 Figure 27. Demonstration of the correction required for a

  11. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar atmospheric correction: GPS topography-dependent turbulence model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhenhong Li; Eric J. Fielding; Paul Cross; Jan-Peter Muller


    .... Application of the GTTM model to ERS Tandem data over the Los Angeles Southern California Integrated GPS Network area has shown that use of the GTTM can reduce water vapor effects on interferograms from ∼10 mm down...

  12. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Orthorectified Radar Image Alaska: 2010-2012 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) developed the Alaska Mapping Initiative (AMI) to collaborate with the State and other Federal...

  13. Robust radio interferometric calibration using the t-distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazemi, S.; Yatawatta, S.


    A major stage of radio interferometric data processing is calibration or the estimation of systematic errors in the data and the correction for such errors. A stochastic error (noise) model is assumed, and in most cases, this underlying model is assumed to be Gaussian. However, outliers in the data

  14. Fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.


    Progress in developing fiber-optic interferometric sensors for aeroacoustic measurements in wind tunnels, performed under the NASA program, is reported. Preliminary results show that the fiber-optic interferometer sensor array is a powerful instrument for solving complex acoustic measurement problems in wind tunnels, which cannot be resolved with the conventional transducer technique.

  15. Introduction to the 30m Ring Interferometric Telescope (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Qian, S.-B.


    For the demand of astronomical limitation observations, such as exploring extra-terrestrial planets, black hole accretion disk and jet in the near-infrared and optical wave band, extremely large telescopes (optical and infrared) have become the principal ground-based astronomical instrumentation. With the maturation of interferometric imaging theory, the borderline between new generation ground-based extremely large telescope and interferometric array for aperture synthesis imaging is increasingly going blurring and the only differences in their technical methods and characteristics are also gradually disappearing. Based on the research result of interferometric imaging in Yunnan Observatory, we bring forward a new concept ground-based extremely large telescope -- 30m Ring Interferometric Telescope (30mRIT). It has the direct imaging ability and resolution like single aperture telescope, and it also can image with high resolution like the aperture synthesis imaging mode. The 30m RIT has a ring spherical primary mirror with 90 segmented mirrors, the width of the ring is 1 meter and the F/D ratio is about 0.8.This report also introduces some high resolution astronomical observe results by one meter ring which is 1 m diameter and 100 mm width. The 30mRIT project is remarkably different from the conventional ground-base ELT and its pivotal techniques have got the support of CAS and China NSF.

  16. Fiber-optic interferometric acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.


    Progress in developing fiber-optic interferometric sensors for aeroacoustic measurements in wind tunnels, performed under the NASA program, is reported. Preliminary results show that the fiber-optic interferometer sensor array is a powerful instrument for solving complex acoustic measurement problems in wind tunnels, which cannot be resolved with the conventional transducer technique.

  17. Theory, analysis and design of RF interferometric sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam


    Theory, Analysis and Design of RF Interferometric Sensors presents the theory, analysis and design of RF interferometric sensors. RF interferometric sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require every fine resolution and accuracy as well as fast speed. The book also presents two millimeter-wave interferometric sensors realized using RF integrated circuits. The developed millimeter-wave homodyne sensor shows sub-millimeter resolution in the order of 0.05 mm without correction for the non-linear phase response of the sensor's quadrature mixer. The designed millimeter-wave double-channel homodyne sensor provides a resolution of only 0.01 mm, or 1/840th of the operating wavelength, and can inherently suppress the non-linearity of the sensor's quadrature mixer. The experimental results of displacement and velocity measurement are presented as a way to demonstrate the sensing ability of the RF interferometry and to illustrate its many possible applications in sensing. The book is succinct, ye...

  18. A mid-IR interferometric survey with MIDI/VLTI: resolving the second-generation protoplanetary disks around post-AGB binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hillen, M; Menu, J; Manick, R; Debosscher, J; Min, M; de Wit, W -J; Verhoelst, T; Kamath, D; Waters, L B F M


    We present a mid-IR interferometric survey of the circumstellar environment of a specific class of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) binaries. For this class the presence of a compact dusty disk has been postulated on the basis of various spatially unresolved measurements. Our interferometric survey was performed with the MIDI instrument on the VLTI. In total 19 different systems were observed using variable baseline configurations. Combining all the visibilities at a single wavelength at 10.7 micron, we fitted two parametric models to the data: a uniform disk (UD) and a ring model mimicking a temperature gradient. We compared our observables of the whole sample, with synthetic data computed from a grid of radiative transfer models of passively irradiated disks in hydrostatic equilibrium. These models are computed with a Monte Carlo code that has been widely applied to describe the structure of protoplanetary disks around young stellar objects (YSO). The spatially resolved observations show that the maj...

  19. Asymmetric Fabry-Pérot interferometric cavity for fiber optical sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoji Jiang; Youcheng Liang; Xi Zhu; Hezhou Wang


    Good linearity and wide dynamic range are the advantages of asymmetric Fabry-Pérot (F-P) interferometric cavity, whose realization has been long for. Based on optical thin film characteristic matrix theory, an asymmetric F-P interferometric cavity with good linearity and wide dynamic range is designed. And by choosing the material of two different thin metallic layers, the asymmetric F-P interferometric cavity is successfully fabricated. The design theory and method of this asymmetric F-P interferometric cavity have been described in detailed. In this paper an asymmetric F-P interferometric cavity used in fiber optical sensor is reported.

  20. Offshore Wind Potential in South India from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Bingöl, Ferhat; Badger, Merete

    The offshore wind energy potential for pre-feasibility in South India in the area from 77° to 80° Eastern longitude and 7° to 10° Northern latitude is observed from a total of 164 ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) satellite images during the years 2002 to 2011. All satellite scenes...

  1. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  2. Ground based interferometric radar initial look at Longview, Blue Springs, Tuttle Creek, and Milford Dams (United States)

    Deng, Huazeng

    Measuring millimeter and smaller deformation has been demonstrated in the literature using RADAR. To address in part the limitations in current commercial satellite-based SAR datasets, a University of Missouri (MU) team worked with GAMMA Remote Sensing to develop a specialized (dual-frequency, polarimetric, and interferometric) ground-based real-aperture RADAR (GBIR) instrument. The GBIR device is portable with its tripod system and control electronics. It can be deployed to obtain data with high spatial resolution (i.e. on the order of 1 meter) and high temporal resolution (i.e. on the order 1 minute). The high temporal resolution is well suited for measurements of rapid deformation. From the same geodetic position, the GBIR may collect dual frequency data set using C-band and Ku-band. The overall goal of this project is to measure the deformation from various scenarios by applying the GBIR system. Initial efforts have been focusing on testing the system performance on different types of targets. This thesis details a number of my efforts on experimental and processing activities at the start of the MU GBIR imaging project. For improved close range capability, a wideband dual polarized antenna option was produced and tested. For GBIR calibration, several trihedral corner reflectors were designed and fabricated. In addition to experimental activities and site selection, I participated in advanced data processing activities. I processed GBIR data in several ways including single-look-complex (SLC) image generation, imagery registration, and interferometric processing. A number of initial-processed GBIR image products are presented from four dams: Longview, Blue Springs, Tuttle Creek, and Milford. Excellent imaging performance of the MU GBIR has been observed for various target types such as riprap, concrete, soil, rock, metal, and vegetation. Strong coherence of the test scene has been observed in the initial interferograms.

  3. Iceland rising: Solid Earth response to ice retreat inferred from satellite radar interferometry and visocelastic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auriac, A.; Spaans, K.H.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A.; Schmidt, P.; Lund, B.


    A broad uplift occurs in Iceland in response to the retreat of ice caps, which began circa 1890. Until now, this deformation signal has been measured primarily using GPS at points some distance away from the ice caps. Here, for the first time we use satellite radar interferometry (interferometric sy

  4. Monitoring and characterizing natural hazards with satellite InSAR imagery (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Zhang, Jixian; Zhang, Yonghong; Dzurisin, Daniel


    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides an all-weather imaging capability for measuring ground-surface deformation and inferring changes in land surface characteristics. InSAR enables scientists to monitor and characterize hazards posed by volcanic, seismic, and hydrogeologic processes, by landslides and wildfires, and by human activities such as mining and fluid extraction or injection. Measuring how a volcano’s surface deforms before, during, and after eruptions provides essential information about magma dynamics and a basis for mitigating volcanic hazards. Measuring spatial and temporal patterns of surface deformation in seismically active regions is extraordinarily useful for understanding rupture dynamics and estimating seismic risks. Measuring how landslides develop and activate is a prerequisite to minimizing associated hazards. Mapping surface subsidence or uplift related to extraction or injection of fluids during exploitation of groundwater aquifers or petroleum reservoirs provides fundamental data on aquifer or reservoir properties and improves our ability to mitigate undesired consequences. Monitoring dynamic water-level changes in wetlands improves hydrological modeling predictions and the assessment of future flood impacts. In addition, InSAR imagery can provide near-real-time estimates of fire scar extents and fire severity for wildfire management and control. All-weather satellite radar imagery is critical for studying various natural processes and is playing an increasingly important role in understanding and forecasting natural hazards.

  5. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  6. Satellite theory (United States)

    Kozai, Y.


    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  7. Selective interferometric imaging of internal multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H


    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function. If properly imaged, internal multiples (and internally-scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image and illuminate areas otherwise neglected or poorly imaged by conventional single-scattering approaches. Conventionally, in order to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we develop a three-step procedure, which images the first-order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model: We first back-propagate the recorded surface data using the background Green’s function, then cross-correlate the back-propagated data with the recorded data and finally cross-correlate the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples and is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. This image can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained e.g. from Kirchhoff migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering only demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Inferring three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Conventional Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar(InSAR) technology can only measure one-dimensional surface displacement(along the radar line-of-sight(LOS) direction).Here we presents a method to infer three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits.The method is realized in three steps:(1) measuring surface displacements along the LOS directions of both ascending and descending orbits based on interferometric phases;(2) measuring surface displacements along the azimuth directions of both the ascending and descending orbits based on the SAR amplitude data;and(3) estimating the three-dimensional(3D) surface displacement field by combining the above four independent one-dimensional displacements using the method of least squares and Helmert variance component estimation.We apply the method to infer the 3D surface displacement field caused by the 2003 Bam,Iran,earthquake.The results reveal that in the northern part of Bam the ground surface experienced both subsidence and southwestward horizontal movement,while in the southern part uplift and southeastward horizontal movement occurred.The displacement field thus determined matches the location of the fault very well with the maximal displacements reaching 22,40,and 30 cm,respectively in the up,northing and easting directions.Finally,we compare the 3D displacement field with that simulated from the Okada model.The results demonstrate that the method presented here can be used to generate reliable and highly accurate 3D surface displacement fields.

  9. Differential Interferometric Applications in Alpine Regions (United States)

    Strozzi, T.; Wegmueller, U.; Wiesmann, A.; Kääb, A.; Frauenfelder, R.; Werner, C.; Graf, K.; Rätzo, H.; Lateltin, O.


    The high-mountain mass-transport systems are the results of steady mass shifts and catastrophic mass-movement events. The equilibrium of these systems is markedly influenced by ice occurrence, which makes high mountains especially sensitive to climate impacts [1]. The creeping and thawing of frozen debris, often found as permafrost, is a significant factor for the disposition of periglacial debris flows and related slope instabilities [2]. Not only instabilities of debris slopes but also instabilities of rock slopes can be connected to glacial and permafrost processes [3]. Glacier retreats, for instance, affect the stability of valley flanks, or varying ice content affects the rock hydrology. Such system interactions clearly show the urgent need of integral hazard assessments accounting for a variety of relevant processes in high mountains, also considering that a variety of natural hazards in high mountain regions are affecting human activities. Taking into account the wide-area coverage, remote-sensing techniques represent suitable tools for an integral hazard mapping and monitoring in high mountains, regions that are typically difficult to assess [4]. The focus of this contribution is on the potential and limitations of differential SAR interferometry [5,6] for the detection and monitoring of unstable high-mountain slopes [7-11]. SAR data of the ERS and JERS satellites for the Swiss Alps have been analyzed with short baseline interferometry and point target interferometry [12.13]. Significant results for permafrost creeping are presented. The work presented here is part of the ongoing SLAM (Services for Landslide Monitoring) project supported by the European Space Agency [14].

  10. Probing the Martian Subsurface with Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Campbell, B. A.; Maxwell, T. A.; Freeman, A.


    Many regions of the martian surface are covered by fine-grained materials emplaced by volcanic, fluvial, or aeolian processes. These mantling deposits likely hide ancient channel systems (particularly at smaller scale lengths) and volcanic, impact, glacial, or shoreline features. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers the capability to probe meters below the surface, with imaging resolution in the 10 s of m range, to reveal the buried terrain and enhance our understanding of Mars geologic and climate history. This presentation focuses on the practical applications of a Mars orbital SAR, methods for polarimetric and interferometric radar studies, and examples of such techniques for Mars-analog sites on the Moon and Earth.

  11. High Resolution Ionospheric Mapping Using Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radars (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Chotoo, K.; Roth, A. P.


    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) are imaging radar systems that utilize the Doppler history of signals acquired during satellite flyby to produce high resolution images of the Earth. With modern sensors, operating at frequencies between about 1 GHz (L-band) and 10 GHz (X-band), radar images with resolutions in the meter to sub-meter range can be produced. The presence of the ionosphere is significantly affecting the propagation properties of the microwave signals transmitted by these systems, causing distortions of signal polarization and phase. These distortions can lead to a wide range of imaging artifacts including image range shifts, interferometric phase biases, loss of image focus, change of image geometry, and Faraday rotation. While these artifacts are particularly pronounced at L-band, they are still observable in data acquired at C- or even X-band. In recent years, a wealth of methods for measuring and correcting ionospheric influence were developed. These methods are self-calibration procedures that measure ionosphere-induced distortions to infer the two-dimensional TEC maps that affected the data. These TEC maps are then removed from the data to produce high performance SAR images. Besides being effective in correcting SAR observations, these self-calibration methods are producing high quality TEC information with sub-TECU sensitivity and sub-kilometer spatial resolution. The intent of this paper is to utilize SAR-derived ionospheric information and make the case for SAR as a data source for ionospheric research. After a short summary of ionosphere-induced distortions, the concept of TEC estimation from SAR is introduced. Here, the current state-of-the-art of ionospheric TEC estimation is presented, including Faraday rotation-based, interferometric, correlation-based, and autofocus-based techniques. For every approach, performance numbers are given that quantify the achievable TEC estimation accuracy as a function of system parameters, scene

  12. Common-Path Interferometric Wavefront Sensing for Space Telescopes (United States)

    Wallace, James Kent


    This paper presents an optical configuration for a common-path phase-shifting interferometric wavefront sensor.1 2 This sensor has a host of attractive features which make it well suited for space-based adaptive optics. First, it is strictly reflective and therefore operates broadband, second it is common mode and therefore does not suffer from systematic errors (like vibration) that are typical in other interferometers, third it is a phase-shifting interferometer and therefore benefits from both the sensitivity of interferometric sensors as well as the noise rejection afforded by synchronous detection. Unlike the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, it has nearly uniform sensitivity to all pupil modes. Optical configuration, theory and simulations for such a system will be discussed along with predicted performance.

  13. Detection of fast transients with radio interferometric arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, N D R; Cox, P J; Gupta, Y; Prasad, J; Roy, J; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Kudale, S S; van Straten, W


    Next-generation radio arrays, including the SKA and its pathfinders, will open up new avenues for exciting transient science at radio wavelengths. Their innovative designs, comprising a large number of small elements, pose several challenges in digital processing and optimal observing strategies. The Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT)presents an excellent test-bed for developing and validating suitable observing modes and strategies for transient experiments with future arrays. Here we describe the first phase of the ongoing development of a transient detection system for GMRT that is planned to eventually function in a commensal mode with other observing programs. It capitalizes on the GMRT's interferometric and sub-array capabilities, and the versatility of a new software backend. We outline considerations in the plan and design of transient exploration programs with interferometric arrays, and describe a pilot survey that was undertaken to aid in the development of algorithms and associated analysis s...

  14. Synchronous interferometric demodulation of Placido mires applied to corneal topography

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel


    This paper presents a novel digital interferometric method to demodulate Placido fringe patterns. This is a synchronous method which uses a computer-stored conic-wavefront as demodulating reference. Here we focuses on the experimental aspects to phase-demodulate Placido mires applied to corneal topography. This synchronous method is applied to two topographic Placido images and their de-modulated corneal-slope deformation is estimated. This conic-interferometric method is highly robust against typical "noisy" signals in Placido topography such as: reflected eyelashes and iris structures. That is because the eyelashes and the iris structure are high frequency "noisy" signals corrupting the reflected Placido mire, so they are filtered-out by this method. Digital synchronous interferometry is here applied for the first time to demodulate corneal topographic concentric-rings images (Patent pending at the USPTO).

  15. Quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer based on regularized optical flow algorithm (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Vargas, Javier; Wang, Shouyu; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Fei


    Cell detections and analysis are important in various fields, such as medical observations and disease diagnoses. In order to analyze the cell parameters as well as observe the samples directly, in this paper, we present an improved quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer, which can monitor the quantitative phase distributions of bio-samples and realize cellular parameter statistics. The proposed system is able to recover the phase imaging of biological samples in the expanded field of view via a regularized optical flow demodulation algorithm. This algorithm reconstructs the phase distribution with high accuracy with only two interferograms acquired at different time points simplifying the scanning system. Additionally, the method is totally automatic, and therefore it is convenient for establishing a quantitative phase cytometer. Moreover, the phase retrieval approach is robust against noise and background. Excitingly, red blood cells are readily investigated with the quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer system.

  16. Robust sparse image reconstruction of radio interferometric observations with PURIFY

    CERN Document Server

    Pratley, Luke; d'Avezac, Mayeul; Carrillo, Rafael E; Onose, Alexandru; Wiaux, Yves


    Next-generation radio interferometers, such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will revolutionise our understanding of the universe through their unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. However, to realise these goals significant challenges in image and data processing need to be overcome. The standard methods in radio interferometry for reconstructing images, such as CLEAN and its variants, have served the community well over the last few decades and have survived largely because they are pragmatic. However, they produce reconstructed interferometric images that are limited in quality and they are not scalable for big data. In this work we apply and evaluate alternative interferometric reconstruction methods that make use of state-of-the-art sparse image reconstruction algorithms motivated by compressive sensing, which have been implemented in the PURIFY software package. In particular, we implement and apply the proximal alternating direction method of multipliers (P-ADMM) algorithm presented in a recen...

  17. Rapid interferometric imaging of printed drug laden multilayer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Kassamakov, Ivan; Ehlers, Henrik


    /and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) adhere to each other. This is crucial in order to have predetermined drug release profiles. We also demonstrate non-invasive measurement of a polymer structure in a microfluidic channel. It shown that traceable interferometric 3D microscopy is a viable technique......The developments in printing technologies allow fabrication of micron-size nano-layered delivery systems to personal specifications. In this study we fabricated layered polymer structures for drug-delivery into a microfluidic channel and aimed to interferometrically assure their topography...... and adherence to each other. We present a scanning white light interferometer (SWLI) method for quantitative assurance of the topography of the embedded structure. We determined rapidly in non-destructive manner the thickness and roughness of the structures and whether the printed layers containing polymers or...

  18. Rapid Development of Interferometric Software Using MIRIAD and Python

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Peter K G; Bower, Geoffrey C


    New and upgraded radio interferometers produce data at massive rates and will require significant improvements in analysis techniques to reach their promised levels of performance in a routine manner. Until these techniques are fully developed, productivity and accessibility in scientific programming environments will be key bottlenecks in the pipeline leading from data-taking to research results. We present an open-source software package, miriad-python, that allows access to the MIRIAD interferometric reduction system in the Python programming language. The modular design of MIRIAD and the high productivity and accessibility of Python provide an excellent foundation for rapid development of interferometric software. Several other projects with similar goals exist and we describe them and compare miriad-python to them in detail. Along with an overview of the package design, we present sample code and applications, including the detection of millisecond astrophysical transients, determination and application ...

  19. A detector interferometric calibration experiment for high precision astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crouzier, A; Henault, F; Leger, A; Cara, C; LeDuigou, J M; Preis, O; Kern, P; Delboulbe, A; Martin, G; Feautrier, P; Stadler, E; Lafrasse, S; Rochat, S; Ketchazo, C; Donati, M; Doumayrou, E; Lagage, P O; Shao, M; Goullioud, R; Nemati, B; Zhai, C; Behar, E; Potin, S; Saint-Pe, M; Dupont, J


    Context: Exoplanet science has made staggering progress in the last two decades, due to the relentless exploration of new detection methods and refinement of existing ones. Yet astrometry offers a unique and untapped potential of discovery of habitable-zone low-mass planets around all the solar-like stars of the solar neighborhood. To fulfill this goal, astrometry must be paired with high precision calibration of the detector. Aims: We present a way to calibrate a detector for high accuracy astrometry. An experimental testbed combining an astrometric simulator and an interferometric calibration system is used to validate both the hardware needed for the calibration and the signal processing methods. The objective is an accuracy of 5e-6 pixel on the location of a Nyquist sampled polychromatic point spread function. Methods: The interferometric calibration system produced modulated Young fringes on the detector. The Young fringes were parametrized as products of time and space dependent functions, based on vari...

  20. rtpipe: Searching for Fast Radio Transients in Interferometric Data (United States)

    Law, Casey J.


    rtpipe (real-time pipeline) analyzes radio interferometric data with an emphasis on searching for transient or variable astrophysical sources. The package combines single-dish concepts such as dedispersion and filters with interferometric concepts, including images and the uv-plane. In contrast to time-domain data recorded with large single-dish telescopes, visibilities from interferometers can precisely localize sources anywhere in the entire field of view. rtpipe opens interferometers to the study of fast transient sky, including sources like pulsars, stellar flares, rotating radio transients, and fast radio bursts. Key portions of the search pipeline, such as image generation and dedispersion, have been accelerated. That, in combination with its multi-threaded, multi-node design, makes rtpipe capable of searching millisecond timescale data in real time on small compute clusters.

  1. Rapid interferometric imaging of printed drug laden multilayer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Kassamakov, Ivan; Ehlers, Henrik


    /and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) adhere to each other. This is crucial in order to have predetermined drug release profiles. We also demonstrate non-invasive measurement of a polymer structure in a microfluidic channel. It shown that traceable interferometric 3D microscopy is a viable technique......The developments in printing technologies allow fabrication of micron-size nano-layered delivery systems to personal specifications. In this study we fabricated layered polymer structures for drug-delivery into a microfluidic channel and aimed to interferometrically assure their topography...... and adherence to each other. We present a scanning white light interferometer (SWLI) method for quantitative assurance of the topography of the embedded structure. We determined rapidly in non-destructive manner the thickness and roughness of the structures and whether the printed layers containing polymers or...

  2. Nanohertz gravitational wave searches with interferometric pulsar timing experiments. (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo


    We estimate the sensitivity to nano-Hertz gravitational waves of pulsar timing experiments in which two highly stable millisecond pulsars are tracked simultaneously with two neighboring radio telescopes that are referenced to the same timekeeping subsystem (i.e., "the clock"). By taking the difference of the two time-of-arrival residual data streams we can exactly cancel the clock noise in the combined data set, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to gravitational waves. We estimate that, in the band (10(-9)-10(-8))  Hz, this "interferometric" pulsar timing technique can potentially improve the sensitivity to gravitational radiation by almost 2 orders of magnitude over that of single-telescopes. Interferometric pulsar timing experiments could be performed with neighboring pairs of antennas of the NASA's Deep Space Network and the forthcoming large arraying projects.

  3. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Kumar; D Mohan; A K Aggarwal


    A new method is described to create secrete-codes in the security holograms for enhancing their anti-counterfeiting characteristics. To imitate these codes is difficult as pure phase objects having complex phase distribution function are used to modulate the object beam that is recorded in conjunction with an encoded interferometric reference beam derived from a key hologram. Lloyd's folding mirror interferometer is used to convert phase variations of the reconstructed wave-front into an intensity pattern for hologram authenticity verification. Creating the secrete-codes through an interferometric reference beam from the key hologram facilitates a multi-stage authenticity verification as well as easy repositioning of the security hologram through a specific Moiré pattern generated during the verification process.

  4. Synchronous phase detection for optical fiber interferometric sensors. (United States)

    Bush, I J; Phillips, R L


    A system has been developed to accurately detect phase signals produced in optical interferometric sensors. The system employs optical heterodyning and synchronously detects optical phase by feeding back an error signal to a phase modulator in the reference leg of the interferometer. This system is seen to have properties similar to a phase-locked loop. The system is mathematically analyzed and a simple second-order model developed which accurately predicts the system response.

  5. Radar Interferometric Imaging of Near-Earth Asteroids (United States)

    Margot, J. L.; Nolan, M. C.


    High resolution imagery and a three-dimensional characterization of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) can be obtained with ground-based radars. The Arecibo and Goldstone radar systems yield data at spatial resolutions comparable to the highest resolution spacecraft images of asteroids obtained to date. The use of radar interferometry techniques can further improve imaging and shape reconstruction algorithms [1],[2] and may allow direct measurements of the topography of NEAs. A two-element radar interferometer of appropriate baseline provides an observable, the interferometric phase, which can be used to extract three-dimensional information about the target [3], hence giving additional control in shape modeling procedures. The measurement of interferometric phase also opens the possibility of mapping the topography of an asteroid, in a manner similar to that applied recently to the Moon [4]. Simulations show that this is feasible when potential ambiguities in range-Doppler imaging are avoided, for instance when elongated objects are in a favorable orientation. Radar interferometric imaging of 6489 Golevka was attempted during its June 1999 close approach to Earth [5]. The Arecibo 305 m telescope was used to transmit, and the DSN 70 m antenna in Madrid formed the second element of the interferometer. The Arecibo-Madrid baseline defined an ideal fringe pattern for interferometric mapping, but technical difficulties prevented imaging of the Madrid data. Radar interferometry concepts and simulation results will be presented, as well as any new data acquired before the meeting. [1] R. S. Hudson and S. J. Ostro (1994). Science, 263, 940. [2] R. S. Hudson and S. J. Ostro (1995). Science, 270, 84. [3] I. I. Shapiro et al. (1972). Science, 178, 939. [4] J. L. Margot et al. (1999). Science, 284, 1658. [5] J. L. Margot and M. C. Nolan (1999). ACM Meeting, July 26-30, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

  6. Passive millimeter-wave camera with interferometric processing (United States)

    Nohmi, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Seiki; Kujubu, Osamu


    A proto-type passive millimeter-wave (MMW) camera with interferometric processing has been developed. The purpose is to confirm the feasibility of the interferometric MMW camera and to study the characteristics of MMW images. In this paper, the principle and the feature of the interferometric MMW camera is described. Also, the hardware configuration and the image processing algorithm are presented. This proto-type camera is comprised of the minimum configuration as an interferometric imager which consists of two sets of a W-band front end with a horn antenna, a receiver, and an A/D converter, a high-speed processing hardware, and a computer. The position of these two antennas with W-band front-end moves on the precision linear slider in horizontal and vertical axis. The coherently amplified two channel signals are digitized and processed in the hardware processor. The process is comprised of phase error compensation, correlation of all combination of each axis data, and integration to improve the signal to noise ratio. The computer input the integrated data to make an image by matched filter processing. The integration time is from 1mS to 10S depending on required integration gain. The maximum synthesized antenna aperture size is 1m for horizontal axis and 50cm for vertical axis. Because it takes certain time to receive by the moving antennas, only the targets without motion are imaged by this proto-type camera. The processed images will be shown. Also, future plan for a real-time camera using this technique is presented.

  7. Magnonic interferometric switch for multi-valued logic circuits (United States)

    Balynsky, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Khivintsev, Yuri; Bhowmick, Tonmoy; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Dudko, Galina; Filimonov, Yuri; Liu, Guanxiong; Jiang, Chenglong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Lake, Roger; Khitun, Alexander


    We investigated a possible use of the magnonic interferometric switches in multi-valued logic circuits. The switch is a three-terminal device consisting of two spin channels where input, control, and output signals are spin waves. Signal modulation is achieved via the interference between the source and gate spin waves. We report experimental data on a micrometer scale prototype based on the Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 structure. The output characteristics are measured at different angles of the bias magnetic field. The On/Off ratio of the prototype exceeds 13 dB at room temperature. Experimental data are complemented by the theoretical analysis and the results of micro magnetic simulations showing spin wave propagation in a micrometer size magnetic junction. We also present the results of numerical modeling illustrating the operation of a nanometer-size switch consisting of just 20 spins in the source-drain channel. The utilization of spin wave interference as a switching mechanism makes it possible to build nanometer-scale logic gates, and minimize energy per operation, which is limited only by the noise margin. The utilization of phase in addition to amplitude for information encoding offers an innovative route towards multi-state logic circuits. We describe possible implementation of the three-value logic circuits based on the magnonic interferometric switches. The advantages and shortcomings inherent in interferometric switches are also discussed.

  8. Relating Sentinel-1 Interferometric Coherence to Mowing Events on Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel Tamm


    Full Text Available In this study, the interferometric coherence calculated from 12-day Sentinel-1 image pairs was analysed in relation to mowing events on agricultural grasslands. Results showed that after a mowing event, median VH (vertical transmit, horizontal receive and VV (vertical transmit, vertical receive polarisation coherence values were statistically significantly higher than those from before the event. The shorter the time interval after the mowing event and the first interferometric acquisition, the higher the coherence. The coherence tended to stay higher, even 24 to 36 days after a mowing event. Precipitation caused the coherence to decrease, impeding the detection of a mowing event. Given the three analysed acquisition geometries, it was concluded that afternoon acquisitions and steeper incidence angles were more useful in the context of this study. In the case of morning acquisitions, dew might have caused a decrease of coherence for mowed and unmowed grasslands. Additionally, an increase of coherence after a mowing event was not evident during the rapid growth phase, due to the 12-day separation between the interferometric acquisitions. In future studies, six-day pairs utilising Sentinel-1A and 1B acquisitions should be considered.

  9. Interferometric Phase Improvement Based on Polarimetric Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xiong


    Full Text Available In this paper, a method is proposed to improve the interferometric phase quality, based on fusing data from different polarimetric channels. Since lower amplitude implies less reliable phase in general, the phase quality of polarimetric interferometric data can be improved by seeking optimal fusion of data from different polarizations to maximize the resulting amplitude. In the proposed approach, for each pixel, two coherent polarimetric scattering vectors are synchronously projected onto a same optimum direction, maximizing the lower amplitude of the two projections. In the single-look case, the fused phase is equivalent to the weighted average of phases in all polarimetric channels. It provides a good physical explanation of the proposed approach. Without any filtering, the phase noise and the number of residue points are significantly reduced, and the interferometric phase quality is greatly improved. It is a useful tool to preprocess the phase ahead of phase unwrapping. The Cloude’s coherence optimization method is used for a comparison. Using the data collected by SIR-C/X-SAR, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed approach.

  10. Lensless single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Ferreira, Carlos; García, Javier; Micó, Vicente


    Single Exposure Super Resolved Interferometric Microscopy (SESRIM) has been recently proposed as a way to achieve one dimensional super resolved imaging in digital holographic microscopy. SESRIM uses Red-Green-Blue (RGB) multiplexing for illuminating the sample having different propagation angles for each one of the three illumination wavelengths and it has been experimentally validated considering color (A. Calabuig, V. Mico, J. Garcia, Z. Zalevsky, and C. Ferreira, "Single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy by red-green-blue multiplexing," Opt. Lett. 36, 885-887, 2011) and monochrome (A. Calabuig, J. Garcia, C. Ferreira, Z. Zalevsky, and V. Mico, "Resolution improvement by single-exposure superresolved interferometric microscopy with a monochrome sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2346-2358, 2011) digital sensors for holographic recording. In this contribution, we will first review some of the characteristics of the previously reported SESRIM approaches and second, we will present preliminary results for the extension of SESRIM to the field of lensless holographic microscopy. Experimental results are reported validating this new kind of superresolution imaging method named as lensless SESRIM (L-SESRIM).

  11. Comparison of satellite reflectance algorithms for estimating ... (United States)

    We analyzed 10 established and 4 new satellite reflectance algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in a temperate reservoir in southwest Ohio using coincident hyperspectral aircraft imagery and dense water truth collected within one hour of image acquisition to develop simple proxies for algal blooms and to facilitate portability between multispectral satellite imagers for regional algal bloom monitoring. Narrow band hyperspectral aircraft images were upscaled spectrally and spatially to simulate 5 current and near future satellite imaging systems. Established and new Chl-a algorithms were then applied to the synthetic satellite images and then compared to calibrated Chl-a water truth measurements collected from 44 sites within one hour of aircraft acquisition of the imagery. Masks based on the spatial resolution of the synthetic satellite imagery were then applied to eliminate mixed pixels including vegetated shorelines. Medium-resolution Landsat and finer resolution data were evaluated against 29 coincident water truth sites. Coarse-resolution MODIS and MERIS-like data were evaluated against 9 coincident water truth sites. Each synthetic satellite data set was then evaluated for the performance of a variety of spectrally appropriate algorithms with regard to the estimation of Chl-a concentrations against the water truth data set. The goal is to inform water resource decisions on the appropriate satellite data acquisition and processing for the es

  12. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  13. Assimilation of Deformation Data for Eruption Forecasting: Potentiality Assessment Based on Synthetic Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grace Bato


    Full Text Available In monitoring active volcanoes, the magma overpressure is one of the key parameters used in forecasting volcanic eruptions. This parameter can be inferred from the ground displacements measured on the Earth's surface by applying inversion techniques. However, in most studies, the huge amount of information about the behavior of the volcano contained in the temporal evolution of the deformation signal is not fully exploited by inversion. Our work focuses on developing a strategy in order to better forecast the magma overpressure using data assimilation. We take advantage of the increasing amount of geodetic data [i.e., Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS] recorded on volcanoes nowadays together with the wide-range availability of dynamical models that can provide better understanding about the volcano plumbing system. Here, we particularly built our strategy on the basis of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF. We forecast the temporal behaviors of the magma overpressures and surface deformations by adopting a simple and generic two-magma chamber model and by using synthetic GNSS and/or InSAR data. We prove the ability of EnKF to both estimate the magma pressure evolution and constrain the characteristics of the deep volcanic system (i.e., reservoir size as well as basal magma inflow. High temporal frequency of observation is required to ensure the success of EnKF and the quality of assimilation is also improved by increasing the spatial density of observations in the near-field. We thus show that better results are obtained by combining a few GNSS temporal series of high temporal resolution with InSAR images characterized by a good spatial coverage. We also show that EnKF provides similar results to sophisticated Bayesian-based inversion while using the same dynamical model with the advantage of EnKF to potentially account for the temporal evolution of the uncertain model parameters. Our

  14. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry. (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K


    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell.

  15. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    two satellites. A general solution for accurate height computation depends on precise navigation of the two satellites. Validation of the geosynchronous satellite stereo using high altitude mountain lakes and vertically pointing aircraft lidar leads to a height accuracy estimate of +/- 500 m for typical clouds which have been studied. Applications of the satellite stereo include: 1) cloud top and base height measurements, 2) cloud-wind height assignment, 3) vertical motion estimates for convective clouds (Mack et al. [13], [14]), 4) temperature vs. height measurements when stereo is used together with infrared observations and 5) cloud emissivity measurements when stereo, infrared and temperature sounding are used together (see Szejwach et al. [15]). When true satellite stereo image pairs are not available, synthetic stereo may be generated. The combination of multispectral satellite data using computer produced stereo image pairs is a dramatic example of synthetic stereoscopic display. The classic case uses the combination of infrared and visible data as first demonstrated by Pichel et al. [16]. Hasler et at. [17], Mosher and Young [18] and Lorenz [19], have expanded this concept to display many channels of data from various radiometers as well as real and simulated data fields. A future system of stereoscopic satellites would be comprised of both low orbiters (as suggested by Lorenz and Schmidt [20], [19]) and a global system of geosynchronous satellites. The low earth orbiters would provide stereo coverage day and night and include the poles. An optimum global system of stereoscopic geosynchronous satellites would require international standarization of scan rate and direction, and scan times (synchronization) and resolution of at least 1 km in all imaging channels. A stereoscopic satellite system as suggested here would make an extremely important contribution to the understanding and prediction of the atmosphere.

  16. Synthetic-Aperture Silhouette Imaging (SASI) (United States)

    Paxman, R.


    The problem of ground-based fine-resolution imaging of geosynchronous satellites continues to be an important unsolved space-surveillance problem. We are investigating a passive-illumination approach that is radically different from amplitude, intensity, or heterodyne interferometry approaches. The approach, called Synthetic-Aperture Silhouette Imaging (SASI), produces a fine-resolution image of the satellite silhouette. When plane-wave radiation emanating from a bright star is occluded by a GEO satellite, then the light is diffracted and a moving diffraction pattern (shadow) is cast on the surface of the earth. With prior knowledge of the satellite orbit and star location, the track of the moving shadow can be predicted with high precision. A linear array of inexpensive hobby telescopes can be deployed roughly perpendicular to the shadow track to collect a time history of the star intensity as the shadow passes by. A phase-retrieval algorithm, using the strong constraint that the occlusion of the satellite is a binary-valued silhouette, allows us to retrieve the missing phase and reconstruct a fine-resolution image of the silhouette. Silhouettes are highly informative, providing diagnostic information about deployment of antennas and solar panels, enabling satellite pose estimation, and revealing the presence and orientation of neighboring satellites in rendezvous and proximity operations.

  17. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  18. Satellite (Natural) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  19. Plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal


    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  20. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") (United States)

    ... A recent study found that 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a common synthetic cathinone, affects the brain in ... but is at least 10 times more powerful. MDPV is the most common synthetic cathinone found in ...

  1. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids? (United States)

    ... dried plant materials. Chemical tests show that their active ingredients are man-made cannabinoid compounds. Synthetic cannabinoid users report some effects similar to those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception symptoms of psychosis Synthetic cannabinoids can ...

  2. Study on interferometric combination for multi-temporal InSAR optimization (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Yanbing; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Yahui; Chen, Xin; Hong, Wei


    Differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) has already proven its potential for ground subsidence monitoring. In recent years Multi-Temporal InSAR technology has been rapid development. Coherence of interferogram is an important indicator to measure the interferometric phase in the Multi-Temporal InSAR system. This paper study the effect of the Spatial-Temporal baseline on coherence for SAR images in Multi-Temporal InSAR processing base on the aspect of statistics. on the basis of a large amount of data, a formula for calculating coherence for SAR images was deduced which it correspond to the relationship between Spatial-Temporal baseline and the coherence of interferogram. This formula can optimize the selection of interference image pairs during processing Multi-Temporal InSAR. To determine whether this formula is useful, two methods of interference image pairs selection was used, one is the formula to optimize the selection, another is the traditional fixed threshold method. The author compared the coherence of Interferogram to judge the merits of the two methods. The results indicate that the formula not only select more interferogram from interferogram stack, but also increase the number of highly coherent points. And use SBAS-InSAR technique to obtain the 2010-2013 Beijing urban land subsidence information, verification monitoring accuracy by comparing level monitoring result.

  3. Interferometric measurements of many-body topological invariants using mobile impurities (United States)

    Grusdt, F.; Yao, N. Y.; Abanin, D.; Fleischhauer, M.; Demler, E.


    Topological quantum phases cannot be characterized by Ginzburg–Landau type order parameters, and are instead described by non-local topological invariants. Experimental platforms capable of realizing such exotic states now include synthetic many-body systems such as ultracold atoms or photons. Unique tools available in these systems enable a new characterization of strongly correlated many-body states. Here we propose a general scheme for detecting topological order using interferometric measurements of elementary excitations. The key ingredient is the use of mobile impurities that bind to quasiparticles of a host many-body system. Specifically, we show how fractional charges can be probed in the bulk of fractional quantum Hall systems. We demonstrate that combining Ramsey interference with Bloch oscillations can be used to measure Chern numbers characterizing the dispersion of individual quasiparticles, which gives a direct probe of their fractional charges. Possible extensions of our method to other many-body systems, such as spin liquids, are conceivable. PMID:27312285

  4. Research in Geodesy Based Upon Radio Interferometric Observations of GPS (Global Positioning System) Satellites. (United States)


    1983. Robertson, D. S., Carter, W. E., Eanes, R. J., Schutz , B. E., Tapley, B. D., King, R. W., Langley, R. B., Morgan, P. J., and Shapiro, I. I... Alfred Leick (on leave from the Univ. of Maine) Staff Scientists: Drs. Richard I. Abbot, Yehuda Bock, and Sergei A. Gourevitch Principal Research

  5. Satellite SAR interferometric observations of displacements associated with urban subsidence in Suzhou, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    SAR interferometry (InSAR) has a high potential for surface displacement mapping in the range from millimeter to meter. In this paper the potential of ERS-1/2 SAR interferometry for mapping subtle land subsidence has been investigated. A time series of ERS-1/2 SAR data from February 1993 to February 2000 is collected from measurements taken in Suzhou city, Jiangsu Province, China, eight ERS-1/2 SAR images are used to create seven interferograms, and three differential interferograms are produced using the three-pass method, which clearly show the spatial extent of land subsidence. The deformation maps are validated by leveling surveys, the correlation coefficient and standard deviation between them are 0.943 and 0.1706 respectively. Based on seven benchmarks, the subsidence rates are estimated, the overall trends are in close agreement with InSAR results. The results of study show that for the mapping of land subsidence in urban environments InSAR has a strong potential due to its cost-saving, high resolution and accuracy.

  6. First Results of the Performance of the Global Forest/Non-Forest Map derived from TanDEM-X Interferometric Data (United States)

    Gonzalez, Carolina; Rizzoli, Paola; Martone, Michele; Wecklich, Christopher; Bueso Bello, Jose Luis; Krieger, Gerhard; Zink, Manfred


    The globally acquired interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set, used for the recently completed primary goal of the TanDEM-X mission, enables a big opportunity for scientific geo-applications. Of great importance for land characterization, classification, and monitoring is that the data set is globally acquired without gaps and includes multiple acquisitions of every region, with comparable parameters. One of the most valuable maps that can be derived from interferometric SAR data for land classification describes the presence/absence of vegetation. In particular, here we report about the deployment of the Global Forest/Non-Forest Map, derived from TanDEM-X interferometric SAR quick-look data, at a ground resolution of 50 m by 50 m. Presence of structures and in particular vegetation produces multiple scattering known as volume decorrelation. Its contribution can be directly estimated from the assessment of coherence loss in the interferometric bistatic pair, by compensating for all other decorrelation sources, such as poor signal-to-noise ratio or quantization noise. Three different forest types have been characterized based on the estimated volume decorrelation: tropical, temperate, and boreal forest. This characterization was then used in a fuzzy clustering approach for the discrimination of vegetated areas on a global scale. Water and cities are filtered out from the generated maps in order to distinguish volume decorrelation from other decorrelation sources. The validation and performance comparison of the delivered product is also presented, and represents a fundamental tool for optimizing the whole algorithm at all different stages. Furtheremore, as the time interval of the acquisitions is almost 4 years, change detection can be performed as well and examples of deforestation are also going to be included in the final paper.

  7. Ps-LAMBDA: Ambiguity success rate evaluation software for interferometric applications (United States)

    Verhagen, Sandra; Li, Bofeng; Teunissen, Peter J. G.


    Integer ambiguity resolution is the process of estimating the unknown ambiguities of carrier-phase observables as integers. It applies to a wide range of interferometric applications of which Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) precise positioning is a prominent example. GNSS precise positioning can be accomplished anytime and anywhere on Earth, provided that the integer ambiguities of the very precise carrier-phase observables are successfully resolved. As wrongly resolved ambiguities may result in unacceptably large position errors, it is crucial that one is able to evaluate the probability of correct integer ambiguity estimation. This ambiguity success rate depends on the underlying mathematical model as well as on the integer estimation method used. In this contribution, we present the Matlab toolbox Ps-LAMBDA for the evaluation of the ambiguity success rates. It allows users to evaluate all available success rate bounds and approximations for different integer estimators. An assessment of the sharpness of the bounds and approximations is given as well. Furthermore, it is shown how the toolbox can be used to assess the integer ambiguity resolution performance for design and research purposes, so as to study for instance the impact of using different GNSS systems and/or different measurement scenarios.

  8. The Impact of Inter-Modulation Components on Interferometric GNSS-Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Li


    Full Text Available The interferometric Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (iGNSS-R exploits the full spectrum of the transmitted GNSS signal to improve the ranging performance for sea surface height applications. The Inter-Modulation (IM component of the GNSS signals is an additional component that keeps the power envelope of the composite signals constant. This extra component has been neglected in previous studies on iGNSS-R, in both modelling and instrumentation. This letter takes the GPS L1 signal as an example to analyse the impact of the IM component on iGNSS-R ocean altimetry, including signal-to-noise ratio, the altimetric sensitivity and the final altimetric precision. Analytical results show that previous estimates of the final altimetric precision were underestimated by a factor of 1 . 5 ∼ 1 . 7 due to the negligence of the IM component, which should be taken into account in proper design of the future spaceborne iGNSS-R altimetry missions.

  9. Governance from space: Satellite InSAR observations to support decision-making and to avoid calamities (United States)

    Lambert, John; De Lange, Ger; Maccabiani, Jos


    Satellites are revolving around the earth already for over five decades, nowadays allowing us to have images of every location on our planet, using different techniques. These images are used for many different purposes, but the number of applications is still growing fast. In this paper, some practical applications of InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) data are described. The detection of trends in the movements of the earth surface and those of buildings and infrastructure is one of the applications for this infrastructure. InSAR data from the North-East Groningen gas field region show how large scale subsidence patterns can be detected and can support spatial planning strategies. Another case, in Diemen, shows how InSAR data support the municipal government in their management strategies. Another case shows how InSAR observations, taken from the entrance to the Vlaketunnel, could have warned in advance for the collapse of one of these entries. Finally, it will be shown that InSAR data can be helpful to monitor the effects of (underground) civil engineering activities, such as the construction of the North-Southline in Amsterdam.

  10. Estimation of an eartquake focal mechanism from a satellite radar interferogram:Application to the December 4, 1992 Landers aftershock (United States)

    Feigl, Kurt L.; Sergent, Arnaud; Jacq, Dominique


    Interferometric fringes generated by the phase difference between a pair of synthetic-aperture radar images acquired by the ERS-1 satellite were used to estimate the focal mechanism of a small, shallow thrust earthquake. The inversion procedure is an iterative, linerarized least-squares algorithm based on a standard elastic dislocation formulation for coseismic displacements. The preferred estimate is a thrust focal mechanism with its hypocenter at (N34.35 deg +/- 0.4 km, W 116.91 deg +/- 0.2 km, 2.6 +/- 0.3 km depth) on a plane dipping southward beneath the San Bernardino Mountains, with a moment magnitude of 5.4. The strike, dip and rake are N106 deg E +/- 7 deg, 28 deg +/- 4 deg, and 93 deg +/- 4deg, respectively on a fault 3.1 +/- 0.5 km wide and 2.9 +/- 0.4 km long. The precision of these estimates is competitive with seismological determinations.

  11. Using GPS Interferometric Reflectometry to estimate soil moisture and vegetation water content fluctuations (United States)

    Chew, C. C.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Braun, J. J.; Shreve, C. M.


    High-precision GPS receivers can be used to estimate fluctuations in near surface soil moisture, snow and vegetation water content. This approach, referred to as GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR), relates precise changes in the geometry of reflected GPS signals to observe soil moisture and snow while simultaneously using signal attenuation and diffuse scattering to infer changes in vegetative state. Previous remote sensing research has shown that microwave signals (e.g., L-band) are optimal for measuring hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture, and because GPS satellites transmit similar signals, they can be useful for sensing water in the environment. In addition, standard GPS antenna configurations that are used in NSF's Plate Boundary Observatory network yield sensing footprints of ~1000 m2. Given this sensitivity, hundreds of GPS receivers that exist in the U.S. could be used to provide near-real time estimates of soil moisture and vegetation water content for satellite validation, drought monitoring and related studies. A significant obstacle to using L-band (or similar) signals for remote sensing is differentiating the effects of soil moisture and vegetation on the retrieval of hydrologic variables. This same challenge exists when using GPS-IR data. We have established nine research sites with identical GPS and hydrologic infrastructure to study this problem. These sites span a wide range of soil, vegetation, and climate types. In addition to daily GPS and hourly soil moisture data, we have collected weekly vegetation water content samples at all sites. Our data demonstrate that soil moisture fluctuations can be estimated from GPS-IR records when vegetation water content is low (moisture and vegetation signals and quantifying errors in our retrieval algorithm.

  12. Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Knittel, Joachim; Lee, Kwan H; Bowen, Warwick P


    Sensors based on whispering gallery mode resonators can detect single nanoparticles and even single molecules. Particles attaching to the resonator induce a doublet in the transmission spectrum which provides a self-referenced detection signal. However, in practice this spectral feature is often obscured by the width of the resonance line which hides the doublet structure. This happens particularly in liquid environments that reduce the effective Q factor of the resonator. In this paper we demonstrate an interferometric set-up that allows the direct detection of the hidden doublet and thus provides a pathway for developing practical sensor applications.

  13. On the GNSS-R Interferometric Complex Field Coherence Time

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, G


    In this paper we focus on the microwave bistatic scattering process, with the aim of deriving an expression for the interferometric complex field auto-correlation function from a static platform. We start from the Fresnel integral and derive the auto-correlation function in the Fraunhofer and Modified Fraunhofer regime. The autocorrelation function at short times can be expressed as a Gaussian with a direction dependent time scale. The directional modulation is a function of the angle between the scattering direction and the wave direction. The obtained relation can be used for directional sea state estimation using one or more GNSS-R coastal receivers.

  14. Data Quality Studies of Enhanced Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McIver, Jessica


    Data quality assessment plays an essential role in the quest to detect gravitational wave signals in data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Interferometer data contains a high rate of noise transients from the environment, the detector hardware, and the detector control systems. These transients severely limit the statistical significance of gravitational wave candidates of short duration and/or poorly modeled waveforms. This paper describes the data quality studies that have been performed in recent LIGO and Virgo observing runs to mitigate the impact of transient detector artifacts on the gravitational wave searches.

  15. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar (United States)

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas


    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  16. Interferometric full-waveform inversion of time-lapse data

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal


    One of the key challenges associated with time-lapse surveys is ensuring the repeatability between the baseline and monitor surveys. Non-repeatability between the surveys is caused by varying environmental conditions over the course of different surveys. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of interferometric full waveform inversion (IFWI) for inverting the velocity model from data recorded by baseline and monitor surveys. A known reflector is used as the reference reflector for IFWI, and the data are naturally redatumed to this reference reflector using natural reflections as the redatuming operator. This natural redatuming mitigates the artifacts introduced by the repeatability errors that originate above the reference reflector.

  17. New orbital elements of 5 interferometric double stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olević D.


    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, are presented elliptical and Thiel- Innes orbitatal elements for the following interferometric pairs: WDS 00416+2438 = WRH, WDS 03271+1845 = CHARA 10, WDS 04044+2406 = McA 13 Aa, WDS 17095+4047 = McA 45 and WDS 23019+4219 = o And Aa. For the pairs WDS 03271+1845 = CHARA 10 andWDS 04044+2406 = McA 13 Aa are calculated total masses and dynamical parallaxes which are compared with corresponding Hipparcos parallaxes.

  18. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim


    Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.



    Robertson, J. G.; Davis, J.; Ireland, M.J.; Tuthill, P. G.; Tango, W. J.; Jacob, A. P.; North, J. R.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.


    La Universidad de Sydney tiene una larga historia en interferometrÍa estelar óptica. El primer proyecto, en los aÑos 60, fue el interferómetro de intensidad estelar de Narrabri, que midió los di ametros angulares de 32 estrellas calientes y estableció la escala de temperatura para las clases espectrales O-F. Ese instrumento fue seguido por el interferómetro estelar de la Universidad de Sydney (SUSI), que ahora está experimentando una mejora de tercera generación, para utilizar el combinador d...

  20. Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan


    A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.

  1. Twin mirrors for laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. (United States)

    Sassolas, Benoît; Benoît, Quentin; Flaminio, Raffaele; Forest, Danièle; Franc, Janyce; Galimberti, Massimo; Lacoudre, Aline; Michel, Christophe; Montorio, Jean-Luc; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent


    Gravitational-wave detectors such as Virgo and the laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) use a long-baseline Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot cavities in the arms to search for gravitational waves. The symmetry between the two Fabry-Perot cavities is crucial to reduce the interferometer's sensitivity to the laser amplitude and frequency noise. To this purpose, the transmittance of the mirrors in both cavities should be as close as possible. This paper describes the realization and the characterization of the first twin large low-loss mirrors with transmissions differing by less than 0.01%.

  2. Interferometric vibration sensor using phase-generated carrier method. (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Liu, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tan, Zhongwei; Jian, Shuisheng


    An interferometric fiber-optic vibration sensing system using the phase-generated carrier (PGC) method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing section consists of a Sagnac interferometer combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a length of sensing fiber is shared between the two interferometers. The PGC demodulation scheme is used to demodulate the time-varying phase shifts induced by vibrations. Spatial information can be extracted from the demodulated results. A prototype sensing system with a 628 m long sensing fiber has been tested and a spatial resolution better than 12 m is successfully achieved.

  3. Scientific Satellites (United States)


    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  4. Fast terrain modelling for hydrogeological risk mapping and emergency management: the contribution of high-resolution satellite SAR imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nascetti


    Full Text Available Geomatic tools fast terrain modelling play a relevant role in hydrogeological risk mapping and emergency management. Given their complete independence from logistic constraints on the ground (as for airborne data collection, illumination (daylight, and weather (clouds conditions, synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite systems may provide important contributions in terms of digital surface models (DSMs and digital elevation models (DEMs. For this work we focused on the potential of high-resolution SAR satellite imagery for DSM generation using an interferometric (InSAR technique and using a revitalized radargrammetric stereomapping approach. The goal of this work was just methodological. Our goal was to illustrate both the fundamental advantages and drawbacks of the radargrammetric approach with respect to the InSAR technique for DSM generation, and to outline their possible joint role in hydrogeological risk mapping and emergency management. Here, it is worth mentioning that radargrammetry procedures are independent of image coherence (unlike the interferometric approach and phase unwrapping, as well as of parsimony (only a few images are necessary. Therefore, a short time is required for image collection (from tens of minutes to a few hours, thanks to the independence from illumination and weather. The most relevant obstacles of the technique are speckle and the lack of texture impact on image matching, as well as the well-known deformations of SAR imagery (layover and foreshortening, which may produce remarkable difficulties with complex morphologies and that must be accounted for during acquisition planning. Here, we discuss results obtained with InSAR and radargrammetry applied to a COSMO-SkyMed SpotLight triplet (two stereopairs suited for radargrammetry and InSAR, sharing one common image acquired over suburbs of San Francisco (United States, which are characterized by mixed morphology and land cover. We mainly focused on urban areas and

  5. Nonlinear Interferometric Vibrational Imaging (NIVI) with Novel Optical Sources (United States)

    Boppart, Stephen A.; King, Matthew D.; Liu, Yuan; Tu, Haohua; Gruebele, Martin

    Optical imaging is essential in medicine and in fundamental studies of biological systems. Although many existing imaging modalities can supply valuable information, not all are capable of label-free imaging with high-contrast and molecular specificity. The application of molecular or nanoparticle contrast agents may adversely influence the biological system under investigation. These substances also present ongoing concerns over toxicity or particle clearance, which must be properly addressed before their approval for in vivo human imaging. Hence there is an increasing appreciation for label-free imaging techniques. It is of primary importance to develop imaging techniques that can indiscriminately identify and quantify biochemical compositions to high degrees of sensitivity and specificity through only the intrinsic optical response of endogenous molecular species. The development and use of nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging, which is based on the interferometric detection of optical signals from coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), along with novel optical sources, offers the potential for label-free molecular imaging.

  6. A novel lightweight Fizeau infrared interferometric imaging system (United States)

    Hope, Douglas A.; Hart, Michael; Warner, Steve; Durney, Oli; Romeo, Robert


    Aperture synthesis imaging techniques using an interferometer provide a means to achieve imagery with spatial resolution equivalent to a conventional filled aperture telescope at a significantly reduced size, weight and cost, an important implication for air- and space-borne persistent observing platforms. These concepts have been realized in SIRII (Space-based IR-imaging interferometer), a new light-weight, compact SWIR and MWIR imaging interferometer designed for space-based surveillance. The sensor design is configured as a six-element Fizeau interferometer; it is scalable, light-weight, and uses structural components and main optics made of carbon fiber replicated polymer (CFRP) that are easy to fabricate and inexpensive. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed. The optics, detectors, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. SIRII is being designed for technical intelligence from geo-stationary orbit. It has an instantaneous 6 x 6 mrad FOV and the ability to rapidly scan a 6x6 deg FOV, with a minimal SNR. The interferometric design can be scaled to larger equivalent filled aperture, while minimizing weight and costs when compared to a filled aperture telescope with equivalent resolution. This scalability in SIRII allows it address a range of IR-imaging scenarios.

  7. Rapid interferometric imaging of printed drug laden multilayer structures. (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas; Kassamakov, Ivan; Ehlers, Henrik; Genina, Natalja; Ylitalo, Tuomo; Haeggstrom, Edward


    The developments in printing technologies allow fabrication of micron-size nano-layered delivery systems to personal specifications. In this study we fabricated layered polymer structures for drug-delivery into a microfluidic channel and aimed to interferometrically assure their topography and adherence to each other. We present a scanning white light interferometer (SWLI) method for quantitative assurance of the topography of the embedded structure. We determined rapidly in non-destructive manner the thickness and roughness of the structures and whether the printed layers containing polymers or/and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) adhere to each other. This is crucial in order to have predetermined drug release profiles. We also demonstrate non-invasive measurement of a polymer structure in a microfluidic channel. It shown that traceable interferometric 3D microscopy is a viable technique for detailed structural quality assurance of layered drug-delivery systems. The approach can have impact and find use in a much broader setting within and outside life sciences.

  8. Interferometric and localized surface plasmon based fiber optic sensor (United States)

    Muri, Harald Ian D. I.; Bano, Andon; Hjelme, Dag Roar


    We demonstrate a novel single point, multi-parameter, fiber optic sensor concept based on a combination of interferometric and plasmonic sensor modalities on an optical fiber end face. The sensor consists of a micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer in the form of a hemispherical stimuli-responsive hydrogel with immobilized gold nanoparticles. We present results of proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing of refractive index (RI) in the visible range and interferometric measurements of volumetric changes of the pH stimuli-responsive hydrogel in near infrared range. The response of LSPR to RI (Δλr/ΔRI 877nm/RI) and the free spectral range (FSR) to pH (ΔpH/ΔFSR = 0.09624/nm) were measured with LSPR relatively constant for hydrogel swelling degree and FSR relatively constant for RI. We expect this novel sensor concept to be of great value for biosensors for medical applications.

  9. Influence of spatial temperature distribution on high accuracy interferometric metrology (United States)

    Gu, Yongqiang; Miao, Erlong; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Huaijiang


    We calculate the influence of temperature change on the refractive index of air, establish a model of air temperature distribution and analyze the effect of different temperature distribution on the high accuracy interferometric metrology. First, a revised Edlen formula is employed to acquire the relation between temperature and refractive index of air, followed by introducing the fixed temperature gradient distribution among the spatial grid within the optical cavity between the reference flat and the test flat of the Fizeau interferometer, accompanied by a temperature change random function within each grid. Finally, all the rays through the air layer with different incident angles are traced by Matlab program in order to obtain the final output position, angle and OPD for each ray. The influence of different temperature distribution and the length of the optical cavity in on the testing accuracy can be analyzed through the RMS value that results from repeatable rays tracing. As a result, the horizontal distribution (vertical to optical axis) has a large effect on the testing accuracy. Thus, to realize the high accuracy figure metrology, the horizontal distribution of temperature must be rigorously controlled as well as to shorten the length of the optical cavity to a large extent. The results from our simulation are of great significant for the accuracy analysis of interferometric testing and the research of manufacturing a interferometer.

  10. Secure space-to-space interferometric communications and its nexus to the physics of quantum entanglement (United States)

    Duarte, F. J.


    The history of the probability amplitude equation |ψ>=(|x ,y >-|y ,x >) applicable to quanta pairs, propagating in different directions with entangled polarizations, is reviewed and traced back to the 1947-1949 period. The interferometric Dirac foundations common to |ψ>=(|x ,y >-|y ,x >) and the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, for indistinguishable quanta, are also described. The results from a series of experiments on N-slit laser interferometers, with intra interferometric propagation paths up to 527 m, are reviewed. Particular attention is given to explain the generation of interferometric characters, for secure space-to-space communications, which immediately collapse on attempts of interception. The design of a low divergence N-slit laser interferometer for low Earth orbit-low Earth orbit (LEO-LEO), and LEO-geostationary Earth orbit (LEO-GEO), secure interferometric communications is described and a weight assessment is provided.

  11. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.


    The aim of the paper is to present offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wind fields from RADARSAT-1/-2 and Envisat and to compare these wakes qualitatively to wind farm wake model results. From some satellite SAR wind maps very long wakes are observed. Th...

  12. Astronomy from satellite clusters (United States)

    Stachnik, R.; Labeyrie, A.


    Attention is called to the accumulating evidence that giant space telescopes, comprising a number of separate mirrors on independent satellites, are a realistic prospect for providing research tools of extraordinary power. The ESA-sponsored group and its counterpart in the US have reached remarkably similar conclusions regarding the basic configuration of extremely large synthetic-aperture devices. Both share the basic view that a cluster of spacecraft is preferable to a single monolithic structure. The emphasis of the US group has been on a mission that sweeps across as many sources as possible in the minimum time; it is referred to as SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry). The European group has placed more emphasis on obtaining two-dimensional images. Their system is referred to as TRIO because, at least initially, it involves three independent systems. Detailed descriptions are given of the two systems.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Mexico City Subsidence by Means of Interferometric Techniques (United States)

    Lopez-Quiroz, P.; Tupin, F.; Briole, P.; Doin, M.; Nicolas, J.


    In Mexico city, water over-consumption leads to subsidence. Before the Spanish conquest, the southern part of the Mexico Valley, an endoreic basin surrounded by mountains, was filled by a large lake. Flooding problems oblige conquerors to dry the lakes, which by now have almost completely disappeared and have been replaced by buildings. The simplified hydrogeologic structure of Mexico Valley includes a superficial 50 to 300 m thick lacustrine aquitard overlying a thicker aquifer made of alluvial deposits. The aquitard layer plays a crucial role in the subsidence process due to the very high compressibility of its clay deposits separated by a less compressible sand layer where the biggest buildings are anchored. The aquifer over-exploitation leads to a depression of its piezometric level, inducing water downwards flow in the clays, yielding compaction and subsidence (Rivera, 1990). In order to quantitatively link subsidence to water pumping, the Mexico city subsidence needs to be mapped and analyzed through space and time. It will help identify possible variations related with seasonal recharge, anchored and non anchored buildings, old and new pumping areas with varying clay compressibility through time due to consolidation (Rivera, 1990, Ortega-Guerrero et al., 1999). Radar interferometry (InSAR, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) has been successfully applied to map subsidence caused by water pumping (e. g., Amelung et al., 2000). It uses two repeated SAR acquisitions to obtain distance measurements. After geometrical corrections, the interferometric phase contains deformation information as well as residual orbital and topographic errors and atmospheric delays. A previous work using levelling, interferometry and GPS techniques over Mexico city showed that the location of the maximum subsidence rates (about 400 mm/yr) has changed and moved from the downtown area to the east of the city over a 50 years interval (Cabral-Cano et al., 2006). In this previous

  14. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind]. (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal


    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing synthetic biology. (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M


    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  16. Extra Wideband Polarimetry, Interferometry and Polarimetric Interferometry in Synthetic Aperture Remote Sensing(Special Issue on Advances in Radar Systems)


    Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin; Yamaguchi, Yoshio


    The development of Radar Polarimetry and Radar Interferometry is advancing rapidly. Whereas with radar polarimetry, the textural fine-structure, target orientation, symmetries and material constituents can be recovered with considerable improvement above that of standard amplitude-only radar; with radar interferometry the spatial(in depth)structure can be explored. In Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar(POL-IN-SAR)Imaging, it is possible to recover such co-registered textura...

  17. Quantifying offshore wind resources from satellite wind maps: Study area the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Christiansen, Merete B.;


    Offshore wind resources are quantified from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and satellite scatterometer observations at local and regional scale respectively at the Horns Rev site in Denmark. The method for wind resource estimation from satellite observations interfaces with the wind atl...

  18. Interferometric Scattering Microscopy for the Study of Molecular Motors. (United States)

    Andrecka, J; Takagi, Y; Mickolajczyk, K J; Lippert, L G; Sellers, J R; Hancock, W O; Goldman, Y E; Kukura, P


    Our understanding of molecular motor function has been greatly improved by the development of imaging modalities, which enable real-time observation of their motion at the single-molecule level. Here, we describe the use of a new method, interferometric scattering microscopy, for the investigation of motor protein dynamics by attaching and tracking the motion of metallic nanoparticle labels as small as 20nm diameter. Using myosin-5, kinesin-1, and dynein as examples, we describe the basic assays, labeling strategies, and principles of data analysis. Our approach is relevant not only for motor protein dynamics but also provides a general tool for single-particle tracking with high spatiotemporal precision, which overcomes the limitations of single-molecule fluorescence methods.

  19. Fine tuning consensus optimization for distributed radio interferometric calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod


    We recently proposed the use of consensus optimization as a viable and effective way to improve the quality of calibration of radio interferometric data. We showed that it is possible to obtain far more accurate calibration solutions and also to distribute the compute load across a network of computers by using this technique. A crucial aspect in any consensus optimization problem is the selection of the penalty parameter used in the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) iterations. This affects the convergence speed as well as the accuracy. In this paper, we use the Hessian of the cost function used in calibration to appropriately select this penalty. We extend our results to a multi-directional calibration setting, where we propose to use a penalty scaled by the squared intensity of each direction.

  20. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepage Dominic


    Full Text Available Abstract A surface plasmon resonance (SPR scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The surface roughness of the substrate layer is examined for different dielectrics and deposition methods. The Au layer, on which the plasmonic modes are propagating and the biosensing occurs, is also examined. The surface roughness and dielectric values for various deposition rates of very thin Au films are measured. We also investigate an interferometric SPR setup where, due to the power flux transfer between plasmon modes, the specific choice of grating coupler can either decrease or increase the plasmon propagation length.

  1. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing. (United States)

    Lepage, Dominic; Carrier, Dominic; Jiménez, Alvaro; Beauvais, Jacques; Dubowski, Jan J


    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The surface roughness of the substrate layer is examined for different dielectrics and deposition methods. The Au layer, on which the plasmonic modes are propagating and the biosensing occurs, is also examined. The surface roughness and dielectric values for various deposition rates of very thin Au films are measured. We also investigate an interferometric SPR setup where, due to the power flux transfer between plasmon modes, the specific choice of grating coupler can either decrease or increase the plasmon propagation length.

  2. Radio interferometric gain calibration as a complex optimization problem

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Oleg


    Recent developments in optimization theory have extended some traditional algorithms for least-squares optimization of real-valued functions (Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, etc.) into the domain of complex functions of a complex variable. This employs a formalism called the Wirtinger derivative, and derives a full-complex Jacobian counterpart to the conventional real Jacobian. We apply these developments to the problem of radio interferometric gain calibration, and show how the general complex Jacobian formalism, when combined with conventional optimization approaches, yields a whole new family of calibration algorithms, including those for the polarized and direction-dependent gain regime. We further extend the Wirtinger calculus to an operator-based matrix calculus for describing the polarized calibration regime. Using approximate matrix inversion results in computationally efficient implementations; we show that some recently proposed calibration algorithms such as StefCal and peeling can be understood...

  3. Automated computational aberration correction method for broadband interferometric imaging techniques. (United States)

    Pande, Paritosh; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A; Boppart, Stephen A


    Numerical correction of optical aberrations provides an inexpensive and simpler alternative to the traditionally used hardware-based adaptive optics techniques. In this Letter, we present an automated computational aberration correction method for broadband interferometric imaging techniques. In the proposed method, the process of aberration correction is modeled as a filtering operation on the aberrant image using a phase filter in the Fourier domain. The phase filter is expressed as a linear combination of Zernike polynomials with unknown coefficients, which are estimated through an iterative optimization scheme based on maximizing an image sharpness metric. The method is validated on both simulated data and experimental data obtained from a tissue phantom, an ex vivo tissue sample, and an in vivo photoreceptor layer of the human retina.

  4. Differentiating surface and bulk interactions in nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J


    Detecting specific target analytes and differentiating them from interfering background effects is a crucial but challenging task in complex multi-component solutions commonly encountered in environmental, chemical, biological, and medical sensing applications. Here we present a simple nanoplasmonic interferometric sensor platform that can differentiate the adsorption of a thin protein layer on the sensor surface (surface effects) from bulk refractive index changes (interfering background effects) at a single sensing spot, exploiting the different penetration depths of multiple propagating surface plasmon polaritons excited in the ring-hole nanostructures. A monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules with an effective thickness of 1.91nm is detected and differentiated from a 10-3 change in the bulk refractive index unit of the solution. The noise level of the retrieved real-time sensor output compares favorably with traditional prism-based surface plasmon resonance sensors, but is achieved using a sign...

  5. Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature (United States)

    Robb, Paul N.; Huff, Lynn W.; Forney, Paul B.; Petrovsky, Gury T.; Ljubarsky, Sergey V.; Khimitch, Yuri P.


    This paper presents the results of interferometric tests of two silicon carbide mirrors tested at room temperature and 6 K. The first mirror has a spherical f/1.73 surface, a diameter of 170 mm, and is of solid, plano-concave construction. The other mirror, a plano measuring 308 mm by 210 mm, is of lightweighted, closed-back construction. The mirrors were manufactured by the Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and were loaned to Lockheed for these tests. Optical tests on both mirrors were performed using the Lockheed cryogenic optical test facility at liquid helium temperature and a Zygo Mark II interferometer. There was no change in the surface figure of the mirrors, within the test uncertainty of approximately plus or minus 0.02 waves at 0.6328-micrometer wavelength.

  6. Interferometric control of the photon-number distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Esat Kondakci


    Full Text Available We demonstrate deterministic control over the photon-number distribution by interfering two coherent beams within a disordered photonic lattice. By sweeping a relative phase between two equal-amplitude coherent fields with Poissonian statistics that excite adjacent sites in a lattice endowed with disorder-immune chiral symmetry, we measure an output photon-number distribution that changes periodically between super-thermal and sub-thermal photon statistics upon ensemble averaging. Thus, the photon-bunching level is controlled interferometrically at a fixed mean photon-number by gradually activating the excitation symmetry of the chiral-mode pairs with structured coherent illumination and without modifying the disorder level of the random system itself.

  7. Spin-polarizing interferometric beam splitter for free electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dellweg, Matthias M


    A spin-polarizing electron beam splitter is described which relies on an arrangement of linearly polarized laser waves of nonrelativistic intensity. An incident electron beam is first coherently scattered off a bichromatic laser field, splitting the beam into two portions, with electron spin and momentum being entangled. Afterwards, the partial beams are coherently superposed in an interferometric setup formed by standing laser waves. As a result, the outgoing electron beam is separated into its spin components along the laser magnetic field, which is shown by both analytical and numerical solutions of Pauli's equation. The proposed laser field configuration thus exerts the same effect on free electrons like an ordinary Stern-Gerlach magnet does on atoms.

  8. Molecular Histopathology by Spectrally Reconstructed Nonlinear Interferometric Vibrational Imaging (United States)

    Chowdary, Praveen D.; Jiang, Zhi; Chaney, Eric J.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Marks, Daniel L.; Gruebele, Martin; Boppart, Stephen A.


    Sensitive assays for rapid quantitative analysis of histologic sections, resected tissue specimens, or in situ tissue are highly desired for early disease diagnosis. Stained histopathology is the gold standard but remains a subjective practice on processed tissue taking from hours to days. We describe a microscopy technique that obtains a sensitive and accurate color-coded image from intrinsic molecular markers. Spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging can differentiate cancer versus normal tissue sections with greater than 99% confidence interval in a preclinical rat breast cancer model and define cancer boundaries to ±100 μm with greater than 99% confidence interval, using fresh unstained tissue sections imaged in less than 5 minutes. By optimizing optical sources and beam delivery, this technique can potentially enable real-time point-of-care optical molecular imaging and diagnosis. PMID:21098699

  9. Interferometric correlator for acoustic radiation and underlying structural vibration (United States)

    Apostol, Adela; Kilpatrick, James; Markov, Vladimir; Bendiksen, Oddvar O.


    In this paper we discuss the background and principles of an optical non-contact sensor fusion concept, the Interferometric Correlator for Acoustic Radiation and Underlying Structural Vibration (ICARUSV) and give practical example of its capabilities, focusing on its ability to simultaneously capture, visualize and quantitatively characterize full-field non-stationary structural dynamics and unsteady radiated sound fields or transient flow fields around the structure of interest. The ICARUSV's multi-sensor design is based on a parallel architecture and therefore the data capture is fast and inherently support a wide variety of spatio-temporal or spatio-spectral analysis methods which characterize the structural or acoustic/flow field dynamics as it occurs in real time, including short-lived transient events. No other technology available today offers this level of multi-parameter multi-dimensional data1.

  10. Advanced Virgo: a 2nd generation interferometric gravitational wave detector

    CERN Document Server



    Advanced Virgo is the project to upgrade the Virgo interferometric detector of gravitational waves, with the aim of increasing the number of observable galaxies (and thus the detection rate) by three orders of magnitude. The project is now in an advanced construction phase and the assembly and integration will be completed by the end of 2015. Advanced Virgo will be part of a network with the two Advanced LIGO detectors in the US and GEO HF in Germany, with the goal of contributing to the early detections of gravitational waves and to opening a new observation window on the universe. In this paper we describe the main features of the Advanced Virgo detector and outline the status of the construction.

  11. Interferometric SAR for observation of glacier motion and firn penetration (United States)

    Winebrenner, Dale P.; Joughlin, Ian R.; Fahnestock, Mark A.


    A digital elevation model (DEM) for a swath in west Greenland above Jakobshavn Isbrae derived from a number ERS-1 interferograms combined so as to reduce phase errors and other problems is presented. The DEM shows a wealth of kilometer-scale, dynamically supported topography, which arises from ice sheet flow over the rough bed. A correlation is shown between topography and interferometric phase due solely to ice sheet motion, which clearly shows the translations of scatterers in the surface up and downslope in the topography. Finally, the low correlation in interferograms of ice sheet dry snow zones motivates investigation on the depth-locus of backscattering. A scattering model is presented, including realistic firn grain size distributions and layering, which shows that layering helps to localize backscattering from dry firn to shallower depths than would otherwise be expected.

  12. Interferometric array design optimizing the locations of the antenna pads

    CERN Document Server

    Boone, F


    The design of an interferometric array should allow optimal instrumental response regarding all possible source positions, times of integration and scientific goals. It should also take into account constraints such as forbidden regions on the ground due to impracticable topography. The complexity of the problem requires one to proceed by steps. A possible approach is to first consider a single observation and a single scientific purpose. A new algorithm is introduced to solve efficiently this particular problem called the configuration problem. It is based on the computation of pressure forces related to the discrepancies between the model (as determined by the scientific purpose) and the actual distribution of Fourier samples. The flexibility and rapidity of the method are well adapted to the full array design. A software named APO that can be used for the design of new generation interferometers such as ALMA and ATA has been developed.

  13. All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors. (United States)

    Dante, Stefania; Duval, Daphné; Sepúlveda, Borja; González-Guerrero, Ana Belen; Sendra, José Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M


    We present the theoretical and the experimental implementation of an all-optical phase modulation system in integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers to solve the drawbacks related to the periodic nature of the interferometric signal. Sensor phase is tuned by modulating the emission wavelength of low-cost commercial laser diodes by changing their output power. FFT deconvolution of the signal allows for direct phase readout, immune to sensitivity variations and to light intensity fluctuations. This simple phase modulation scheme increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements in one order of magnitude, rendering in a sensor with a detection limit of 1.9·10⁻⁷ RIU. The viability of the all-optical modulation approach is demonstrated with an immunoassay detection as a biosensing proof of concept.

  14. Miniaturized fiber-optic Michelson-type interferometric sensors (United States)

    Murphy, Kent A.; Miller, William V., III; Tran, Tuan A.; Vengsarkar, Ashish M.; Claus, Richard O.


    A novel, miniaturized Michelson-type fiber-optic interferometric sensor that is relatively insensitive to temperature drifts is presented. A fused-biconical tapered coupler is cleaved immediately after the coupled length and polished down to the region of the fused cladding, but short of the interaction region. The end of one core is selectively coated with a reflective surface and is used as the reference arm; the other core serves as the sensing arm. The detection of surface acoustic waves, microdisplacements, and magnetic fields is reported. The sensor is shown to be highly stable in comparison to a classic homodyne, uncompensated Michelson interferometer, and signal-to-noise ratios of 65 dB have been obtained.

  15. A detector interferometric calibration experiment for high precision astrometry (United States)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Henault, F.; Léger, A.; Cara, C.; LeDuigou, J. M.; Preis, O.; Kern, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Rochat, S.; Ketchazo, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, E.; Lagage, P. O.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Behar, E.; Potin, S.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.


    Context. Exoplanet science has made staggering progress in the last two decades, due to the relentless exploration of new detection methods and refinement of existing ones. Yet astrometry offers a unique and untapped potential of discovery of habitable-zone low-mass planets around all the solar-like stars of the solar neighborhood. To fulfill this goal, astrometry must be paired with high precision calibration of the detector. Aims: We present a way to calibrate a detector for high accuracy astrometry. An experimental testbed combining an astrometric simulator and an interferometric calibration system is used to validate both the hardware needed for the calibration and the signal processing methods. The objective is an accuracy of 5 × 10-6 pixel on the location of a Nyquist sampled polychromatic point spread function. Methods: The interferometric calibration system produced modulated Young fringes on the detector. The Young fringes were parametrized as products of time and space dependent functions, based on various pixel parameters. The minimization of function parameters was done iteratively, until convergence was obtained, revealing the pixel information needed for the calibration of astrometric measurements. Results: The calibration system yielded the pixel positions to an accuracy estimated at 4 × 10-4 pixel. After including the pixel position information, an astrometric accuracy of 6 × 10-5 pixel was obtained, for a PSF motion over more than five pixels. In the static mode (small jitter motion of less than 1 × 10-3 pixel), a photon noise limited precision of 3 × 10-5 pixel was reached.

  16. SAR Interferometric Analysis Of Ground Deformation At Santorini Volcano (Greece) (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Elena; Foumelis, Michael; Parcharidis, Issaak


    The core of the present study builds on ground deformation monitoring by SAR Interferometry at Santorini Volcanic Complex (Greece). Dataset used for this case study, include the entire archive of ERS SAR and ENVISAT ASAR data for both ascending and descending orbits covering almost two decades of observations (1992-2010). Deformation signals of millimeter-level accuracy were retrieved from both SAR and ASAR datasets, by way of the Interferometric Stacking technique. The linear rate of differential phases and the corresponding errors were estimated by averaging the unwrapped differential interferograms. Subsequently, vertical deformation rates were calculated by the combination of LOS measurements in ascending and descending acquisition geometries. The observed ground deformation shows mainly subsidence in the central part of Santorini Caldera, at Nea Kammeni Island, equal to -5.1 ±0.7 mm/yr, and -6.3 ±1.2 mm/yr for the periods 1992-2000 and 2003-2010 respectively, while both signs of movements (uplift and subsidence) of lower scale magnitude were recognized elsewhere on the volcano. In fact, higher deformation rates for the period after 2003 (ranging between -4.6 mm/yr and 5.6 mm/yr), compared to the lower values of the period 1992-2000 (from -1.7 mm/yr to 2.7 mm/yr), indicate increase in the undergoing deformation of the volcanic complex. Finally, this work presents an attempt to obtain integrated interferometric results of ground deformation from both ERS and ENVISAT sensors in order to allow future investigations on the deformation sources of the volcanic complex, which could be further exploited in the volcanic hazard and risk assessment.

  17. Physics-Based Predictions for Coherent Change Detection Using X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Preiss


    Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The model is derived using a dyadic form for surface reflectivity in the Kirchhoff approximation. This permits the combination of Kirchhoff theory and spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR image formation theory. The resulting model is used to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The theoretical model is applied to SAR images formed before and after surface changes observed by a repeat-pass SAR system. The change in surface associated with a tyre track following vehicle passage is modelled and SAR coherency estimates are obtained. Predicted coherency distributions for both the change and no-change scenarios are used to estimate receiver operator curves for the detection of the changes using a high-resolution, X-band SAR system.

  18. Moving target detection in foliage using along track monopulse synthetic aperture radar imaging. (United States)

    Soumekh, M


    This paper presents a method for detecting moving targets embedded in foliage from the monostatic and bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data obtained via two airborne radars. The two radars, which are mounted on the same aircraft, have different coordinates in the along track (cross-range) domain. However, unlike the interferometric SAR systems used for topographic mapping, the two radars possess a common range and altitude (i.e., slant range). The resultant monopulse SAR images are used to construct difference and interferometric images for moving target detection. It is shown that the signatures of the stationary targets are weakened in these images. Methods for estimating a moving target's motion parameters are discussed. Results for an ultrawideband UHF SAR system are presented.

  19. 3D Geometry and Motion Estimations of Maneuvering Targets for Interferometric ISAR With Sparse Aperture. (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Xing, Mengdao; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qianqian; Bao, Zheng


    In the current scenario of high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, the non-cooperative targets may have strong maneuverability, which tends to cause time-variant Doppler modulation and imaging plane in the echoed data. Furthermore, it is still a challenge to realize ISAR imaging of maneuvering targets from sparse aperture (SA) data. In this paper, we focus on the problem of 3D geometry and motion estimations of maneuvering targets for interferometric ISAR (InISAR) with SA. For a target of uniformly accelerated rotation, the rotational modulation in echo is formulated as chirp sensing code under a chirp-Fourier dictionary to represent the maneuverability. In particular, a joint multi-channel imaging approach is developed to incorporate the multi-channel data and treat the multi-channel ISAR image formation as a joint-sparsity constraint optimization. Then, a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem to produce high-resolution range-Doppler (RD) images and chirp parameter estimation. The 3D target geometry and the motion estimations are followed by using the acquired RD images and chirp parameters. Herein, a joint estimation approach of 3D geometry and rotation motion is presented to realize outlier removing and error reduction. In comparison with independent single-channel processing, the proposed joint multi-channel imaging approach performs better in 2D imaging, 3D imaging, and motion estimation. Finally, experiments using both simulated and measured data are performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M


    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  1. Synthetic Base Fluids (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  2. Synthetic holography based on scanning microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Donato


    Full Text Available Synthetic optical holography (SOH is an imaging technique, introduced in scanning microscopy to record amplitude and phase of a scattered field from a sample. In this paper, it is described a novel implementation of SOH through a lens-free low-coherence system, based on a scanning optical microcavity. This technique combines the low-coherence properties of the source with the mutual interference of scattered waves and the resonant behavior of a micro-cavity, in order to realize a high sensitive imaging system. Micro-cavity is compact and realized by approaching a cleaved optical fiber to the sample. The scanning system works in an open-loop configuration without the need for a reference wave, usually required in interferometric systems. Measurements were performed over calibration samples and a lateral resolution of about 1 μm is achieved by means of an optical fiber with a Numerical Aperture (NA equal to 0.1 and a Mode Field Diameter (MDF of 5.6 μm.

  3. Phase calibration of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar interferometer using optical satellite signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sullivan


    Full Text Available The link between natural ion-line enhancements in radar spectra and auroral activity has been the subject of recent studies but conclusions have been limited by the spatial and temporal resolution previously available. The next challenge is to use shorter sub-second integration times in combination with interferometric programmes to resolve spatial structure within the main radar beam, and so relate enhanced filaments to individual auroral rays. This paper presents initial studies of a technique, using optical and spectral satellite signatures, to calibrate the received phase of a signal with the position of the scattering source along the interferometric baseline of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. It is shown that a consistent relationship can be found only if the satellite passage through the phase fringes is adjusted from the passage predicted by optical tracking. This required adjustment is interpreted as being due to the vector between the theoretical focusing points of the two antennae, i.e. the true radar baseline, differing from the baseline obtained by survey between the antenna foot points. A method to obtain a measurement of the true interferometric baseline using multiple satellite passes is outlined.

  4. Analysis of Synthetic Polymers. (United States)

    Smith, Charles G.; And Others


    Reviews techniques for the characterization and analysis of synthetic polymers, copolymers, and blends. Includes techniques for structure determination, separation, and quantitation of additives and residual monomers; determination of molecular weight; and the study of thermal properties including degradation mechanisms. (MVL)

  5. The Principle of Navigation Constellation Composed of SIGSO Communication Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Hai-Fu; Ai, Guo-Xiang; Shi, Hu-Li


    The Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), a navigation system based on GEO communication satellites, was developed in 2002 by astronomers at Chinese Academy of Sciences. Extensive positioning experiments of CAPS have been performed since 2005. On the basis of CAPS, this paper studies the principle of navigation constellation composed of Slightly Inclined Geostationary Orbit (SIGSO) communication satellites. SIGSO satellites are derived from end-of-life Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites under inclined orbit operation. Considering the abundant frequency resources of SIGSO satellites, multi-frequency observations could be conducted to enhance the precision of pseudorange measurements and ameliorate the positioning performence. The constellation composed of two GEO satellites and four SIGSO satellites with inclination of 5 degrees can provide the most territory of China with 24-hour maximum PDOP less than 42. With synthetic utilization of the truncated precise (TP) code and physical augmentation factor in fo...

  6. Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...

  7. All-optical 40 Gbit/s compact integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave;


    An interferometric Michelson wavelength converter is presented that combines a speed-optimized semiconductor optical amplifier technology with the benefits of the integrated interferometer showing 40-Gbit/s wavelength conversion. The optimized wavelength converter demonstrates noninverted converted...

  8. High-accuracy interferometric measurements of flatness and parallelism of a step gauge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, OA


    Full Text Available for the calibration of step gauges to a high accuracy. A system was also developed for interferometric measurements of the flatness and parallelism of gauge block faces for use in uncertainty calculations....

  9. An estimation method for InSAR interferometric phase combined with image auto-coregistration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai; LI Zhenfang; LIAO Guisheng; BAO Zheng


    In this paper we propose a method to estimate the InSAR interferometric phase of the steep terrain based on the terrain model of local plane by using the joint subspace projection technique proposed in our previous paper. The method takes advantage of the coherence information of neighboring pixel pairs to auto-coregister the SAR images and employs the projection of the joint signal subspace onto the corresponding joint noise subspace to estimate the terrain interferometric phase. The method can auto-coregister the SAR images and reduce the interferometric phase noise simultaneously. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation results show that the method can provide accurate estimate of the interferometric phase (interferogram) of very steep terrain even if the coregistration error reaches one pixel. The effectiveness of the method is verified via simulated data and real data.

  10. Shaped pulse electric-field construction and interferometric characterization: The SPECIFIC method

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlan, Matthew A; Weber, Stefan M; Bowlan, Pamela; Trebino, Rick; Levis, Robert J


    A method is reported for creating, generating, and measuring parametrically shaped pulses for time-bandwidth product >>5, which consists of a parametric pulse-shaping algorithm, a spatial light modulation system and a single shot interferometric characterization scheme (SEA TADPOLE) . The utilization of these tools marks the inception of a new method called SPECIFIC, shaped-pulse electric-field construction and interferometric characterization, capable of producing complex shaped laser pulses for coherent control experiments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dmitrieva


    Full Text Available Basic peculiarities of nonlinear Kalman filtering algorithm applied to processing of interferometric signals are considered. Analytical estimates determining statistical characteristics of signal values prediction errors were obtained and analysis of errors histograms taking into account variations of different parameters of interferometric signal was carried out. Modeling of the signal prediction procedure with known fixed parameters and variable parameters of signal in the algorithm of nonlinear Kalman filtering was performed. Numerical estimates of prediction errors for interferometric signal values were obtained by formation and analysis of the errors histograms under the influence of additive noise and random variations of amplitude and frequency of interferometric signal. Nonlinear Kalman filter is shown to provide processing of signals with randomly variable parameters, however, it does not take into account directly the linearization error of harmonic function representing interferometric signal that is a filtering error source. The main drawback of the linear prediction consists in non-Gaussian statistics of prediction errors including cases of random deviations of signal amplitude and/or frequency. When implementing stochastic filtering of interferometric signals, it is reasonable to use prediction procedures based on local statistics of a signal and its parameters taken into account.

  12. Optimum synthetic-aperture imaging of extended astronomical objects. (United States)

    van der Avoort, Casper; Pereira, Silvania F; Braat, Joseph J M; den Herder, Jan-Willem


    In optical aperture-synthesis imaging of stellar objects, different beam combination strategies are used and proposed. Coaxial Michelson interferometers are very common and a homothetic multiaxial interferometer is recently realized in the Large Binocular Telescope. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the working principles of two new approaches: densified pupil imaging and wide field-of-view (FOV) coaxial imaging using a staircase-shaped mirror. We develop a common mathematical formulation for direct comparison of the resolution and noise sensitivity of these four telescope configurations for combining beams from multiple apertures for interferometric synthetic aperture, wide-FOV imaging. Singular value decomposition techniques are used to compare the techniques and observe their distinct signal-to-noise ratio behaviors. We conclude that for a certain chosen stellar object, clear differences in performance of the imagers are identifiable.

  13. Ground Displacement Measurement of the 2013 Balochistan Earthquake with interferometric TerraSAR-X ScanSAR data (United States)

    Yague-Martinez, N.; Fielding, E. J.; Haghshenas-Haghighi, M.; Cong, X.; Motagh, M.


    This presentation will address the 24 September 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan Earthquake in western Pakistan from the point of view of interferometric processing algorithms of wide-swath TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images. The algorithms are also valid for TOPS acquisition mode, the operational mode of the Sentinel-1A ESA satellite that was successfully launched in April 2014. Spectral properties of burst-mode data and an overview of the interferometric processing steps of burst-mode acquisitions, emphasizing the importance of the co-registration stage, will be provided. A co-registration approach based on incoherent cross-correlation will be presented and applied to seismic scenarios. Moreover geodynamic corrections due to differential atmospheric path delay and differential solid Earth tides are considered to achieve accuracy in the order of several centimeters. We previously derived a 3D displacement map using cross-correlation techniques applied to optical images from Landsat-8 satellite and TerraSAR-X ScanSAR amplitude images. The Landsat-8 cross-correlation measurements cover two horizontal directions, and the TerraSAR-X displacements include both horizontal along-track and slant-range (radar line-of-sight) measurements that are sensitive to vertical and horizontal deformation. It will be justified that the co-seismic displacement map from TerraSAR-X ScanSAR data may be contaminated by postseismic deformation due to the fact that the post-seismic acquisition took place one month after the main shock, confirmed in part by a TerraSAR-X stripmap interferogram (processed with conventional InSAR) covering part of the area starting on 27 September 2013. We have arranged the acquisition of a burst-synchronized stack of TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images over the affected area after the earthquake. It will be possible to apply interferometry to these data to measure the lower magnitude of the expected postseismic displacements. The processing of single interferograms will be discussed. A

  14. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  15. Fusion of space-borne multi-baseline and multi-frequency interferometric results based on extended Kalman filter to generate high quality DEMs (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa


    Repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a technique that can be used to generate DEMs. But the accuracy of InSAR is greatly limited by geometrical distortions, atmospheric effect, and decorrelations, particularly in mountainous areas, such as western China where no high quality DEM has so far been accomplished. Since each of InSAR DEMs generated using data of different frequencies and baselines has their own advantages and disadvantages, it is therefore very potential to overcome some of the limitations of InSAR by fusing Multi-baseline and Multi-frequency Interferometric Results (MMIRs). This paper proposed a fusion method based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which takes the InSAR-derived DEMs as states in prediction step and the flattened interferograms as observations in control step to generate the final fused DEM. Before the fusion, detection of layover and shadow regions, low-coherence regions and regions with large height error is carried out because MMIRs in these regions are believed to be unreliable and thereafter are excluded. The whole processing flow is tested with TerraSAR-X and Envisat ASAR datasets. Finally, the fused DEM is validated with ASTER GDEM and national standard DEM of China. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective even in low coherence areas.

  16. Interferometric imaging of the sulfur-bearing molecules H2S, SO and CS in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)

    CERN Document Server

    Boissier, J; Biver, N; Crovisier, J; Despois, D; Marsden, B G; Moreno, R


    We present observations of rotational lines of H2S, SO and CS performed in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) in March 1997 with the Plateau de Bure interferometer (IRAM). The observations provide informations on the spatial and velocity distributions of these molecules. They can be used to constrain their photodissociation rate and their origin. We use a radiative transfer code which allows us to compute synthetic line profiles and interferometric maps, to be compared to the observations. Both single-dish spectra and interferometric spectral maps show a day/night asymmetry in the outgassing. From the analysis of the spectral maps, including the astrometry, we show that SO and CS present in addition a jet-like structure that may be the gaseous counterpart of the dust high-latitude jet observed in optical images. A CS rotating jet is also observed. Using the astrometry provided by continuum radio maps obtained in parallel, we conclude that there is no need to invoke of nongravitational forces acting on this comet, an...

  17. PRETTY: Grazing altimetry measurements based on the interferometric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragner, Heinrich; Dielacher, Andreas; Zangerl, Franz


    The exploitation of signals stemming from global navigation systems for passive bistatic radar applications has beenproposed and implemented within numerous studies. The fact that such missions do not rely on high power amplifiersand that the need of high gain antennas with large geometrical...... dimensions can be avoided, makes them suitable forsmall satellite missions. Applications where a continuous high coverage is needed, as for example disaster warning,have the demand for a large number of satellites in orbit, which in turn requires small and relatively low cost satellites.The proposed PRETTY...... (Passive Reflectometry and Dosimetry) mission includes a demonstrator payload for passivereflectometry and scatterometry focusing on very low incidence angles whereby the direct and reflected signal will bereceived via the same antenna. The correlation of both signals will be done by a specific FPGA based...

  18. Neptune's small satellites (United States)

    Thomas, P.


    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  19. Robust Radio Interferometric Calibration Using the t-Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemi, S


    A major stage of radio interferometric data processing is calibration or the estimation of systematic errors in the data and the correction for such errors. A stochastic error (noise) model is assumed, and in most cases, this underlying model is assumed to be Gaussian. However, outliers in the data due to interference or due to errors in the sky model would have adverse effects on processing based on a Gaussian noise model. Most of the shortcomings of calibration such as the loss in flux or coherence, and the appearance of spurious sources, could be attributed to the deviations of the underlying noise model. In this paper, we propose to improve the robustness of calibration by using a noise model based on Student's t distribution. Student's t noise is a special case of Gaussian noise when the variance is unknown. Unlike Gaussian noise model based calibration, traditional least squares minimization would not directly extend to a case when we have a Student's t noise model. Therefore, we use a variant of the Ex...

  20. Sculpting the disk around T Cha: an interferometric view

    CERN Document Server

    Olofsson, Johan; Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste Le; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ménard, François; Henning, Thomas; Crida, Aurélien; Burtscher, Leonard; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Ratzka, Thorsten; Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Malbet, Fabien; Lazareff, Bernard; Traub, Wesley A


    (Abridged) Circumstellar disks are believed to be the birthplace of planets and are expected to dissipate on a timescale of a few Myr. The processes responsible for the removal of the dust and gas will strongly modify the radial distribution of the dust and consequently the SED. In particular, a young planet will open a gap, resulting in an inner disk dominating the near-IR emission and an outer disk emitting mostly in the far-IR. We analyze a full set of data (including VLTI/Pionier, VLTI/Midi, and VLT/NaCo/Sam) to constrain the structure of the transition disk around TCha. We used the Mcfost radiative transfer code to simultaneously model the SED and the interferometric observations. We find that the dust responsible for the emission in excess in the near-IR must have a narrow temperature distribution with a maximum close to the silicate sublimation temperature. This translates into a narrow inner dusty disk (0.07-0.11 AU). We find that the outer disk starts at about 12 AU and is partially resolved by the P...

  1. Passive interferometric symmetries of multimode Gaussian pure states (United States)

    Gabay, Natasha; Menicucci, Nicolas C.


    As large-scale multimode Gaussian states begin to become accessible in the laboratory, their representation and analysis become a useful topic of research in their own right. The graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states provides powerful tools for their representation, while this work presents a useful tool for their analysis: passive interferometric (i.e., number-conserving) symmetries. Here we show that these symmetries of multimode Gaussian states simplify calculations in measurement-based quantum computing and provide constructive tools for engineering large-scale harmonic systems with specific physical properties, and we provide a general mathematical framework for deriving them. Such symmetries are generated by linear combinations of operators expressed in the Schwinger representation of U (2 ) , called nullifiers because the Gaussian state in question is a zero eigenstate of them. This general framework is shown to have applications in the noise analysis of continuous-various cluster states and is expected to have additional applications in future work with large-scale multimode Gaussian states.

  2. Modified Fabry-Perot interferometric method for waveguide loss measurement. (United States)

    Taebi, Sareh; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Saini, Simarjeet Singh


    An extension to the Fabry-Perot interferometric method is demonstrated to calculate the optical loss and the reflectivity for optical waveguides simultaneously. The method uses an excitation of the waveguide with a broadband amplified spontaneous emission source (a superluminescent diode in our case) and curve fitting to account for the change of input power, thereby simplifying the measurement procedure. The use of a broadband source as opposed to tunable lasers allows for simultaneous measurements over multiple wavelengths and decreased sensitivity to reflections in the cavity. Further, waveguides of different lengths are measured to calculate the optical loss and the reflectivity simultaneously. It is shown that, if the value for reflectivity is assumed, there could be a large error in the measurement of loss especially for short waveguides. Optical loss for ridge waveguides is measured and compared by using a tunable laser as the input source. The method can be used for a generic case where it is suspected that the input power changes during the measurement.

  3. Interferometric measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans (United States)

    Nanzer, Jeffrey A.


    This paper presents an analysis of the measurement of the angular velocity of walking humans using a millimeter-wave correlation interferometer. Measurement of the angular velocity of moving objects is a desirable function in remote sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques, however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of-arrival estimation algorithms. A new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry has recently been developed which measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency of the interferometer signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. In this paper, the theory of the interferometric measurement of angular velocity is covered and simulations of the response of a walking human are presented. Simulations are produced using a model of a walking human to show the significant features associated with the interferometer response, which may be used in classification algorithms.

  4. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays (United States)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian


    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  5. Optimal detection of burst events in gravitational wave interferometric observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Viceré, A


    We consider the problem of detecting a burst signal of unknown shape. We introduce a statistic which generalizes the excess power statistic proposed by Flanagan and Hughes and extended by Anderson et al. The statistic we propose is shown to be optimal for arbitrary noise spectral characteristic, under the two hypotheses that the noise is Gaussian, and that the prior for the signal is uniform. The statistic derivation is based on the assumption that a signal affects only affects N samples in the data stream, but that no other information is a priori available, and that the value of the signal at each sample can be arbitrary. We show that the proposed statistic can be implemented combining standard time-series analysis tools which can be efficiently implemented, and the resulting computational cost is still compatible with an on-line analysis of interferometric data. We generalize this version of an excess power statistic to the multiple detector case, also including the effect of correlated noise. We give full...

  6. Parallel approach to MEMS and micro-optics interferometric testing (United States)

    Kujawińska, M.; Beer, S.; Gastinger, K.; Gorecki, C.; Haugholt, K. H.; Józwik, M.; Lambelet, P.; Paris, R.; Styk, A.; Zeitner, U.


    The paper presents the novel approach to an interferometric, quantitative, massive parallel inspection of MicroElectroMechanicalSystems (MEMS), MicroOptoElectroMechanical Systems (MOEMS) and microoptics arrays. The basic idea is to adapt a micro-optical probing wafer to the M(O)EMS wafer under test. The probing wafer is exchangeable and contains one of the micro-optical interferometer arrays based on: (1) a low coherent interferometer array based on a Mirau configuration or (2) a laser interferometer array based on a Twyman-Green configuration. The optical, mechanical, and electro-optical design of the system and data analysis concept based on this approach is presented. The interferometer arrays are developed and integrated at a standard test station for micro-fabrication together with the illumination and imaging modules and special mechanics which includes scanning and electrostatic excitation systems. The smart-pixel approach is applied for massive parallel electro-optical detection and data reduction. The first results of functional tests of the system are presented. The concept is discussed in reference to the future M(O)EMS and microoptics manufacturers needs and requirements.

  7. Interferometric measurement of many-body topological invariants using polarons (United States)

    Grusdt, Fabian; Yao, Norman; Abanin, Dmitry; Demler, Eugene


    We present a scheme for the direct detection of many-body topological invariants in ultra cold quantum gases in optical lattices. We generalize single-particle interferometric schemes developed for the detection of topologically non-trivial band structures [Atala et al., Nature Physics 9, 795 (2013)] by coupling a spin-1/2 impurity to a (topological) excitation of an interacting many-body system. Performing Ramsey interferometry in combination with Bloch oscillations of the resulting polaronic particle allows to directly detect the many body-topological invariant. In particular we consider adiabatic Thouless pumps in the super-lattice Bose-Hubbard model, which transport a quantized amount of particles across a one-dimensional lattice. In the presence of inter-atomic interactions this quantized current is given by a many-body Chern number, which can be measured using our protocol. These systems also support symmetry-protected topological phases, the invariants of which can be obtained from our protocol as well.

  8. Fiber-interferometric detection of gun-launched projectiles (United States)

    Goodwin, Peter M.; Marshall, Bruce R.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Lang, John M.; Pacheco, Adam H.; Loomis, Eric N.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.


    We are developing a new diagnostic useful for the non-invasive detection of projectile passage in the launch tube of a gas gun. The sensing element consists of one or more turns of single-mode optical fiber that is epoxy-bonded around the external circumference of the launch tube. The hoop strain induced in the launch tube by the passage of the projectile causes a momentary expansion of the fiber loop. This transient change in path length is detected with high sensitivity using a fiber optic-based interferometer developed by the NSTec Special Technologies Laboratory. We have fielded this new diagnostic, along with fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) strain gauges we previously used for this purpose, on a variety of gas guns used for shock compression studies at Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories. We anticipate that, when coupled with a broad-range analog demodulator circuit, the fiber optic interferometer will have improved dynamic range over that of the FBG strain gauge approach. Moreover, in contrast to the FBG strain gauge which is somewhat temperature sensitive, the interferometric approach requires no alignment immediately prior to the experiment and is therefore easier to implement. Both approaches provide early, pre-event signals useful for triggering high-latency diagnostics.

  9. Interferometric radio transient reconstruction in compressed sensing framework

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, M; Starck, J -L; Corbel, S; Tasse, C


    Imaging by aperture synthesis from interferometric data is a well-known, but is a strong ill-posed inverse problem. Strong and faint radio sources can be imaged unambiguously using time and frequency integration to gather more Fourier samples of the sky. However, these imagers assumes a steady sky and the complexity of the problem increases when transients radio sources are also present in the data. Hopefully, in the context of transient imaging, the spatial and temporal information are separable which enable extension of an imager fit for a steady sky. We introduce independent spatial and temporal wavelet dictionaries to sparsely represent the transient in both spatial domain and temporal domain. These dictionaries intervenes in a new reconstruction method developed in the Compressed Sensing (CS) framework and using a primal-dual splitting algorithm. According to the preliminary tests in different noise regimes, this new "Time-agile" (or 2D-1D) method seems to be efficient in detecting and reconstructing the...

  10. Radio interferometric gain calibration as a complex optimization problem (United States)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Tasse, C.


    Recent developments in optimization theory have extended some traditional algorithms for least-squares optimization of real-valued functions (Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, etc.) into the domain of complex functions of a complex variable. This employs a formalism called the Wirtinger derivative, and derives a full-complex Jacobian counterpart to the conventional real Jacobian. We apply these developments to the problem of radio interferometric gain calibration, and show how the general complex Jacobian formalism, when combined with conventional optimization approaches, yields a whole new family of calibration algorithms, including those for the polarized and direction-dependent gain regime. We further extend the Wirtinger calculus to an operator-based matrix calculus for describing the polarized calibration regime. Using approximate matrix inversion results in computationally efficient implementations; we show that some recently proposed calibration algorithms such as STEFCAL and peeling can be understood as special cases of this, and place them in the context of the general formalism. Finally, we present an implementation and some applied results of COHJONES, another specialized direction-dependent calibration algorithm derived from the formalism.

  11. Ultrasensitive interferometric on-chip microscopy of transparent objects (United States)

    Terborg, Roland A.; Pello, Josselin; Mannelli, Ilaria; Torres, Juan P.; Pruneri, Valerio


    Light microscopes can detect objects through several physical processes, such as scattering, absorption, and reflection. In transparent objects, these mechanisms are often too weak, and interference effects are more suitable to observe the tiny refractive index variations that produce phase shifts. We propose an on-chip microscope design that exploits birefringence in an unconventional geometry. It makes use of two sheared and quasi-overlapped illuminating beams experiencing relative phase shifts when going through the object, and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensor array to record the resulting interference pattern. Unlike conventional microscopes, the beams are unfocused, leading to a very large field of view (20 mm2) and detection volume (more than 0.5 cm3), at the expense of lateral resolution. The high axial sensitivity (<1 nm) achieved using a novel phase-shifting interferometric operation makes the proposed device ideal for examining transparent substrates and reading microarrays of biomarkers. This is demonstrated by detecting nanometer-thick surface modulations on glass and single and double protein layers. PMID:27386571

  12. High-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer of linear displacements (United States)

    Shang, Ping; Xia, Haojie; Fei, Yetai


    A high-resolution transducer of linear displacements is presented. The system is based on semiconductor laser illumination and a diffraction grating applied as a length master. The theory of the optical method is formulated using Doppler description. The relationship model among the interference strips, measurement errors, grating deflection around the X, Y and Z axes and translation along the Z axis is built. The grating interference strips' direction and space is not changed with movement along the X (direction of grating movement), Y (direction of grating line), Z axis, and the direction and space has a great effect when rotating around the X axis. Moreover the space is little affected by deflection around the Z axis however the direction is changed dramatically. In addition, the strips' position shifted rightward or downwards respectively for deflection around the X or Y axis. Because the emitted beams are separated on the grating plane, the tilt around the X axis error of the stage during motion will lead to the optical path difference of the two beams resulting in phase shift. This study investigates the influence of the tilt around the X axis error. Experiments show that after yaw error compensation, the high-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer readings can be significantly improved. The error can be reduced from +/-80 nm to +/-30 nm in maximum.

  13. Controlling interferometric properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide. (United States)

    Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan


    A study of reflective interference spectroscopy [RIfS] properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide [AAO] with the aim to develop a reliable substrate for label-free optical biosensing is presented. The influence of structural parameters of AAO including pore diameters, inter-pore distance, pore length, and surface modification by deposition of Au, Ag, Cr, Pt, Ni, and TiO2 on the RIfS signal (Fabry-Perot fringe) was explored. AAO with controlled pore dimensions was prepared by electrochemical anodization of aluminium using 0.3 M oxalic acid at different voltages (30 to 70 V) and anodization times (10 to 60 min). Results show the strong influence of pore structures and surface modifications on the interference signal and indicate the importance of optimisation of AAO pore structures for RIfS sensing. The pore length/pore diameter aspect ratio of AAO was identified as a suitable parameter to tune interferometric properties of AAO. Finally, the application of AAO with optimised pore structures for sensing of a surface binding reaction of alkanethiols (mercaptoundecanoic acid) on gold surface is demonstrated.

  14. Large-Area Semiconducting Graphene Nanomesh Tailored by Interferometric Lithography. (United States)

    Kazemi, Alireza; He, Xiang; Alaie, Seyedhamidreza; Ghasemi, Javad; Dawson, Noel Mayur; Cavallo, Francesca; Habteyes, Terefe G; Brueck, Steven R J; Krishna, Sanjay


    Graphene nanostructures are attracting a great deal of interest because of newly emerging properties originating from quantum confinement effects. We report on using interferometric lithography to fabricate uniform, chip-scale, semiconducting graphene nanomesh (GNM) with sub-10 nm neck widths (smallest edge-to-edge distance between two nanoholes). This approach is based on fast, low-cost, and high-yield lithographic technologies and demonstrates the feasibility of cost-effective development of large-scale semiconducting graphene sheets and devices. The GNM is estimated to have a room temperature energy bandgap of ~30 meV. Raman studies showed that the G band of the GNM experiences a blue shift and broadening compared to pristine graphene, a change which was attributed to quantum confinement and localization effects. A single-layer GNM field effect transistor exhibited promising drive current of ~3.9 μA/μm and ON/OFF current ratios of ~35 at room temperature. The ON/OFF current ratio of the GNM-device displayed distinct temperature dependence with about 24-fold enhancement at 77 K.

  15. Spatially multiplexed interferometric microscopy with partially coherent illumination (United States)

    Picazo-Bueno, José Ángel; Zalevsky, Zeev; García, Javier; Ferreira, Carlos; Micó, Vicente


    We have recently reported on a simple, low cost, and highly stable way to convert a standard microscope into a holographic one [Opt. Express 22, 14929 (2014)]. The method, named spatially multiplexed interferometric microscopy (SMIM), proposes an off-axis holographic architecture implemented onto a regular (nonholographic) microscope with minimum modifications: the use of coherent illumination and a properly placed and selected one-dimensional diffraction grating. In this contribution, we report on the implementation of partially (temporally reduced) coherent illumination in SMIM as a way to improve quantitative phase imaging. The use of low coherence sources forces the application of phase shifting algorithm instead of off-axis holographic recording to recover the sample's phase information but improves phase reconstruction due to coherence noise reduction. In addition, a less restrictive field of view limitation (1/2) is implemented in comparison with our previously reported scheme (1/3). The proposed modification is experimentally validated in a regular Olympus BX-60 upright microscope considering a wide range of samples (resolution test, microbeads, swine sperm cells, red blood cells, and prostate cancer cells).

  16. Interferometric method to measure the Goos-Hänchen shift. (United States)

    Prajapati, Chandravati; Ranganathan, Dilip; Joseph, Joby


    We propose and demonstrate an interferometric method to measure the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift, which is based on observing the interference between p- and s-polarized beams. In our method both p- and s-polarized beams are observed simultaneously and across the entire beam profile. To demonstrate our method, we measured the GH shift of aluminum (Al) and glass at different values of the incidence angle ranging from 20° to 70°, with a helium-neon laser as source. We compared the experimental result with theoretical calculations and found a good agreement between them. Our method also enables us to measure the GH shift at any point across the entire beam profile, for arbitrary beam profiles. This is not possible with the methods currently in use. We presented the observed values for the Gaussian mode used, which enables us to find the relative shifts between the p and s components at various points on the incident profile after reflection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Robertson


    Full Text Available La Universidad de Sydney tiene una larga historia en interferometrÍa estelar óptica. El primer proyecto, en los aÑos 60, fue el interferómetro de intensidad estelar de Narrabri, que midió los di ametros angulares de 32 estrellas calientes y estableció la escala de temperatura para las clases espectrales O-F. Ese instrumento fue seguido por el interferómetro estelar de la Universidad de Sydney (SUSI, que ahora está experimentando una mejora de tercera generación, para utilizar el combinador de haz de multi-longitud de onda PAVO. SUSI funciona en visible más que en longitudes de onda del IR y tiene líneas de base de hasta 160 m, así que estábien adaptado al estudio de estrellas calientes. Se han realizado algunos estudios y se planean más estudios cuando se haya concluido la puesta en operación del sistema PAVO. La conversión del sistema para permitir la operación remota, permitirá que sean emprendidos mayores proyectos científicos.

  18. Deconvolution of interferometric data using interior point iterative algorithms (United States)

    Theys, C.; Lantéri, H.; Aime, C.


    We address the problem of deconvolution of astronomical images that could be obtained with future large interferometers in space. The presentation is made in two complementary parts. The first part gives an introduction to the image deconvolution with linear and nonlinear algorithms. The emphasis is made on nonlinear iterative algorithms that verify the constraints of non-negativity and constant flux. The Richardson-Lucy algorithm appears there as a special case for photon counting conditions. More generally, the algorithm published recently by Lanteri et al. (2015) is based on scale invariant divergences without assumption on the statistic model of the data. The two proposed algorithms are interior-point algorithms, the latter being more efficient in terms of speed of calculation. These algorithms are applied to the deconvolution of simulated images corresponding to an interferometric system of 16 diluted telescopes in space. Two non-redundant configurations, one disposed around a circle and the other on an hexagonal lattice, are compared for their effectiveness on a simple astronomical object. The comparison is made in the direct and Fourier spaces. Raw "dirty" images have many artifacts due to replicas of the original object. Linear methods cannot remove these replicas while iterative methods clearly show their efficacy in these examples.

  19. Improved synthetic-heterodyne Michelson interferometer vibrometer using phase and gain control feedback. (United States)

    Galeti, José Henrique; Kitano, Cláudio; Connelly, Michael J


    Synthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a useful technique for dynamic displacement and velocity measurement using interferometric sensors as it can provide an output signal which is immune to interferometric drift. With the advent of cost effective, high-speed real-time signal processing systems and software, processing of the complex signals encountered in interferometry has become more feasible. In conventional synthetic-heterodyne demodulation schemes, to obtain the dynamic displacement or vibration of the object under test requires knowledge of the interferometer visibility and also the argument of two Bessel functions. In this paper, a new synthetic-heterodyne demodulation method is described leading to an expression for the dynamic displacement and velocity of the object under test that is significantly less sensitive to the received optical power. In addition, the application of two independent phase and gain feedback loops is used to compensate for the nonideal gain and phase response of the anti-aliasing filter required for the signal acquisition of the received wideband interferometer signal. The efficacy of the improved system is demonstrated by measuring the displacement sensitivity frequency response and linearity of a Piezoelectric Mirror-Shifter (PMS) over a range of 200 Hz-9 kHz. In addition, the system is used to measure the response of the PMS to triangular and impulse type stimuli. The experimental results show excellent agreement with measurements taken using two independent industry standard calibration methods.

  20. The Synthetic Cannabinoids Phenomenon. (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, Lisa; Cottencin, Olivier; Billieux, Joël


    « Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at

  1. Michelson interferometer vibrometer using self-correcting synthetic-heterodyne demodulation. (United States)

    Connelly, Michael J; Galeti, José Henrique; Kitano, Cláudio


    Synthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a useful technique for dynamic displacement and velocity detection in interferometric sensors, as it can provide an output signal that is immune to interferometric drift. With the advent of cost-effective, high-speed real-time signal-processing systems and software, processing of the complex signals encountered in interferometry has become more feasible. In synthetic heterodyne, to obtain the actual dynamic displacement or vibration of the object under test requires knowledge of the interferometer visibility and also the argument of two Bessel functions. In this paper, a method is described for determining the former and setting the Bessel function argument to a set value, which ensures maximum sensitivity. Conventional synthetic-heterodyne demodulation requires the use of two in-phase local oscillators; however, the relative phase of these oscillators relative to the interferometric signal is unknown. It is shown that, by using two additional quadrature local oscillators, a demodulated signal can be obtained that is independent of this phase difference. The experimental interferometer is a Michelson configuration using a visible single-mode laser, whose current is sinusoidally modulated at a frequency of 20 kHz. The detected interferometer output is acquired using a 250 kHz analog-to-digital converter and processed in real time. The system is used to measure the displacement sensitivity frequency response and linearity of a piezoelectric mirror shifter over a range of 500 Hz to 10 kHz. The experimental results show good agreement with two data-obtained independent techniques: the signal coincidence and denominated n-commuted Pernick method.

  2. EMISAR: C- and L-band polarimetric and interferometric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Dall, Jørgen; Skou, Niels;


    EMISAR is a C- and L-band fully polarimetric (i.e. 4 complex channel per frequency) synthetic aperture radar designed for remote sensing with high demands for resolution (2 m), polarization discrimination, and absolute radiometric and polarimetric calibration. The present installation has one 3...

  3. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.


    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it t...

  4. Three Dimensional Imaging of Spinning Space Target Based on Multi-Antenna Interferometric Processing%多天线干涉处理的窄带雷达空间旋转目标三维成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永安; 罗迎; 王恺; 张群; 宋桐


    借鉴干涉式逆合成孔径雷达中多天线干涉处理的思想,采用L型三天线成像结构,提出了一种基于多天线干涉处理的窄带雷达空间旋转目标三维成像方法。推导了窄带条件下空间旋转目标回波干涉处理的原理,分析了短时傅里叶变换对回波干涉相位信息的影响,在对各天线回波进行短时傅里叶变换的基础上,在时频平面上有效区分了各散射点对应的回波曲线,获得了不同散射点对应的干涉相位信息,实现了对空间旋转目标的干涉式三维成像。与已有方法相比,该方法仅需利用单部多天线雷达即可获得目标的真实三维信息。仿真结果验证了所提方法的有效性。%This paper uses the idea of multi-antenna interferometric processing in interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar for reference,and proposes a three dimensional imaging method by utilizing a L-shape three-antenna model for spinning space target in narrowband radar based on multi-antenna interfero-metric processing.First,the theory of spinning space target echo signal interferometric processing in nar-rowband radar is explained.Then,the influence of short-time Fourier transform (STFT)on the interfero-metric phase of echo signal is analyzed.Finally,through conducting STFT on the echo signal received by three antennas,the curves on time-frequency plane corresponding to different scatterers are effectively ex-tracted and separated,the interferometric phase of different scatterers is obtained,and three dimensional imaging for spinning space target is realized.Compared to the existing methods,this method only requires a single multi-antenna radar to obtain the real three dimensional distribution of target.The simulation re-sults show that the method is valid.

  5. Synthetic guide star generation (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA


    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  6. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.


    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  7. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.


    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  8. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef


    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  9. Synthetic studies towards bottromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ackermann


    Full Text Available Thio-Ugi reactions are described as an excellent synthetic tool for the synthesis of sterically highly hindered endothiopeptides. S-Methylation and subsequent amidine formation can be carried out in an inter- as well as in an intramolecular fashion. The intramolecular approach allows the synthesis of the bottromycin ring system in a straightforward manner.

  10. Interferometric laser imaging for in-flight cloud droplet sizing (United States)

    Dunker, Christina; Roloff, Christoph; Grassmann, Arne


    A non-intrusive particle sizing method with a high spatial distribution is used to estimate cloud droplet spectra during flight test campaigns. The interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing (ILIDS) method derives particle diameters of transparent spheres by evaluating the out-of-focus image patterns. This sizing approach requires a polarized monochromatic light source, a camera including an objective lens with a slit aperture, a synchronization unit and a processing tool for data evaluation. These components are adapted to a flight test environment to enable the microphysical investigation of different cloud genera. The present work addresses the design and specifications of ILIDS system, flight test preparation and selected results obtained in the lower and middle troposphere. The research platform was a Dornier Do228-101 commuter aircraft at the DLR Flight Operation Center in Braunschweig. It was equipped with the required instrumentation including a high-energy laser as the light source. A comprehensive data set of around 71 800 ILIDS images was acquired over the course of five flights. The data evaluation of the characteristic ILIDS fringe patterns relies, among other things, on a relationship between the fringe spacing and the diameter of the particle. The simplest way to extract this information from a pattern is by fringe counting, which is not viable for such an extensive number of data. A brief contrasting comparison of evaluation methods based on frequency analysis by means of fast Fourier transform and on correlation methods such as minimum quadratic difference is used to encompass the limits and accuracy of the ILIDS method for such applications.

  11. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas


    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  12. Synthetic River Valleys (United States)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.


    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  13. Observing the Sun with micro-interferometric devices: a didactic experiment (United States)

    Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; Hanot, C.; Riaud, P.; Magette, A.; Marion, L.; Wertz, O.; Finet, F.; Steenackers, M.; Habraken, S.; Surdej, A.; Surdej, J.


    Measuring the angular diameter of celestial bodies has long been the main purpose of stellar interferometry and was its historical motivation. Nowadays, stellar interferometry is widely used for various other scientific purposes that require very high angular resolution measurements. In terms of angular spatial scales probed, observing distant stars located 10 to 100~pc away with a large hectometric interferometer is equivalent to observing our Sun with a micrometric baseline. Based on this idea, we have manufactured a set of micro-interferometric devices and tested them on the sky. The micro-interferometers consist of a chrome layer deposited on a glass plate that has been drilled by laser lithography to produce micron-sized holes with configurations corresponding to proposed interferometer projects such as CARLINA, ELSA, KEOPS, and OVLA. In this paper, we describe these interferometric devices and present interferometric observations of the Sun made in the framework of Astrophysics lectures being taught at the Liège University. By means of a simple photographic camera placed behind a micro-interferometric device, we observed the Sun and derived its angular size. This experiment provides a very didactic way to easily obtain fringe patterns similar to those that will be obtained with future large imaging arrays. A program written in C also allows to reproduce the various point spread functions and fringe patterns observed with the micro-interferometric devices for different types of sources, including the Sun.

  14. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin


    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  15. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  16. Soil Moisture Remote Sensing using GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (United States)

    Chew, Clara

    Ground-reflected Global Positioning System (GPS) signals can be used opportunistically to infer changes in land-surface characteristics surrounding a GPS monument. GPS satellites transmit at L-band, and at microwave frequencies the permittivity of the ground surface changes primarily due to its moisture content. Temporal changes in ground-reflected GPS signals are thus indicative of temporal changes in the moisture content surrounding a GPS antenna. The interference pattern of the direct and reflected GPS signal for a single satellite track is recorded in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. Alternating constructive and destructive interference as the satellite passes over the antenna results in a noisy oscillating wave at low satellite elevation angles, from which the phase, amplitude, and frequency (or reflector height) can be calculated. Here, an electrodynamic model that simulates SNR data is validated against field observations. The model is then used to show that temporal changes in these SNR metrics may be used to estimate changes in surface soil moisture in the top 5 cm of the soil column. Results show that changes in SNR phase are best correlated with changes in soil moisture, with an approximately linear slope. Surface roughness decreases the sensitivity of SNR phase to soil moisture, though the effect is not significant for small roughness values (moisture is to be estimated using phase data. An algorithm is presented that uses modeled relationships between canopy parameters and SNR metrics to remove seasonal vegetation effects from the phase time series, from which soil moisture time series may be estimated. Results indicate that this algorithm can successfully estimate surface soil moisture with an RMSE of 0.05 cm3 cm-3 or lower for many of the antennas that comprise the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Land Deformation in Northern Saudi Arabia: Inferences from Radar Interferometric Applications (United States)

    Othman, A.; Sultan, M.; Gebremichael, E.; Sefry, S.; Yanar, R.; Alharbi, H.; Albalawi, S.; Emil, M. K.; Pankratz, H. G.


    Over the past two decades, land deformation phenomena and related losses in public and private property were reported from the northern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Al Jowf region (100,212 km²; from lat: 29.25°N to 30.90°N, from long: 37.60°E to 40.70°E). We applied an integrated approach (geotechnical, geology, remote sensing, geodesy, hydrogeology, and GIS) to identify areas affected by these phenomena, quantify the nature and magnitude of deformation, investigate the factors controlling the deformation, and recommend solutions for these problems. We applied a three-fold approach in three different areas (Alisawiyah, Wadi Alsarhan, and Sakaka areas) to accomplish the following: (1) assess the spatial distribution of land deformation and quantify deformation rates using InSAR methods Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and Small BAseline Subsets (SBAS); (2) generate a GIS database to encompass all relevant data and derived products (e.g., remote sensing, geology, geotechnical, GPS, groundwater extraction rates, distribution of urban areas, etc.), and (3) correlate findings from the InSAR exercise with relevant spatial and temporal datasets in search of causal effects. Findings revealed the following: (1) high and consistent subsidence rates (5 to 13 mm/yr) from multiple interferometric techniques; (2) subsided areas correlated largely with the distribution of irrigated agricultural land over alluvial and unconfined aquifers (e.g., Tawil and Jauf aquifers), areas characterized by high and a progressive increase in groundwater extraction (1.2 bcm/yr) as evidenced from the satellite-based temporal distribution of irrigated lands (area irrigated lands: 1998: 37,737 ha; 2013: 70,869 ha); (3) high subsidence rates ( 8 mm/yr) were also detected over urban areas (e.g., Sakaka, Dumat Aljandal, and Tubarjal ), subsidence being caused by disposal of wastewater in the subsurface leading to rise in water tables, dissolution of substrate rocks/sediments (e

  18. Algorithm of orbit determination using one or two GPS satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳芳; 洪炳荣; 郭建宁; 巨涛


    The problem of orbit determination using one or two GPS satellites is discussed. Methods of getting initial values based on linear translation is presented; the Secant method and the descend Newton iterative procedure and the continuation algorithm are used synthetically to solve the nonlinear equations. Computer simulation shows that this algorithm can give preliminary state of satellite orbit with a certain precision in short time.

  19. An Empirical Assessment of Temporal Decorrelation Using the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar over Forested Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hofton


    Full Text Available We present an empirical assessment of the impact of temporal decorrelation on interferometric coherence measured over a forested landscape. A series of repeat-pass interferometric radar images with a zero spatial baseline were collected with UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar, a fully polarimetric airborne L-band radar system. The dataset provided temporal separations of 45 minutes, 2, 7 and 9 days. Coincident airborne lidar and weather data were collected. We theoretically demonstrate that UAVSAR measurement accuracy enables accurate quantification of temporal decorrelation. Data analysis revealed precipitation events to be the main driver of temporal decorrelation over the acquisition period. The experiment also shows temporal decorrelation increases with canopy height, and this pattern was found consistent across forest types and polarization.

  20. NORSEWInD satellite wind climatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, Alexis

    is to provide new offshore wind climatology map for the entire area of interest based on satellite remote sensing. This has been based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from Envisat ASAR using 9000 scenes re-processed with ECMWF wind direction and CMOD-IFR. The number of overlapping samples range from 450....... QuikSCAT ocean wind vector observations have been analysed for the same four parameters and ASCAT for mean wind speed. All satellite data has been compared to in-situ observations available in the Norsewind project. SSM/I passive microwave wind speed data from 24 years observed around 6 times per day...... are used to estimate trends in offshore winds and interestingly a shift in the seasonal pattern is notice. All satellite-based wind products are valid at 10 m, thus it is desirable to lift winds to higher levels for wind energy products. A method has been suggested to lift winds from 10 m to hub...

  1. Catching the fish - Constraining stellar parameters for TX Psc using spectro-interferometric observations

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, D; Hron, J; Aringer, B; Sacuto, S; Marigo, P; Verhoelst, T


    Stellar parameter determination is a challenging task when dealing with galactic giant stars. The combination of different investigation techniques has proven to be a promising approach. We analyse archive spectra obtained with the Short-Wavelength-Spectrometer (SWS) onboard of ISO, and new interferometric observations from the Very Large Telescope MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (VLTI/MIDI) of a very well studied carbon-rich giant: TX Psc. The aim of this work is to determine stellar parameters using spectroscopy and interferometry. The observations are used to constrain the model atmosphere, and eventually the stellar evolutionary model in the region where the tracks map the beginning of the carbon star sequence. Two different approaches are used to determine stellar parameters: (i) the 'classic' interferometric approach where the effective temperature is fixed by using the angular diameter in the N-band (from interferometry) and the apparent bolometric magnitude; (ii) parameters are obtained by fit...

  2. Differential interferometric phases at high spectral resolution as a sensitive physical diagnostic of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faes, D M; Rivinius, Th; Štefl, S; Baade, D; de Souza, A Domiciano


    Context. The circumstellar disks ejected by many rapidly rotating B stars (so-called Be stars) offer the rare opportunity of studying the structure and dynamics of gaseous disks at high spectral as well as angular resolution. Aims. This paper explores a newly identified effect in spectro-interferometric phase that can be used for probing the inner regions of gaseous edge-on disks on a scale of a few stellar radii. Methods. The origin of this effect (dubbed central quasi-emission phase signature, CQE-PS) lies in the velocity-dependent line absorption of photospheric radiation by the circumstellar disk. At high spectral and marginal interferometric resolution, photocenter displacements between star and isovelocity regions in the Keplerian disk reveal themselves through small interferometric phase shifts. To investigate the diagnostic potential of this effect, a series of models are presented, based on detailed radiative transfer calculations in a viscous decretion disk. Results. Amplitude and detailed shape of ...

  3. The LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometric imager: final lab integration, first light experiments and challenges (United States)

    Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.; Eckart, A.; Weigelt, G.


    LINC-NIRVANA (LN) is an innovative Fizeau interferometric imager for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). LN uses Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) for high-sky-coverage single-eye imagery and interferometric beam combination. The last two years have seen both successes and challenges. On the one hand, final integration is proceeding well in the lab. We also achieved First Light at the LBT with the Pathfinder experiment. On the other hand, funding constraints have forced a significant re-planning of the overall instrument implementation. These laboratory, observatory, and financial "events" provide lessons for builders of complex interferometric instruments on large telescopes. This paper presents our progress and plans for bringing the instrument online at the telescope.

  4. Analysis of measurement algorithms and modelling of interferometric signals for infrared astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Donata, Bonino


    Measurement of interferometric parameters values is affected by phase disturbance due especially to atmospheric turbulences. Algorithms of fringe sensing, aimed at fringe parameters identification, are based on interferometric models that have to be carefully adapted to the interfered beams, including variability sources. All information is contained in the collected signals, and how to extract it is subject of researches. In the first part of the thesis, we present the fringe sensing algorithms proposed for two different fringe sensors for the ESO VLTI: FINITO and PRIMA FSU. We highlight how they must adapt to the different instrumental layouts, and we summarize their performance both on simulated and on laboratory data. In the second part, we show the results of the application of some statistical techniques to real interferometric signals. With the time series analysis we examine the composition of signals before and after the combination, separating pure random effects and peculiar features from trends. W...

  5. These Synthetic Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Already slated to be one of the most important cultural events in the buildup to this summer's Olympic games, Synthetic Times-Media Art China 2008 will feature the works of more than 30 artists from around the world. Upwards of 40 media art installations will be exhibited in the National Art Museum of China alone, along with performances, workshops, presentations, and discussion panels focusing on the art works and the growth of media art as a discipline.

  6. Synthetic gases production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaud, J.P.


    The natural gas or naphtha are the main constituents used for the production of synthetic gases. Several production ways of synthetic gases are industrially used as for example the natural gas or naphtha catalytic reforming, the selective oxidation of natural gas or heavy fuels and the coal oxy-vapo-gasification. The aim of this work is to study the different steps of production and treatment of the synthetic gases by the way of catalytic reforming. The first step is the desulfurization of the hydrocarbons feedstocks. The process used in industry is described. Then is realized the catalytic hydrocarbons reforming process. After having recalled some historical data on the catalytic reforming, the author gives the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. The possible reforming catalysts, industrial equipments and furnaces designs are then exposed. The carbon dioxide is a compound easily obtained during the reforming reactions. It is a wasteful and harmful component which has to be extracted of the gaseous stream. The last step is then the gases de-carbonation. Two examples of natural gas or naphtha reforming reactions are at last given: the carbon monoxide conversion by steam and the carbon oxides reactions with hydrogen (methanization). (O.M.). 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Synthetic biology in plastids. (United States)

    Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph


    Plastids (chloroplasts) harbor a small gene-dense genome that is amenable to genetic manipulation by transformation. During 1 billion years of evolution from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont to present-day chloroplasts, the plastid genome has undergone a dramatic size reduction, mainly as a result of gene losses and the large-scale transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Thus the plastid genome can be regarded as a naturally evolved miniature genome, the gradual size reduction and compaction of which has provided a blueprint for the design of minimum genomes. Furthermore, because of the largely prokaryotic genome structure and gene expression machinery, the high transgene expression levels attainable in transgenic chloroplasts and the very low production costs in plant systems, the chloroplast lends itself to synthetic biology applications that are directed towards the efficient synthesis of green chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and other metabolites of commercial interest. This review describes recent progress with the engineering of plastid genomes with large constructs of foreign or synthetic DNA, and highlights the potential of the chloroplast as a model system in bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology approaches.

  8. Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Souris, Fabien; Jacquier, Philippe; Dupont-Roc, Jacques; Arvengas, Arnaud; Caupin, Frédéric; 10.1364/AO.49.006127


    Interferometric imaging is a well established method to image phase objects by mixing the image wavefront with a reference one on a CCD camera. It has also been applied to fast transient phenomena, mostly through the analysis of single interferograms. It is shown that for repetitive phenomena multiphase acquisition brings significant advantages. A 1 MHz focused sound field emitted by a hemispherical piezotransducer in water is imaged as an example. Quantitative image analysis provides high resolution sound field profiles. Pressure at focus determined by this method agrees with measurements from a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. This confirms that multiphase interferometric imaging can indeed provide quantitative measurements.

  9. Simultaneous analytical characterisation of two ultrashort laser pulses using spectrally resolved interferometric correlations (United States)

    Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Artigas, David; Cormack, Iain G.; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo


    In this paper we discuss in detail the underlying theory of a novel method that allows the characterizing of ultrashort laser pulses to be achieved in an analytical way. MEFISTO, (measuring the electric field by interferometric spectral trace observation) is based on a Fourier analysis of the information contained in a spectrally resolved interferometric correlation and can be applied to both situations: the characterization of an unknown pulse (MEFISTO) or to the simultaneous characterization of two different unknowns pulses (Blind-MEFISTO). The theoretical development and experimental practical implications are discussed in both situations.

  10. An analog modulation and demodulation method employing LVDT signal conditioner for fiber-optic interferometric sensors (United States)

    Zhou, Kejiang; Rao, Qi; Zhang, Minjie; Hu, Keke; Ruan, Yefeng


    An analog method to modulate and demodulate fiber-optic interferometric sensors employing a linear variable differential transformer signal conditioner to generate sine modulation wave and demodulate phase-modulated signal from the photodetector’s output is presented in this letter. No external lock-in amplifiers or digital components are used in this design. All the necessary components for signal processing are integrated in a single analog electronic microchip AD698, which reduces the system’s complexity significantly. After implementation on an interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope as an example, this method demonstrates a bias stability of 0.063 deg h-1 (i.e. 0.220 µrad).

  11. Interferometric microstructured polymer optical fiber ultrasound sensor for optoacoustic endoscopic imaging in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Daniel; Sáez-Rodríguez, David; Webb, David


    We report a characterization of the acoustic sensitivity of microstructured polymer optical fiber interferometric sensors at ultrasonic frequencies from 100kHz to 10MHz. The use of wide-band ultrasonic fiber optic sensors in biomedical ultrasonic and optoacoustic applications is an open alternative...... interferometric sensors depends strongly of the material which is composed of. In this work we compare experimentally the intrinsic ultrasonic sensitivities of a PMMA mPOF with other three optical fibers: a singlemode silica optical fiber, a single-mode polymer optical fiber and a multimode graded...

  12. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  13. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  14. Advanced methods in synthetic aperture radar imaging (United States)

    Kragh, Thomas


    For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR image. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the radar on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR imaging and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR images are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent imaging modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the image. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR images one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated images formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D images. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and

  15. Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy - A novel interferometric technique for the FUV (United States)

    Harlander, J.; Roesler, F. L.; Chakrabarti, S.


    The optical principles associated with spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) are described and the results of proof-of-concept tests performed in both the visible and the UV spectral regions are presented. A specific all-reflecting SHS configuration now being developed for high-resolution planetary Lyman-alpha studies is discussed. The expected performance of SHS systems is compared to that of conventional instrumentation in two cases: Venusian Ly-alpha measurements at high resolution from a sounding rocket and the velocity-resolved survey of the diffuse FUV interstellar medium emission from a Small Explorer class satellite.

  16. Galileo satellite antenna modeling (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver


    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  17. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth


    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  18. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression. (United States)

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank


    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation.

  19. Satellite-Delivered Learning. (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.


    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  20. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  1. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang


    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  2. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  3. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi


    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  4. Geometric Calibration and Accuracy Verification of the GF-3 Satellite. (United States)

    Zhao, Ruishan; Zhang, Guo; Deng, Mingjun; Xu, Kai; Guo, Fengcheng


    The GF-3 satellite is the first multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging satellite in China, which operates in the C band with a resolution of 1 m. Although the SAR satellite system was geometrically calibrated during the in-orbit commissioning phase, there are still some system errors that affect its geometric positioning accuracy. In this study, these errors are classified into three categories: fixed system error, time-varying system error, and random error. Using a multimode hybrid geometric calibration of spaceborne SAR, and considering the atmospheric propagation delay, all system errors can be effectively corrected through high-precision ground control points and global atmospheric reference data. The geometric calibration experiments and accuracy evaluation for the GF-3 satellite are performed using ground control data from several regions. The experimental results show that the residual system errors of the GF-3 SAR satellite have been effectively eliminated, and the geometric positioning accuracy can be better than 3 m.

  5. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Adriana Cziple


    Full Text Available This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs significantly from other “degradable plastics” in the market as it does not attempt to replace the current popular materials but instead enhances them by rendering them biodegradable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Eduard Dinca


    Full Text Available During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the true-sale and synthetic CDO securitizations as financial markets-based funding, investment and risks mitigation techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  7. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  8. Geodetic Secor Satellite (United States)


    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  9. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  10. Optimization of GPS Interferometric Reflectometry for Remote Sensing (United States)

    Chen, Qiang

    GPS Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR), a passive microwave remote sensing technique utilizing GPS signal as a source of opportunity, characterizes the Earth's surface through a bistatic radar configuration. The key idea of GPS-IR is utilizing a ground-based antenna to coherently receive the direct, or line-of-sight (LOS), signal and the Earth's surface reflected signal simultaneously. The direct and reflected signals create an interference pattern of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), which contains the information about the Earth's surface environment. GPS-IR has proven its utility in a variety of environmental remote sensing applications, including the measurements of near-surface soil moisture, coastal sea level, snow depth and snow water equivalent, and vegetation biophysical parameters. A major approach of the GPS-IR technique is using the SNR data provided by the global network of the geodetic GPS stations deployed for tectonic and surveying applications. The geodetic GPS networks provide wide spatial coverage and have no additional cost for this capability expansion. However, the geodetic GPS instruments have intrinsic limitations: the geodetic-quality GPS antennas are designed to suppress the reflected signals, which is counter to the requirement of GPS-IR. As a result, it is desirable to refine and optimize the instrument and realize the full potential of the GPS-IR technique. This dissertation first analyzes the signal characteristics of four available polarizations of the GPS signal, and then discusses how these characteristics are related to and can be used for remote sensing applications of GPS-IR. Two types of antennas, a half-wavelength dipole antenna and a patch antenna, are proposed and fabricated to utilize the desired polarizations. Four field experiments are conducted to assess the feasibility of the design criteria and the performance of the proposed antennas. Three experiments are focused on snow depth measurement. The Table Mountain

  11. Reduction of interferometric crosstalk induced penalty using a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Zheng, Xueyan; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov;


    We successfully demonstrated that a simple saturated SOA could be used to reduce the impact from the interferometric crosstalk at 2.5 and 10 Gb/s. It is shown that 4 dB more crosstalk power can be tolerated at 1 dB penalty by using the SOA. This will greatly reduce the crosstalk requirement on co...

  12. Cascadability of broadcast and select switch blocks with interferometric wavelength converters at 10 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke;


    In conclusion, it is demonstrated that the use of interferometric wavelength convertors (IWCs) in the broadcast and select packet switch block results in an improved cascadability. Furthermore, it is predicted that successful concatenation of eight 8 x 8 and four 16 X 16 switch blocks is possible...

  13. Interferometric SAR Coherence Models for Characterization of Hemiboreal Forests Using TanDEM-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aire Olesk


    Full Text Available In this study, four models describing the interferometric coherence of the forest vegetation layer are proposed and compared with the TanDEM-X data. Our focus is on developing tools for hemiboreal forest height estimation from single-pol interferometric SAR measurements, suitable for wide area forest mapping with limited a priori information. The multi-temporal set of 19 TanDEM-X interferometric pairs and the 90th percentile forest height maps are derived from Airborne LiDAR Scanning (ALS, covering an area of 2211 ha of forests over Estonia. Three semi-empirical models along with the Random Volume over Ground (RVoG model are examined for applicable parameter ranges and model performance under various conditions for over 3000 forest stands. This study shows that all four models performed well in describing the relationship between forest height and interferometric coherence. Use of an advanced model with multiple parameters is not always justified when modeling the volume decorrelation in the boreal and hemiboreal forests. The proposed set of semi-empirical models, show higher robustness compared to a more advanced RVoG model under a range of seasonal and environmental conditions during data acquisition. We also examine the dynamic range of parameters that different models can take and propose optimal conditions for forest stand height inversion for operationally-feasible scenarios.

  14. Resolving phase ambiguities in the calibration of redundant interferometric arrays: implications for array design (United States)

    Kurien, Binoy G.; Tarokh, Vahid; Rachlin, Yaron; Shah, Vinay N.; Ashcom, Jonathan B.


    We provide new results enabling robust interferometric image reconstruction in the presence of unknown aperture piston variation via the technique of redundant spacing calibration (RSC). The RSC technique uses redundant measurements of the same interferometric baseline with different pairs of apertures to reveal the piston variation among these pairs. In both optical and radio interferometry, the presence of phase-wrapping ambiguities in the measurements is a fundamental issue that needs to be addressed for reliable image reconstruction. In this paper, we show that these ambiguities affect recently developed RSC phasor-based reconstruction approaches operating on the complex visibilities, as well as traditional phase-based approaches operating on their logarithm. We also derive new sufficient conditions for an interferometric array to be immune to these ambiguities in the sense that their effect can be rendered benign in image reconstruction. This property, which we call wrap-invariance, has implications for the reliability of imaging via classical three-baseline phase closures as well as generalized closures. We show that wrap-invariance is conferred upon arrays whose interferometric graph satisfies a certain cycle-free condition. For cases in which this condition is not satisfied, a simple algorithm is provided for identifying those graph cycles which prevent its satisfaction. We apply this algorithm to diagnose and correct a member of a pattern family popular in the literature.

  15. A Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for extracting periodic gravitational wave signals from laser interferometric detector data

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, N; Woan, G; Meyer, R; Christensen, Nelson; Woan, Graham; Meyer, Renate


    The Markov chain Monte Carlo methods offer practical procedures for detecting signals characterized by a large number of parameters and under conditions of low signal-to-noise ratio. We present a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm capable of inferring the spin and orientation parameters of a neutron star from its periodic gravitational wave signature seen by laser interferometric detectors

  16. The flight test of Pi-SAR(L) for the repeat-pass interferometric SAR (United States)

    Nohmi, Hitoshi; Shimada, Masanobu; Miyawaki, Masanori


    This paper describes the experiment of the repeat pass interferometric SAR using Pi-SAR(L). The air-borne repeat-pass interferometric SAR is expected as an effective method to detect landslide or predict a volcano eruption. To obtain a high-quality interferometric image, it is necessary to make two flights on the same flight pass. In addition, since the antenna of the Pi-SAR(L) is secured to the aircraft, it is necessary to fly at the same drift angle to keep the observation direction same. We built a flight control system using an auto pilot which has been installed in the airplane. This navigation system measures position and altitude precisely with using a differential GPS, and the PC Navigator outputs a difference from the desired course to the auto pilot. Since the air density is thinner and the speed is higher than the landing situation, the gain of the control system is required to be adjusted during the repeat pass flight. The observation direction could be controlled to some extent by adjusting a drift angle with using a flight speed control. The repeat-pass flight was conducted in Japan for three days in late November. The flight was stable and the deviation was within a few meters for both horizontal and vertical direction even in the gusty condition. The SAR data were processed in time domain based on range Doppler algorism to make the complete motion compensation. Thus, the interferometric image processed after precise phase compensation is shown.

  17. Observation of Tropical Rain Forest Trees by Airborne High-Resolution Interferometric Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.; Varekamp, C.


    The Indonesian Radar Experiment (INDREX) Campaign was executed in Indonesia to study the potential of high-resolution interferometric airborne radar in support of sustainable tropical forest management. Severe cloud cover limits the use of aerial photography, which is currently applied on a routine

  18. A new method for bidimensional analysis of interferometric patterns of liquid films. (United States)

    Nogueira, Rui; Vazquez, Rosa; Mata, José Luís; Saramago, Benilde


    A new method for bidimensional analysis of interferometric patterns of wetting liquid films obtained with the captive bubble technique is described. This method replaces one-dimensional analysis along various intensity profiles with analysis of one average intensity profile. The advantage is to concentrate the surface characteristics of the whole film image into a single intensity profile.

  19. First Results from the CHARA Array VII: Long-Baseline Interferometric Measurements of Vega Consistent with a Pole-On, Rapidly Rotating Star

    CERN Document Server

    Aufdenberg, J P; Berger, D H; Brummelaar, T A; Folco, E D; Foresto, V C; Kervella, P; McAlister, H A; Merand, A; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H


    We have obtained high-precision interferometric measurements of Vega with the CHARA Array and FLUOR beam combiner in the K' band at projected baselines between 103m and 273m. The measured visibility amplitudes beyond the first lobe are significantly weaker than expected for a slowly rotating star characterized by a single effective temperature and surface gravity. Our measurements, when compared to synthetic visibilities and synthetic spectrophotometry from a Roche-von Zeipel gravity-darkened model atmosphere, provide strong evidence for the model of Vega as a rapidly rotating star viewed very nearly pole-on. Our best fitting model indicates that Vega is rotating at ~91% of its angular break-up rate with an equatorial velocity of 275 km/s. Together with the measured vsin(i), this velocity yields an inclination for the rotation axis of 5 degrees. For this model the pole-to-equator effective temperature difference is 2250 K, a value much larger than previously derived from spectral line analyses. The derived eq...

  20. Interferometric SAR and land deformation. Analysis using the dislocation model; Interferometric SAR to chikaku hendo. Dislocation model wo mochiita kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.; Otaki, T.; Tanaka, A.; Miyazaki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The diastrophism by the earthquake-induced dislocation is investigated by interferometry (INSAR) which represents the diastrophism by the interference fringes of equiphase difference lines. A joint research group at Geographical Survey Institute and National Space Development Agency showed the diastrophism in the vicinity of the ground surfaces before and after the Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake by the INSAR interference images in 1995. This paper discusses the effects of observation in the vision line direction from the satellite and dislocation parameters on the interference images. The dislocation model uses a slanted rectangular model in a semi-infinite medium, to calculate static displacements and strain distributions at the ground surface, when dislocation changes. It is found that the INSAR interference images, detecting displacements in the vision line direction from the satellite, significantly change as the vision line direction changes, and that the actual displacement cannot be given by the images alone. This paper also shows sensitivity of the interference images to the dislocation parameters. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Assessment of a Near-Global 30-meter Resolution DEM Derived from the Publicly Available SRTM Data Set for Use in Orthorectification of Satellite SAR Imagery (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Chapman, B.; Podest, E.; Jimenez, A.


    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) utilized an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) flown onboard the space shuttle Endeavour to obtain high resolution elevation data of Earth's land surface. Virtually all land surface between +/- 60 degrees latitude was mapped. Regions within these bounds contain some data gaps but this represents less than 0.2 % of the coverage. Standard publicly-available data sets from SRTM include a 3 arc-second (~90 meter) resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with absolute average global vertical accuracy of approximately 4 to 5 meters. A 1 arc-second (~30 meter) resolution DEM has also been developed, but only the portion of the data set covering the United States is publicly available. The finished version of these products has been edited for pixel-level errors and delineation of coastlines and water bodies, although some data voids are still present. Utilizing such DEMs of appropriate resolution in a common framework with satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data allows robust ortho-rectification and geo-referencing of the SAR data sets. We have derived a 1 arc-second resolution DEM over the entire domain of the SRTM coverage using a 3- dimensional interpolation scheme applied to the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM. Development of this product involves (1) translation of SRTM products into the WGS84 datum, (2) interpolation of the lower resolution DEMs to 1 arc- second, and (3) assembly of the global-scale 1 arc-second DEM. We assess effectiveness of this interpolation scheme through comparative statistical analysis of the 3 arc-second finished product, the 1 arc-second finished product, and the 1 arc-second interpolated product over selected test regions within the USA where all products are available. Comparisons are also made to standard GTOPO30 products for regions inside and outside of the USA. Comparisons are presented for regions representative of gentle and complex terrain. Ortho-rectification of SAR data such

  2. Synthetic collective intelligence. (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl


    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts.

  3. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project


    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Debra J. H. Mathews


    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  4. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  5. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  6. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...... harmonic techniques have been made, but none of these methods have so far been applicable for in-vivo imaging. The basis of this project is a synthetic aperture technique known as synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB). The technique utilizes a two step beamforming approach to drastically reduce...

  7. Synthetic biology and genetic causation. (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka


    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Space Synthetic Biology Project (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)


    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  9. A revised calibration of the interferometric mode of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter improves ice height and height change measurements in western Greenland (United States)

    Gray, Laurence; Burgess, David; Copland, Luke; Dunse, Thorben; Langley, Kirsty; Moholdt, Geir


    We compare geocoded heights derived from the interferometric mode (SARIn) of CryoSat to surface heights from calibration-validation sites on Devon Ice Cap and western Greenland. Comparisons are included for both the heights derived from the first return (the point-of-closest-approach or POCA) and heights derived from delayed waveform returns (swath processing). While swath-processed heights are normally less precise than edited POCA heights, e.g. standard deviations of ˜ 3 and ˜ 1.5 m respectively for the western Greenland site, the increased coverage possible with swath data complements the POCA data and provides useful information for both system calibration and improving digital elevation models (DEMs). We show that the pre-launch interferometric baseline coupled with an additional roll correction ( ˜ 0.0075° ± 0.0025°), or equivalent phase correction ( ˜ 0.0435 ± 0.0145 radians), provides an improved calibration of the interferometric SARIn mode. We extend the potential use of SARIn data by showing the influence of surface conditions, especially melt, on the return waveforms and that it is possible to detect and measure the height of summer supraglacial lakes in western Greenland. A supraglacial lake can provide a strong radar target in the waveform, stronger than the initial POCA return, if viewed at near-normal incidence. This provides an ideal situation for swath processing and we demonstrate a height precision of ˜ 0.5 m for two lake sites, one in the accumulation zone and one in the ablation zone, which were measured every year from 2010 or 2011 to 2016. Each year the lake in the ablation zone was viewed in June by ascending passes and then 5.5 days later by descending passes, which allows an approximate estimate of the filling rate. The results suggest that CryoSat waveform data and measurements of supraglacial lake height change could complement the use of optical satellite imagery and be helpful as proxy indicators for surface melt around

  10. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen


    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  11. Synthetic biology and occupational risk. (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul


    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  12. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen


    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  13. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke


    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...... of SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...

  14. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen


    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  15. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon


    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  16. Variation and Synthetic Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, C; Massey, N; Miller, Corey; Karaali, Orhan; Massey, Noel


    We describe the approach to linguistic variation taken by the Motorola speech synthesizer. A pan-dialectal pronunciation dictionary is described, which serves as the training data for a neural network based letter-to-sound converter. Subsequent to dictionary retrieval or letter-to-sound generation, pronunciations are submitted a neural network based postlexical module. The postlexical module has been trained on aligned dictionary pronunciations and hand-labeled narrow phonetic transcriptions. This architecture permits the learning of individual postlexical variation, and can be retrained for each speaker whose voice is being modeled for synthesis. Learning variation in this way can result in greater naturalness for the synthetic speech that is produced by the system.

  17. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B....... The method is investigated using simulations and through measurements using both phased array and convex array transducers. The images all show an improved contrast compared to images without compounding, and by construction, imaging using an improved frame rate is possible. Using a phased array transducer...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  18. Volcanic and Tectonic Activity in the Red Sea Region (2004-2013): Insights from Satellite Radar Interferometry and Optical Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin


    Studying recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region is important for improving our knowledge of the Red Sea plate boundary and for regional geohazard assessments. However, limited information has been available about the past activity due to insufficient in-situ data and remoteness of some of the activity. In this dissertation, I have used satellite remote sensing to derive new information about several recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region. I first report on three volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea, the 2007-8 Jebel at Tair eruption and the 2011-12 & 2013 Zubair eruptions, which resulted in formation of two new islands. Series of high- resolution optical images were used to map the extent of lava flows and to observe and analyze the growth and destructive processes of the new islands. I used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to study the evolution of lava flows, to estimate their volumes, as well as to generate ground displacements maps, which were used to model the dikes that fed the eruptions. I then report on my work of the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion and the 2004 Tabuk earthquake sequence in western Saudi Arabia. I used InSAR observations and stress calculations to study the intruding dike at Harrat Lunayyir, while I combined InSAR data and Bayesian estimation to study the Tabuk earthquake activity. The key findings of the thesis are: 1) The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea indicate that the area is magmatically more active than previously acknowledged and that a rifting episode has been taken place in the southern Red Sea; 2) Stress interactions between an ascending dike intrusion and normal faulting on graben-bounding faults above the dike can inhibit vertical propagation of magma towards the surface; 3) InSAR observations can improve locations of shallow earthquakes and fault model uncertainties are useful to associate earthquake activity with mapped faults; 4). The

  19. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Christiansen, M.


    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting wind fields are valuable in offshore wind energy planning as a supplement to on site measurements, which are costly and sparse, and model wind fields, which are not fully validated. Two applications of SAR measurements in offshore wind energy planning are addressed here: the study of wind farm wake effects and the potential of using SAR winds in offshore wind resource assessment. Firstly, wind wakes behind two large offshore wind farms in Denmark Horns Rev and Nysted are identified. A region of reduced wind speed is found downstream of both wind farms from the SAR wind fields. The wake extent and magnitude depends on the wind speed, the atmospheric stability, and the fraction of turbines operating. Wind farm wake effects are detected up to 20 km downwind of the last turbine. This distance is longer than predicted by state-of-the art wake models. Wake losses are typically 10-20% near the wind farms. Secondly, the potential of using SAR wind maps in offshore wind resource assessment is investigated. The resource assessment is made through Weibull fitting to frequency observations of wind speed and requires at least 100 satellite observations per year for a given site of interest. Predictions of the energy density are very sensitive to the wind speed and the highest possible accuracy on SAR wind retrievals is therefore sought. A 1.1 m s{sup -1} deviation on the mean wind speed is found through comparison with mast measurements at Horns Rev. The accuracy on mean wind speeds and energy densities found from satellite measurements varies with different empirical model functions. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the infrequent satellite sampling at fixed times of the day. The accuracy on satellite based wind resource

  20. Oceanic eddies in synthetic aperture radar images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrei Yu Ivanov; Anna I Ginzburg


    Continuous observations since 1991 by using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board the Almaz-1, ERS-1/2, JERS-1, and RADARSAT satellites support the well-known fact that oceanic eddies are distributed worldwide in the ocean. The paper is devoted to an evaluation of the potential of SAR for detection of eddies and vortical motions in the ocean. The classification of typical vortical features in the ocean detected in remote sensing images (visible, infrared, and SAR) is presented as well as available information on their spatial and temporal scales. Examples of the Almaz-1 and ERS-1/2 SAR images showing different eddy types, such as rings, spiral eddies of the open ocean, eddies behind islands and in bays, spin-off eddies and mushroom-like structures (vortex dipoles) are given and discussed. It is shown that a common feature for most of the eddies detected in the SAR images is a broad spectrum of spatial scales, spiral shape and shear nature. It is concluded that the spaceborne SARs give valuable information on ocean eddies, especially in combination with visible and infrared satellite data.

  1. The small-scale structure of OMC-2 FIR 4: Interferometric observations of an intermediate-mass protocluster (United States)

    Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Taquet, Vianney; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Kama, Mihkel; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Shimajiri, Yoshito


    Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. In order to investigate the small-scale morphology of OMC-2 FIR 4 and aid in interpretation of the single-dish line profiles already in our hands, we imaged the region using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution that allows us to resolve structures down to 1 arcsec, which is equivalent to ∼ 400 AU. Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure within them. One of them may be associated with a young B3-B4 star that dominates the overall luminosity output of the region. In short, our interferometric observations show the complexity of the intermediate-mass protocluster OMC-2 FIR 4, where multiple cores, chemical differentiation, and an ionised region all coexist within an area of only 10000 AU.

  2. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry in Remote Sensing: an Invited Historical Review (United States)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.


    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  3. Interferometric methods for spatio temporal seismic monitoring in underground mines (United States)

    Dales, Philippe; Audet, Pascal; Olivier, Gerrit; Mercier, Jean-Philippe


    In active underground mining environments, monitoring of the rockmass has important implications for both safety and productivity. Monitoring can be accomplished by exploiting the many passive seismic sources (microearthquakes, drilling, ore-crushers etc.) around the mine on the condition they can be accurately detected and located. We implement a popular beamforming-like approach that uses cross-correlation functions in a maximum likelihood search to locate sources of seismic energy. We illustrate the technique with a synthetic example in which two simultaneous sources are located and discuss briefly the effects of different processing parameters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by monitoring both impulsive sources (microearthquakes) and other persistent sources (drilling and ore-crushers) in two active underground mines. We then propose how this information can be used in conjunction with ambient seismic noise interferometry to estimate seismic Green's functions under temporally variable and anisotropic wavefield conditions. Alternatively, we demonstrate how stable persistent sources, typically seen as contaminants in ambient noise applications, can be used to monitor changing rockmass conditions and potentially guide mining operations.

  4. Geodetic imaging: Reservoir monitoring using satellite interferometry (United States)

    Vasco, D.W.; Wicks, C.; Karasaki, K.; Marques, O.


    Fluid fluxes within subsurface reservoirs give rise to surface displacements, particularly over periods of a year or more. Observations of such deformation provide a powerful tool for mapping fluid migration within the Earth, providing new insights into reservoir dynamics. In this paper we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) range changes to infer subsurface fluid volume strain at the Coso geothermal field. Furthermore, we conduct a complete model assessment, using an iterative approach to compute model parameter resolution and covariance matrices. The method is a generalization of a Lanczos-based technique which allows us to include fairly general regularization, such as roughness penalties. We find that we can resolve quite detailed lateral variations in volume strain both within the reservoir depth range (0.4-2.5 km) and below the geothermal production zone (2.5-5.0 km). The fractional volume change in all three layers of the model exceeds the estimated model parameter uncertainly by a factor of two or more. In the reservoir depth interval (0.4-2.5 km), the predominant volume change is associated with northerly and westerly oriented faults and their intersections. However, below the geothermal production zone proper [the depth range 2.5-5.0 km], there is the suggestion that both north- and northeast-trending faults may act as conduits for fluid flow.

  5. Interferometric radiometer for in-flight detection of aviation hazards (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Kireev, Stanislav; West, Leanne L.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Cornman, Larry; Feltz, Wayne; Perram, Glen; Daniels, Taumi


    The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is a new instrument concept for obtaining the measurements required to alert flight crews to potential weather hazards to safe flight. To meet the needs of the commercial fleet, such a sensor should address multiple hazards to warrant the costs of development, certification, installation, training, and maintenance. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) technologies that have been developed for ground based, airborne, and satellite remote sensing. The FLI concept is being evaluated for its potential to address multiple hazards including clear air turbulence (CAT), volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing, during all phases of flight. This project has three major elements: further sensitivity studies and applications of EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) Regression; development of algorithms to estimate the hazard severity; and field measurements to provide an empirical demonstration of the FLI aviation hazard detection and display capability. These theoretical and experimental studies will lead to a specification for a prototype airborne FLI instrument for use in future in-flight validation. The research team includes the Georgia Tech Research Institute, Hampton University, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Air Force Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin.

  6. Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer observations of geosynchronous satellites. (United States)

    Hindsley, Robert B; Armstrong, J Thomas; Schmitt, Henrique R; Andrews, Jonathan R; Restaino, Sergio R; Wilcox, Christopher C; Vrba, Frederick J; Benson, James A; DiVittorio, Michael E; Hutter, Donald J; Shankland, Paul D; Gregory, Steven A


    Using a 15.9  m baseline at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), we have successfully detected interferometric fringes in observations of the geosynchronous satellite (geosat) DirecTV-9S while it glinted on two nights in March 2009. The fringe visibilities can be fitted by a model consisting of two components, one resolved (≳3.7  m) and one unresolved (∼1.1  m). Both the length of the glint and the specular albedos are consistent with the notion that the glinting surfaces are not completely flat and scatter reflected sunlight into an opening angle of roughly 15°. Enhancements to the NPOI that would improve geosat observations include adding an infrared capability, which could extend the glint season, and adding larger, adaptive-optics equipped telescopes. Future work may test the feasibility of observing geosats with aperture-masked large telescopes and of developing an array of six to nine elements.

  7. From quiescence to unrest: 20 years of satellite geodetic measurements at Santorini volcano, Greece (United States)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Moore, James D. P.; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Raptakis, Costas; Paradissis, Demitris; Hooper, Andrew; Parsons, Barry; Nomikou, Paraskevi


    Periods of unrest at caldera-forming volcanic systems characterized by increased rates of seismicity and deformation are well documented. Some can be linked to eventual eruptive activity, while others are followed by a return to quiescence. Here we use a 20 year record of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS measurements from Santorini volcano to further our understanding of geodetic signals at a caldera-forming volcano during the periods of both quiescence and unrest, with measurements spanning a phase of quiescence and slow subsidence (1993-2010), followed by a phase of unrest (January 2011 to April 2012) with caldera-wide inflation and seismicity. Mean InSAR velocity maps from 1993-2010 indicate an average subsidence rate of 6 mm/yr over the southern half of the intracaldera island Nea Kameni. This subsidence can be accounted for by a combination of thermal contraction of the 1866-1870 lava flows and load-induced relaxation of the substrate. For the period of unrest, we use a joint inversion technique to convert InSAR measurements from three separate satellite tracks and GPS observations from 10 continuous sites into a time series of subsurface volume change. The optimal location of the inflating source is consistent with previous studies, situated north of Nea Kameni at a depth of 4 km. However, the time series reveals two distinct pressure pulses. The first pulse corresponds to a volume change (ΔV) within the shallow magma chamber of (11.56 ± 0.14) × 106 m3, and the second pulse has a ΔV of (9.73 ± 0.10) × 106 m3. The relationship between the timing of these pulses and microseismicity observations suggests that these pulses may be driven by two separate batches of magma supplied to a shallow reservoir. We find no evidence suggesting a change in source location between the two pulses. The decline in the rates of volume change at the end of both pulses and the observed lag of the deformation signal behind cumulative seismicity, suggest

  8. 25 years of satellite InSAR monitoring of ground instability and coastal geohazards in the archaeological site of Capo Colonna, Italy (United States)

    Cigna, F.; Confuorto, P.; Novellino, A.; Tapete, D.; Di Martire, D.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.; Plank, S.; Ietto, F.; Brigante, A.; Sowter, A.


    For centuries the promontory of Capo Colonna in Calabria region, southern Italy, experienced land subsidence and coastline retreat to an extent that the archaeological ruins of the ancient Greek sanctuary are currently under threat of cliff failure, toppling and irreversible loss. Gas extraction in nearby wells is a further anthropogenic element to account for at the regional scale. Exploiting an unprecedented satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) time series including ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed and Sentinel-1A data stacks acquired between 1992 and 2016, this paper presents the first and most complete Interferometric SAR (InSAR) baseline assessment of land subsidence and coastal processes affecting Capo Colonna. We analyse the regional displacement trends, the correlation between vertical displacements with gas extraction volumes, the impact on stability of the archaeological heritage, and the coastal geohazard susceptibility. In the last 25 years, the land has subsided uninterruptedly, with highest annual line-of-sight deformation rates ranging between -15 and -20 mm/year in 2011-2014. The installation of 40 pairs of corner reflectors along the northern coastline and within the archaeological park resulted in an improved imaging capability and higher density of measurement points. This proved to be beneficial for the ground stability assessment of recent archaeological excavations, in an area where field surveying in November 2015 highlighted new events of cliff failure. The conceptual model developed suggests that combining InSAR results, geomorphological assessments and inventorying of wave-storms will contribute to unveil the complexity of coastal geohazards in Capo Colonna.

  9. Advanced SAR simulator with multi-beam interferometric capabilities (United States)

    Reppucci, Antonio; Márquez, José; Cazcarra, Victor; Ruffini, Giulio


    State of the art simulations are of great interest when designing a new instrument, studying the imaging mechanisms due to a given scenario or for inversion algorithm design as they allow to analyze and understand the effects of different instrument configurations and targets compositions. In the framework of the studies about a new instruments devoted to the estimation of the ocean surface movements using Synthetic Aperture Radar along-track interferometry (SAR-ATI) an End-to-End simulator has been developed. The simulator, built in a high modular way to allow easy integration of different processing-features, deals with all the basic operations involved in an end to end scenario. This includes the computation of the position and velocity of the platform (airborne/spaceborne) and the geometric parameters defining the SAR scene, the surface definition, the backscattering computation, the atmospheric attenuation, the instrument configuration, and the simulation of the transmission/reception chains and the raw data. In addition, the simulator provides a inSAR processing suit and a sea surface movement retrieval module. Up to four beams (each one composed by a monostatic and a bistatic channel) can be activated. Each channel provides raw data and SLC images with the possibility of choosing between Strip-map and Scansar modes. Moreover, the software offers the possibility of radiometric sensitivity analysis and error analysis due atmospheric disturbances, instrument-noise, interferogram phase-noise, platform velocity and attitude variations. In this paper, the architecture and the capabilities of this simulator will be presented. Meaningful simulation examples will be shown.

  10. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier


    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  11. Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#


    Mee, Michael T.; Wang, Harris H.


    Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of ...

  12. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory


    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  13. Holographically Correcting Synthetic Aperture Aberrations. (United States)


    Malacara (20:105-148). The synthetic aperture was aligned in accordance with the synthetic-aperture alignment technique of Gill (8:61-64). The...1987. 20. Malacara , Daniel, ed. Optical Shop Testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978. 21. Marciniak, Capt Michael. Tutorial Presentation of mV

  14. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.


    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the uni

  15. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger


    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  16. Satellite communication antenna technology (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)


    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  17. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...... on a seven-year ERS-1 and a four-year ERS-2 time series, the long term stability is found to be sufficient to allow a single calibration covering the entire mission period. A descending and an ascending orbit tandem pair of the ESA calibration site on Flevoland, suitable for calibration of ERS SAR processors...

  18. Ecotoxicology of synthetic pyrethroids. (United States)

    Maund, S J; Campbell, P J; Giddings, J M; Hamer, M J; Henry, K; Pilling, E D; Warinton, J S; Wheeler, J R


    In this chapter we review the ecotoxicology of the synthetic pyrethroids (SPs). SPs are potent, broad-spectrum insecticides. Their effects on a wide range of nontarget species have been broadly studied, and there is an extensive database available to evaluate their effects. SPs are highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates in the laboratory, but effects in the field are mitigated by rapid dissipation and degradation. Due to their highly lipophilic nature, SPs partition extensively into sediments. Recent studies have shown that toxicity in sediment can be predicted on the basis of equilibrium partitioning, and whilst other factors can influence this, organic carbon content is a key determining variable. At present for SPs, there is no clear evidence for adverse population-relevant effects with an underlying endocrine mode of action. SPs have been studied intensively in aquatic field studies, and their effects under field conditions are mitigated from those measured in the laboratory by their rapid dissipation and degradation. Studies with a range of test systems have shown consistent aquatic field endpoints across a variety of geographies and trophic states. SPs are also highly toxic to bees and other nontarget arthropods in the laboratory. These effects are mitigated in the field through repellency and dissipation of residues, and recovery from any adverse effects tends to be rapid.

  19. On line power spectra identification and whitening for the noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cuoco, E; Fabbroni, L; Losurdo, G; Mazzoni, M; Stanga, R M; Vetrano, F


    In this paper we address both to the problem of identifying the noise Power Spectral Density of interferometric detectors by parametric techniques and to the problem of the whitening procedure of the sequence of data. We will concentrate the study on a Power Spectral Density like the one of the Italian-French detector VIRGO and we show that with a reasonable finite number of parameters we succeed in modeling a spectrum like the theoretical one of VIRGO, reproducing all its features. We propose also the use of adaptive techniques to identify and to whiten on line the data of interferometric detectors. We analyze the behavior of the adaptive techniques in the field of stochastic gradient and in the Least Squares ones.

  20. Quantitative interferometric microscopic flow cytometer with expanded principal component analysis method (United States)

    Wang, Shouyu; Jin, Ying; Yan, Keding; Xue, Liang; Liu, Fei; Li, Zhenhua


    Quantitative interferometric microscopy is used in biological and medical fields and a wealth of applications are proposed in order to detect different kinds of biological samples. Here, we develop a phase detecting cytometer based on quantitative interferometric microscopy with expanded principal component analysis phase retrieval method to obtain phase distributions of red blood cells with a spatial resolution ~1.5 μm. Since expanded principal component analysis method is a time-domain phase retrieval algorithm, it could avoid disadvantages of traditional frequency-domain algorithms. Additionally, the phase retrieval method realizes high-speed phase imaging from multiple microscopic interferograms captured by CCD camera when the biological cells are scanned in the field of view. We believe this method can be a powerful tool to quantitatively measure the phase distributions of different biological samples in biological and medical fields.

  1. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner. (United States)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.


    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  2. Scalable splitting algorithms for big-data interferometric imaging in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Onose, Alexandru; McEwen, Jason D; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe; Wiaux, Yves


    The Square Kilometre Array will be the largest sensor ever built by humankind and will acquire unprecedented amounts of data in radio astronomy. Recently, convex optimisation algorithms coupled with sparsity priors have been shown to outperform traditional radio interferometric imaging methods such as CLEAN. Thus, it is of paramount importance to extend these techniques to handle large-scale data sets efficiently. In this article, we propose two convex optimisation algorithms for solving the radio interferometric imaging problem. They are tailored for big-data and employ parallel and distributed computations to achieve scalability, in terms of memory and computational requirements. One of them also exploits randomisation, over data blocks at each iteration, offering further flexibility. We present simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed methods as well as their advantages compared to state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms. The code is available online.

  3. Sparse representations and convex optimization as tools for LOFAR radio interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Julien N; Starck, Jean Luc; Corbel, Stéphane; Woiselle, Arnaud; Tasse, Cyril; McKean, John P; Bobin, Jérôme


    Compressed sensing theory is slowly making its way to solve more and more astronomical inverse problems. We address here the application of sparse representations, convex optimization and proximal theory to radio interferometric imaging. First, we expose the theory behind interferometric imaging, sparse representations and convex optimization, and second, we illustrate their application with numerical tests with SASIR, an implementation of the FISTA, a Forward-Backward splitting algorithm hosted in a LOFAR imager. Various tests have been conducted in Garsden et al., 2015. The main results are: i) an improved angular resolution (super resolution of a factor ~2) with point sources as compared to CLEAN on the same data, ii) correct photometry measurements on a field of point sources at high dynamic range and iii) the imaging of extended sources with improved fidelity. SASIR provides better reconstructions (five time less residuals) of the extended emissions as compared to CLEAN. With the advent of large radiotel...

  4. Pseudo working-point control measurement scheme for acoustic sensitivity of interferometric fiber-optic hydrophones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zefeng Wang; Yongming Hu; Zhou Meng; Ming Ni


    A novel pseudo working-point control measurement scheme for the acoustic sensitivity of interferometric fiber-optic hydrophones is described and demonstrated.The measurement principle is introduced in detail.An experimental system,which interrogates an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone with this method,is designed.The acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of the fiber-optic hydrophone is measured over the frequency range of 20-2500Hz.The measured acoustic sensitivity is about-156.5dB re 1rad/μPa with a fluctuation lower than ±1.2dB,which is in good agreement with the results obtained by the method of phase generated carrier.The experimental results testify the validity of this new method which has the advantages of no electric elements in the sensing head,the simplicity of signal processing,and wide working bandwidth.

  5. Interferometric pump-probe characterization of the nonlocal response of optically transparent ion implanted polymers (United States)

    Stefanov, Ivan L.; Hadjichristov, Georgi B.


    Optical interferometric technique is applied to characterize the nonlocal response of optically transparent ion implanted polymers. The thermal nonlinearity of the ion-modified material in the near-surface region is induced by continuous wave (cw) laser irradiation at a relatively low intensity. The interferometry approach is demonstrated for a subsurface layer of a thickness of about 100 nm formed in bulk polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) by implantation with silicon ions at an energy of 50 keV and fluence in the range 1014-1017 cm-2. The laser-induced thermooptic effect in this layer is finely probed by interferometric imaging. The interference phase distribution in the plane of the ion implanted layer is indicative for the thermal nonlinearity of the near-surface region of ion implanted optically transparent polymeric materials.

  6. Coordinate interferometric system for measuring the position of a sample with infrared telecom laser diode (United States)

    Holá, Miroslava; Lazar, Josef; Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Řeřucha, Šimon; Číp, Ondřej


    We report on a design of an interferometric position measuring system for control of a sample stage in an e-beam writer with reproducibility of the position on nanometer level and resolution below nanometer. We introduced differential configuration of the interferometer where the position is measured with respect to a central reference point to eliminate deformations caused by thermal and pressure effects on the vacuum chamber. The reference is here the electron gun of the writer. The interferometer is designed to operate at infrared, telecommunication wavelength due to the risk of interference of stray light with sensitive photodetectors in the chamber. The laser source is here a narrow-linewidth DFB laser diode with electronics of our own design offering precision and stability of temperature and current, low-noise, protection from rf interference, and high-frequency modulation. Detection of the interferometric signal relies on a novel derivative technique utilizing hf frequency modulation and phase-sensitive detection.

  7. Impact of backscattered light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, S S Y; Barsotti, L; Sigg, D; Schofield, R M S; Frolov, V V; Kawabe, K; Evans, M; Meadors, G D; Factourovich, M; Gustafson, R; Smith-Lefebvre, N; Vorvick, C; Landry, M; Khalaidovski, A; Stefszky, M S; Mow-Lowry, C M; Buchler, B C; Shaddock, D A; Lam, P K; Schnabel, R; Mavalvala, N; McClelland, D E


    Squeezed states of light have been recently used to improve the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors beyond the quantum limit. To completely establish quantum engineering as a realistic option for the next generation of detectors, it is crucial to study and quantify the noise coupling mechanisms which injection of squeezed states could potentially introduce. We present a direct measurement of the impact of backscattered light from a squeezed-light source deployed on one of the 4 km long detectors of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We also show how our measurements inform the design of squeezed light sources compatible with the even more sensitive advanced detectors currently under construction, such as Advanced LIGO.

  8. Dual-Frequency Interferometric SAR Observations of a Tropical Rain-Forest (United States)

    Rigot, E.


    Repeat-pass, interferometric, radar observations of tropical rain-forest collected by the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C) in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, reveal signal coherence is destroyed at C-band (5.6-cm) in the forest, whereas L-band (24-cm) radar signals remain strongly coherent over the entire landscape. At L-band, the rms difference in inferred topographic height between the forest and adjacent clearings is 5 m, equivalent to the height noise. Atmospheric delays are large, however, forming kilometer-sized anomalies with a 1.2-cm rms one way. Radar interferometric studies of the humid tropics must therefore be conducted at long radar wavelengths, with kilometric base-lines or with two antennas operating simultaneously.

  9. Dust Scattering in Miras R Car and RR Sco resolved by optical interferometric polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, M J; Davis, J; Tango, W


    We present optical interferometric polarimetry measurements of the Mira-like variables R Car and RR Sco, using the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer. By making visibility measurements in two perpendicular polarisations, the relatively low-surface brightness light scattered by atmospheric dust could be spatially separated from the bright Mira photospheric flux. This is the first reported successful use of long-baseline optical interferometric polarimetry. Observations were able to place constraints on the distribution of circumstellar material in R Car and RR Sco. The inner radius of dust formation for both stars was found to be less than 3 stellar radii: much closer than the expected innermost stable location for commonly-assumed astrophysical ``dirty silicate'' dust in these systems (silicate dust with a significant iron content). A model with the dust distributed over a shell which is geometrically thin compared to the stellar radius was preferred over an outflow. We propose dust components whose che...

  10. Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry. (United States)

    Yeh, Brian J; Lim, Wendell A


    The mid-nineteenth century saw the development of a radical new direction in chemistry: instead of simply analyzing existing molecules, chemists began to synthesize them--including molecules that did not exist in nature. The combination of this new synthetic approach with more traditional analytical approaches revolutionized chemistry, leading to a deep understanding of the fundamental principles of chemical structure and reactivity and to the emergence of the modern pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The history of synthetic chemistry offers a possible roadmap for the development and impact of synthetic biology, a nascent field in which the goal is to build novel biological systems.

  11. Analisys of noise-injection networks for interferometric-radiometer calibration


    Corbella Sanahuja, Ignasi; Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Torres Torres, Francisco; Bará Temes, Francisco Javier


    Abstract: The spatial resolution of current space-borne Earth observation radiometers is limited by the physical antenna aperture. This is especially critical at L-band, which exhibits high sensitivity to soil moisture and sea surface salinity. Interferometric radiometers (InR's) are currently being studied by several space agencies as a feasible alternative to overcome this problem. However, their calibration is a crucial issue since most techniques inherited from radio astronomy cannot b...

  12. Characterization of the structure of the coating of multilayers using AFM and Interferometric Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez A, Martha I; Lara O, Laura; Morantes M, Luz D [Universidad Industrial de Santander (Colombia); Plata G, Arturo; Torres, Yezid; Tsygankov, Petr, E-mail: [Grupo de Optica Y Tratamiento de Senales (Colombia)


    Ti / TiN films were deposited on H13 steel and silicon substrates with different deposition voltage, by means of the cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) technique, this process was carried out by nanolayers deposition, requiring a detailed survey on growth films, for the properties characterization such as grain size, thickness and roughness of the film was used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques and Interferometric Microscopy. Obtaining a the films growth when varying the deposition voltage.

  13. Picoradian deflection measurement with an interferometric quasi-autocollimator using weak value amplification. (United States)

    Turner, Matthew D; Hagedorn, Charles A; Schlamminger, Stephan; Gundlach, Jens H


    We present an "interferometric quasi-autocollimator" that employs weak value amplification to measure angular deflections of a target mirror. The device has been designed to be insensitive to all translations of the target. We present a conceptual explanation of the amplification effect used by the device. An implementation of the device demonstrates sensitivities better than 10 picoradians per root hertz between 10 and 200 Hz.

  14. Resolving phase ambiguities in the calibration of redundant interferometric arrays: implications for array design (United States)


    2014)), and the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) in India (see Marthi & Chengalur (2014)). As will be shown below, N−3 independent redundant re- lations are...interferometric baseline with different pairs of apertures to reveal the piston variation among these pairs. In both optical and radio interferometry...In this paper, we show that these ambigu- ities affect recently- developed RSC phasor-based reconstruction approaches operating on the complex

  15. Improving the performance of interferometric imaging through the use of disturbance feedforward. (United States)

    Böhm, Michael; Glück, Martin; Keck, Alexander; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Sawodny, Oliver


    In this paper, we present a disturbance compensation technique to improve the performance of interferometric imaging for extremely large ground-based telescopes, e.g., the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), which serves as the application example in this contribution. The most significant disturbance sources at ground-based telescopes are wind-induced mechanical vibrations in the range of 8-60 Hz. Traditionally, their optical effect is eliminated by feedback systems, such as the adaptive optics control loop combined with a fringe tracking system within the interferometric instrument. In this paper, accelerometers are used to measure the vibrations. These measurements are used to estimate the motion of the mirrors, i.e., tip, tilt and piston, with a dynamic estimator. Additional delay compensation methods are presented to cancel sensor network delays and actuator input delays, improving the estimation result even more, particularly at higher frequencies. Because various instruments benefit from the implementation of telescope vibration mitigation, the estimator is implemented as a separate, independent software on the telescope, publishing the estimated values via multicast on the telescope's ethernet. Every client capable of using and correcting the estimated disturbances can subscribe and use these values in a feedforward for its compensation device, e.g., the deformable mirror, the piston mirror of LINC-NIRVANA, or the fast path length corrector of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer. This easy-to-use approach eventually leveraged the presented technology for interferometric use at the LBT and now significantly improves the sky coverage, performance, and operational robustness of interferometric imaging on a regular basis.

  16. Visibility in magnetostrictive fiber-optic interferometric sensors and its dependence on the input SOP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhai Shi; Jianping Chen; Xinwan Li; Ailun Ye; Junhe Zhou; Yi Zhang; Qing Xue; Lin Hong


    The visibility in magnetostrictive fiber-optic interferometric sensors using a Gaussian laser beam is analyzed. It is shown that the conventional Gaussian laser beam has little influence on the visibility. The visibility depends strongly on the input state of polarization (SOP). We implement a cylindrical transducer and build a measurement setup with a polarization controller. The visibility dependent on the SOP of input light is measured. The estimated values are similar to the experiment results, which verifies the analysis.

  17. The analemma criterion: accidental quasi-satellites are indeed true quasi-satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente


    In the Solar system, a quasi-satellite is an object that follows a heliocentric path with an orbital period that matches almost exactly that of a host body (planetary or not). The trajectory is of such nature that, without being gravitationally attached, the value of the angular separation between host and quasi-satellite as seen from the Sun remains confined within relatively narrow limits for time spans that exceed the length of the host's sidereal orbital period. Here, we show that under these conditions, a quasi-satellite traces an analemma in the sky as observed from the host in a manner similar to that found for geosynchronous orbits. The analemmatic curve (figure-eight-, teardrop-, ellipse-shaped) results from the interplay between the tilt of the rotational axis of the host and the properties of the orbit of the quasi-satellite. The analemma criterion can be applied to identify true quasi-satellite dynamical behaviour using observational or synthetic astrometry and it is tested for several well docume...

  18. Dynamic measurements of flowing cells labeled by gold nanoparticles using full-field photothermal interferometric imaging (United States)

    Turko, Nir A.; Roitshtain, Darina; Blum, Omry; Kemper, Björn; Shaked, Natan T.


    We present highly dynamic photothermal interferometric phase microscopy for quantitative, selective contrast imaging of live cells during flow. Gold nanoparticles can be biofunctionalized to bind to specific cells, and stimulated for local temperature increase due to plasmon resonance, causing a rapid change of the optical phase. These phase changes can be recorded by interferometric phase microscopy and analyzed to form an image of the binding sites of the nanoparticles in the cells, gaining molecular specificity. Since the nanoparticle excitation frequency might overlap with the sample dynamics frequencies, photothermal phase imaging was performed on stationary or slowly dynamic samples. Furthermore, the computational analysis of the photothermal signals is time consuming. This makes photothermal imaging unsuitable for applications requiring dynamic imaging or real-time analysis, such as analyzing and sorting cells during fast flow. To overcome these drawbacks, we utilized an external interferometric module and developed new algorithms, based on discrete Fourier transform variants, enabling fast analysis of photothermal signals in highly dynamic live cells. Due to the self-interference module, the cells are imaged with and without excitation in video-rate, effectively increasing signal-to-noise ratio. Our approach holds potential for using photothermal cell imaging and depletion in flow cytometry.

  19. Potentials of TanDEM-X Interferometric Data for Global Forest/Non-Forest Classification (United States)

    Martone, Michele; Rizzoli, Paola; Brautigam, Benjamin; Krieger, Gerhard


    This paper presents a method to generate forest/non- forest maps from TanDEM-X interferometric SAR data. Among the several contributions which may affect the quality of interferometric products, the coherence loss caused by volume scattering represents the contribution which is predominantly affected by the presence of vegetation, and is therefore here exploited as main indicator for forest classification. Due to the strong dependency of the considered InSAR quantity on the geometric acquisition configuration, namely the incidence angle and the interferometric baseline, a multi-fuzzy clustering classification approach is used. Some examples are provided which show the potential of the proposed method. Further, additional features such as urban settlements, water, and critical areas affected by geometrical distortions (e.g. shadow and layover) need to be extracted, and possible approaches are presented as well. Very promising results are shown, which demonstrate the potentials of TanDEM-X bistatic data not only for forest identification, but, more in general, for the generation of a global land classification map as a next step.

  20. Research of Direct Digital Correlative-Interferometric Radio Direction Finder with Double Correlation-convolutional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tsyporenko


    Full Text Available Introduction. In this article the unsettled part of the general problem of the research of direct digital methods of correlative-interferometric direction-finding was solved. The purpose of the article is to optimize the direction-finding of the direct digital correlative-interferometric radio direction finder with double correlation-convolutional processing by its exactness. Fundamentals of researches. As a result of the conducted researches it was defined that the basic parameter of equalization of dispersion of error of estimation of direction on the source of radio radiation for the explored radio direction finder, which ought to be optimized, is the size of frequency converting change. Optimization. It was conducted the parametrical optimization of the direct digital correlative-interferometric radio direction finder with double correlation-convolutional processing by its exactness. As a result of the modelling the dependence of middle quadratic deflection of estimation of direction from the relation of signal/noise for the different possible values of circular frequency converting shift was obtained. Conclusions. The analytical calculations and the results of the modelling fully coincided, that confirmed the rightness of the researches and the authenticity of the results of optimization.