WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite instruments monitor

  1. Instrument Description: The Total Solar Irradiance Monitor on the FY-3C Satellite, an Instrument with a Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Wang, Yupeng; Ye, Xin; Yang, Dongjun; Wang, Kai; Li, Huiduan; Fang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance Monitor (TSIM) onboard the nadir Feng Yun-3C (FY-3C) satellite provides measurements of the total solar irradiance with accurate solar tracking and sound thermal stability of its heat sink. TSIM/FY-3C mainly consists of the pointing system, the radiometer package, the thermal control system, and the electronics. Accurate solar tracking is achieved by the pointing system, which greatly improves the science data quality when compared with the previous TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B. The total solar irradiance (TSI) is recorded by TSIM/FY-3C about 26 times each day, using a two-channel radiometer package. One channel is used to perform routine observation, and the other channel is used to monitor the degradation of the cavity detector in the routine channel. From the results of the ground test, the incoming irradiance is measured by the routine channel (AR1) with a relative uncertainty of 592 ppm. A general description of the TSIM, including the instrument modules, uncertainty evaluation, and its operation, is given in this article.

  2. Pomino: An Improved Satellite NO2 Product for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Martin, R.; Boersma, K. F.; Sneep, M.; Stammes, P.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Wang, P.; Van Roozendael, M.; Clemer, K.; Irie, H.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellite instruments are useful to infer NOx pollution, NOx emissions and atmospheric chemistry. Current satellite products are subject to limitations in assumptions of aerosol optical effects, surface reflectance anisotropy, vertical profiles of NO2, and/or cloud optical properties. Here we develop an improved Peking University Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 product (POMINO) for China, complementing the popular DONIMO v2 product. POMINO explicitly accounts for aerosol optical effects, angular dependence of surface reflectance, and dynamically varying atmospheric profiles of air pressure, air temperature and NO2 at a high horizontal resolution (50 km). Prior to the NO2 retrieval, we retrieve cloud top pressure and cloud fraction using consistent assumptions about the states of the atmosphere and surface. For our NO2 and cloud retrievals, we adopt from KNMI (via www.temis.nl) the SCDs of tropospheric NO2 (DOMINO v2) and O2-O2 dimer (OMCLDO2 v1.1.1.3), the TOA reflectance, and some other ancillary information. We develop the AMFv6 code for radiative transfer calculation, based on LIDORT v3.6. Radiative transfer is calculated explicitly for each satellite pixel with no need to use a look-up table. The calculation of AMFv6 is parallelized and is sufficiently fast so that one day of retrieval with global coverage would only take about three hours using 16 CPU cores. POMINO is consistent with MAX-DOAS NO2 data in China, with a R2of 0.96 as compared to the value at 0.72 for DOMINO v2. The improved consistency is related to explicit pixel-by-pixel radiative transfer calculation (instead of using a look-up table), consistent treatments of all parameters in retrieving clouds and NO2, explicit consideration of aerosol optical effects (rather than adjusting 'effective' clouds to implicitly account for aerosols), and consideration of surface reflectance anisotropy. Additional analyses are being conducted on the daily, seasonal and

  3. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  4. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  5. The tropospheric monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voert, M.J. te; Brakel, R. van; Witvoet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal and opto-mechanical design and analysis work has been done on the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), a spectrometer on the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor satellite. To verify compliance with the stringent opto-mechanical stability requirements, detailed thermal and thermo-mechani

  6. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  7. An Assessment of the Capabilities of the ERS Satellites' Active Microwave Instruments for Monitoring Soil Moisture Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blyth

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the European Remote sensing Satellite (ERS-1 in July 1991 represented an important turning point in the development of Earth observation as it was the first of a series of satellites which would carry high resolution active microwave (radar sensors which could operate through the thickest cloudeover and provide continuity of data for at least a decade. This was of particular relevance to hydrological applications, such as soil moisture monitoring, which generally require frequent satellite observations to monitor changes in state. ERS-1 and its successor ERS-2 carry the active microwave instrument (AMI which operates in 3 modes (synthetic aperture radar, wind scatterometer and wave seatterometer together with the radar altimeter which may all be useful for the observation of soil moisture. This paper assesses the utility of these sensors through a comprehensive review of work in this field. Two approaches to soil moisture retrieval are identified: 1 inversion modelling, where the physical effects of vegetation and soil roughness on radar backscatter are quantified through the use of multi-frequency and/or multi-polarization sensors and 2 change detection where these effects are normalized through frequent satellite observation, the residual effects being attributed to short-term changes in soil moisture. Both approaches will be better supported by the future European Envisat-l satellite which will provide both multi-polarization SAR and low resolution products which should facilitate more frequent temporal observation.

  8. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  9. Description and primary results of Total Solar Irradiance Monitor, a solar-pointing instrument on an Earth observing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan

    2015-04-01

    Solar driving mechanism for Earth climate has been a controversial problem for centuries. Long-time data of solar activity is required by the investigations of the solar driving mechanism, such as Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) record. Three Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) have been developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics for China Meteorological Administration to maintain continuities of TSI data series which lasted for nearly 4 decades.The newest TSIM has recorded TSI daily with accurate solar pointing on the FY-3C meteorological satellite since Oct 2013. TSIM/FY-3C has a pointing system for automatic solar tracking, onboard the satellite designed mainly for Earth observing. Most payloads of FY-3C are developed for observation of land, ocean and atmosphere. Consequently, the FY-3C satellite is a nadir-pointing spacecraft with its z axis to be pointed at the center of the Earth. Previous TSIMs onboard the FY-3A and FY-3B satellites had no pointing system, solar observations were only performed when the sun swept through field-of-view of the instruments. And TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by the solar pointing errors. Corrections of the solar pointing errors were complex. The problem is now removed by TSIM/FY-3C.TSIM/FY-3C follows the sun accurately by itself using its pointing system based on scheme of visual servo control. The pointing system is consisted of a radiometer package, two motors for solar tracking, a sun sensor and etc. TSIM/FY-3C has made daily observations of TSI for more than one year, with nearly zero solar pointing errors. Short time-scale variations in TSI detected by TSIM/FY-3C are nearly the same with VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE.Instrument details, primary results of solar pointing control, solar observations and etc will be given in the presentation.

  10. Development of a novel sweeping Langmuir probe instrument for monitoring the upper ionosphere on board a pico-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranvier, Sylvain; De Keyser, Johan; Cardoen, Pepijn; Pieroux, Didier

    2014-05-01

    A novel Langmuir probe instrument, which will fly on board the Pico-Satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations (PICASSO), is under development at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. PICASSO was initiated to join the QB50 project as scientific in-orbit demonstrator. The sweeping Langmuir probe (SLP) instrument is designed to measure both plasma density and electron temperature at an altitude varying from about 400 km up to 700 km from a high inclination orbit. Therefore, the plasma density is expected to fluctuate over a wide range, from about 1e6/m³ at high latitude and high altitude up to 1e12/m³ at low/mid latitude and low altitude. The electron temperature is expected to lie between approximately 1000 K and 3000 K. Given the high inclination of the orbit, the SLP instrument will allow a global monitoring of the ionosphere with a maximum spatial resolution of the order of 150 m. The main goals are to study 1) the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling, 2) the subauroral ionosphere and corresponding magnetospheric features, 3) auroral structures, 4) polar caps, and 5) ionospheric dynamics via coordinated observations with EISCAT's heating radar. To achieve the scientific objectives described above, the instrument includes four thin cylindrical probes whose electrical potential is swept in such a way that both plasma density and electron temperature can be derived. In addition, since at least two probes will be out of the spacecraft's wake at any given time, differential measurements can be performed to increase the accuracy. Along the orbit, the Debye length is expected to vary from a few millimetres up to a few meters. Due to the tight constraints in terms of mass and volume inherent to pico-satellites, the use of long booms, which would guarantee that the probes are outside the sheath of the spacecraft (several Debye lengths away), is not possible. Consequently, the probes might be in the sheath of the spacecraft in polar regions. Extensive

  11. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  12. PICASSO-SLP: a Langmuir probe instrument for monitoring the upper ionosphere on board a pico-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranvier, Sylvain; Anciaux, Michel; Cardoen, Pepijn; Gamby, Emmanuel; Bonnewijn, Sabrina; De Keyser, Johan; Echim, Marius; Pieroux, Didier

    2016-04-01

    A novel Langmuir probe instrument, which will fly on board the Pico-Satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations (PICASSO), is under development at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. PICASSO, an ESA in-orbit demonstrator, is a triple unit CubeSat of dimensions 340.5x100x100 mm. The sweeping Langmuir probe (SLP) instrument, which includes four thin cylindrical probes whose electrical potential is swept, is designed to measure both plasma density and electron temperature at an altitude varying from about 400 km up to 700 km from a high inclination orbit. Therefore, the plasma density is expected to fluctuate over a wide range, from about 1e8/m³ at high latitude and high altitude up to several times 1e12/m³ at low/mid latitude and low altitude. The electron temperature is expected to lie between approximately 1.000 K and 10.000 K. Given the high inclination of the orbit, the SLP instrument will allow a global monitoring of the ionosphere with a maximum spatial resolution of the order of 150 m for the electron density and temperature, and up to a few meters for electron density only. The main goals are to study 1) the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling, 2) the subauroral ionosphere and corresponding magnetospheric features, 3) auroral structures, 4) polar caps, 5) for the density, the multi-scale behaviour, spectral properties and turbulence of processes typical for the auroral regions, and 6) ionospheric dynamics via coordinated observations with EISCAT's heating radar. Along the orbit, the Debye length is expected to vary from a few millimetres up to a few meters. Due to the tight constraints in terms of mass and volume inherent to pico-satellites, the use of long booms, which would guarantee that the probes are outside the sheath of the spacecraft (several Debye lengths away), is not possible. Consequently, the probes might be in the sheath of the spacecraft in polar regions. Extensive modelling and simulations of the sheath effects on the

  13. Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

    The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

  14. The introduction to GNOS instrument for FY-3 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qifei

    2016-07-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio occultation (RO) has become a major atmospheric and ionospheric remote sensing technique and been widely used for numerical weather prediction and global climate monitoring applications. The first GNSS Occultation Sounder (GNOS) developed and manufactured by National Space Science Center (NSSC), Chinese Academy of Science is a RO payload, which has been onboard Fengyun-3 C (FY-3C) satellite and been launched on September 23, 2013. FY-3 series satellites are the Chinese second generation polar-orbiting meteorological satellites with sun-synchronous orbits. During RO events, the GNOS instruments measure the phase delay caused by the Earth's atmospheric and ionospheric refraction between the GNSS satellites and FY-3 satellites, as the relative position between the GNSS satellites and the FY-3 satellites varying, vertical profiles of RO observations (i.e. phase and amplitude) will be obtained, which can be used to derived the atmospheric and ionospheric physical properties such as press, temperature, humidity and ionospheric electron density. In my presentation, we present the characteristics of GNOS instruments for FY-3 series satellites and the result by the instrument in orbit. Firstly, we present the characteristics of GNOS instrument for FY-3C satellite and its precision of atmosphere occultation data. Additionally, we introduce the characteristics of GNOS instrument for FY-3D satellite which will be launched in 2016. Finally, we show the next generation GNOS instrument and its characteristics for the following FY-3 satellites.

  15. A Fast and Sensitive New Satellite SO2 Retrieval Algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm to retrieve SO2 from satellite-measured hyperspectral radiances. We employ the principal component analysis technique in regions with no significant SO2 to capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts. We use the resulting principal components and SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiance spectra in 310.5-340 nm demonstrates that this approach can greatly reduce biases in the operational OMI product and decrease the noise by a factor of 2, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing longterm, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research.

  16. Copernicus Sentinel-1 Satellite And C-SAR Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetti, Aniceto; Rostan, Friedhelm; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Bruno, Claudio; Bauleo, Antonio; Catalano, Toni; Cotogni, Marco; Galvagni, Luigi; Pietropaolo, Andrea; Taini, Giacomo; Venditti, Paolo; Huchler, Markus; Torres, Ramon; Lokaas, Svein; Bibby, David

    2013-12-01

    The Copernicus Sentinel-1 Earth Radar Observatory, a mission funded by the European Union and developed by ESA, is a constellation of two C-band radar satellites. The satellites have been conceived to be a continuous and reliable source of C-band SAR imagery for operational applications such as mapping of global landmasses, coastal zones and monitoring of shipping routes. The Sentinel-1 satellites are built by an industrial consortium led by Thales Alenia Space Italia as Prime Contractor and with Astrium GmbH as SAR Instrument Contractor. The paper describes the general satellite architecture, the spacecraft subsystems, AIT flow and the satellite key performances. It provides also an overview on the C-SAR Instrument, its development status and pre- launch SAR performance prediction.

  17. Satellite-Based Tropospheric NO2 Column Trends in the Last 10 Years Over Mexican Urban Areas Measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C. I.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.

    2015-12-01

    Population density and economic activities in urban agglomerations have drastically increased in many cities in Mexico during the last decade. Several factors are responsible for increased urbanization such as a shift of people from rural to urban areas while looking for better education, services and job opportunities as well as the natural growth of the urban areas themselves. Urbanization can create great social, economic and environmental pressures and changes which can easily be observed in most urban agglomerations in the world. In this study, we have focused on analyzing tropospheric NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) column trends over Mexican urban areas that have a population of at least one million inhabitants according to the latest 2010 population census. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of NO2 conducted by the space-borne Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite between 2005 and 2014 have been used for this analysis. This dataset has allowed us to obtain a satellite-based 10-year tropospheric NO2 column trend over the most populated Mexican cities which include the dominating metropolitan area of Mexico City with more than twenty million inhabitants as well as ten other Mexican cities with a population ranging between one to five million inhabitants with a wide range of activities (commercial, agricultural or heavily industrialized) as well as two important border crossings. Distribution maps of tropospheric NO2 columns above the studied urban agglomerations were reconstructed from the analyzed OMI dataset, allowing to identify areas of interest due to clear NO2 enhancements inside these urban regions.

  18. Heart Monitoring By Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  19. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  20. Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases, Clouds and Aerosols from UV/vis/NIR Satellite Instruments: Currents Status and Near Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Deutschmann, T.; Frankenberg, C.; Grzegorski, M.; Khokhar, M. F.; Kühl, S.; Marbach, T.; Mies, K.; de Vries, M. Penning; Platt, U.; Pukite, J.; Sanghavi, S.

    2008-04-01

    A new generation of UV/vis/near-IR satellite instruments like GOME (since 1995), SCIAMACHY (since 2002), OMI (since 2004), and GOME-2 (since 2006) allows to measure several important stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like O3, NO2, OClO, HCHO, SO2, BrO, and H2O as well as clouds and aerosols from space. Because of its extended spectral range, the SCIAMACHY instrument also allows the retrieval of Greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) and CO in the near IR. Almost all of the tropospheric trace gases are observed by these instruments for the first time. From satellite data it is possible to investigate the temporal and spatial variation. Also different sources can be characterised and quantified. The derived global distributions can serve as input and for the validation of atmospheric models. Here we give an overview on the current status of these new instruments and data products and their recent applications to various atmospheric and oceanic phenomena.

  1. Global free tropospheric NO2 abundances derived using a cloud slicing technique applied to satellite observations from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs and stratospheric column amounts of NO2 by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column vs. the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top-of-the-atmosphere from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS algorithm. Estimates of stratospheric column NO2 are obtained by extrapolating the linear fits to the tropopause. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud slicing data indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NO2 in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI for cloudy conditions (cloud optical thicknesses > 10 shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some

  2. Global Free Tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique Applied to Satellite Observations from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and stratospheric column amounts of NO2 by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top-of-the-atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. Estimates of stratospheric column NO2 are obtained by extrapolating the linear fits to the tropopause. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud slicing data indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NO2 in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical thicknesses > 10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in

  3. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  4. Initial In-flight Results: The Total Solar Irradiance Monitor on the FY-3C Satellite, an Instrument with a Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Qi, Jin; Li, Huiduan; Fang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The total solar irradiance (TSI) has been recorded daily since October 2013 by the Total Solar Irradiance Monitor (TSIM) onboard the FY-3C satellite, which is mainly designed for Earth observation. The TSIM has a pointing system to perform solar tracking using a sun sensor. The TSI is measured by two electrical substitution radiometers with traceability to the World Radiation Reference. The TSI value measured with the TSIM on 2 October 2013 is 1364.88 W m^{-2} with an uncertainty of 1.08 W m^{-2}. Short-term TSI variations recorded with the TSIM show good agreement with SOHO/VIRGO and SORCE/TIM. The data quality and accuracy of FY-3C/TSIM are much better than its predecessors on the FY-3A and FY-3B satellites, which operated in a scanning mode.

  5. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass ELT) Proximity-1 transceiver will autonomously communicate with the parent satellite at inter-satellite ranges 2 kbit/s. The transceiver also implements a coherent transponding mode for orbit determination through two-way Doppler ranging between the parent satellite and MEMOS. In addition ELT is compatible with a future Martian communication and navigation network pursued by NASA, which could be taken advantage of in the future for relaying data or performing ranging via other satellites part of the network. A system design driver for inter-satellite communication at Mars is the high demand of power. This leads to a disk-shape and thus easy to accommodate spacecraft configuration of MEMOS comprising a single sun-pointing solar array favourable in terms of power and spin stability. Multi-junction solar cells, which currently have an efficiency of ~29% under laboratory conditions are a key factor to keep MEMOS solar array area of ~1.15 m2 small compared to the worst case system power requirements of ~105 W. During eclipse periods high-efficient Li-ion batteries (6 x 20 Wh) will ensure power supply. The spacecraft and payload design will incorporate new technology developments such as autonomous navigation, MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish developments and heritage in small- / microsatellites like Astrid-2, SMART-1 or the upcoming rendezvous and formation flying demonstration mission PRISMA.

  6. China Launches Two Natural Disaster Monitoring Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China launched two satellites, HJ-1A and HJ-1B, to monitor the environment and natural disasters at 11:25am on September 6 (Beijing time) from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi Province. The two satellites are expected to improve the country's ability in the rapid monitoring of environmental changes and reducing calamities.

  7. Satellites monitor Los Alamos fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; White, Benjamin

    A man-made fire that was intended to be a “controlled burn” for clearing brush and wilderness at the Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, became an inferno that devastated significant portions of Los Alamos during the first week of May 2000. Now known as the Cerro Grande fire, it was not confined to Los Alamos alone. The fire spread to 15% of the Santa Clara Indian Reservation and a substantial area of the surrounding national parks and U.S. forests.The National Weather Service estimates that more than 100,000 fires occur in the natural environment each year within the United States alone, of which about 90% are manmade. Remote sensing images from satellites could be used to detect and monitor these active fires and biomass burning. Forest fires have a significant environmental and economic impact, and timely information about their location and magnitude is essential to contain them.

  8. Inter-satellite links for satellite autonomous integrity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Irma; García-Serrano, Cristina; Catalán Catalán, Carlos; García, Alvaro Mozo; Tavella, Patrizia; Galleani, Lorenzo; Amarillo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    A new integrity monitoring mechanisms to be implemented on-board on a GNSS taking advantage of inter-satellite links has been introduced. This is based on accurate range and Doppler measurements not affected neither by atmospheric delays nor ground local degradation (multipath and interference). By a linear combination of the Inter-Satellite Links Observables, appropriate observables for both satellite orbits and clock monitoring are obtained and by the proposed algorithms it is possible to reduce the time-to-alarm and the probability of undetected satellite anomalies.Several test cases have been run to assess the performances of the new orbit and clock monitoring algorithms in front of a complete scenario (satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-ground links) and in a satellite-only scenario. The results of this experimentation campaign demonstrate that the Orbit Monitoring Algorithm is able to detect orbital feared events when the position error at the worst user location is still under acceptable limits. For instance, an unplanned manoeuvre in the along-track direction is detected (with a probability of false alarm equals to 5 × 10-9) when the position error at the worst user location is 18 cm. The experimentation also reveals that the clock monitoring algorithm is able to detect phase jumps, frequency jumps and instability degradation on the clocks but the latency of detection as well as the detection performances strongly depends on the noise added by the clock measurement system.

  9. Monitor Forest Fires with FY Serial Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing as the measure to monitor disasters has the advantage of temporal resolution and large scale. Since "5.6 catastrophe" in 1987, China began to monitor forest fires broadly. In the summer of 2002, many forest/grass fires occurred in the Daxing'anling Mountains, and the damage was very heavy. In the forest fires fighting, the meteorological satellites play an important role in monitoring the fires. Especially the FY serial meteorological satellites have the advantage of large scale monitorin...

  10. Satellite Gravimetry Applied to Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Near-surface wetness conditions change rapidly with the weather, which limits their usefulness as drought indicators. Deeper stores of water, including root-zone soil wetness and groundwater, portend longer-term weather trends and climate variations, thus they are well suited for quantifying droughts. However, the existing in situ networks for monitoring these variables suffer from significant discontinuities (short records and spatial undersampling), as well as the inherent human and mechanical errors associated with the soil moisture and groundwater observation. Remote sensing is a promising alternative, but standard remote sensors, which measure various wavelengths of light emitted or reflected from Earth's surface and atmosphere, can only directly detect wetness conditions within the first few centimeters of the land s surface. Such sensors include the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) C-band passive microwave measurement system on the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite, and the combined active and passive L-band microwave system currently under development for NASA's planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission. These instruments are sensitive to water as deep as the top 2 cm and 5 cm of the soil column, respectively, with the specific depth depending on vegetation cover. Thermal infrared (TIR) imaging has been used to infer water stored in the full root zone, with limitations: auxiliary information including soil grain size is required, the TIR temperature versus soil water content curve becomes flat as wetness increases, and dense vegetation and cloud cover impede measurement. Numerical models of land surface hydrology are another potential solution, but the quality of output from such models is limited by errors in the input data and tradeoffs between model realism and computational efficiency. This chapter is divided into eight sections, the next of which describes

  11. CEOS Visualization Environment (COVE) Tool for Intercalibration of Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Paul D.; Killough, Brian D.; Gowda, Sanjay; Williams, Brian R.; Chander, Gyanesh; Qu, Min

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple instruments are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Intercalibration, comparison, and coordination of satellite instrument coverage areas is a critical effort of space agencies and of international and domestic organizations. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Visualization Environment (COVE) is a suite of browser-based applications that leverage Google Earth to display past, present, and future satellite instrument coverage areas and coincident calibration opportunities. This forecasting and ground coverage analysis and visualization capability greatly benefits the remote sensing calibration community in preparation for multisatellite ground calibration campaigns or individual satellite calibration studies. COVE has been developed for use by a broad international community to improve the efficiency and efficacy of such calibration efforts. This paper provides a brief overview of the COVE tool, its validation, accuracies and limitations with emphasis on the applicability of this visualization tool for supporting ground field campaigns and intercalibration of satellite instruments.

  12. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  13. Instruments for subsurface monitoring of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, J.E.; Ranson, B.B.

    1979-07-01

    The requirements for a subsurface geothermal subsidence instrument were reviewed. Available instruments for monitoring subsurface displacements, both vertical and horizontal, were studied and the most capable instruments identified. Techniques and materials for improving existing or developing new instruments were evaluated. Elements of sensor and signal technology with potential for high temperature monitoring of subsidence were identified. Drawing from these studies, methods to adapt production wells for monitoring were proposed and several new instrumentation systems were conceptually designed. Finally, four instrumentation systems were selected for future development. These systems are: triple sensor induction sensor probe (with casing collar markers); triple sensor gamma ray detector probe (with radioactive markers); triple sensor reed switch probe (with magnet markers); and triple sensor oscillator-type magnet detector probe (with magnet markers). All are designed for use in well casing incorporating slip couplings or bellows sections, although the gamma ray detector probe may also be used in unlined holes. These systems all measure vertical moement. Instruments to measure horizontal displacement due to geothermal subsidence were studied and the required instrument performance was judged to be beyond the state-of-the-art. Thus, no conceptual designs for instruments to monitor horizontal movement are included.

  14. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  15. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  16. Monitoring auroral electrojets with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.

    2013-01-01

    satellites. The method is simple enough to be implemented for real-time monitoring, especially since it does not require the full vector field measurement. We demonstrate the method on 5 years of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) data and show how the monitoring depends on the local time...... of the satellite orbit and how it varies with local time and season in both hemispheres. Statistically, the strongest currents are observed in the predawn and predusk local time quadrants at latitudes that depend on the general magnetic activity level. We also show how the satellite-derived parameters relate...... to and complement existing ground-based indices. The CHAMP magnetometer in 350–450km altitude easily measures an electrojet which on the ground would produce an Auroral Electrojet (AE)-type signal as small as 20 nT. Thus, while the signal decreases roughly proportionally to the square of the distance to the current...

  17. CEOS visualization environment (COVE) tool for intercalibration of satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P.D.; Killough, B.D.; Gowda, S.; Williams, B.R.; Chander, G.; Qu, Min

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple instruments are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Intercalibration, comparison, and coordination of satellite instrument coverage areas is a critical effort of international and domestic space agencies and organizations. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Visualization Environment (COVE) is a suite of browser-based applications that leverage Google Earth to display past, present, and future satellite instrument coverage areas and coincident calibration opportunities. This forecasting and ground coverage analysis and visualization capability greatly benefits the remote sensing calibration community in preparation for multisatellite ground calibration campaigns or individual satellite calibration studies. COVE has been developed for use by a broad international community to improve the efficiency and efficacy of such calibration planning efforts, whether those efforts require past, present, or future predictions. This paper provides a brief overview of the COVE tool, its validation, accuracies, and limitations with emphasis on the applicability of this visualization tool for supporting ground field campaigns and intercalibration of satellite instruments.

  18. Satellite radar for monitoring forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Roger M.; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the computer analysis results of a study which used Seasat satellite radar data obtained in 1978 and Shuttle Imaging Radar-B data obtained in 1984. The change-detection procedures employed demonstrate that deforestation and reforestation activities can be effectively monitored on the basis of radar data gathered at satellite altitudes. The computer-processing techniques applied to the data encompassed (1) overlay display, (2) ratios, (3) differences, (4) principal-component analysis, and (5) classification; of these, overlay display is noted to quickly and easily yield a qualitative display of the multidate data.

  19. TROPOMI: Solar backscatter satellite instrument for air quality and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.de; Laan, E.C.; Hoogeveen, R.W.M.; Jongma, R.T.; Aben, U.; Visser, H.; Boslooper, E.C.; Saari, H.; Dobber, M.; Veefkind, P.; Kleipool, Q.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing grating-based imaging spectrograph in the line of OMI and SCIAMACHY. TROPOMI is part of the ESA Candidate Core Explorer Mission proposal TRAQ and also of the CAMEO satellite proposed for the US NRC decadal study. A TROPOMI-like instrument is part of the ESA/EU Sentinel 4&5

  20. Monitoring of the Canadian Oil Sands from the Aura Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Shephard, M. W.; Fioletov, V.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Krotkov, N. A.; Boersma, K. F.; Li, C.; Luo, M.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two instruments on-board the NASA Aura satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), have been used to monitor air pollution over the Canadian oil sands region. Between them they provide a unique perspective on the distributions, evolution, and sources of several key pollutants. This presentation will detail some highlights from these Aura-based oil sands studies: (i) the evolution of OMI-measured nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide enhancements over the past decade, including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from TES special-observation transects, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  1. Operational climate monitoring from space: the EUMETSAT satellite application facility on climate monitoring (CM-SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schulz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF aims at the provision of satellite-derived geophysical parameter data sets suitable for climate monitoring. CM-SAF provides climatologies for Essential Climate Variables (ECV, as required by the Global Climate Observing System implementation plan in support of the UNFCCC. Several cloud parameters, surface albedo, radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as atmospheric temperature and humidity products form a sound basis for climate monitoring of the atmosphere. The products are categorized in monitoring data sets obtained in near real time and data sets based on carefully intercalibrated radiances. The CM-SAF products are derived from several instruments on-board operational satellites in geostationary and polar orbit, i.e., the Meteosat and NOAA satellites, respectively. The existing data sets will be continued using data from the instruments on-board the new EUMETSAT Meteorological Operational satellite (MetOP. The products have mostly been validated against several ground-based data sets both in situ and remotely sensed. The accomplished accuracy for products derived in near real time is sufficient to monitor variability on diurnal and seasonal scales. Products based on intercalibrated radiance data can also be used for climate variability analysis up to inter-annual scale. A central goal of the recently started Continuous Development and Operations Phase of the CM-SAF (2007–2012 is to further improve all CM-SAF data sets to a quality level that allows for studies of inter-annual variability.

  2. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  3. National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows

  4. Monitoring of wetlands Ecosystems using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Gruszczynska, M.; Yesou, H.; Hoscilo, A.

    Wetlands are very sensitive ecosystems, functioning as habitat for many organisms. Protection and regeneration of wetlands has been the crucial importance in ecological research and in nature conservation. Knowledge on biophysical properties of wetlands vegetation retrieved from satellite images will enable us to improve monitoring of these unique areas, very often impenetrable. The study covers Biebrza wetland situated in the Northeast part of Poland and is considered as Ramsar Convention test site. The research aims at establishing of changes in biophysical parameters as the scrub encroachment, lowering of the water table, and changes of the farming activity caused ecological changes at these areas. Data from the optical and microwave satellite images collected for the area of Biebrza marshland ecosystem have been analysed and compared with the detailed soil-vegetation ground measurements conducted in conjunction with the overflights. Satellite data include Landsat ETM, ERS-2 ATSR and SAR, SPOT VEGETATION, ENVISAT MERIS and ASAR, and NOAA AVHRR. From the optical data various vegetation indices have been calculated, which characterize the vegetation surface roughness, its moisture conditions and stage of development. Landsat ETM image has been used for classification of wetlands vegetation. For each class of vegetation various moisture indices have been developed. Ground data collected include wet and dry biomass, LAI, vegetation height, and TDR soil moisture. The water cloud model has been applied for retrieval of soil vegetation parameters taking into account microwave satellite images acquired at VV, HV and HH polarisations at different viewing angles. The vegetation parameters have been used for to distinguish changes, which occurred at the area. For each of the vegetation class the soil moisture was calculated from microwave data using developed algorithms. Results of this study will help mapping and monitoring wetlands with the high spatial and temporal

  5. Satellite-instrument system engineering best practices and lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Carl F.

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on system engineering development issues driving satellite remote sensing instrumentation cost and schedule. A key best practice is early assessment of mission and instrumentation requirements priorities driving performance trades among major instrumentation measurements: Radiometry, spatial field of view and image quality, and spectral performance. Key lessons include attention to technology availability and applicability to prioritized requirements, care in applying heritage, approaching fixed-price and cost-plus contracts with appropriate attention to risk, and assessing design options with attention to customer preference as well as design performance, and development cost and schedule. A key element of success either in contract competition or execution is team experience. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of success, however, is thorough requirements analysis and flowdown to specifications driving design performance with sufficient parameter margin to allow for mistakes or oversights - the province of system engineering from design inception to development, test and delivery.

  6. Development of environmental monitoring satellite systems in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in global environmental problems,the necessity and urgency of remote sensing technology being applied to environmental monitoring has been widely recognized around the world.China has launched the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation HJ-1A/B and the FY3 atmosphere and environmental satellite,but they still cannot fully satisfy requirements for environmental monitoring.This paper summarizes the current status of satellite environmental monitoring in China and the existing problems of inadequate load design and low data utilization efficiency,and discusses the demand for environmental monitoring satellites.Based on the development of foreign satellite systems for environmental monitoring,the future development and key tasks of the environmental monitoring satellite system in China is discussed,as are some related initiatives.

  7. CONCEPTUAL PAPER : Utilization of GPS Satellites for Precise Irradiation Measurement and Monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Vijayan

    2008-03-01

    Precise measurement of irradiance over the earth under various circumstances like solar flares, coronal mass ejections, over an 11-year solar cycle, etc. leads to better understanding of Sun–earth relationship. To continuously monitor the irradiance over earth-space regions several satellites at several positions are required. For that continuous and multiple satellite monitoring we can use GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites (like GLONASS, GALILEO, future satellites) installed with irradiance measuring and monitoring instruments. GPS satellite system consists of 24 constellations of satellites. Therefore usage of all the satellites leads to 24 measurements of irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (or 12 measurements of those satellites which are pointing towards the Sun) at an instant. Therefore in one day, numerous irradiance observations can be obtained for the whole globe, which will be very helpful for several applications like Albedo calculation, Earth Radiation Budget calculation, monitoring of near earth-space atmosphere, etc. Moreover, measuring irradiance both in ground (using ground instruments) and in space at the same instant of time over a same place, leads to numerous advantages. That is, for a single position we obtain irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, irradiance at ground and the difference in irradiance from over top of the atmosphere to the ground. Measurement of irradiance over the atmosphere and in ground at a precise location gives more fine details about the solar irradiance influence over the earth, path loss and interaction of irradiance with the atmosphere.

  8. Satellite-based Tropical Cyclone Monitoring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M.; Yang, S.; Lee, T. F.; Sampson, C. R.; Solbrig, J.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Miller, S. D.; Kent, J.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing capabilities to monitor tropical cyclone (TC) location, structure, and intensity have evolved by utilizing a combination of operational and research and development (R&D) sensors. The microwave imagers from the operational Defense Meteorological Satellite Program [Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS)] form the "base" for structure observations due to their ability to view through upper-level clouds, modest size swaths and ability to capture most storm structure features. The NASA TRMM microwave imager and precipitation radar continue their 15+ yearlong missions in serving the TC warning and research communities. The cessation of NASA's QuikSCAT satellite after more than a decade of service is sorely missed, but India's OceanSat-2 scatterometer is now providing crucial ocean surface wind vectors in addition to the Navy's WindSat ocean surface wind vector retrievals. Another Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-2 satellite is slated for launch soon. Passive microwave imagery has received a much needed boost with the launch of the French/Indian Megha Tropiques imager in September 2011, basically greatly supplementing the very successful NASA TRMM pathfinder with a larger swath and more frequent temporal sampling. While initial data issues have delayed data utilization, current news indicates this data will be available in 2013. Future NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) sensors starting in 2014 will provide enhanced capabilities. Also, the inclusion of the new microwave sounder data from the NPP ATMS (Oct 2011) will assist in mapping TC convective structures. The National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) program's VIIRS sensor includes a day night band (DNB) with the capability to view TC cloud structure at night when sufficient lunar illumination exits. Examples highlighting this new capability will be discussed in concert with additional data fusion efforts.

  9. Exploring the relationship between monitored ground-based and satellite aerosol measurements over the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project studied the relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra satellite, and ground-based monitored particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations measured...

  10. Cosmic rays tracks in the PICsIT instrument onboard the INTEGRAL satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labanti, C. [IASF - CNR/INAF Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica, sezione di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Marisaldi, M. [IASF - CNR/INAF Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica, sezione di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Segreto, A. [IASF - CNR/INAF Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica, sezione di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    The PICsIT (PIxelated CsI Telescope) instrument is the high energy plane of the IBIS imager onboard the INTEGRAL satellite, launched on October 2002 and currently fully operative. PICsIT consists of a 64x64 detectors array, each composed of a CsI(Tl) scintillating crystal with p-i-n photodiode readout. Since its first in-orbit activation, several count rate spikes have been detected. The tracks in the detector corresponding to those spikes clearly indicate that their origin is the interaction of cosmic rays with the detector or the satellite structure. Several extended elliptical tracks have been detected, indicating the presence of electromagnetic and hadronic showers initiated by primary cosmic rays interacting with the satellite structure. The tracks morphology and statistics is presented. There is strong evidence that tracks events are due to phosphorescence states excited in the CsI(Tl) crystals by a high energy deposit. Since events due to cosmic rays tracks account for a significant fraction of the instrument background, their rejection is important to improve the instrument sensitivity. Tracks rejection is especially important in those instruments, based on large quantities of alkali halide scintillators, designed to trigger on count rate increases, such as gamma-ray burst monitors. In the PICsIT detector operated in photon-by-photon mode, tracks events rejection can be easily accomplished thanks to the tracks peculiar geometrical and timing characteristics.

  11. Instrument Performance Monitoring at Gemini North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Kimberly; Pohlen, M.; Chene, A.

    2014-01-01

    An instrument performance monitoring (IPM) project at the Gemini North Observatory evaluates the delivered throughput and sensitivity of, among other instruments, the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS), the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS), and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS-N). Systematic observations of standard stars allow the quality of the instruments and mirror to be assessed periodically. An automated pipeline has been implemented to process and analyze data obtained with NIFS, GNIRS cross-dispersed (XD) and long slit (LS) modes, and GMOS (photometry and spectroscopy). We focus the discussion of this poster on NIFS and GNIRS. We present the spectroscopic throughput determined for ZJHK bands on NIFS, the XJHKLM band for GNIRS XD mode and the K band for GNIRS LS. Additionally, the sensitivity is available for the JHK bands in NIFS and GNIRS XD, and for the K band in GNIRS LS. We consider data taken as early as March 2011. Furthermore, the pipeline setup and the methods used to determine throughput and sensitivity are described.

  12. Satellite Monitoring for REDD: Radar vs. Optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, E. T.; Saatchi, S. S.; Ryan, C.; Woollen, E.; Goodman, L. E.; Williams, M.; Gerard, F.; Starkey, M.; Meir, P.

    2010-12-01

    The proposed REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) protocol will only succeed in reducing emissions if deforestation and degradation can be accurately monitored. Ground surveys are prohibitively expensive over large areas, so satellite monitoring will be essential for independently monitoring deforestation and degradation rates, and thus calculating payments. In addition, remote sensing will be needed for developing historical baselines. It is clear that different methodologies will be needed for different project areas, scales and threat types. In addition different methodologies are needed depending on the capabilities of the countries in question: in the context of Africa for example, in-country monitoring tends to be at a basic level, yet for REDD it is important that countries are able to do their own monitoring, so simple methods must be developed and tested. In this paper we present change detection results for different remote sensing methodologies for potential REDD projects in Cameroon and Mozambique. We have shown previously that a good relationship exists between aboveground biomass (AGB) and L-band radar backscatter (Mitchard et al. 2009). The errors in estimation of absolute biomass were still relatively high, in the region of ±25 %. However, it is suspected that some of these errors are intransient, being due to the structure of the landscape and vegetation within a site, and so it has been predicted that errors in change detection are smaller than those for absolute estimation. We present evidence from these sites that this is indeed correct, using ALOS PALSAR L-band radar data from 2007, 2008 and 2009. Optical satellite data is widely used for monitoring deforestation, for example the excellent system run by INPE in Brazil. However, while optical data is good at detecting deforestation occurring progressively in large clear-fell blocks, as in the Amazon, it is less good at detecting small-scale deforestation or degradation

  13. Cryosphere Monitoring from Satellites and Aircrafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan

    The cryosphere is collective term for all the components containing frozen water on the Earth’s surface. These components are highly sensitive to changes in the air temperature and precipitation, and hence to climate change. The major components of frozen water in the cryosphere are the ice sheet...... is of vital importance to gain insight into the behaviour of these systems and how they affect the global sea level. Satellite altimetry has for the last two decades been used to monitor the changes of the worlds ice sheets, allowing for the determination of their mass balance. In recent years this has been...... terrain in the Arctic region. The results from this validation study was then inter-compared with results derived from the ESA L2 baseline-B product to judge the quality of both products. From this inter-comparison it was shown that the new processing chains, developed in this thesis, performed better...

  14. Valve Health Monitoring System Utilizing Smart Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-01-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, body temperature torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commission's requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 enclosures are used to house the base-station

  15. Spot-4 vegetation instrument: Vegetation monitoring on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durpaire, J.-P.; Gentet, T.; Phulpin, T.; Arnaud, M.

    1995-04-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in global climatic change. It is a major contributor to the hydrological cycle and carbon exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A new space-based system dedicated to vegetation would be a boom to climatic and environmental studies. The additional possibilities of evaluating agricultural, pasture and forest production would be major contributions to improved natural resources management and a special benefit to agriculture and the general economy in developing countries. A space mission for monitoring terrestrial vegetation at global and local levels is proposed for inclusion in the Spot-4 payload, scheduled for launch around 1997. The "vegetation" concept is more than just an on-board package; it is a complete system with its own space and ground segments. The vegetation instrument (VI) on-board package is designed as an add-on payload that is quite independent of the host satellite. In addition to the basic imaging instrument, the add-on payload includes a solid-state recorder, an image telemetry subsystem and a computer to manage the work plan. To accommodate future long-term missions and achieve a lifetime in excess of 5 years, no moving parts are included in either the imaging instrument proper or the recorder subsystem. The innovative, large field-of-view (101∘) imaging instrument features telecentric lenses and focal-plane illumination compensation. Despite the large FOV, pixel size varies extremely little across the swath. Overall, the instrument offers an excellent revisit capability at the highest resolution. The inclusion of the VI package alongside Spot-4's prime payload of two HRVIR (high resolution visible and i.r.) imaging instruments will open the way to studies requiring both high accuracy satellite imagery and short revisit intervals. The combination of HRVIR and VI imagery will pave the way to powerful new multi-scale interpretation models, particularly as the instruments will share the same

  16. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barath, F. T.; Chavez, M. C.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Frerking, M. A.; Gram, M. B.; Harris, W. M.; Holden, J. R.; Jarnot, R. F.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measurement objectives are stratospheric ClO, O3, H2O, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has a 1.6-m mechanically scanning antenna system and contains heterodyne radiometers in spectral bands centred near 63, 183, and 205 GHz. The radiometers operate at ambient temperature and use Schottky-diode mixers with local oscillators derived from phase-locked Gunn oscillators. Frequency tripling by varactor multipliers generates the 183- and 205-GHz local oscillators, and quasi-optical techniques inject these into the mixers. Six 15-channel filter banks spectrally resolve stratospheric thermal emission lines and produce an output spectrum every 2 s. Thermal stability is sufficient for 'total power' measurements which do not require fast chopping. Radiometric calibration, consisting of measurements of cold space and an internal target, is performed every 65-s limb scan. Instrument in-orbit performance has been excellent, and all objectives are being met.

  17. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  18. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  19. Comparison of horizontal winds from the LIMS satellite instrument with rocket measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. K.; Bailey, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Statistical results are given for a comparison between horizontal geostrophic winds computed from satellite height data and all available in situ rocket wind soundings during a 7-month period. The satellite data are the daily mapped fields from the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) instrument, which extend from 100 to 0.1 mbar. Results indicate that in both the tropics and the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, the average zonal and meridional wind speeds agree to within 2-4 m/s throughout the stratosphere. The rms differences are much larger, with values of 5-10 m/s in the lower stratosphere, increasing to 20-40 m/s in the lower mesosphere. Time series show that LIMS and rocketsonde zonal wind speeds show coherent variations with temporal periods of 1-2 weeks and more, and both exhibit irregular variations on time scales of less than one week.

  20. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterization activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  1. Moscow State University near-Earth radiation monitoring satellite system: current status and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Radiation measurements using instruments have been designed and manufacturing in the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and installed onboard different satellites,i.e. LEO -"Meteor", ISS, GPS - GLONASS, GEO - "Electro" are presented as a basis of radiation monitoring system for control of radiation condition with a goal for to decrease radiation risk of spacecraft's damage on different orbits. Development of this system including radiation measurements onboard "Lomonosov"(LEO) satellite will be presented as well together with future project of multispacecraft LEO system for radiation monitoring.

  2. VOLTAGE MONITORING INSTRUMENT WITH FAST-TRANSIENTS CAPTURE CAPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gracida-Aguirre

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring instrument aimed at recording the voltage levels at residential installations is described. Its main feature is the capability ot recording short transients, lasting less than one cycle, while requiring a rather modest amount of memory for long monitoring periods. The instrument uses synchronous sampling of the voltage waveform, and its response to outages has been optimized.

  3. Potentials of satellite imagery for monitoring arctic goose productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports upon the exciting possibility that satellite imagery may now provide feasible means for grossly monitoring arctic habitat conditions in a timely...

  4. Monitoring of Observation Errors in the Assimilation of Satellite Ozone Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Winslow, Nathan; Rood, Richard B.; Pawson, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth from the harmful effects of solar ultravioiet radiation. The ozone layer is currently in a fragile state because of depletion caused by man-made chemicals, especially chlorofluorocarbons. The state of the ozone layer is being monitored and evaluated by scientific experts around the world, in order to help policy makers assess the impacts of international protocols that control the production and release of ozone depleting chemicals. Scientists use a variety ozone measurements and models in order to form a comprehensive picture about the current state of the ozone layer, and to predict the future behavior (expected to be a recovery, as the abundance of the depleting chemicals decreases). Among the data sets used, those from satellite-borne instruments have the advantage of providing a wealth of information about the ozone distribution over most of the globe. Several instruments onboard American and international satellites make measurements of the properties of the atmosphere, from which atmospheric ozone amounts are estimated; long-term measurement programs enable monitoring of trends in ozone. However, the characteristics of satellite instruments change in time. For example, the instrument lenses through which measurements are made may deteriorate over time, or the satellite orbit may drift so that measurements over each location are made later and later in the day. These changes may increase the errors in the retrieved ozone amounts, and degrade the quality of estimated ozone amounts and of their variability. Our work focuses on combining the satellite ozone data with global models that capture atmospheric motion and ozone chemistry, using advanced statistical techniques: this is known as data assimilation. Our method provides a three-dimensional global ozone distribution that is consistent with both the satellite measurements and with our understanding of processes (described in the models) that control ozone

  5. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures particle mass loading and chemical composition in real time for non-refractory sub-micron aerosol particles. The ACSM is designed for long-term unattended deployment and routine monitoring applications.

  6. Current Sounding Capability From Satellite Meteorological Observation With Ultraspectral Infrared Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. The intent of the measurement of tropospheric thermodynamic state and trace abundances is the initialization of climate models and the monitoring of air quality. The NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I), designed to support the development of future satellite temperature and moisture sounders, aboard high altitude aircraft has been collecting data throughout many field campaigns. An advanced retrieval algorithm developed with NAST-I is now applied to satellite data collected with the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the Aqua satellite launched on 4 May 2002 and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite launched on October 19, 2006. These instruments possess an ultra-spectral resolution, for example, both IASI and NAST-I have 0.25 cm-1 and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760 cm-1. The retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The physical inversion scheme has been developed, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiance observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, to simultaneously retrieve surface, atmospheric thermodynamic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A fast radiative transfer model, which applies to the clouded atmosphere, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. A one-dimensional (1-d) variational multi-variable inversion solution is used to improve an iterative background state defined by an eigenvector-regression-retrieval. The solution is iterated in order to account for non-linearity in the 1-d variational solution. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to

  7. INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING--Radiation--Vol3Pt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1972-01-02

    A comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory originally under a grant from the National Science Foundation and now by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements in Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored: their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls.

  8. Real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Flynn, Luke P.; Dean, Ken; Pilger, Eric; Wooster, Martin; Okubo, Chris; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Garbeil, Harold; Thornber, Carl; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Rothery, Dave; Wright, Robert

    Direct satellite data reception at high temporal frequencies and automated processing enable near-real-time, near-continuous thermal monitoring of volcanoes. We review what has been achieved in terms of turning this capability into real-time tools of use to volcano monitoring agencies. Current capabilities focus on 2 instruments: the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager. Collection of lO AVHRR images per day covering Alaska, the Aleutians, and Kamchatka allows routine, on-reception analysis of volcanic hot spots across this region. Data collected between 1996 and 1998 detected 302 hot spots due to lava flows, lava domes, pyroclastic flows, fumaroles, and geothermally heated lakes at 12 different volcanoes. Information was used for hazard mitigation by the Alaskan Volcano Observatory. GOES provides data for North and South American volcanoes every 15-30 minutes. Automated processing allows eruption information and alerts to be posted on the Internet within 15-60 minutes of reception. We use June 1998 to demonstrate the frequency of data acquisition. During this month 2879 GOES images were collected from which 14,832 sub-images of 6 active volcanoes were processed. Although 82% (12,200) of these sub-images were cloud covered, hot spots were still evident on 11% (1634) of the sub-images. Analysis of GOES data for 1998 identified hot spots due to (1) lava flows at Kilauea and Cerro Azul, (2) dome extrusion and explosive activity at Lascar, Popocatepetl, Colima and Pacaya, and (3) dome cooling and collapse at Soufriere Hills. We were also able to suggest that reports of lava flow activity at Cerro Negro were false. This information was supplied to, and used by, various agencies whose task it is to monitor these volcanoes. Global thermal monitoring will become a reality with the launch of the Earth Observing System's moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS). An automated thermal

  9. Real-time monitoring of seismic data using satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ARGO Satellite Seismic Network (ARGO SSN as a reliable system for monitoring, collection, visualisation and analysis of seismic and geophysical low-frequency data, The satellite digital telemetry system is composed of peripheral geophysical stations, a centraI communications node (master sta- tion located in CentraI Italy, and a data collection and processing centre located at ING (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Rome. The task of the peripheral stations is to digitalise and send via satellite the geophysical data collected by the various sensors to the master station. The master station receives the data and forwards them via satellite to the ING in Rome; it also performs alI the monitoring functions of satellite communications. At the data collection and processing centre of ING, the data are received and analysed in real time, the seismic events are identified and recorded, the low-frequency geophysical data are stored. In addition, the generaI sta- tus of the satellite network and of each peripheral station connected, is monitored. The procedure for analysjs of acquired seismic signals allows the automatic calculation of local magnitude and duration magnitude The communication and data exchange between the seismic networks of Greece, Spain and Italy is the fruit of a recent development in the field of technology of satellite transmission of ARGO SSN (project of European Community "Southern Europe Network for Analysis of Seismic Data"

  10. Validation of satellite-based noontime UVI with NDACC ground-based instruments: influence of topography, environment and satellite overpass time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogniez, Colette; Auriol, Frédérique; Deroo, Christine; Arola, Antti; Kujanpää, Jukka; Sauvage, Béatrice; Kalakoski, Niilo; Riku Aleksi Pitkänen, Mikko; Catalfamo, Maxime; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Tournois, Guy; Da Conceicao, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Spectral solar UV radiation measurements are performed in France using three spectroradiometers located at very different sites. One is installed in Villeneuve d'Ascq, in the north of France (VDA). It is an urban site in a topographically flat region. Another instrument is installed in Observatoire de Haute-Provence, located in the southern French Alps (OHP). It is a rural mountainous site. The third instrument is installed in Saint-Denis, Réunion Island (SDR). It is a coastal urban site on a small mountainous island in the southern tropics. The three instruments are affiliated with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and carry out routine measurements to monitor the spectral solar UV radiation and enable derivation of UV index (UVI). The ground-based UVI values observed at solar noon are compared to similar quantities derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, onboard the Aura satellite) and the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2, onboard the Metop-A satellite) measurements for validation of these satellite-based products. The present study concerns the period 2009-September 2012, date of the implementation of a new OMI processing tool. The new version (v1.3) introduces a correction for absorbing aerosols that were not considered in the old version (v1.2). Both versions of the OMI UVI products were available before September 2012 and are used to assess the improvement of the new processing tool. On average, estimates from satellite instruments always overestimate surface UVI at solar noon. Under cloudless conditions, the satellite-derived estimates of UVI compare satisfactorily with ground-based data: the median relative bias is less than 8 % at VDA and 4 % at SDR for both OMI v1.3 and GOME-2, and about 6 % for OMI v1.3 and 2 % for GOME-2 at OHP. The correlation between satellite-based and ground-based data is better at VDA and OHP (about 0.99) than at SDR (0.96) for both space-borne instruments. For all

  11. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297);...

  12. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smel...

  13. Portable SERS Instrument for Explosives Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    groundwater monitoring from a cone penetrometer (CPT) platform (5) Demonstrate improved capability for discriminating explosives versus colorimetry ...interference, and better discrimination of individual explosives compared to colorimetry • Applicability to virtually any environmental water...chemicals such as nitroaromatics or nitramines. While this makes colorimetry more generally applicable at explosive sites, it also limits the ability to

  14. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated.

  15. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  16. Leda Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, D

    2000-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  17. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical risk management (CRM plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1 Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2 Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3 Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian. It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  18. a Novel Instrument to Monitor Lanslides Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasuto, A.; Mantovani, M.; Schenato, L.; Scherneck, H.

    2013-12-01

    Landslides are more widespread than any other geological event and have high ranking among the natural disasters in terms of casualties and economical damages. Deforestation and constructions of new settlements and infrastructures, as direct consequences of population growth, and the increasing frequency of extreme meteorological events, due to the global climatic changing, could lead to a more severe impact of landslides on human life and activities in the next future. Risk reduction generally comes through countermeasures, both structural and non-structural, that directly act on the developing process or tend to reduce the effects on the fabric of the city and of the environment. Nevertheless countermeasures have often shown their flimsiness especially if they are carried out on disruptions hard to stabilize for their dimensions, kinematics and morpho-evolutive conditions. In these cases there are basically two options: the relocation of the element at risk or the surveillance of the evolution of the instability process by means of a monitoring system. Monitoring therefore represents a powerful tool in both the surveillance of the territory and the management of the emergencies coming from geo-hydrological hazard. In this study we propose the development and testbedding of a novel, low-cost wireless smart sensor network for remote monitoring of land surface deformations. The purpose is to create a flexible and scalable monitoring system in order to overcome some of the limitations of the existing devices and to strongly reduce the costs. The system consists in a master station that works as a control and measuring unit, and a series of sensors (motes) placed over the unstable areas. The master station transmits a microwave signal and receives the response from each mote measuring their relative position and inferring any deformation occurred between successive interrogations. Moreover the motes can work as bridges so that even those that are not directly visible

  19. CLOUDCLOUD : general-purpose instrument monitoring and data managing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, António; Amorim, António; Tomé, António

    2016-04-01

    An effective experiment is dependent on the ability to store and deliver data and information to all participant parties regardless of their degree of involvement in the specific parts that make the experiment a whole. Having fast, efficient and ubiquitous access to data will increase visibility and discussion, such that the outcome will have already been reviewed several times, strengthening the conclusions. The CLOUD project aims at providing users with a general purpose data acquisition, management and instrument monitoring platform that is fast, easy to use, lightweight and accessible to all participants of an experiment. This work is now implemented in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and will be fully integrated with the experiment as of 2016. Despite being used in an experiment of the scale of CLOUD, this software can also be used in any size of experiment or monitoring station, from single computers to large networks of computers to monitor any sort of instrument output without influencing the individual instrument's DAQ. Instrument data and meta data is stored and accessed via a specially designed database architecture and any type of instrument output is accepted using our continuously growing parsing application. Multiple databases can be used to separate different data taking periods or a single database can be used if for instance an experiment is continuous. A simple web-based application gives the user total control over the monitored instruments and their data, allowing data visualization and download, upload of processed data and the ability to edit existing instruments or add new instruments to the experiment. When in a network, new computers are immediately recognized and added to the system and are able to monitor instruments connected to them. Automatic computer integration is achieved by a locally running python-based parsing agent that communicates with a main server application guaranteeing that all instruments assigned to that computer are

  20. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  1. Monitoring volcanic threats using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.; Dehn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes ongoing activities associated with a research project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) focusing on volcanic change detection through the use of satellite imagery. This work includes systems development as well as improvements in data analysis methods. Participating organizations include the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) at the USGS Alaska Science Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (JPL/CalTech), the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  2. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  4. Glyoxal Retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. E.; Jacob, D. J.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an improved algorithm for the retrieval of glyoxal (CHOCHO) from OMI. Glyoxal is a short-lived product of volatile organic carbon (VOC) oxidation. Satellite glyoxal observations may provide a powerful addition to existing formaldehyde products for constraining VOC emissions. However, glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of current retrievals disagree with ground-based observations over anthropogenic and biogenic regions, inhibiting their combined use in top-down studies. To address these discrepancies we perform a series of sensitivity studies on real and simulated OMI spectra. We show that the sensitive fit window dependence found in previous studies is consistent with a combination of errors from reference cross section uncertainties and spectral interference due to the Ring effect. This implies an optimal fit window of 435-461 nm, consistent with previous retrievals. Using simulated spectra we confirm a NO2 interference associated with cross section temperature, that can be corrected using multiple cross sections. We show that cross-track biases in the OMI retrieval can be corrected by deriving offsets over the Sahara, and apply the correction to the OMI data. Average background concentrations are lower in the new product since the Sahara reference sector is free of liquid water interference associated with the oceanic regions used in previous studies. Concentrations measured over Asia during the monsoon season and the tropics are also lower, suggesting that the new retrieval is less sensitive to water vapor abundance. Consequently we do not see significant enhancements over tropical oceans. The glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of the new OMI product are consistent with surface observations.

  5. Operational monitoring of turbidity in rivers: how satellites can contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucke, Dorothee; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Kranz, Susanne; Baschek, Björn

    2016-10-01

    The applications of remote sensing in hydrology are diverse and offer significant benefits for water monitoring. Up to now, operational river monitoring and sediment management in Germany mainly rely on in-situ measurements and on results obtained from numerical modelling. Remote sensing by satellites has a great potential to supplement existing data with two-dimensional information on near-surface turbidity distributions at greater spatial scales than in-situ measurements can offer. Within the project WasMon-CT (WaterMonitoring-Chlorophyll/Turbidity), the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) aims at the implementation of an operational monitoring of turbidity distributions based on satellite images (esp. Sentinel-2, Landsat7 and 8). Initially, selected federal inland and estuarine waterways will be addressed: Rhine, Elbe, Ems, Weser. WasMon-CT is funded within the German Copernicus activities. Within the project, a database of atmospherically corrected, geo-referenced turbidity data will be assembled. The collected corresponding meta-data will include aspects of satellite data as well as hydrological data, e.g. cloud cover and river run-off. Based on this catalogue of spatially linked meta-data, the satellite data will be selected by e.g. cloud cover or run-off. The permanently updated database will include past as well as recent satellite images. It is designed with a long-term perspective to optimize the existing in-situ measurement network, which will serve partly for calibration and partly as validation data set. The aim is to extend, but not to substitute, the existing frequent point measurements with spatially extensive, satellite-derived data from the near surface part of the water column. Here, turbidity is used as proxy for corresponding suspended sediment concentrations. For this, the relationship between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations will be investigated. Products as e.g. longitudinal profiles or virtual measurement stations will be

  6. MONITORING OF ENERGETIC PARTICLE ENVIRONMENT INSIDE THE CHINA-BRAZIL EARTH RESOURCE SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On 14 October 1999, the Chinese-Brazil earth resource satellite (CBERS-1) was launched in China. On board of the satellite there was an instrument designed at Peking University to detect the energetic particle radiation inside the satellite so the radiation fluxes of energetic particles in the cabin can be monitored continuously. Inside a satellite cabin, radiation environment consists of ether penetrated energetic particles or secondary radiation from satellite materials due to the interactions with primary cosmic rays.Purpose of the detectors are twofold, to monitor the particle radiation in the cabin and also to study the space radiation environment The data can be used to study the radiation environment and their effects on the electronics inside the satelhte cabin. On the other hand, the data are useful in study of geo-space energetic particle events such as solar proton events, particle precipitation and variations of the radiation belt since there should be some correlation between the radiation situation inside and outside the satellite.The instrument consists of two semi-conductor detectors for protons and electrons respectively. Each detector has two channels of energy ranges. They are 0.5-2MeV and ≥2MeV for electrons and 5-30MeV and 30-60MeV for protons. Counting rate for all channels are up to 104/(cm2@s)and power consumption is about 2.5 W. There are also the additional functions of CMOS TID (total integrated dose) effect and direct SEU monitoring. The data of CBMC was first sent back on Oct. 17 1999 and it's almost three years from then on. The detector has been working normally and the quality of data is good.The preliminary results of data analysis of CBMC not only reveal the effects of polar particle precipitation and radiation belt on radiation environment inside a satellite, but also show some important features of the geo-space energetic particle radiation.As one of the most important parameters of space weather, the energetic charged

  7. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  8. Monitoring volcanic systems through cross-correlation of coincident A-Train satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, V. J. B.; Carn, S. A.; Wright, R.

    2014-12-01

    The remote location and inaccessibility of many active volcanic systems around the world hinders detailed investigation of their eruptive dynamics. One methodology for monitoring such locations is through the utilisation of multiple satellite datasets to elucidate underlying eruption dynamics and aid volcanic hazard mitigation. Whilst satellite datasets are often analysed individually, here we exploit the multi-platform NASA A-Train satellite constellation, including the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua. OMI measures volcanic emissions (e.g. sulphur dioxide, ash) whilst MODIS enables monitoring of thermal anomalies (e.g. lava flows, lava lakes, pyroclastic deposits), allowing analysis of a more diverse range of volcanic unrest than is possible using a single measurement technique alone, and permitting cross-correlation between datasets for specific locations to assess cyclic activity. A Multi-taper (MTM) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was implemented at an initial sample site (Soufriere Hills volcano [SHV], Montserrat) facilitating cycle identification and subsequent comparison with existing ground-based data. Corresponding cycles at intervals of 8, 12 and ~50 days were identified in both the satellite-based SO2 and thermal infrared signals and ground-based SO2 measurements (Nicholson et al. 2013), validating the methodology. Our analysis confirms the potential for identification of cyclical volcanic activity through synergistic analysis of satellite data, which would be of particular value at poorly monitored volcanic systems. Following our initial test at SHV, further sample sites have been selected in locations with varied eruption dynamics and monitoring capabilities including Ambrym (Vanuatu), Kilauea (Hawaii), Nyiragongo (DR Congo) and Etna (Italy) with the intention of identifying not only cyclic signals that can be attributed to volcanic systems but also those which are

  9. Review of Instrumentation and Monitoring for USACE Levees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    MONITORING APPROACH: Geotechnical instrumentation can be divided into two categories: in situ determination of soil or rock properties and monitoring of...deformation, seismic loading, groundwater pressure, total stress in soil , stress changes in rock, and temperature. This information is vital to the...piping) from through seepage or underseepage, rotational slope failure, and liquefaction from earthquakes. During an extreme flood event, the level of

  10. Satellite Monitoring Over the Canadian Oil Sands: Highlights from Aura OMI and TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark W.; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Krotkov, Nick A.; Boersma, Folkert; Li, Can; Luo, Ming; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides a unique perspective for air quality monitoring in and around the Canadian Oil Sands as a result of its spatial and temporal coverage. Presented are Aura satellite observations of key pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH) over the Canadian Oil Sands. Some of the highlights include: (i) the evolution of NO2 and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from 240 km North-South Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) transects through the oils sands, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  11. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  12. Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Kowalewski, Matthew G.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) instruments designed for measuring stratospheric ozone profiles have proven to be robust tools for observing polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). These measurements are available for more than 30 years, and have been used to demonstrate the existence of long-term variations in PMC occurrence frequency and brightness. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the EOS Aura satellite provides new and improved capabilities for PMC characterization. OMI uses smaller pixels than previous BUV instruments, which increases its ability to identify PMCs and discern more spatial structure, and its wide cross-track viewing swath provides full polar coverage up to 90 latitude every day in both hemispheres. This cross-track coverage allows the evolution of PMC regions to be followed over several consecutive orbits. Localized PMC variations determined from OMI measurements are consistent with coincident SBUV/2 measurements. Nine seasons of PMC observations from OMI are now available, and clearly demonstrate the advantages of these measurements for PMC analysis.

  13. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Instrumentation for full-year plot-scale runoff monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replicated 0.34 ha cropping systems plots have been in place since 1991 at the USDA-ARS Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed in central Missouri. Recently, instrumentation has been installed at 18 of those plots for continuous runoff water quality and quantity monitoring. That installation require...

  15. Using ISERV and Commercial Satellite Imagery to Assess and Monitor Recovery Efforts in Urban Damaged Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Center uses a wide array of satellites to monitor and assess the impacts of natural disasters, with support from NASA's Applied Sciences Program. One of the newest sensors SPoRT is utilizing in these activities is the International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) instrument. ISERV provides a unique view of the areas impacted and will play a big role in monitoring the recovery these areas. High-resolution commercial satellite data is also used to monitor urban areas that have been impacted by natural disasters. SPoRT is developing techniques to measure the extent of these disasters and to monitor recovery. Several of these techniques include semi-automatic feature detection and change as well as developing an experimental damage assessment based upon the visible damage observed by the satellites. Furthermore, throughout these activities SPoRT hopes to provide additional data to the NOAA National Weather Service Damage Assessment Toolkit, which will help to supplement those activities being performed in the field.

  16. New instruments for plant area and personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R. B.; Hawthorne, A. R.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Schuresko, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Advances in portable monitoring instruments and simple luminescence techniques for analyzing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) are reported. A small, derivative ultra-violet absorption spectrometer is suitable for multipollutant real-time monitoring of several mono- and bicyclic aromatic vapors. A non-compound selective fluorescence spill spotter and lightpipe luminoscope are active instruments for measuring general surface and skin contamination, respectively. A small passive integrating filter paper exposure device that responds to PNA vapors such a pyrene is a very promising and recent development. Synchronous luminescence and room temperature phosphoresence are two attractive and simple to use analytical methodologies for the rapid assaying of major PNA compounds. Their potential for analyzing the cyclohexane extract of particulate matter, or incorporation into a device for the continuous monitoring of select PNAs in aerosols in near-real-time, are discussed.

  17. Hotspot of glyoxal over the Pearl River delta seen from the OMI satellite instrument: implications for emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Miller, Christopher; Jacob, Daniel J.; González Abad, Gonzalo; Chance, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Pearl River delta (PRD) is a densely populated hub of industrial activity located in southern China. OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite observations reveal a large hotspot of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the PRD that is almost twice as large as any other in Asia. Formaldehyde (HCHO) and NO2 observed by OMI are also high in the PRD but no more than in other urban/industrial areas of China. The CHOCHO hotspot over the PRD can be explained by industrial paint and solvent ...

  18. Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciello, D.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for what concerns early warning and real-time (or near real-time) monitoring. Several satellite techniques exist, mainly based on the use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology, which are able to recognise, with sufficient accuracy, oil spills discharged into the sea. Unfortunately, such methods cannot be profitably used for real-time detection, because of the low observational frequency assured by present satellite platforms carrying SAR sensors (the mean repetition rate is something like 30 days). On the other hand, potential of optical sensors aboard meteorological satellites, was not yet fully exploited and no reliable techniques have been developed until now for this purpose. Main limit of proposed techniques can be found in the ``fixed threshold'' approach which makes such techniques difficult to implement without operator supervision and, generally, without an independent information on the oil spill presence that could drive the choice of the best threshold. A different methodological approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques) proposed by Tramutoli (1998) and already successfully applied to several natural and environmental emergencies related to volcanic eruptions, forest fires and seismic activity. In this paper its extension to near real-time detection and monitoring of oil spills by means of NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) records will be described. Briefly, RAT approach is an automatic change-detection scheme that considers a satellite image as a space-time process, described at each place (x,y) and time t, by the value of

  19. Supply Chain Management of Satellite Mechanisms- Product Development and Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sreejith; Vishnu G Nair

    2014-01-01

    The project report primary deals with the Testing, Analysis, Modeling of the components of the Solar Array deployment Mechanism and a preliminary design. It also discusses the Monitoring of the supply chain management system for the procurement of the components from vendors. The deployment of solar array or any other appendage is a mission critical activity of any satellite. It is necessary to study about the deployment mechanism because once the array latches up, the satelli...

  20. Comparison of ground-based FTIR and Brewer O3 total column with data from two different IASI algorithms and from OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenstock, T.; J.-M. Flaud; P. Chelin; Eremenko, M.; A. Redondas; Hase, F.; Schneider, M; C. Viatte; Orphal, J

    2011-01-01

    An intercomparison of ozone total column measurements derived from various platforms is presented in this work. Satellite data from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) are compared with data from two ground-based spectrometers (Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer FTIR and Brewer), located at the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) super-site of Izaña (Tenerife), m...

  1. Robust satellite techniques for volcanicand seismic hazards monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Scaffidi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Several satellite techniques have been proposed to monitor events related to seismic and volcanic activity. A selfadaptive approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques has recently been proposed which seems able to recognise space-time anomalies, differently related to such events, also in the presence of highly variable contributions from atmospheric (transmittance, surface (emissivity and morphology and observational (time/season, but also solar and satellite zenithal angles conditions. On the basis of NOAA-AVHRR data, the RAT aprroach has already been applied to Mount Etna volcanic ash cloud monitoring in daytime, and to seismic area monitoring in Southern Italy. This paper presents the theoretical basis for the extension of RAT approach also to nighttime volcanic ash cloud detection, together with its possible implementation to lava flow monitoring. One example of successful forecasting (few days before of a new lava vent opening during the Mount Etna eruption of July 2001 will be discussed in some detail. Progress on the use of the same approach on seismically active area monitoring will be discussed by comparison with previous results achieved on the Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake (MS = 6.9, which occurred on November 23rd 1980 in Southern Italy.

  2. Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System Failure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino Prieto, Omar Ariosto; Colmenares Guillen, Luis Enrique

    2013-09-01

    In this paper the Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System is presented. This architecture is a legacy of the Detection System for Real-Time Physical Variables which is undergoing a patent process in Mexico. The methodologies for this design are the Structured Analysis for Real Time (SA- RT) [8], and the software is carried out by LACATRE (Langage d'aide à la Conception d'Application multitâche Temps Réel) [9,10] Real Time formal language. The system failures model is analyzed and the proposal is based on the formal language for the design of critical systems and Risk Assessment; AltaRica. This formal architecture uses satellites as input sensors and it was adapted from the original model which is a design pattern for physical variation detection in Real Time. The original design, whose task is to monitor events such as natural disasters and health related applications, or actual sickness monitoring and prevention, as the Real Time Diabetes Monitoring System, among others. Some related work has been presented on the Mexican Space Agency (AEM) Creation and Consultation Forums (2010-2011), and throughout the International Mexican Aerospace Science and Technology Society (SOMECYTA) international congress held in San Luis Potosí, México (2012). This Architecture will allow a Real Time Fire Satellite Monitoring, which will reduce the damage and danger caused by fires which consumes the forests and tropical forests of Mexico. This new proposal, permits having a new system that impacts on disaster prevention, by combining national and international technologies and cooperation for the benefit of humankind.

  4. DEBIE - first standard in-situ debris monitoring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, J.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Svedhem, H.; Leese, M.; Mannermaa, H.; Kaipiainen, M.; Sipinen, V.

    2001-10-01

    Objects larger than a few centimetres can be tracked with radar or with optical telescopes. The population of smaller particles can only be investigated by the analysis of retrieved spacecraft and passive detectors or by in-situ monitors in orbit. Patria Finavitec together with UniSpace Kent have developed the DEBIE (DEBris In-orbit Evaluator) instrument to determine the parameters of sub-millimetre sized space debris and micrometeoroids in-situ by their impact with a detecting surface. The main goal has been to develop an economical and low-resource instrument, easy to integrate into any spacecraft, while providing reliable real-time data for space debris modelling.

  5. Validation of ultraviolet radiation budgets using satellite observations from the OMI instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Outer, P.N.; Van Dijk, A.; Slaper, H.

    2008-11-15

    Satellite retrieval of ozone, clouds, aerosols and ground albedo allows the modelling of ultraviolet (UV)-doses received at the ground. UV-doses derived from satellite observations are highly useful in analyzing regional differences in the effects of ozone depletion and climate change on the biologically effective UV-radiation levels. RIVM has developed and used UV-mapping and UV-risk mapping techniques in environmental assessments in evaluating the effects of ozone depletion and climate change. This project provides a validation study on the OMUVB product by means of a comparison with ground-based measurements. This validation should demonstrate if the OMUVB product can be used from the perspective of long-term environmental trend assessments. Comparing ground-based UV-measurements with the OMUVB product, we show that the product consistently overestimates the UV-doses received at the ground in Europe. The systematic comparison with data from 8 European sites shows on average a 15% overestimate in the yearly integrated UV with a site-to-site variability of around 8%. For four of the more northern sites the overestimation in yearly doses is between 5-10%, and for the four sites that are more southern the deviation is 20-27%. Using the ozone and reflectivity data from the OMI-instrument (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) in combination with the AMOUR-algorithm (Assessment Model for Ultraviolet radiation and Risks) shows smaller overestimates of on average 5-6% with a similar variability between the sites. The variability between sites is largely caused by aerosol and albedo effects and is reduced to 3% if local data on aerosol and albedo are used. The overestimates in the OMUVB product are primarily due to too low (tropospheric) aerosol loads used for the European sites. In addition, our comparison shows that under heavy clouded conditions the cloud modification factors are too high. This contributes to the overall too high UV-doses of the OMUVB product. Environmental

  6. Micro-satellite constellations for monitoring cryospheric processes and related natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeaeb, A.; Altena, B.; Mascaro, J.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, several micro-satellite constellations for earth-observation are planned or under build-up. Here, we assess the potential of the well-advanced Planet satellite constellation for investigating cryospheric processes. In its final stage, the Planet constellation will consist of 150 free-flying micro-satellites in near-polar and ISS orbits. The instruments carry RGB+NIR frame cameras that image the Earth surface in nadir direction with resolutions of 3-5 m, covering 20 x 13 km per image. In its final set-up, the constellation will be able to image the (almost) entire land surface at least once per day, under the limitation of cloud cover. Here, we explore new possibilities for insight into cryospheric processes that this very high repeat cycle combined with high image resolution offer. Based on repeat Planet imagery we derive repeat glacier velocity fields for example glaciers in the northern and southern hemispheres. We find it especially useful to monitor the ice velocities near calving fronts and simultaneously detect changes of the front, pointing to calving events. We also explore deformation fields over creeping mountain permafrost, so-called rockglaciers. As a second, very promising cryospheric application we suggest monitoring of glacier and permafrost related natural hazards. In cases such as temporary lakes, lake outbursts, landslides, rock avalanches, visual information over remote areas and at high frequencies are crucial for hazard assessment, early warning or disaster management. Based on several examples, we demonstrate that massive micro-satellite constellations such Planet's are exactly able to provide this type of information. As a third promising example, we show how such high-repeat optical satellite data are useful to monitor river ice and related jams and flooding. At certain latitudes, the repeat frequency of the data is even high enough to track river ice floes and thus water velocities.

  7. Use of multiple in situ instruments and remote sensed satellite data for calibration tests at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Doumaz, Fawzi; Andres Diaz, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring natural hazards such as active volcanoes requires specific instruments to measure many parameters (gas emissions, surface temperatures, surface deformation etc.) to determine the activity level of a volcano. Volcanoes in most cases present difficult and dangerous environment for scientists who need to take in situ measurements. Remote Sensing systems on board of satellite permit to measure a large number of parameters especially during the eruptive events but still show large limits to monitor volcanic precursors and phenomena at local scale (gas species emitted by fumarole or summit craters degassing plumes and surface thermal changes of few degrees) for their specific risk. For such reason unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) mounting a variety of multigas sensors instruments (such as miniature mass spectrometer) or single specie sensors (such as electrochemical and IR sensors) allow a safe monitoring of volcanic activities. With this technology, it is possible to perform monitoring measurements of volcanic activity without risking the lives of scientists and personnel performing analysis during the field campaigns in areas of high volcanic activity and supporting the calibration and validation of satellite data measurements. These systems allowed the acquisition of real-time information such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2 contained in degassing plume and fumaroles, with GPS geolocation. The acquired data are both stored in the sensor and transmitted to a computer for real time viewing information. Information in the form of 3D concentration maps can be returned. The equipment used during the campaigns at Solfatara Volcano (in 2014, 2015 and 2016) was miniaturized instruments allowed measurements conducted either by flying drones over the fumarolic sites and by hand carrying into the fumaroles. We present the results of the field campaign held in different years at the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, near Naples, concerning measurements

  8. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  9. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  10. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Monitor Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The CAPS PMex monitor is a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction instrument. It operates as an optical extinction spectrometer, using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector. Its efficacy is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light.

  11. Ozone Profile Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) for nadir-looking satellite instruments in the UV-VIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Peet, J.C.A.; Van der A, R.J.; Tuinder, O.N.E.; Wolfram, E.; Salvador, J.; Levelt, P.F.; Kelder, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    For the retrieval of the vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) has been further developed. The new version (1.26) of OPERA is capable of retrieving ozone profiles from UV–VIS observations of most nadir-looking satellite instruments like GOME,

  12. New Methods for Retrieval of Chlorophyll Red Fluorescence from Hyperspectral Satellite Instruments: Simulations and Application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths greater than 712nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths less than 712nm) over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5nm). Nevertheless, these instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric andor solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) gamma band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 gamma band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps

  13. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M., E-mail: pedromaria.monje@ehu.es [Electronic Design Group, Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Cokonaj, Valerijan [AERnnova Engineering Solutions Ibérica S.A., Madrid (Spain); Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group of the Technical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  14. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, G; Monje, P M; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  15. Validity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jégou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the validity of ultraviolet index (UVI satellite products and UVI model simulations for general public information, intercomparison involving three satellite instruments (SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2, the Chemistry and Transport Model, Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique Grande Echelle (MOCAGE, and ground-based instruments was performed in 2008 and 2009. The intercomparison highlighted a systematic high bias of ~1 UVI in the OMI clear-sky products compared to the SCIAMACHY and TUV model clear-sky products. The OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are close to the ground-based observations with a low 6 % positive bias, comparable to the results found during the satellite validation campaigns. This result shows that OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are well appropriate to evaluate the UV-risk on health. The study has pointed out the difficulty to take into account either in the retrieval algorithms or in the models, the large spatial and temporal cloud modification effect on UV radiation. This factor is crucial to provide good quality UV information. OMI and GOME-2 show a realistic UV variability as a function of the cloud cover. Nevertheless these satellite products do not sufficiently take into account the radiation reflected by clouds. MOCAGE numerical forecasts show good results during periods with low cloud covers, but are actually not adequate for overcast conditions; this is why Météo-France currently uses human-expertised cloudiness (rather than direct outputs from Numerical Prediction Models together with MOCAGE clear-sky UV indices for its operational forecasts. From now on, the UV monitoring could be done using free satellite products (OMI, GOME-2 and operational forecast for general public by using modelling, as long as cloud forecasts and the parametrisation of the impact of cloudiness on UV radiation are adequate.

  16. Potential of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor for the monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guanter

    2014-12-01

    photosynthetic functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The feasibility of SIF retrievals from spaceborne atmospheric spectrometers has been demonstrated by a number of studies in the last years. In this work, we investigate the potential of the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite mission for SIF retrieval. TROPOMI will sample the 675–775 nm spectral window with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm and a pixel size of 7 km × 7 km. We use an extensive set of simulated TROPOMI data in order to assess the uncertainty of single SIF retrievals and subsequent spatio-temporal composites. Our results illustrate the enormous improvement in SIF monitoring achievable with TROPOMI with respect to comparable spectrometers currently in-flight, such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 instrument. We find that TROPOMI can reduce global uncertainties in SIF mapping by more than a factor 2 with respect to GOME-2, which comes together with an about 5-fold improvement in spatial sampling. Finally, we discuss the potential of TROPOMI to accurately map other important vegetation parameters, such as leaf photosynthetic pigments and proxies for canopy structure, which will complement SIF retrievals for a self-contained description of vegetation condition and functioning.

  17. Instrumental lahar monitoring at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, F.; Thouret, J.-C.; Voight, B.; Young, K.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Suwa, H.; Sumaryono, A.; Sayudi, D.S.; Dejean, M.

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 volcanic debris flows or lahars were generated around Mt Merapi during the first rainy season following the nuees ardentes of 22 November 1994. The rainfalls that triggered the lahars were analyzed, using such instruments as weather radar and telemetered rain gauges. Lahar dynamics were also monitored, using new non-contact detection instrumentation installed on the slopes of the volcano. These devices include real-time seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM), seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) systems. Calibration of the various systems was accomplished by field measurements of flow velocities and discharge, contemporaneously with instrumental monitoring. The 1994–1995 lahars were relatively short events, their duration in the Boyong river commonly ranging between 30 min and 1 h 30 min. The great majority (90%) of the lahars was recognized at Kaliurang village between 13:00 and 17:30 h, due to the predominance of afternoon rainfalls. The observed mean velocity of lahar fronts ranged between 1.1 and 3.4 m/s, whereas the peak velocity of the flows varied from 11 to 15 m/s, under the Gardu Pandang viewpoint location at Kaliurang, to 8–10 m/s at a section 500 m downstream from this site. River slopes vary from 28 to 22 m/km at the two sites. Peak discharges recorded in various events ranged from 33 to 360 m3/s, with the maximum value of peak discharge 360 m3/s, on 20 May 1995. To improve the lahar warning system along Boyong river, some instrumental thresholds were proposed: large and potentially hazardous lahars may be detected by RSAM units exceeding 400, SSAM units exceeding 80 on the highest frequency band, or AFM values greater than 1500 mV on the low-gain, broad-band setting.

  18. Band-monitoring Payload for a CubeSat Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During changing sun activity, the ionosphere is responding accordingly and therefore it is interesting to observe the propagation behavior of shortwave bands. For the above mentioned purpose we have designed a band-monitoring payload for an experimental CubeSat satellite. The payload consists of a receiver, which is able to receive SSB modulated narrowband signals in 28 MHz uplink band, and a transmitter with FM modulation in UHF downlink band. The receiver frequency is selected to be at the center of radio amateur activity with low data rate digital modulations.

  19. The space environment monitor aboard FY-2 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guangwu; LI; Baoquan; WANG; Shijin; LIN; Hua'an; LIAN

    2005-01-01

    The space environment monitor (SEM) aboard FY-2 satellite consists of the high energy particle detector (HEPD) and the solar X-ray flux detector (SXFD). The SEM can provide real-time monitoring of flare and solar proton event for its operation at geostationary orbit and is also the first Chinese space system for monitoring and alerting solar proton event. During the 23rd solar maximum cycle, almost all the solar proton events that took place in this period are monitored and some of them are predicted successfully by analyzing the characteristics of X-ray flare monitored by the SEM. Some basic variation characteristics of particle at geostationary orbit are found such as day-night periodic variation of particle flux, the electron flux with energy >1.4 MeV in the scope from 10 to 200/cm2.s-sr and the proton flux with energy >1.1 MeV in the scope from 600 to 8000/cm2-s.sr during the time with no magnetic storm and solar eruption.

  20. Remote instrumentation and safeguards monitoring for the star project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, H M; Labiak, W; Spiridon, A

    2000-06-15

    A part of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) is the development of the Small Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) for deployment in countries that do not have a nuclear industry. STARs would have an output of from 100 to 150 MW electric, would be fueled in the country of manufacture, and after 15 to 20 years of operation the reactor core would be returned to the country of manufacture for refueling. A candidate STAR design can be found in (Greenspan, 2000). This paper describes the design of the control and monitoring system that might be used. There are two unique features to this system. One is that the monitored information will be transmitted to a remote site for two purposes, safeguards, and allowing experts a great distance away direct access to view the reactor's operating parameters. The second feature is safeguards sensors will be designed into the system and there will monitoring of the safeguards aspects of the system for tampering. Any safeguards anomalies will be sent to the remote site as alarms. Encrypted satellite communications will be used to transmit the data. These features allow the STAR to be operated by a small staff and will reduce the costs of safeguards monitoring by reducing the number of plant visits by inspectors.

  1. Remote instrumentation and safeguards monitoring for the star project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, H M; Labiak, W; Spiridon, A

    2000-06-15

    A part of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) is the development of the Small Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) for deployment in countries that do not have a nuclear industry. STARs would have an output of from 100 to 150 MW electric, would be fueled in the country of manufacture, and after 15 to 20 years of operation the reactor core would be returned to the country of manufacture for refueling. A candidate STAR design can be found in (Greenspan, 2000). This paper describes the design of the control and monitoring system that might be used. There are two unique features to this system. One is that the monitored information will be transmitted to a remote site for two purposes, safeguards, and allowing experts a great distance away direct access to view the reactor's operating parameters. The second feature is safeguards sensors will be designed into the system and there will monitoring of the safeguards aspects of the system for tampering. Any safeguards anomalies will be sent to the remote site as alarms. Encrypted satellite communications will be used to transmit the data. These features allow the STAR to be operated by a small staff and will reduce the costs of safeguards monitoring by reducing the number of plant visits by inspectors.

  2. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  3. An Optical Sensor Network for Vegetation Phenology Monitoring and Satellite Data Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Heliasz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a network of sites across Fennoscandia for optical sampling of vegetation properties relevant for phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration. The network currently consists of five sites, distributed along an N-S gradient through Sweden and Finland. Two sites are located in coniferous forests, one in a deciduous forest, and two on peatland. The instrumentation consists of dual-beam sensors measuring incoming and reflected red, green, NIR, and PAR fluxes at 10-min intervals, year-round. The sensors are mounted on separate masts or in flux towers in order to capture radiation reflected from within the flux footprint of current eddy covariance measurements. Our computations and model simulations demonstrate the validity of using off-nadir sampling, and we show the results from the first year of measurement. NDVI is computed and compared to that of the MODIS instrument on-board Aqua and Terra satellite platforms. PAR fluxes are partitioned into reflected and absorbed components for the ground and canopy. The measurements demonstrate that the instrumentation provides detailed information about the vegetation phenology and variations in reflectance due to snow cover variations and vegetation development. Valuable information about PAR absorption of ground and canopy is obtained that may be linked to vegetation productivity.

  4. An optical sensor network for vegetation phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklundh, Lars; Jin, Hongxiao; Schubert, Per; Guzinski, Radoslaw; Heliasz, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We present a network of sites across Fennoscandia for optical sampling of vegetation properties relevant for phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration. The network currently consists of five sites, distributed along an N-S gradient through Sweden and Finland. Two sites are located in coniferous forests, one in a deciduous forest, and two on peatland. The instrumentation consists of dual-beam sensors measuring incoming and reflected red, green, NIR, and PAR fluxes at 10-min intervals, year-round. The sensors are mounted on separate masts or in flux towers in order to capture radiation reflected from within the flux footprint of current eddy covariance measurements. Our computations and model simulations demonstrate the validity of using off-nadir sampling, and we show the results from the first year of measurement. NDVI is computed and compared to that of the MODIS instrument on-board Aqua and Terra satellite platforms. PAR fluxes are partitioned into reflected and absorbed components for the ground and canopy. The measurements demonstrate that the instrumentation provides detailed information about the vegetation phenology and variations in reflectance due to snow cover variations and vegetation development. Valuable information about PAR absorption of ground and canopy is obtained that may be linked to vegetation productivity.

  5. Instrumentation, Monitoring and NDE for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Good, Morris S.; Waltar, Alan E.

    2007-07-28

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has been proposed as a viable system in which to close the fuel cycle in a manner consistent with markedly expanding the global role of nuclear power while significantly reducing proliferation risks. A key part of this system relies on the development of actinide transmutation, which can only be effectively accomplished in a fast-spectrum reactor. The fundamental physics for fast reactors is well established. However, to achieve higher standards of safety and reliability, operate with longer intervals between outages, and achieve high operating capacity factors, new instrumentation and on-line monitoring capabilities will be required--during both fabrication and operation. Since the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) reactors were operational in the USA, there have been major advances in instrumentation, not the least being the move to digital systems. Some specific capabilities have been developed outside the USA, but new or at least re-established capabilities will be required. In many cases the only available information is in reports and papers. New and improved sensors and instrumentation will be required. Advanced instrumentation has been developed for high-temperature/high-flux conditions in some cases, but most of the original researchers and manufacturers are retired or no longer in business.

  6. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small rivers and lakes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulistioadi, Y.B.; Tseng, K.H.; Shum, C.K.; Hidayat, Hidayat; Sumaryono, M.; Suhardiman, A.; Setiawan, F.; Sunarso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods (&g

  7. Testing of Environmental Satellite Bus-Instrument Interfaces Using Engineering Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Donald; Hayner, Rick; Nosek, Thomas; Roza, Michael; Hendershot, James E.; Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation and execution of a laboratory test of the electrical interfaces between multiple atmospheric scientific instruments and the spacecraft bus that carries them. The testing, performed in 2002, used engineering models of the instruments and the Aura spacecraft bus electronics. Aura is one of NASA s Earth Observatory System missions. The test was designed to evaluate the complex interfaces in the command and data handling subsystems prior to integration of the complete flight instruments on the spacecraft. A problem discovered during the flight integration phase of the observatory can cause significant cost and schedule impacts. The tests successfully revealed problems and led to their resolution before the full-up integration phase, saving significant cost and schedule. This approach could be beneficial for future environmental satellite programs involving the integration of multiple, complex scientific instruments onto a spacecraft bus.

  8. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  9. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-11-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  10. Hotspot of glyoxal over the Pearl River delta seen from the OMI satellite instrument: implications for emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher Chan; Jacob, Daniel J.; González Abad, Gonzalo; Chance, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    The Pearl River delta (PRD) is a densely populated hub of industrial activity located in southern China. OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite observations reveal a large hotspot of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the PRD that is almost twice as large as any other in Asia. Formaldehyde (HCHO) and NO2 observed by OMI are also high in the PRD but no more than in other urban/industrial areas of China. The CHOCHO hotspot over the PRD can be explained by industrial paint and solvent emissions of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with toluene being a dominant contributor. By contrast, HCHO in the PRD originates mostly from VOCs emitted by combustion (principally vehicles). By applying a plume transport model to wind-segregated OMI data, we show that the CHOCHO and HCHO enhancements over the PRD observed by OMI are consistent with current VOC emission inventories. Prior work using CHOCHO retrievals from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument suggested that emission inventories for aromatic VOCs in the PRD were too low by a factor of 10-20; we attribute this result in part to bias in the SCIAMACHY data and in part to underestimated CHOCHO yields from oxidation of aromatics. Our work points to the importance of better understanding CHOCHO yields from the oxidation of aromatics in order to interpret space-based CHOCHO observations in polluted environments.

  11. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  12. The Calibration and Characterization of Earth Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring Instruments. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Barnes, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of remote sensing instruments on orbiting satellite platforms in the study of Earth Science and environmental monitoring was officially inaugurated with the April 1, 1960 launch of the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) [1]. The first TIROS accommodated two television cameras and operated for only 78 days. However, the TIROS program, in providing in excess of 22,000 pictures of the Earth, achieved its primary goal of providing Earth images from a satellite platform to aid in identifying and monitoring meteorological processes. This marked the beginning of what is now over four decades of Earth observations from satellite platforms. reflected and emitted radiation from the Earth using instruments on satellite platforms. These measurements are input to climate models, and the model results are analyzed in an effort to detect short and long-term changes and trends in the Earth's climate and environment, to identify the cause of those changes, and to predict or influence future changes. Examples of short-term climate change events include the periodic appearance of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean [2] and the spectacular eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the Philippine island of Luzon in 1991. Examples of long term climate change events, which are more subtle to detect, include the destruction of coral reefs, the disappearance of glaciers, and global warming. Climatic variability can be both large and small scale and can be caused by natural or anthropogenic processes. The periodic El Nino event is an example of a natural process which induces significant climatic variability over a wide range of the Earth. A classic example of a large scale anthropogenic influence on climate is the well-documented rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide occurring since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution [3]. An example of the study of a small-scale anthropogenic influence in climate variability is the Atlanta Land

  13. Sleep monitoring: a comparison between three wearable instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Valk, Pierre J L; Veenstra, Bertil J

    2011-07-01

    During military operations soldiers often encounter extreme environmental circumstances like heat, cold, prolonged physical exercise, and disturbed sleep, which hamper their performance. Monitoring changes in physiological parameters may assist with adequate interventions to prevent the negative consequences and support recovery. The current study was employed to reduce the number of measurement instruments to monitor physiological variables, especially with respect to adequate sleep prediction. We compared three instruments with respect to their effectiveness in predicting sleep; the Equivital, Sensewear, and Actiwatch. Additionally, we investigated the added value of cardio-respiratory to accelerometer signals to estimate sleep duration. The Equivital model (based on acceleration data) and Sensewear predict sleep and wake as accurate as the commonly used Actiwatch model, and the cardio-respiratory Equivital data further improve accuracy and specificity. In sum, the current study provides an indication that the Equivital system (or any other chestband that measures 3-dimensional acceleration plus other physiological variables) might be interchanged with an Actiwatch for sleep prediction.

  14. Satellite image time series simulation for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The performance of environmental monitoring heavily depends on the availability of consecutive observation data and it turns out an increasing demand in remote sensing community for satellite image data in the sufficient resolution with respect to both spatial and temporal requirements, which appear to be conflictive and hard to tune tradeoffs. Multiple constellations could be a solution if without concerning cost, and thus it is so far interesting but very challenging to develop a method which can simultaneously improve both spatial and temporal details. There are some research efforts to deal with the problem from various aspects, a type of approaches is to enhance the spatial resolution using techniques of super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. which can produce good visual effects, but mostly cannot preserve spectral signatures and result in losing analytical value. Another type is to fill temporal frequency gaps by adopting time interpolation, which actually doesn't increase informative context at all. In this paper we presented a novel method to generate satellite images in higher spatial and temporal details, which further enables satellite image time series simulation. Our method starts with a pair of high-low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and the temporal change is then projected onto high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel referring the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects to generate a simulated high resolution data. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a good accuracy. We consider the contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of low resolution images time series only, and usage of

  15. Earthquake Monitoring in Australia Using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lin-lin; E. Cheng; D. Polonska; C. Rizos; C. Collins; C. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Are there any earthquakes in Australia? Although most Australians are not as familiar with earthquakes as citizens in countries such as Japan, there are some quakes on the Australian continent every year. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been widely used in recent years for monitoring crustal deformation due to earthquakes, volcanoes, underground mining, oil extraction,and so on. Hence the follow-on question is, can repeat-pass satellite DInSAR be used in Australian regions to monitor earthquakes? Nine ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar images of the Burakin region in Western Australia were used to form the InSAR pairs.Twenty-two InSAR pairs were formed and were used to study the temporal decorrelation characteristics in the Burakin area. It was found that good coherence could be maintained all over the full scene for a pair spanning 211 d. The repeat cycles of RADARSAT and ERS (all C-band SAR missions) are 24 and 35 drespectively, Furthermore it is easier to maintain good coherence in L-band SAR images (e.g. the JERS-1 mission has a 44 d repeat cycle). Therefore the authors are confident that repeat-pass differential InSAR can be used to monitor ground deformation due to earthquakes in the Burakin region.

  16. Frost monitoring of fruit tree with satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinlong; Zhang, Mingwei; Cao, Guangzheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Chenchen; Niu, Xinzan; Xu, Wengbo

    2012-09-01

    The orchards are developing very fast in the northern China in recent years with the increasing demands on fruits in China. In most parts of the northern China, the risk of frost damage to fruit tree in early spring is potentially high under the background of global warming. The growing season comes earlier than it does in normal year due to the warm weather in earlier spring and the risk will be higher in this case. According to the reports, frost event in spring happens almost every year in Ningxia Region, China. In bad cases, late frosts in spring can be devastating all fruit. So lots of attention has been given to the study in monitoring, evaluating, preventing and mitigating frost. Two orchards in Ningxia, Taole and Jiaozishan orchards were selected as the study areas. MODIS data were used to monitor frost events in combination with minimum air temperature recorded at weather station. The paper presents the findings. The very good correlation was found between MODIS LST and minimum air temperature in Ningxia. Light, middle and severe frosts were captured in the study area by MODIS LST. The MODIS LST shows the spatial differences of temperature in the orchards. 10 frost events in April from 2000 to 2010 were captured by the satellite data. The monitoring information may be hours ahead circulated to the fruit farmers to prevent the damage and loss of fruit trees.

  17. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  18. Solar irradiance observed on the FY-3 satellites - instrument overview and primary observation results of in-orbit experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Fang, W.; Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar driving mechanism for Earth climate has been a controversial problem for centuries. Data of Solar Irradiance (SI) is required by the investigations of the solar driving mechanism, including Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI). SI observations with short term accuracy and long term precision are essential to separate solar forcing from human-induced factors. TSI and SSI have been measured on Chinese FY-3 satellites, including FY-3A, FY-3B and FY-3C. FY-3A satellite launched in May, 2008 is the first satellite. FY-3B satellite launched in November, 2010 is the second satellite and FY-3C satellite launched in September, 2013 is the third satellite. SSI has been measured by SBUS (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Sounder) in the ultraviolet spectrum in the FY-3 mission. When a solar diffuser plate is deployed to reflect the incoming sunlight, SI is measured at 12 discrete, 1.1 nm wide wavelength bands between 250 nm and 340 nm. The SSI measurements are performed using a double monochromator operated in a stepped wavelength scan mode. SBUS collects SSI weekly at 12 discrete wave-lengths near polar area. Moreover, SSI is measured by SBUS every month covering 160-400 nm continuous spectral region. SSI has been recorded in SBUS missions since the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24. Approximately the same variation tendencies of SSI were detected by SBUS in specific spectrum compared with data from SOLSTICE/SORCE. TSI have been recorded by Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) in FY-3 missions. The sun was measured by TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B in a scanning manner. TSI data quality is improved by TSIM/FY-3C which has a pointing system. TSIM/FY-3C measures the sun with nearly zero solar pointing errors. TSI variations detected by TSIM/FY-3C are nearly the same with VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE. The TSIM experiments have observed the sun for about 7 years. A slowly increasing TSI trend has been detected by TSIMs in the Solar Cycle 24. We present the

  19. Tethered Satellites as an Enabling Platform for Operational Space Weather Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Krause, Linda Habash; Gallagher, Dennis Lee; Bilen, Sven Gunnar; Fuhrhop, Keith; Hoegy, Walt R.; Inderesan, Rohini; Johnson, Charles; Owens, Jerry Keith; Powers, Joseph; Voronka, Nestor; Williams, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Tethered satellites offer the potential to be an important enabling technology to support operational space weather monitoring systems. Space weather "nowcasting" and forecasting models rely on assimilation of near-real-time (NRT) space environment data to provide warnings for storm events and deleterious effects on the global societal infrastructure. Typically, these models are initialized by a climatological model to provide "most probable distributions" of environmental parameters as a function of time and space. The process of NRT data assimilation gently pulls the climate model closer toward the observed state (e.g., via Kalman smoothing) for nowcasting, and forecasting is achieved through a set of iterative semi-empirical physics-based forward-prediction calculations. Many challenges are associated with the development of an operational system, from the top-level architecture (e.g., the required space weather observatories to meet the spatial and temporal requirements of these models) down to the individual instruments capable of making the NRT measurements. This study focuses on the latter challenge: we present some examples of how tethered satellites (from 100s of m to 20 km) are uniquely suited to address certain shortfalls in our ability to measure critical environmental parameters necessary to drive these space weather models. Examples include long baseline electric field measurements, magnetized ionospheric conductivity measurements, and the ability to separate temporal from spatial irregularities in environmental parameters. Tethered satellite functional requirements are presented for two examples of space environment observables.

  20. The Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Burnt Area Mapping and Monitoring in the Congo Basin Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Verhegghen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Sentinel-2 (S2 optical satellite and the active radar Sentinel-1 (S1 satellite supported by active fire data from the MODIS sensor were used to detect and monitor forest fires in the Congo Basin. In the context of a very strong El Niño event, an unprecedented outbreak of fires was observed during the first months of 2016 in open forests formations in the north of the Republic of Congo. The anomalies of the recent fires and meteorological situation compared to historical data show the severity of the drought. Burnt areas mapped by the S1 SAR and S2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI sensors highlight that the fires occurred mainly in Marantaceae forests, characterized by open tree canopy cover and an extensive tall herbaceous layer. The maps show that the origin of the fires correlates with accessibility to the forest, suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The combined use of the two independent and fundamentally different satellite systems of S2 and S1 captured an extent of 36,000 ha of burnt areas, with each sensor compensating for the weakness (cloud perturbations for S2, and sensitivity to ground moisture for S1 of the other.

  1. Formaldehyde (HCHO) column measurements from airborne instruments: Comparison with airborne in-situ measurements, model, and satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeong-Ahn; Park, Rokjin; Nowlan, Caroline; González Abad, Gonzalo; Chance, Kelly; Janz, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Trace gas measurements from airborne instruments are useful to evaluate and improve a retrieval algorithm developed for the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS). We used radiances measured from two airborne 2D array sensors, the GeoCAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) and the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) for DISCOVER-AQ Texas in 2013 and for KORUS-AQ in 2016 to retrieve formaldehyde (HCHO) columns and to evaluate the GEMS retrieval algorithm. In addition, we used simulated aerosol concentrations constrained by airborne LIDAR observations for AMF calculation to convert slant columns to vertical columns. We compared retrieved HCHO columns with vertical columns obtained from in-situ airborne HCHO measurements. Optical properties and distributions of aerosols are found to be important factors, affecting HCHO retrievals. Finally, additional comparisons of retrieved results with model simulations and low-orbiting satellites provides quantitative information for improving bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic carbon emissions.

  2. Simple instruments used in monitoring SID and some new results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Saiguan; Huang, Weiquan

    Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of SIDs, especially, SWF and SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of significance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. The results showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to Typhoon, great earthquake and volcano eruption, role of acoustic-gravity waves in seeding Spread-F.

  3. Virtual instrument for monitoring process of brush plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Xue-dong; XU Bin-shi; WANG Cheng-tao; ZHU Sheng; DONG Shi-yun

    2004-01-01

    A virtual instrument(Ⅵ) was developed to monitor the technological parameters in the process of brush plating, including coating thickness, brush-plating current, current density, deposition rate, and brush plating voltage. Meanwhile two approaches were presented to improve the measurement accuracy of coating thickness. One of them aims at eliminating the random interferences by moving average filtering; while the other manages to calculate the quantity of electricity consumed accurately with rectangular integration. With these two approaches, the coating thickness can be measured in real time with higher accuracy than the voltage-frequency conversion method. During the process of plating all the technological parameters are displayed visually on the front panel of the Ⅵ. Once brush current or current density overruns the limited values, or when the coating thickness reaches the objective value, the virtual will alarm. With this Ⅵ, the solution consumption can be decreased and the operating efficiency is improved.

  4. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Butler, James J.; Schwarting, Thomas; Turpie, Kevin; Moyer, David; DeLuccia, Frank; Moeller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance responsivity in a two-step method. In the first step, the relative spectral response (RSR) of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source such as a lamp-illuminated monochromator. These sources do not typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument nor act as calibrated sources of light. Consequently, they only provide a relative (not absolute) spectral response for the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. The RSR and the sphere absolute spectral radiance are combined to determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity (ASR) of the instrument. More recently, a full-aperture absolute calibration approach using widely tunable monochromatic lasers has been developed. Using these sources, the ASR of an instrument can be determined in a single step on a wavelength-by-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs, the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as lamp-illuminated integrating spheres. In this work, the traditional broadband source-based calibration of the Suomi National Preparatory Project (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor is compared with the laser-based calibration of the sensor. Finally, the impact of the new full-aperture laser-based calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor is considered.

  5. Validation of ultraviolet radiation budgets using satellite observations from the OMI instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Outer PN; van Dijk A; Slaper H; LSO

    2008-01-01

    UV-B gegevens afkomstig van het Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) zijn op dit moment nog onvoldoende nauwkeurig voor milieu-evaluaties. Verbetering is mogelijk door lokale concentraties van stofdeeltjes in de lucht in de berekeningen te betrekken. Dit concludeert het RIVM nadat UV-B-data van het O

  6. Instrumental and scientific simulations of the LOFT Wide Field Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Y; Campana, R; Schmid, C; Feroci, M

    2014-01-01

    The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT) is one of the five candidates that were considered by ESA as an M3 mission (with launch in 2022-2024). It is specifically designed to exploit the diagnostics of very rapid X-ray flux and spectral variability that directly probe the motion of matter down to distances very close to black holes and neutron stars, as well as the physical state of ultradense matter. The LOFT scientific payload is composed of the Large Area Detector (LAD), devoted to spectral-timing observation, and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM), whose primary goal it is to monitor the X-ray sky for transient events that need to be followed up with the LAD, and to measure the long-term variability of galactic X-ray sources and localize gamma-ray bursts. Here we describe the simulations carried out to optimize the WFM design and to characterize the instrument response to both isolated sources and crowded fields in the proximity of the galactic bulge.

  7. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA), which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential. Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and suboxic conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Instruments for calibration and monitoring of the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Lai, A

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this Ph. D. thesis is the study and the development of the instruments needed to monitor and calibrate the Muon Detector of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment. LHCb is currently under installation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will start to take data during 2007. The experiment will study B mesons decays to achieve a profound understanding of favour physics in the Standard Model framework and to search signs of new physics beyond. Muons can be found in the final states of many B-decays which are sensitive to CP violation. The Muon Detector has the crucial role to identify the muon particles generated by the b-hadron decays through a measurement of their transverse momentum, already at the first trigger level (Level-0). A 95% effciency in events selection is required for the Muon Trigger, which operates at the Level-0. 1380 detectors are used to equip the whole Muon System and the corresponding 122,112 readout channels must be time aligned and monitored with a resol...

  9. GPS satellite and receiver instrumental biases estimation using least squares method for accurate ionosphere modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sasibhushana Rao

    2007-10-01

    The positional accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS)is limited due to several error sources.The major error is ionosphere.By augmenting the GPS,the Category I (CAT I)Precision Approach (PA)requirements can be achieved.The Space-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)in India is known as GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN).One of the prominent errors in GAGAN that limits the positional accuracy is instrumental biases.Calibration of these biases is particularly important in achieving the CAT I PA landings.In this paper,a new algorithm is proposed to estimate the instrumental biases by modelling the TEC using 4th order polynomial.The algorithm uses values corresponding to a single station for one month period and the results confirm the validity of the algorithm.The experimental results indicate that the estimation precision of the satellite-plus-receiver instrumental bias is of the order of ± 0.17 nsec.The observed mean bias error is of the order − 3.638 nsec and − 4.71 nsec for satellite 1 and 31 respectively.It is found that results are consistent over the period.

  10. Wall-Current-Monitor based Ghost and Satellite Bunch Detection in the CERN PS and the LHC Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Belleman, J; Bohl, T; Damerau, H

    2012-01-01

    While most LHC detectors and instrumentation systems are optimised for a nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns, the LHC RF cavities themselves operate at the 10th harmonic of the maximum bunch frequency. Due to the beam production scheme and transfers in the injector chain, part of the nominally ‘empty’ RF buckets may contain particles, referred to as ghost or satellite bunches. These populations must be accurately quantified for high-precision experiments, luminosity calibration and control of parasitic particle encounters at the four LHC interaction points. This contribution summarises the wall-current-monitor based ghost and satellite bunch measurements in CERN’s PS and LHC accelerators. Instrumentation set-up, post-processing and achieved performance are discussed.

  11. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  12. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  13. Resent Progress in Research on Calibration Instrument for Radioactive Aerosol Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; CHEN; Yong-yong; WU; Chang-ping; XING; Yu; MENG; Jun; YANG; Qiao-ling

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol monitors are widely used in monitoring the radioactivity concentration of the artificial nuclides in gaseous effluents from the nuclear facilities.An on-developing calibration instrument for radioactive aerosol monitors consists of an α and β aerosol generating unit,aerosol transferring unit,measurement unit of radioactivity concentration of aerosol for instruments calibrated and the waste gas

  14. GEOS-2 refraction program summary document. [ionospheric and tropospheric propagation errors in satellite tracking instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data from an extensive array of collocated instrumentation at the Wallops Island test facility were intercompared in order to (1) determine the practical achievable accuracy limitations of various tropospheric and ionospheric correction techniques; (2) examine the theoretical bases and derivation of improved refraction correction techniques; and (3) estimate internal systematic and random error levels of the various tracking stations. The GEOS 2 satellite was used as the target vehicle. Data were obtained regarding the ionospheric and tropospheric propagation errors, the theoretical and data analysis of which was documented in some 30 separate reports over the last 6 years. An overview of project results is presented.

  15. SIDRA instrument for measurements of particle fluxes at satellite altitudes. Laboratory prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Prieto, M.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Sanchez, S.; Timakova, T. G.; Spassky, A. V.; Dubina, V. N.; Parra, P.

    2013-01-01

    The design concept and first set of results are presented for electronic modules of a laboratory prototype of the small-size satellite instrument SIDRA intended for measurements of charged particle fluxes in outer space. The working prototype consists of a detector assembly based on high-purity silicon and fast scintillation detectors, modules of analogue and digital processing, and a secondary power supply module. The first results are discussed of a Monte-Carlo simulation of the instrument with the use of the GEANT4 toolkit and of measurements of the main parameters of charge-sensitive pre-amplifiers, shapers, and peak detectors. Results of calibration measurements with the use of radioactive sources and beams of accelerated charged particles are presented.

  16. Anomaly Monitoring Method for Key Components of Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a fault diagnosis method for key components of satellite, called Anomaly Monitoring Method (AMM, which is made up of state estimation based on Multivariate State Estimation Techniques (MSET and anomaly detection based on Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT. On the basis of analysis failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, we divided the failure of LIBs into internal failure, external failure, and thermal runaway and selected electrolyte resistance (Re and the charge transfer resistance (Rct as the key parameters of state estimation. Then, through the actual in-orbit telemetry data of the key parameters of LIBs, we obtained the actual residual value (RX and healthy residual value (RL of LIBs based on the state estimation of MSET, and then, through the residual values (RX and RL of LIBs, we detected the anomaly states based on the anomaly detection of SPRT. Lastly, we conducted an example of AMM for LIBs, and, according to the results of AMM, we validated the feasibility and effectiveness of AMM by comparing it with the results of threshold detective method (TDM.

  17. Recent Developments for Satellite-Based Fire Monitoring in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelgasim, A.; Fraser, R.

    2002-05-01

    Wildfires in Canadian forests are a major source of natural disturbance. These fires have a tremendous impact on the local environment, humans and wildlife, ecosystem function, weather, and climate. Approximately 9000 fires burn 3 million hectares per year in Canada (based on a 10-year average). While only 2 to 3 percent of these wildfires grow larger than 200 hectares in size, they account for almost 97 percent of the annual area burned. This provides an excellent opportunity to monitor active fires using a combination of low and high resolution sensors for the purpose of determining fire location and burned areas. Given the size of Canada, the use of remote sensing data is a cost-effective way to achieve a synoptic overview of large forest fire activity in near-real time. In 1998 the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) developed a system for Fire Monitoring, Mapping and Modelling (Fire M3;http://fms.nofc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/FireM3/). Fire M3 automatically identifies, monitors, and maps large forest fires on a daily basis using NOAA AVHRR data. These data are processed daily using the GEOCOMP-N satellite image processing system. This presentation will describe recent developments to Fire M3, included the addition of a set of algorithms tailored for NOAA-16 (N-16) data. The two fire detection algorithms are developed for N-16 day and night-time daily data collection. The algorithms exploit both the multi-spectral and thermal information from the AVHRR daily images. The set of N-16 day and night algorithms was used to generate daily active fire maps across North America for the 2001 fire season. Such a combined approach for fire detection leads to an improved detection rate, although day-time detection based on the new 1.6 um channel was much less effective (note - given the low detection rate with day time imagery, I don't think we can make the statement about capturing the diurnal cycle). Selected validation sites in western

  18. OH Airglow and Equatorial Variations Observed by ISUAL Instrument on Board the FORMOSAT 2 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Bai Nee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OH airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning instrument on board the FORMOSAT 2 satellite is reported in this paper. The satellite is sun-synchronous and it returns to the same orbit at the same local time daily. By using this property, we can study the upper atmosphere in detail. With a CCD camera, ISUAL has measured the emission layers of OH Meinel band at 630 nm for several two-week periods in 2004 and 2007 in equatorial regions. ISUAL images are snapshots of the atmosphere 250 km (height _ 1200 km (horizontal distance. These images of OH airglow are analyzed to derive its peak height and latitudinal variations. ISUAL observation is unique in its capability of continuous observation of the upper atmosphere as the satellite travels from south to north along a specific orbit. However, 630 nm filter also measured O(1D at 200 km, and there are interferences between O(1D and OH airglows as as observed from a distance in space. We have studied the overlap of two airglows by simulations, and our final analyses show that OH airglow can be correctly derived with its average peak height of 89 _ 2.1 km usually lying within _ latitude about the equator. ISUAL data reveal detailed structures of equatorial OH airglow such as the existences of a few secondary maxima within the equatorial regions, and the oscillations of the peak latitudes. These results are discussed and compared with previous reports.

  19. Monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Pertica, Alexander J.; Riot, Vincent J.; De Vries, Willem H.; Bauman, Brian J.; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R.; Phillion, Donald W.

    2015-06-30

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  20. Supply Chain Management of Satellite Mechanisms- Product Development and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The project report primary deals with the Testing, Analysis, Modeling of the components of the Solar Array deployment Mechanism and a preliminary design. It also discusses the Monitoring of the supply chain management system for the procurement of the components from vendors. The deployment of solar array or any other appendage is a mission critical activity of any satellite. It is necessary to study about the deployment mechanism because once the array latches up, the satellite can have disturbance resulting in attitude change. To begin, a detail study of the drawings of all the components, assemblies and sub-assemblies incorporated in the deployment mechanism was done. A literary review was carried out to investigate the research done previously and the research currently being done in the field of deployment mechanisms. This was followed by the designing of the components of SADM in Unigraphics. The components were assembled with their respective sub-assemblies. The next step was to perform the testing of components on various testing machines & thereafter analyzing the results. A conceptual design was prepared for the Solar Array Deployment Mechanism. A proper approach was used for the supply chain management of the procurement of raw materials.The torsion spring parameters were calculated, which importantly included the pre rotation angle, spring angular and the time required by the wings to deploy. The hinges were tested on the auto hinge characterization setup and the torque value required to deploy the wings was compared with the required value. The testing of micro switches was performed and the values of loads at actuation point, deactuation point, over travel and the gap between actuation and deactuation was compared with the actual values required. Torsion springs were tested and it was seen whether the stiffness values of the torsion springs are in limit to the defined value or not.Several components of Solar Array Deployment

  1. Efforts in assimilating Indian satellite data in the NGFS and monitoring of their quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V. S.; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Megha-Tropiques (MT) is an Indo-French Joint Satellite Mission, launched on 12 October 2011. MT-SAPHIR is a sounding instrument with 6 channels near the absorption band of water vapor at 183 GHz, for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics. The main objective of this mission is to understand the life cycle of convective systems that influence the tropical weather and climate and their role in associated energy and moisture budget of the atmosphere in tropical regions. India also has a prestigious space programme and has launched the INSAT-3D satellite on 26 July 2013 which has an atmospheric sounder for the first time along with improved VHRR imager. NCMRWF (National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting) is regularly receiving these new datasets and also making changes to its Global Data Assimilation Forecasting (GDAF) system from time-to-time to assimilate these new datasets. A well planned strategy involving various steps such as monitoring of data quality, development of observation operator and quality control procedures, and finally then studying its impact on forecasts is developed to include new observations in global data analysis system. By employing this strategy observations having positive impact on forecast quality such as MT-SAPHIR, and INSAT-3D Clear Sky Radiance (CSR) products are identified and being assimilated in the Global Data Assimilation and Forecasting (GDAF) system.

  2. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  3. A review of uses of satellite imagery in monitoring mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyma Purnamasayangsukasih, P.; Norizah, K.; Ismail, Adnan A. M.; Shamsudin, I.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite image could provide much information of earth surfaces in a large scale in a short time, thus saving time. With the evolution and development of sensors providing satellite image, resolution of object captured enhanced with advance image processing techniques. In forestry, satellite image has been widely used for resources management, planning, monitoring, predicting, etc. However, the uses of satellite image are reported to be moderate and sometimes poor for mangrove forests due to homogenous species existed in salty and inundation areas. Many researches had been carried out to improve the uses of satellite imagery of either optical or radar data for mangrove forests. This paper reviews the uses of satellite imagery data in mangrove with the main focus of the literature related to mangroves monitoring.

  4. Can satellite-based monitoring techniques be used to quantify volcanic CO2 emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kuze, Akihiko; Kataoka, Fumie; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki; Popp, Christoph; Ajiro, Masataka; Suto, Hiroshi; Takeda, Toru; Kanekon, Sayaka; Sealing, Christine; Flower, Verity

    2014-05-01

    Since 2010, we investigate and improve possible methods to regularly target volcanic centers from space in order to detect volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) point source anomalies, using the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Our long-term goals are: (a) better spatial and temporal coverage of volcano monitoring techniques; (b) improvement of the currently highly uncertain global CO2 emission inventory for volcanoes, and (c) use of volcanic CO2 emissions for high altitude, strong point source emission and dispersion studies in atmospheric science. The difficulties posed by strong relief, orogenic clouds, and aerosols are minimized by a small field of view, enhanced spectral resolving power, by employing repeat target mode observation strategies, and by comparison to continuous ground based sensor network validation data. GOSAT is a single-instrument Earth observing greenhouse gas mission aboard JAXA's IBUKI satellite in sun-synchronous polar orbit. GOSAT's Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been producing total column XCO2 data since January 2009, at a repeat cycle of 3 days, offering great opportunities for temporal monitoring of point sources. GOSAT's 10 km field of view can spatially integrate entire volcanic edifices within one 'shot' in precise target mode. While it doesn't have any spatial scanning or mapping capability, it does have strong spectral resolving power and agile pointing capability to focus on several targets of interest per orbit. Sufficient uncertainty reduction is achieved through comprehensive in-flight vicarious calibration, in close collaboration between NASA and JAXA. Challenges with the on-board pointing mirror system have been compensated for employing custom observation planning strategies, including repeat sacrificial upstream reference points to control pointing mirror motion, empirical individualized target offset compensation, observation pattern simulations to minimize view angle azimuth. Since summer 2010

  5. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  6. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a Neural Network algorithms. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  7. Satellite Validation: A Project to Create a Data-Logging System to Monitor Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rudy A.

    2005-01-01

    Flying aboard the satellite Terra, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an imaging instrument used to acquire detailed maps of Earth's surface temperature, elevation, emissivity, and reflectance. An automated site consisting of four buoys was established 6 years ago at Lake Tahoe for the validation of ASTERS thermal infrared data. Using Campbell CR23X Dataloggers, a replacement system to be deployed on a buoy was designed and constructed for the measurement of the lake's temperature profile, surrounding air temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, net radiation, and surface skin temperature. Each Campbell Datalogger has been programmed to control, power, and monitor 14 different temperature sensors, a JPL-built radiometer, and an RM Young 32500 meteorological station. The logger communicates with the radiometer and meteorological station through a Campbell SDM-SIO4 RS232 serial interface, sending polling commands, and receiving filtered data back from the sensors. This data is then cataloged and sent back across a cellular modem network every hour to JPL. Each instrument is wired via a panel constructed with 18 individual plugs that allow for simple installation and expansion. Data sent back from the system are analyzed at JPL, where they are used to calibrate ASTER data.

  8. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    hello, yann; Charvis, Philippe; Yegikyan, Manuk; verfaillie, Romain; Rivet, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Real time monitoring of seismic activity is a major issue for early warning of earthquakes and tsunamis. It can be done using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, or DONET in Japan. Another approach to monitor seismic activity at sea is to deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four time 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight time 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four time 6-months deployments). These autonomous OBSs are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data. Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3/4 years autonomy ocean bottom system with 9 channels (?) allowing the acquisition of different seismic or environmental parameters. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a crisis) using one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years, it is a perfect tool to monitor large seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. For remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two-way Iridium satellite communication. After a period of 3 years the main station is self-recovered by

  9. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    using the meteorological satellite Meteosat-7 data permits to complete the gaps. Kriging the punctual measurements using satellite data as spatial weights enables to obtain a continuous map with a spatially constant quality all over the Reunion Island. A significant challenge of this monitoring system is to ensure the temporal continuity of the real-time mapping. Indeed, autonomous sensors are programmed with our proprietary protocol leading to a smart management of the battery load and telecommunication costs. Measurements are sent to a server with a protocol minimizing the data amount in order to ensure low telecommunication prices. The server receives the measurements data and integrates them into a NoSql database. The server is able to handle long times series and quality control is routinely made to ensure data consistence as well as instruments float state monitoring. The database can be requested by our geographical information system server through an application programming interface. This configuration permits an easy development of a web-based or smart phone application using any external information provided by the user (personal phenotype and exposure experience) or its device (e.g. computing refinements according to its location).

  10. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    ...). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor...

  11. VIIRS satellite and ground pm2.5 monitoring data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — contains all satellite, pm2.5, and meteorological data used in statistical modeling effort to improve prediction of pm2.5. This dataset is associated with the...

  12. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  13. Post-Launch Calibration and Testing of Space Weather Instruments on GOES-R Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments - Solar Ultra Violet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  14. Post-Launch Calibration and Testing of Space Weather Instruments on GOES-R Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadikonda, S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todrita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar back-ground-sevents impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  15. Post-launch calibration and testing of space weather instruments on GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments -- Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  16. OH Airglow and Equatorial Variations Observed by ISUAL Instrument on Board the FORMOSAT 2 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Bai Nee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OH airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning instrument on board the FORMOSAT 2 satellite is reported in this paper. The satellite is sun-synchronous and it returns to the same orbit at the same local time daily. By using this property, we can study the upper atmosphere in detail. With a CCD camera, ISUAL has measured the emission layers of OH Meinel band at 630 nm for several two-week periods in 2004 and 2007 in equatorial regions. ISUAL images are snapshots of the atmosphere 250 km (height ¡_ 1200 km (horizontal distance. These images of OH airglow are analyzed to derive its peak height and latitudinal variations. ISUAL observation is unique in its capability of continuous observation of the upper atmosphere as the satellite travels from south to north along a specific orbit. However, 630 nm filter also measured O(1D at 200 km, and there are interferences between O(1D and OH airglows as as observed from a distance in space. We have studied the overlap of two airglows by simulations, and our final analyses show that OH airglow can be correctly derived with its average peak height of 89 ¡_ 2.1 km usually lying within ¡_10¢X latitude about the equator. ISUAL data reveal detailed structures of equatorial OH airglow such as the existences of a few secondary maxima within the equatorial regions, and the oscillations of the peak latitudes. These results are discussed and compared with previous reports.

  17. Long-term changes of tropospheric NO2 over megacities derived from multiple satellite instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hilboll

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric NO2, a key pollutant in particular in cities, has been measured from space since the mid-1990s by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 instruments. These data provide a unique global long-term dataset of tropospheric pollution. However, the observations differ in spatial resolution, local time of measurement, viewing geometry, and other details. All these factors can severely impact the retrieved NO2 columns. In this study, we present three ways to account for instrumental differences in trend analyses of the NO2 columns derived from satellite measurements, while preserving the individual instruments' spatial resolutions. For combining measurements from GOME and SCIAMACHY into one consistent time series, we develop a method to explicitly account for the instruments' difference in ground pixel size (40 × 320 km2 vs. 30 × 60 km2. This is especially important when analysing NO2 changes over small, localised sources like, e.g. megacities. The method is based on spatial averaging of the measured earthshine spectra and extraction of a spatial pattern of the resolution effect. Furthermore, two empirical corrections, which summarise all instrumental differences by including instrument-dependent offsets in a fitted trend function, are developed. These methods are applied to data from GOME and SCIAMACHY separately, to the combined time series, and to an extended dataset comprising also GOME-2 and OMI measurements. All approaches show consistent trends of tropospheric NO2 for a selection of areas on both regional and city scales, for the first time allowing consistent trend analysis of the full time series at high spatial resolution. Compared to previous studies, the longer study period leads to significantly reduced uncertainties. We show that measured tropospheric NO2 columns have been strongly increasing over China, the Middle East, and India, with values over east-central China tripling from 1996 to 2011. All parts of the developed world

  18. Multi-instrument observations of midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly from satellite and ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Thampi, Smitha V.; Liu, Huixin; Lin, Charles

    "Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA)" is a phenomenon that the nighttime elec-tron densities exceed the daytime values on almost all days in summer over latitudes of 33-34N of more. We recently found the MSNA over the northeast Asian region from multi-instrument observations. The observations include the tomography analysis based on the chain of digital beacon receivers at Shionomisaki (33.45N, 135.8E), Shigaraki (34.85N, 136.1E), and Fukui (36.06N,136E), the ionosonde network over Japan (especially data from Wakkanai (45.4N, 141.7E)), ground-based GPS TEC observations using the GEONET. Also from satellites, CHAMP in situ electron density measurements, and Formosat3/COSMIC (F3/C) occultation measurements are useful to confirm the presence of MSNA over this region. In the presen-tation we show detailed features of the MSNA based on these multi-instrument, and discuss importance of the neutral atmosphere as a driver of the phenomenon.

  19. Monitoring Snow Using Geostationary Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2016-09-01

    The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.

  20. Application of the HY-1 satellite to sea ice monitoring and forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yawei; WU Huiding; ZHANG Yunfei; SUN Congrong; LIU Yu

    2004-01-01

    The HY-1A satellite is the first oceanic satellite of China. During the winter of 2002~2003, the data of the HY-1A were applied to the sea ice monitoring and forecasting for the Bohai Sea of China for the first time. The sea ice retrieval system of the HY-1A has been constructed. It receives 1B data from the satellite, outputs sea ice images and provides digital products of ice concentration, ice thickness and ice edge, which can be used as important information for sea ice monitoring and the initial fields of the numeric sea ice forecast and as one of the reference data for the sea ice forecasting verification. The sea ice retrieval system of the satellite is described, including its processes, methods and parameters. The retrieving results and their application to the sea ice monitoring and forecasting for the Bohai Sea are also discussed.

  1. Tools and strategies for instrument monitoring, data mining and data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, R. M., ,, Dr

    2009-04-01

    The ever growing size of data sets produced by various satellite instruments creates a challenge in data management. Three main tasks were identified: instrument performance monitoring, data mining by users and data deployment. In this presentation, I will discuss the three tasks and our solution. As a practical example to illustrate the problem and make the discussion less abstract, I will use Sciamachy on-board the ESA satellite Envisat. Since the launch of Envisat, in March 2002, Sciamachy has performed nearly a billion science measurements and performed daily calibrations measurements. The total size of the data set (not including reprocessed data) is over 30 TB, distributed over 150,000 files. [Instrument Monitoring] Most instruments produce house-keeping data, which may include time, geo-location, temperature of different parts of the instrument and instrument settings and configuration. In addition, many instruments perform calibration measurements. Instrument performance monitoring requires automated analyzes of critical parameters for events, and the option to off-line inspect the behavior of various parameters in time. We choose to extract the necessary information from the SCIAMACHY data products, and store everything in one file, where we separated house-keeping data from calibration measurements. Due to the large volume and the need to have quick random-access, the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) was our obvious choice. The HDF5 format is self describing and designed to organize different types of data in one file. For example, one data set may contain the meta data of the calibration measurements: time, geo-location, instrument settings, quality parameters (temperature of the instrument), while a second large data set contains the actual measurements. The HDF5 high-level packet table API is ideal for tables that only grow (by appending rows), while the HDF5 table API is better suited for tables where rows need to be updated, inserted or replaced. In

  2. Monitoring coastal inundation with Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Rangoonwala, Amina; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2011-01-01

    Maps representing the presence and absence of surface inundation in the Louisiana coastal zone were created from available satellite scenes acquired by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Advanced Land Observing Satellite and by the European Space Agency's Envisat from late 2006 through summer 2009. Detection of aboveground surface flooding relied on the well-documented and distinct signature of decreased backscatter in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which is indicative of inundated marsh in the Gulf of Mexico. Even though decreases in backscatter were distinctive, the multiplicity of possible interactions between changing flood depths and canopy height yielded complex SAR-based representations of the marshes.

  3. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  4. Wildfire monitoring using satellite images, ontologies and linked geospatial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyzirakos, K.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Garbis, G.; Nikolaou, C.; Bereta, K.; Papoutsis, I.; Herekakis, T.; Michail, D.; Koubarakis, M.; Kontoes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing technologies have allowed us to send an ever-increasing number of satellites in orbit around Earth. As a result, Earth Observation data archives have been constantly increasing in size in the last few years, and have become a valuable source of data for many scientific and

  5. An improved NO2 retrieval for the GOME-2 satellite instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 provide valuable information on both stratospheric and tropospheric composition. Nadir measurements from GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 have been used in many studies on tropospheric NO2 burdens, the importance of different NOx emissions sources and their change over time. The observations made by the three GOME-2 instruments will extend the existing data set by more than a decade, and a high quality of the data as well as their good consistency with existing time series is of high importance. In this paper, an improved GOME-2 NO2 retrieval is described which reduces the scatter of the individual NO2 columns globally but in particular in the region of the Southern Atlantic Anomaly. This is achieved by using a larger fitting window including more spectral points, and by applying a two step spike removal algorithm in the fit. The new GOME-2 data set is shown to have good consistency with SCIAMACHY NO2 columns. Remaining small differences are shown to be linked to changes in the daily solar irradiance measurements used in both GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY retrievals. In the large retrieval window, a not previously identified spectral signature was found which is linked to deserts and other regions with bare soil. Inclusion of this empirically derived pseudo cross-section significantly improves the retrievals and potentially provides information on surface properties and desert aerosols. Using the new GOME-2 NO2 data set, a long-term average of tropospheric columns was computed and high-pass filtered. The resulting map shows evidence for pollution from several additional shipping lanes, not previously identified in satellite observations. This illustrates the excellent signal to noise ratio achievable with the improved GOME-2 retrievals.

  6. Long-term changes of tropospheric NO2 over megacities derived from multiple satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric NO2, a key pollutant in particular in cities, has been measured from space since the mid-1990s by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 instruments. These data provide a unique global long-term data set of tropospheric pollution. However, the measurements differ in spatial resolution, local time of measurement, and measurement geometry. All these factors can severely impact the retrieved NO2 columns, which is why they need to be taken into account when analysing time series spanning more than one instrument. In this study, we present several ways to explicitly account for the instrumental differences in trend analyses of the NO2 columns derived from satellite measurements, while preserving their high spatial resolution. Both a physical method, based on spatial averaging of the measured earthshine spectra and extraction of a resolution pattern, and statistical methods, including instrument-dependent offsets in the fitted trend function, are developed. These methods are applied to data from GOME and SCIAMACHY separately, to the combined time series and to an extended data set comprising also GOME-2 and OMI measurements. All approaches show consistent trends of tropospheric NO2 for a selection of areas on both regional and city scales, for the first time allowing consistent trend analysis of the full time series at high spatial resolution and significantly reducing the uncertainties of the retrieved trend estimates compared to previous studies. We show that measured tropospheric NO2 columns have been strongly increasing over China, the Middle East, and India, with values over East Central China triplicating from 1996 to 2011. All parts of the developed world, including Western Europe, the United States, and Japan, show significantly decreasing NO2 amounts in the same time period. On a megacity level, individual trends can be as large as +27 ± 3.7% yr-1 and +20 ± 1.9% yr-1 in Dhaka and Baghdad, respectively, while Los Angeles shows a very strong decrease

  7. Sleep monitoring : A comparison between three wearable instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, N.C. van; Valk, P.J.L.; Veenstra, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    During military operations soldiers often encounter extreme environmental circumstances like heat, cold, prolonged physical exercise, and disturbed sleep, which hamper their performance. Monitoring changes in physiological parameters may assist with adequate interventions to prevent the negative con

  8. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  9. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    midlatitude or high-latitude volcanoes; (c) safety factors during unrest, which can limit where new instrumentation can safely be installed (particularly at near-vent sites that can be critical for precursor detection and eruption forecasting); and (d) the remoteness of many U.S. volcanoes (particularly those in the Aleutians and the Marianas Islands), where access is difficult or impossible most of the year. Given these difficulties, it is reasonable to anticipate that ground-based monitoring of eruptions at U.S. volcanoes will likely be performed primarily with instruments installed before unrest begins. 2. Given a growing awareness of previously undetected 2. phenomena that may occur before an eruption begins, at present the types and (or) density of instruments in use at most U.S. volcanoes is insufficient to provide reliable early warning of volcanic eruptions. As shown by the gap analysis of Ewert and others (2005), a number of U.S. volcanoes lack even rudimentary monitoring. At those volcanic systems with monitoring instrumentation in place, only a few types of phenomena can be tracked in near-real time, principally changes in seismicity, deformation, and large-scale changes in thermal flux (through satellite-based remote sensing). Furthermore, researchers employing technologically advanced instrumentation at volcanoes around the world starting in the 1990s have shown that subtle and previously undetectable phenomena can precede or accompany eruptions. Detection of such phenomena would greatly improve the ability of U.S. volcano observatories to provide accurate early warnings of impending eruptions, and is a critical capability particularly at the very high-threat volcanoes identified by Ewert and others (2005). For these two reasons, change from a reactive to a proactive volcano-monitoring strategy is clearly needed at U.S. volcanoes. Monitoring capabilities need to be expanded at virtually every volcanic center, regardless of its current state of

  10. Instrumentation of urban hydrology monitoring sites in Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Jack

    1979-01-01

    An instrumentation system developed and built in laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va., has been used since 1974 to collect synchronized rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data from urban basins. A number of field modifications were made to adapt the system to local hydrologic conditions and for collection of data on about 350 rainstorms at four sites in south Florida. The instrumentation system measures rainfall at three sites, records two pressure or water-level readings for flow computations, and collects and refrigerates up to 24 water samples and rainfall-quality samples. Rainfall and runoff data are recorded every 36 seconds on a six-channel analog recorder so that all variables are time-synchronous. Flow in the storm sewer is computed from pressure measurements in a U-shaped venturi-type constriction or, when the constriction is not used, from water levels. (Kosco-USGS)

  11. Monitoring of Arctic Conditions from a Virtual Constellation of Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    radars to monitor the melting and freezing cycles of the Arctic Ocean north of 65o. Satellite data collections will support in-situ buoy clusters and... ice -type, and lead expansion/contraction with temporal resolutions from hours to days. Ultimately provide a routine Arctic coverage and generate...OBJECTIVES a) Provide daily Arctic situational awareness from the CSTARS SAR satellite constellation. b) Develop a Neural Network algorithm for ice -type

  12. Use of satellite imagery to map and monitor vegetation in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, P. R.; Dymond, J. R.; Brown, L J

    1995-01-01

    研究概要:Land resource and environmental decision makers require quantitative information on the spatial distribution of vegetation types and their condition, and changes in these over time. Such vegetation mapping and monitoring is often required to be undertaken quickly. Remotely-sensed satellite imagery, in conjunction with other data sources, have been used to satisfy this need. This paper describes the uses of satellite imagery by reference to three regional mapping projects in New Zealand. ...

  13. Monitoring of Arctic Conditions from a Virtual Constellation of Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    of glaciers and the speed of motion. h) Monitoring of the Northwest Passage. APPROACH 2013 MIZ Pilot Program: Starting in June to end of...Flux Buoy (AOFB), and CRREL Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoy so comparisons of the in-situ data can be calculated with the SAR data. By tracking the...programming the satellite collections for the dynamic and sometimes erratic movements of the buoy was not trivial and required tasking the satellite

  14. Instrumentation for Monitoring around Marine Renewable Energy Converters: Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polagye, B. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Copping, A. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown-Saracino, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suryan, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kramer, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-14

    To better understand the state of instrumentation and capabilities for monitoring around marine energy converters, the U.S. Department of Energy directed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington to convene an invitation-only workshop of experts from around the world to address instrumentation needs.

  15. Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.

  16. Ozone Profile Retrieval from Satellite Observation Using High Spectral Resolution Infrared Sounding Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary result on the retrieval of atmospheric ozone profiles using an im proved regression technique and utilizing the data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), a hyper-spectral instrument expected to be flown on the EOS-AQUA platform in 2002. Simulated AIRS spectra were used to study the sensitivity of AIRS radiance on the tropospheric and stratospheric ozone changes, and to study the impact of various channel combinations on the ozone profile retrieval. Sensitivity study results indicate that the AIRS high resolution spectral channels between the wavenumber 650- 800 cm-1 provide very useful information to accurately retrieve tropospheric and stratospheric ozone pro files. Eigenvector decomposition of AIRS spectra indicate that no more than 100 eigenvectors are needed to retrieve very accurate ozone profiles. The accuracy of the retrieved atmospheric ozone profile from the pres ent technique and utilizing the AIRS data was compared with the accuracy obtained from current Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) data aboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini stration (NOAA) satellites. As expected, a comparison of retrieval results confirms that the ozone profile re trieved with the AIRS data is superior to that of ATOVS.

  17. Snow Cover Monitoring Method by Using H J-1 Satellite Data%Snow Cover Monitoring Method by Using H J-1Satellite Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-tao; ZHOU Yi; ZHOU Qiang; WANG Shi-xin; YAN Fu-li

    2011-01-01

    Environment and Disasters Monitoring Microsatellite Constellation with high spatial resolution,high temporal resolution and high spectral resolution characteristics was put forward by China.HJ-1B satellite,one of the first two small optical satellites,had a CCD camera and an infrared camera,which would provide an important new data source for snow monitoring.In the present paper,through analyzing the sensor and data characteristics of HJ-1B,we proposed a new infrared normalized difference snow index (INDSI) referring to the traditional normalized difference snow index (NDSI).The accuracy of these two automatic snow recognition methods was estimated based on a supervised classification method.The accuracy of the traditional NDSI method was 97.761 9% while that of the new INDSI method was 98.617 1%.

  18. Planetary gearbox condition monitoring of ship-based satellite communication antennas using ensemble multiwavelet analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglong; Zhang, Chunlin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zi, Yanyang; He, Shuilong; Yang, Zhe

    2015-03-01

    Satellite communication antennas are key devices of a measurement ship to support voice, data, fax and video integration services. Condition monitoring of mechanical equipment from the vibration measurement data is significant for guaranteeing safe operation and avoiding the unscheduled breakdown. So, condition monitoring system for ship-based satellite communication antennas is designed and developed. Planetary gearboxes play an important role in the transmission train of satellite communication antenna. However, condition monitoring of planetary gearbox still faces challenges due to complexity and weak condition feature. This paper provides a possibility for planetary gearbox condition monitoring by proposing ensemble a multiwavelet analysis method. Benefit from the property on multi-resolution analysis and the multiple wavelet basis functions, multiwavelet has the advantage over characterizing the non-stationary signal. In order to realize the accurate detection of the condition feature and multi-resolution analysis in the whole frequency band, adaptive multiwavelet basis function is constructed via increasing multiplicity and then vibration signal is processed by the ensemble multiwavelet transform. Finally, normalized ensemble multiwavelet transform information entropy is computed to describe the condition of planetary gearbox. The effectiveness of proposed method is first validated through condition monitoring of experimental planetary gearbox. Then this method is used for planetary gearbox condition monitoring of ship-based satellite communication antennas and the results support its feasibility.

  19. Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution Geostationary MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution geostationary data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Solar disc radius determined from observations made during eclipses with bolometric and photometric instruments on board the PICARD satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, G.; Zhu, P.; Shapiro, A. I.; Sofia, S.; Tagirov, R.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Perrin, J.-M.; Sukhodolov, T.; Schmutz, W.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Despite the importance of having an accurate measurement of the solar disc radius, there are large uncertainties of its value due to the use of different measurement techniques and instrument calibration. An item of particular importance is to establish whether the value of the solar disc radius correlates with the solar activity level. Aims: The main goal of this work is to measure the solar disc radius in the near-UV, visible, and near-IR regions of the solar spectrum. Methods: Three instruments on board the PICARD spacecraft, namely the Bolometric Oscillations Sensor (BOS), the PREcision MOnitoring Sensor (PREMOS), and a solar sensor (SES), are used to derive the solar disc radius using the light curves produced when the Sun is occulted by the Moon. Nine eclipses, from 2010 to 2013, resulted in 17 occultations as viewed from the moving satellite. The calculation of the solar disc radius uses a simulation of the light curve taking into account the center-to-limb variation provided by the Non-local thermodynamic Equilibrium Spectral SYnthesis (NESSY) code. Results: We derive individual values for the solar disc radius for each viewed eclipse. Tests for a systematic variation of the radius with the progression of the solar cycle yield no significant results during the three years of measurements within the uncertainty of our measurements. Therefore, we derive a more precise radius value by averaging these values. At one astronomical unit, we obtain 959.79 arcseconds (arcsec) from the bolometric experiment; from PREMOS measurements, we obtain 959.78 arcsec at 782 nm and 959.76 arcsec at 535 nm. We found 960.07 arcsec at 210 nm, which is a higher value than the other determinations given the photons at this wavelength originate from the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere. We also give a detailed comparison of our results with those previously published using measurements from space-based and ground-based instruments using the Moon angular radius

  1. Application of the Langley plot method to the calibration of the solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Wellemeyer, C.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the well-known Langley plot technique, used for the calibration of ground-based instruments, has been generalized for application to satellite instruments. In polar regions, near summer solstice, the solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite samples the same ozone field at widely different solar zenith angles. These measurements are compared to assess the long-term drift in the instrument calibration. Although the technique provides only a relative wavelength-to-wavelength calibration, it can be combined with existing techniques to determine the drift of the instrument at any wavelength. Using this technique, we have generated a 12-year data set of ozone vertical profiles from SBUV with an estimated accuracy of +/- 5% at 1 mbar and +/- 2% at 10 mbar (95% confidence) over 12 years. Since the method is insensitive to true changes in the atmospheric ozone profile, it can also be used to compare the calibrations of similar SBUV instruments launched without temporal overlap.

  2. The DMON2: A Commercially Available Broadband Acoustic Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the efficiency of finding animals at sea for study (e.g., for tagging or photo- identification). For the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...Administration (NOAA), such a capability would allow improved monitoring of the distribution and occurrence of vocalizing animals for improving our...mechanical drawings nearly finalized. Endcap design done and fabricated; need to finalize Transducer Head mold for encapsulation. • Schematic

  3. Science Instrument Support Electronics Systems for the Relativity Mission Satellite, Gravity Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, W. J.; Brumley, R. W.; Buchman, S.; Clarke, B.; Hipkins, D. N.; Farley, R.; Shestople, P.; Meriwether, D.; Gray, C.

    The Relativity Mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B), uses four redundant high precision electrostatically suspended mechanical gyroscopes for measuring the relativistic precessions of the frame of reference in a 640 km polar orbit. The two precessions to be measured are predicted in General Relativity are the geodetic effect, 6.6 arcsec/year, and the frame dragging effect, 0.042 arcsec/year. The Science Instrument Support Electronics or Payload Electronics Package enables this measurement to be performed by providing the necessary control and monitoring functions for the Science Instrument Assembly that contains the four gyroscopes and reference star tracking telescope. This paper describes the overall architecture of the Payload Electronics system and the design and operation of its component parts: 1) the SQUID Readout electronics (SRE) for gyroscope orientation measurement, 2) The Gyroscope Suspension System (GSS) for gyroscope electrostatic suspension and spin axis alignment, 3) the Telescope Readout Electronics (TRE) for measurement of the reference star location, 4) the Experiment Control Unit (ECU) for heater, valve, and rotor electrostatic charge control and thermometry, 5) the custom GPS receiver for orbital position determination and time reference generation, and 6) the Gas Management Assembly (GMA) that controls and routes the gaseous helium used for initial gyroscope spin-up. Contingent upon a successful launch of Gravity Probe on April 17 2004, preliminary performance results will be presented along side the predicated performance estimates derived from system analysis and test on the ground prior to launch.

  4. Survey of instrumentation used for monitoring metals in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1978-06-01

    A study was conducted of instrumentation used to determine metals in water. Several of the techniques most commonly used for analysis and routine determinations of metals in water are shown in Table 1. They are atomic absorption spectroscopy, both flame and flameless, atomic emission spectroscopy using conventional flame sources and inductively-coupled plasma sources, and ultraviolet-visible absorption techniques. Other less frequently employed methods are x-ray fluorescence analysis using both photon and charged particle excitation with energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive spectral analysis. Also electrochemical techniques and activation analysis are studied.

  5. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  6. Improved monitoring of phytoplankton bloom dynamics in a Norwegian fjord by integrating satellite data, pigment analysis, and Ferrybox data with a coastal observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volent, Zsolt; Johnsen, Geir; Hovland, Erlend K.; Folkestad, Are; Olsen, Lasse M.; Tangen, Karl; Sørensen, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of the coastal environment is vitally important as these areas are of economic value and at the same time highly exposed to anthropogenic influence, in addition to variation of environmental variables. In this paper we show how the combination of bio-optical data from satellites, analysis of water samples, and a ship-mounted automatic flow-through sensor system (Ferrybox) can be used to detect and monitor phytoplankton blooms both spatially and temporally. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) data and turbidity from Ferrybox are combined with remotely sensed Chl a and total suspended matter from the MERIS instrument aboard the satellite ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATellite) European Space Agency. Data from phytoplankton speciation and enumeration obtained by a national coastal observation network consisting of fish farms and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority are supplemented with data on phytoplankton pigments. All the data sets are then integrated in order to describe phytoplankton bloom dynamics in a Norwegian fjord over a growth season, with particular focus on Emiliania huxleyi. The approach represents a case example of how coastal environmental monitoring can be improved with existing instrument platforms. The objectives of the paper is to present the operative phytoplankton monitoring scheme in Norway, and to present an improved model of how such a scheme can be designed for a large part of the world's coastal areas.

  7. Verification for robustness to laser-induced damage for the Aladin instrument on the ADM-Aeolus satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernham, Denny; Ciapponi, Alessandra; Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul; Era, Fabio; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Thibault, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    The Aladin instrument will fly on the European Space Agency's ADM Aeolus satellite. The instrument is a Doppler wind LIDAR, primarily designed to measure global wind profiles to improve the accuracy of numerical weather prediction models. At the heart of the instrument is a frequency stabilized 355nm laser which will emit approximately 100mJ of energy in the form of 20ns pulses with a fluence around 1Jcm-2. The pulse repetition frequency is 50Hz meaning that Aladin will eventually have to accumulate 5Gshots over its 3 years planned lifetime in orbit. Due to anomalies that have occurred on previous spaceborne lasers, as well as a number of failures that we have observed in previous tests, an extensive development and verification campaign was undertaken in order to ensure that the Aladin instrument is robust enough to survive the mission. In this paper, we shall report the logic and the results of this verification campaign.

  8. All Sky Camera instrument for night sky monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mandat, Dusan; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Travnicek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Ebr, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as an universal device for a monitoring of the night sky quality and night sky background measurement. ASC system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical twilight. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds), night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec2) and light background in the field of view of the camera. The analysis of the cloud fraction is based on the astrometry (comparison to catalogue positions) of the observed stars.

  9. The GLAST burst monitor instrument response simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, A. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Wilson, R. B.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lichti, G. G.; von Kienlin, A.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Connaughton, V.

    2005-07-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to provide wide field of view observations of gamma-ray bursts from 10keV to 25MeV. The GBM is composed of twelve NaI and two BGO detectors that are widely dispersed about the GLAST spacecraft. Reconstructing burst locations and energy spectra from these separated detectors requires detailed knowledge of the response to direct and scattered burst radiation. A simulation software package based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolset is being developed to fulfill this requirement. We will discuss the architecture of our simulation system and evaluate the scientific capabilities of the GBM.

  10. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small river and lakes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Sulistioadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable for hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. For the case of satellite radar altimetry, limited temporal resolutions (e.g., satellite revisit period prohibit the use of this method for a short ( To address this scientific challenge, this study tries to monitor small (40–200 m width and medium-sized (200–800 m width rivers and lakes using satellite altimetry through identification and choice of the over-water radar waveforms corresponding to the appropriately waveform-retracked water level. This study addresses the humid tropics of Southeast Asia, specifically in Indonesia, where similar studies do not yet exist and makes use Level 2 radar altimeter measurements generated by European Space Agency's (ESA's Envisat (Environmental Satellite mission. This experiment proves that satellite altimetry provides a good alternative, or the only means in some regions, to measure the water level of medium-sized river (200–800 m width and small lake (extent 2 in Southeast Asia humid tropic with reasonable accuracy. In addition, the procedure to choose retracked Envisat altimetry water level heights via identification or selection of standard waveform shapes for inland water is recommended and should be a standard measure especially over small rivers and lakes. This study also found that Ice-1 is not necessarily the best retracker as reported by previous studies, among the four standard waveform retracking algorithms for Envisat radar altimetry observing inland water bodies.

  11. Research on GPS Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Algorithm In the Occurrence of Two-satellite Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Er Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is an essential factor for GPS navigation system. Therefore, an integrity monitoring is considered as one of the most important parts for a navigation system. GPS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM technique can detect and isolate fault satellite. Based on particle filter, a novel RAIM method was proposed to detect two-satellite faults of the GPS signal by using hierarchical particle filter. It can deal with any system nonlinear and any noise distributions. Because GNSS measurement noise does not follow the Gaussian distribution perfectly, the particle filter can estimate the posterior distribution more accurately. In order to detect fault, the consistency test statistics is established through cumulative log-likelihood ratio (LLR between the main and auxiliary particle filters (PFs.Specifically, an approach combining PF with the hierarchical filter is used in the process of two-satellite faults. Through GPS real measurement, the performance of the proposed GPS two-satellite faults detection algorithm was illustrated. Some simulation results are given to evaluate integrity monitoring performance of the algorithm. Validated by the real measurement data, the results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully detect and isolate the faulty satellite in the case of non-Gaussian measurement noise.

  12. Measurements of the total ozone column using a Brewer spectrophotometer and TOMS and OMI satellite instruments over the Southern Space Observatory in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Peres, Lucas; Bencherif, Hassan; Mbatha, Nkanyiso; Passaglia Schuch, André; Toihir, Abdoulwahab Mohamed; Bègue, Nelson; Portafaix, Thierry; Anabor, Vagner; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Paes Leme, Neusa Maria; Valentin Bageston, José; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents 23 years (1992-2014) of quasi-continuous measurements of the total ozone column (TOC) over the Southern Space Observatory (SSO) in São Martinho da Serra, Brazil (29.26° S, 53.48° and 488 m altitude). The TOC was measured by a Brewer spectrometer, and the results are also compared to daily and monthly observations from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite instruments. Analyses of the main interannual modes of variability computed using the wavelet transform method were performed. A favorable agreement between the Brewer spectrophotometer and satellite datasets was found. The seasonal TOC variation is dominated by an annual cycle, with a minimum of approximately 260 DU in April and a maximum of approximately 295 DU in September. The wavelet analysis applied in the SSO TOC anomaly time series revealed that the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) modulation was the main mode of interannual variability. The comparison between the SSO TOC anomaly time series with the QBO index revealed that the two are in opposite phases.

  13. Monitoring water quality from LANDSAT. [satellite observation of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Water quality monitoring possibilities from LANDSAT were demonstrated both for direct readings of reflectances from the water and indirect monitoring of changes in use of land surrounding Swift Creek Reservoir in a joint project with the Virginia State Water Control Board and NASA. Film products were shown to have insufficient resolution and all work was done by digitally processing computer compatible tapes. Land cover maps of the 18,000 hectare Swift Creek Reservoir watershed, prepared for two dates in 1974, are shown. A significant decrease in the pine cover was observed in a 740 hectare construction site within the watershed. A measure of the accuracy of classification was obtained by comparing the LANDSAT results with visual classification at five sites on a U-2 photograph. Such changes in land cover can alert personnel to watch for potential changes in water quality.

  14. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr-1 to more than 4000 kt yr-1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005-2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005-2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr-1 and not detected by OMI.

  15. Improving flood prediction by the assimilation of satellite soil moisture in poorly monitored catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood prediction in poorly monitored catchments is among the greatest challenges faced by hydrologists. To address this challenge, an increasing number of studies in the last decade have explored methods to integrate various existing observations from ground and satellites. One approach in particula...

  16. Modeling radiation conditions in orbits of projected system of small satellites for radiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Podzolko, M. V.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Osedlo, V. I.; Tulupov, V. I.; Yashin, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    Calculated estimates are presented for the accumulated radiation doses behind the shields of various thicknesses in the orbits of projected at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University system of small satellites for radiation monitoring. The results are analyzed and compared with the calculation data for other actively exploited near-Earth orbits.

  17. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  18. Comparison of ground-based FTIR and Brewer O3 total column with data from two different IASI algorithms and from OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Blumenstock

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An intercomparison of ozone total column measurements derived from various platforms is presented in this work. Satellite data from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 are compared with data from two ground-based spectrometers (Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer FTIR and Brewer, located at the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC super-site of Izaña (Tenerife, measured during a campaign from March to June 2009. These ground-based observing systems have already been demonstrated to perform consistent, precise and accurate ozone total column measurements. An excellent agreement between ground-based and OMI/GOME-2 data is observed. Results from two different algorithms for deriving IASI ozone total column are also compared: the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT/ESA operational algorithm and the LISA (Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques algorithm. A better agreement was found with LISA's analytical approach based on an altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Philips regularization: correlations are 0.94 and 0.89 compared to FTIR and Brewer, respectively; while the operational IASI ozone columns (based on neural network analysis show correlations of 0.90 and 0.85, respectively, compared to the O3 columns obtained from FTIR and Brewer.

  19. Intercomparison of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide columns retrieved from ground-based DOAS and FTIR and satellite DOAS instruments over the subtropical Izana station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Gonzalez, Cristina; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Garcia, Omaira; Blumenstock, Thomas; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    A 13-year analysis (2000-2012) of the NO2 vertical column densities derived from ground-based (GB) instruments and satellites has been carried out over the Izaña NDACC (Network for the Detection of the Atmospheric Composition Change) subtropical site. Ground-based DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) instruments are intercompared to test mutual consistency and then used for validation of stratospheric NO2 from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY). The intercomparison has been carried out taking into account the various differences existing in instruments, namely temporal coincidence, collocation, sensitivity, field of view, etc. The paper highlights the importance of considering an "effective solar zenith angle" instead of the actual one when comparing direct-sun instruments with zenith sky ones for a proper photochemical correction. Results show that NO2 vertical column densities mean relative difference between FTIR and DOAS instruments is 2.8 ± 10.7 % for a.m. data. Both instruments properly reproduce the NO2 seasonal and the interannual variation. Mean relative difference of the stratospheric NO2 derived from OMI and DOAS is -0.2 ± 8.7 % and from OMI and FTIR is -1.6 ± 6.7 %. SCIAMACHY mean relative difference is of 3.7 ± 11.7 and -5.7 ± 11.0 % for DOAS and FTIR, respectively. Note that the days used for the intercomparison are not the same for all the pairs of instruments since it depends on the availability of data. The discrepancies are found to be seasonally dependent with largest differences in winter and excellent agreement in the spring months (AMJ). A preliminary analysis of NO2 trends has been carried out with the available data series. Results show increases in stratospheric NO2 columns in all instruments but larger values in those that are GB than that expected by nitrous oxide oxidation. The

  20. Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B.; Hess, H. D.; Kalinski, J. R.; Leisenberg, W.; Marsch, D.

    1984-06-01

    Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the redundant information source (ac resistance) are too small (relative inductivity change 7 million). The information sources strain gage and propagation of ultrasonic waves are excluded because of physical properties in the sensor materials. Changes in the crystalline structure of thermocouples have the effect that there is no well defined relationship between thermoelectric voltage and the redundant information sources, resistance and coupled current impulses. A correlation of thermovoltage with these redundant values would yield a measurement uncertainty corresponding to more than + or - 50 K. Experiments with negative temperature coefficient sensors show that a failure is proceeded by a change in capacitance of the order of 0.1 pF.

  1. ASTROMETRIC INSTRUMENT MODEL SOFTWARE TOOL FOR GAIA REAL-TIME INSTRUMENT HEALTH MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Busonero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available L o s o b j e t i v o s d e l a m i s i ́ o n e s p a c i a l d e m i c r o a r c o s e g u n d o d e p e n d e n d e l a s l i m i t a c i o n e s d e d e s e m p e ̃ n o a s o c i a d a s a l a c o n fi g u r a c i ́ o n i n s t r u m e n t a l s e l e c c i o n a d a y a l a s c o n d i c i o n e s d e o b s e r v a c i ́ o n . E n p a r t i c u l a r , l a v a r i a c i ́ o n d e la respuesta instrumental sobre el campo, con respecto a la longitud de onda y el tiempo, son potencialmente cr ́ıticos. Discutimos el impacto sobre la calidad de los datos y c ́omo los datos cient ́ıficos pueden ser utilizados para rastrear directamente y en tiempo real la respuesta astrom ́etrica instrumental de Gaia. Esta es una de las filosof ́ıas que impulsan el Modelo de Instrumento Astrom ́etrico (AIM, por sus siglas en ingl ́es. Mostramos l o s r e s u l t a d o s d e l a s c a m p a ̃ n a s d e p r u e b a l l e v a d a s a c a b o e n 2 0 1 3 .

  2. Global Crop Monitoring: A Satellite-Based Hierarchical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, the CropWatch system has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global, regional, national (thirty-one key countries including China and “sub-countries” (for the nine largest countries. The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both production and exports of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales. The global patterns of crop environmental growing conditions are first analyzed with indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR as well as potential biomass. At the regional scale, the indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation Health Index (VHI, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Cropped Arable Land Fraction (CALF as well as Cropping Intensity (CI. Together, they characterize crop situation, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, cropped areas and crop conditions are integrated to derive food production estimates. For the nine largest countries, CropWatch zooms into the sub-national units to acquire detailed information on crop condition and production by including new indicators (e.g., Crop type proportion. Based on trend analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. The hierarchical approach adopted by CropWatch is the basis of the analyses of climatic and crop conditions assessments published in the quarterly “CropWatch bulletin” which

  3. Satellite Air Quality Monitoring Before, During and After the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Streets, D. G.; Gleason, J. F.; Gille, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 2001, Beijing, China was awarded the hosting rights to the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Since then, the government has gradually implemented pollution emission control strategies to improve Beijing's air quality in preparation for both games. Long-term industrial and short-term vehicle emission controls have also been enforced upwind of Beijing's neighboring provinces to the south and west. This region is characterized by numerous heavy-polluting industries whose emissions are typically transported towards Beijing, significantly impacting the city's air quality. We examine the efficacy of these emission control measures on tropospheric NO2, SO2, and CO pollution using satellite data from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra's Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) from 2004 to the present. During both games, held in August and September 2008, OMI and MOPITT measured significant decreases in all three tracer gases compared to the past three years: NO2 (-43%), SO2 (-13%), and CO (-12%). This decrease in CO and SO2 over northeastern China continues through 2009, reflecting the longer-term nature of emission controls on heavily polluting industries. The global recession is also a likely contributor, as factories have shut down or slowed production due to the decrease in demand for manufactured goods. The tropospheric NO2 column over Beijing returned to typical monthly mean values when controls on vehicle emissions were lifted by the end of September 2008. However, we observe a slight NO2 decrease at the beginning of 2009 relative to 2008 suggesting a decrease in the contribution of industrial emissions of NOx to the overall NO2 column.

  4. Instrumentation for durability monitoring of a long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X. G.; Ni, Y. Q.; Zhou, H. F.; Ko, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    This paper outlines the design of an instrumentation system for durability monitoring of the world's longest cable-stayed bridge: the Sutong Bridge with a central span of 1088 m. As part of the Structural Health Monitoring And Safety Evaluation System (SHMASES) for the Sutong Bridge, the durability monitoring system is designed to monitor the corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. The sensors for durability monitoring include two categories. The first category refers to the sensors to monitor the causes leading to corrosion, such as temperature and relative humidity. The second category is electrode assemblies which are used to monitor the end results of corrosion. Data from the sensory system are then periodically collected using a portable or remotely computerized data acquisition system. The collected data from this system will provide useful information on maintenance and repair of concrete structures, and are envisaged to be incorporated into the reliability-based safety evaluation system developed for the Sutong Bridge

  5. Methodology of traffic flows remote monitoring in the Ural Federal District largest cities using satellite monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testeshev, Alexander; Timohovetz, Vera

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the method of remote research of traffic flow characteristics in the largest cities based on satellite monitoring. The aim of the research is to develop mathematical conformities of traffic flow theory that allow interpreting the results of decoding the traffic situation static picture obtained from free online services into primary and derived traffic characteristics. Data on functional dependences of traffic density and traffic flow speed differentiated with respect to transport and road conditions is provided. The developed technique made it possible to minimize resource costs to conduct simultaneous monitoring of traffic flows on the road network in the largest cities of the Ural Federal District.

  6. Classifying and monitoring water quality by use of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, J. P.; Crane, D. R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is developed to eliminate the atmosphere and surface noise effects on Landsat signals of water bodies by manipulating the total signal from Landsat in such a way that only the volume reflectance is left as a residual. With the Landsat signal from a lake and the known volume reflectance for its clear water it is possible to eliminate the surface and atmospheric effects and have residual signals that are indicative only of the type and concentration of the material in other lakes. Laboratory values are more precise than field values because in the field one must contend with indirect skylight and wave action which can be removed in the laboratory. The volume reflectance of distilled water or a very clear lake approaching distilled water was determined in the laboratory by the use of the Bendix radiant power measuring instrument. The Bendix multispectral data analysis system provided a color categorized image of several hundred lakes in a Wisconsin area. These lakes were categorized for tannin and nontannin waters and for the degrees of algae, silt, weeds, and bottom effects present.

  7. DESERT ECOSYSTEMS: MAPPING, MONITORING & ASSESSMENT USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Arya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desert ecosystems are unique but fragile ecosystems , mostly vulnerable to a variety of degradational processes like water erosion, vegetal degradation, salinity, wind erosion , water logging etc. Some researchers consider desertification to be a process of change, while others view it as the end result of a process of change. There is an urgent need to arrest the process of desertification and combat land degradation. Under the auspices of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad has undertaken the task of mapping, monitoring and assessment of desertification carrying out pilot project in hot and cold desert regions in drylands on 1:50,000 scale followed by systematic Desertification Status Mappaing (DSM of India on 1:500,000 scale.

  8. Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gouveia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensed information on vegetation and soil moisture, namely the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Soil Water Index (SWI, is employed to monitor the spatial extent, severity and persistence of drought episodes over Continental Portugal, from 1999 to 2006. The severity of a given drought episode is assessed by evaluating the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation. Special attention is given to the drought episodes that have occurred in the last decade, i.e., 1999, 2002 and particularly the major event of 2005. During both the 1999 and 2005 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI are observed over large sectors of Southern Portugal for up to nine months (out of eleven of the vegetative cycle. On the contrary, the 2002 event was characterized by negative anomalies in the northern half of Portugal and for a shorter period (eight out of eleven months. The impact of soil moisture on vegetation dynamics is evaluated by analyzing monthly anomalies of SWI and by studying the annual cycle of SWI vs. NDVI. While in the case of the drought episode of 1999 the scarcity of water in the soil persisted until spring, in the recent episode of 2005 the deficit in greenness was already apparent at the end of summer. The impact of dry periods on vegetation is clearly observed in both arable land and forest, and it is found that arable land presents a higher sensitivity. From an operational point of view, obtained results reveal the possibility of using the developed methodology to monitor, in quasi real-time, vegetation stress and droughts in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  9. Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Remote sensed information on vegetation and soil moisture, namely the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Water Index (SWI), is employed to monitor the spatial extent, severity and persistence of drought episodes over Continental Portugal, from 1999 to 2006. The severity of a given drought episode is assessed by evaluating the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation. Special attention is given to the drought episodes that have occurred in the last decade, i.e., 1999, 2002 and particularly the major event of 2005. During both the 1999 and 2005 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI are observed over large sectors of Southern Portugal for up to nine months (out of eleven) of the vegetative cycle. On the contrary, the 2002 event was characterized by negative anomalies in the northern half of Portugal and for a shorter period (eight out of eleven months). The impact of soil moisture on vegetation dynamics is evaluated by analyzing monthly anomalies of SWI and by studying the annual cycle of SWI vs. NDVI. While in the case of the drought episode of 1999 the scarcity of water in the soil persisted until spring, in the recent episode of 2005 the deficit in greenness was already apparent at the end of summer. The impact of dry periods on vegetation is clearly observed in both arable land and forest, and it is found that arable land presents a higher sensitivity. From an operational point of view, obtained results reveal the possibility of using the developed methodology to monitor, in quasi real-time, vegetation stress and droughts in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  10. Flood Monitoring and Hydrologic Studies Using Retracked Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Alsdorf, D.; Schwartz, F.

    2008-12-01

    Nadir, pulse-limited radar altimetry measurements have been used to monitor large surface-water bodies. In spite of progress, there is a need for a robust and automated procedure, which allows classification and stage measurements in small water bodies, which lying along the orbital path, using multiple radar altimeter measurements. Here we used an algorithm, which is mainly based on radar scatter waveform response and statistical analysis of mean and standard deviation of the resulting water level change to classify surface- waters from other land covers. We tested the algorithm using 10-Hz retracked radar altimetry measurements from TOPEX over regions including the Amazon River basin, the Prairie Pothole Region in North America, and south-western Taiwan. The estimated water-level stages are compared with data from available stage measurements, and altimetry data available from public data centers. We also applied the algorithm to study the 1997 hundred-year Red River flood, and the June 2008 fifty-year flood in the Upper Midwest of the United States. For the1997 flood, it is found that the flooded regions detected by altimetry include the Red River Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota, the Missouri River Basin in North Dakota and South Dakota, the Minnesota River Basin and the Mississippi River Basin in Minnesota and Iowa. The extent of the flood agrees with the USGS record. The observed water height in Grand Forks reaches 6 meters above the normal. The ENVISAT altimetry is shown to be able to track the ebb and recede of the 2008 Iowa City flood. The results of this study could be applied to provide improved accuracy and potentially automated classification of nadir radar altimetry observed small inland water body measurements for hydrologic studies and for flood monitoring.

  11. On identifying the specular reflection of sunlight in earth-monitoring satellite data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsen, James M., Jr.; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Jackson, Dale Clayton; Longenbaugh, Randolph S.

    2009-03-01

    Among the background signals commonly seen by Earth-monitoring satellites is the specular reflection of sunlight off of Earth's surface, commonly referred to as a glint. This phenomenon, involving liquid or ice surfaces, can result in the brief, intense illumination of satellite sensors appearing from the satellite perspective to be of terrestrial origin. These glints are important background signals to be able to identify with confidence, particularly in the context of analyzing data from satellites monitoring for transient surface or atmospheric events. Here we describe methods for identifying glints based on the physical processes involved in their production, including spectral fitting and polarization measurements. We then describe a tool that, using the WGS84 spheroidal Earth model, finds the latitude and longitude on Earth where a reflection of this type could be produced, given input Sun and satellite coordinates. This tool enables the user to determine if the surface at the solution latitude and longitude is in fact reflective, thus identifying the sensor response as a true glint or an event requiring further analysis.

  12. MONITORING OF THE UNDERMINED TERRITORIES OF KARAGANDA COAL BASIN ON THE BASIS OF SATELLITE RADAR INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Ozhigina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Karaganda coal basin, mines are located in close proximity to each other and to the city of Karaganda and ongoing mining operations are accompanied by a dangerous process of settling the earth's surface and monitoring are essential for the region's econ-omy. Underground mining leads to the formation of voids in the rock mass, which cause displacement of the earth surface. This paper demonstrates an innovative use of the integrated approach for monitoring on the example of Karaganda coal basin, which includes estimation of the rock mass displacement using leveling profile lines and satellite radar interferometry. It is proved that satellite radar interferometry provides reliable results of surface subsidence measurements in mining areas and can be used for con-sidered sort of monitoring.

  13. Monitoring of the Undermined Territories of Karaganda Coal Basin on the Basis of Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhigina, S. B.; Mozer, D. V.; Ozhigin, D. S.; Ozhigin, S. G.; Bessimbayeva, O. G.; Khmyrova, E. N.

    2016-06-01

    In the Karaganda coal basin, mines are located in close proximity to each other and to the city of Karaganda and ongoing mining operations are accompanied by a dangerous process of settling the earth's surface and monitoring are essential for the region's econ-omy. Underground mining leads to the formation of voids in the rock mass, which cause displacement of the earth surface. This paper demonstrates an innovative use of the integrated approach for monitoring on the example of Karaganda coal basin, which includes estimation of the rock mass displacement using leveling profile lines and satellite radar interferometry. It is proved that satellite radar interferometry provides reliable results of surface subsidence measurements in mining areas and can be used for con-sidered sort of monitoring.

  14. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs. We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  15. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  16. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  17. Geo-technical Instrumentation And Monitoring For Tuen Mun Station, West Railway, Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Geo-technical instrumentation and monitoring is very important for the construction of civil works in urban area, by which the affect or even damage to the existing building and underground utilities in the working site or vicinity caused by construction activities can be predicted. During the construction of Tuen Mun station, West Railway, Hong Kong, series of Geo-technical instruments were installed and monitored in time, and the monitoring data were transferred to the Geo-technical Monitoring System in the headquarter of the Employer promptly. Meanwhile, the alarming data were responded immediately and the modified construction methods have been adopted to avoid the damage to the building and underground utility in working site to ensure the smooth construction of the station.

  18. Monitoring Polar Environmental Change Using FORMOSAT-2 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Liu, C.; Chang, L.; Wang, S.; Yan, K.; Wu, F.; Wu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Polar ice loss to the sea currently account for virtually all of the sea-level rise that is not attributable to ocean warming. Huge section of the Ayles Ice Shelf broke off into the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost soil is losing its permanence across the Northern Hemisphere, altering ecosystems and damaging roads and buildings across Alaska, Canada, and Russia. Global warming change the polar environment significantly, especially in recent year. The National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan successfully launched FORMOSAT-2 on 20 May 2004. The orbit is designed to be high-altitude,. Sun-synchronous, and daily-revisit. With high agility in attitude control, FORMOSAT-2 can cover the polar areas up to +/- 90 deg latitude. More than 72 Area of interests in Alaska, Canada, Greenland area and Ice land have imaged periodically in 2006 and 2007. The images have 2m resolution in panchromatic band and 8m in multispectral bands, with size of about 24 x 100 km or large. The ability of FORMOSAT-2 daily revisit has been extended to monitor the change of topography for the glacier and ice shelf daily, weekly and monthly. By using the FORMOSAT-2 stereo pair, we can determine the elevation profile (DEM) across the glacier surface. In this paper, we will present the mapping and topography of Greenland glaciers and ice land including Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, Greenland, Belcher Glacier, Canada and Ayles ice island. We will demonstrate the DEM extract ability from FORMOSAT-2 polar stereo images( up to 82 deg latitude), and compared with the DEM of the popular SRTM, ASTER which can be acquired to 79 deg latitude. It is expected that FORMOSAT-2 polar images will be continuously collected for years and contribute to the research of global environmental change.

  19. Optimization and application of satellite observations for air quality monitoring in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Brunner, D.; Boersma, F.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides are key precursors of both ozone and secondary aerosols, and they are harmful to humans and ecosystems. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a recent UV/visible spectrometer on NASA’s Aura satellite with a comparatively small pixel size and daily global coverage which makes it particularly suitable for air quality monitoring. Information on vertical tropospheric columns (VTCs) of tropospheric trace gases is derived from the spectroscopic data by means of a retrieval algorithm. The retrieval depends on a number of so-called a priori assumptions which introduce important uncertainties in the derived quantity. Current operational retrievals are based on global a priori data sets at coarse spatial and temporal resolution, which are much coarser than the resolution of individual OMI pixels. In order to obtain a more accurate retrieval of vertical tropospheric columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) than currently available, we are developing new data sets of critical retrieval parameters at high temporal and spatial resolution for Europe, such as high resolution surface pressure maps, surface reflectance, and a-priori vertical NO2 profiles from a regional model. As a first step, we analyzed the sensitivity of retrieved NO2 to the surface pressure, and the results demonstrate the importance of an accurate (i.e. high resolution) treatment of this parameter, in particular in the vicinity of complex topography such as the Alps. As a second step, a new illumination and viewing geometry dependent surface reflectance data set has been developed based on high temporal and spatial resolution multiangular reflectance observations from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Comparisons of this new surface reflectance data set with the coarse albedo data set of the operational OMI product will be shown and a sensitivity analysis of the impact on the retrieved NO2 will be presented. As a third step, a-priori vertical NO2 profiles used in

  20. Development and field-testing of the BENTO box: A new satellite-linked data collection system for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Fouch, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Currently it is impossible to monitor all of Earth's hazardous volcanoes for precursory eruption signals, and it is particularly difficult to monitor volcanoes in remote regions. The primary constraint is the high cost of deploying monitoring instrumentation (e.g., seismometers, gas sensors), which includes the cost of reliable, high-resolution sensors, the cost of maintenance (including periodic travel to remote areas), and the cost/difficulty of developing remote data telemetry. We are developing an integrated monitoring system, the BENTO (Behar's ENvironmental Telemetry and Observation) box that will allow identification of restless volcanoes through widespread deployment of robust, lightweight, low-cost, easily deployable monitoring/telemetry systems. Ultimately, we expect that this strategy will lead to more efficient allocation of instrumentation and associated costs. BENTO boxes are portable, autonomous, self-contained data collection systems are designed for long-term operation (up to ~12 months) in remote environments. They use low-cost two-way communication through the commercial Iridium satellite network, and, depending on data types, can pre-process raw data onboard to obtain useful summary statistics for transmission through Iridium. BENTO boxes also have the ability to receive commands through Iridium, allowing, for example, remote adjustment of sampling rates, or requests for segments of raw data in cases where only summary statistics are routinely transmitted. Currently, BENTO boxes can measure weather parameters (e.g., windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, atmospheric pressure), volcanic gas (CO2, SO2, and halogens) concentrations, and seismicity. In the future, we plan to interface BENTO boxes with additional sensors such as atmospheric pressure/infrasound, tilt, GPS and temperature. We are currently field-testing 'BENTO 1' boxes equipped with gas and meteorological sensors ('BENTO 1') at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua; Kilauea Volcano, Hawai

  1. Linking morphology to ecosystem structure using satellite for monitoring Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, F.; Valentini, E.; Taramelli, A.; Giulio, S.; Persichillo, M.; D'Alpaos, A.

    2013-12-01

    typologies and cover percent, sediment typology and length of the different branches highlighting the mosaic of spatial pattern of vegetation, sediments and morphology. Then our results support the fact that the most frequent patch sizes, corresponding to the smallest vegetation patches as consistent with a power law relationship, are associated with the highest length values and specific sediments values; as the patch sizes become larger, and thus less frequent, the length next to patches decreases and reaches much lower values in relations to sediments classes. This indicates that at first, the formation of small vegetation patches increases flow resistance and facilitates the formation of new morphology; at the same time, when a threshold size is reached (due to patch growth or merging between adjacent patches), vegetation controls length of the different branches. In the framework of spatial self-organization, this method gives rise to a new approach to the study of landscape-forming processes, taking into account the prominent role of living organisms in shaping Earth's surface, in order to develop new instruments and tools that allow modular variation of spatial and temporal scales of observation (i.e. from local to regional; from seasonal to inter annual) that is mandatory for a valuable implementation of current management and conservation strategies (Integrated Coastal Zone Management).

  2. Soil Moisture Drought Monitoring and Forecasting Using Satellite and Climate Model Data over Southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Tang, Qiuhong; Liu, Xingcai; Leng, Guoyong; Li, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Real-time monitoring and predicting drought development with several months in advance is of critical importance for drought risk adaptation and mitigation. In this paper, we present a drought monitoring and seasonal forecasting framework based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model over Southwest China (SW). The satellite precipitation data are used to force VIC model for near real-time estimate of land surface hydrologic conditions. As initialized with satellite-aided monitoring, the climate model-based forecast (CFSv2_VIC) and ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP)-based forecast (ESP_VIC) are both performed and evaluated through their ability in reproducing the evolution of the 2009/2010 severe drought over SW. The results show that the satellite-aided monitoring is able to provide reasonable estimate of forecast initial conditions (ICs) in a real-time manner. Both of CFSv2_VIC and ESP_VIC exhibit comparable performance against the observation-based estimates for the first month, whereas the predictive skill largely drops beyond 1-month. Compared to ESP_VIC, CFSv2_VIC shows better performance as indicated by the smaller ensemble range. This study highlights the value of this operational framework in generating near real-time ICs and giving a reliable prediction with 1-month ahead, which has great implications for drought risk assessment, preparation and relief.

  3. DroughtView: Satellite Based Drought Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, K. A.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.; Crimmins, M.; Marsh, S. E.; Torrey, Y.; Rahr, M.; Orr, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is an ever growing concern within the United States and Mexico. Extended periods of below-average precipitation can adversely affect agricultural production and ecosystems, impact local water resources and create conditions prime for wildfire. DroughtView (www.droughtview.arizona.edu) is a new on-line resource for scientists, natural resource managers, and the public that brings a new perspective to remote-sensing based drought impact assessment that is not currently available. DroughtView allows users to monitor the impact of drought on vegetation cover for the entire continental United States and the northern regions of Mexico. As a spatially and temporally dynamic geospatial decision support tool, DroughtView is an excellent educational introduction to the relationship between remotely sensed vegetation condition and drought. The system serves up Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data generated from 250 meter 16-day composite Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery from 2000 to the present. Calculation of difference from average, previous period and previous year greenness products provide the user with a proxy for drought conditions and insight on the secondary impacts of drought, such as wildfire. The various image products and overlays are served up via the ArcGIS Server platform. DroughtView serves as a useful tool to introduce and teach vegetation time series analysis to those unfamiliar with the science. High spatial resolution imagery is available as a reference layer to locate points of interest, zoom in and export images for implementation in reports and presentations. Animation of vegetation time series allows users to examine ecosystem disturbances and climate data is also available to examine the relationship between precipitation, temperature and vegetation. The tool is mobile friendly allowing users to access the system while in the field. The systems capabilities and

  4. A new approach for agroecosystems monitoring using high-revisit multitemporal satellite data series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Moclán, C.; Romo, A.; Pirondini, F.

    2014-10-01

    With increasing population pressure throughout the world and the need for increased agricultural production there is a definite need for improved management of the world's agricultural resources. Comprehensive, reliable and timely information on agricultural resources is necessary for the implementation of effective management decisions. In that sense, the demand for high-quality and high-frequency geo-information for monitoring of agriculture and its associated ecosystems has been growing in the recent decades. Satellite image data enable direct observation of large areas at frequent intervals and therefore allow unprecedented mapping and monitoring of crops evolution. Furthermore, real time analysis can assist in making timely management decisions that affect the outcome of the crops. The DEIMOS-1 satellite, owned and operated by ELECNOR DEIMOS IMAGING (Spain), provides 22m, 3-band imagery with a very wide (620-km) swath, and has been specifically designed to produce high-frequency revisit on very large areas. This capability has been proved through the contracts awarded to Airbus Defence and Space every year since 2011, where DEIMOS-1 has provided the USDA with the bulk of the imagery used to monitor the crop season in the Lower 48, in cooperation with its twin satellite DMCii's UK-DMC2. Furthermore, high density agricultural areas have been targeted with increased frequency and analyzed in near real time to monitor tightly the evolution. In this paper we present the results obtained from a campaign carried out in 2013 with DEIMOS-1 and UK-DMC2 satellites. These campaigns provided a high-frequency revisit of target areas, with one image every two days on average: almost a ten-fold frequency improvement with respect to Landsat-8. The results clearly show the effectiveness of a high-frequency monitoring approach with high resolution images with respect to classic strategies where results are more exposed to weather conditions.

  5. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  6. The development of state/region owned goods management’s monitoring instrument design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanto Yogy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in state/region owned goods in Indonesian state and local governments are suspected to occur because of weak monitoring programs, according to many studies. A tool or instrument in implementing this monitoring program is expected to address this problem. Such tool currently doesn’t exist yet. This research aims to fill that gap by developing a monitoring instrument design for state/region owned goods by using Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Local Government as a research context in order to take valuable inputs for the design. This research is using developmental research method. Government Regulation were used for normative reference and Friedman’s results-based accountability quadrat were used in developing good indicators for the instrument. This research is succeeded in formulating the indicators that made up the instrument. Indicators compiled are divided into compliance-based indicators and results-based indicators. Indicators are formulated based on the validation and inputs from employees of DIY’s Assets Management Agency and experts from academia. This instrument still has some limitations that need improvement through further research.

  7. Improved Satellite Techniques for Monitoring and Forecasting the Transition of Hurricanes to Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael; Halverson, Jeffrey; Berndt, Emily; Dunion, Jason; Goodman, Steve; Goldberg, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites R-Series (GOES-R) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Satellite Proving Grounds have introduced multiple proxy and operational products into operations over the last few years. Some of these products have proven to be useful in current operations at various National Weather Service (NWS) offices and national centers as a first look at future satellite capabilities. Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) and the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) field campaign have had access to a few of these products to assist in monitoring extratropical transitions of hurricanes. The red, green, blue (RGB) Air Mass product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses in one complete image to help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. As a compliment to this product, a new Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Ozone product was introduced in the past year to assist in diagnosing the dry air intrusions seen in the RGB Air Mass product. Finally, a lightning density product was introduced to forecasters as a precursor to the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) that will be housed on GOES-R, to monitor the most active regions of convection, which might indicate a disruption in the tropical environment and even signal the onset of extratropical transition. This presentation will focus on a few case studies that exhibit extratropical transition and point out the usefulness of these new satellite techniques in aiding forecasters forecast these challenging events.

  8. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J...F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  9. Monitoring student attendance, participation, and performance improvement: an instrument and forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    When students receive consistent and fair feedback about their behavior, program liability decreases. To help students to have a clearer understanding of minimum program standards and the consequences of substandard performance, the author developed attendance and participation monitoring and performance improvement instruments. The author discusses the tools that address absenteeism, tardiness, unprofessional, and unsafe clinical behaviors among students.

  10. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-20

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  11. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Motte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI, dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than −15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than −30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  12. Monitoring Niger River Floods from satellite Rainfall Estimates : overall skill and rainfall uncertainty propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, Marielle; Casse, Claire; Peugeot, christophe; boone, aaron; pedinotti, vanessa

    2015-04-01

    Global measurement of rainfall offers new opportunity for hydrological monitoring, especially for some of the largest Tropical river where the rain gauge network is sparse and radar is not available. Member of the GPM constellation, the new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere contributes to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of satellite rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them into the end user models ? Another important question is how to choose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This paper analyses the potential of satellite rainfall products combined with hydrological modeling to monitor the Niger river floods in the city of Niamey, Niger. A dramatic increase of these floods has been observed in the last decades. The study focuses on the 125000 km2 area in the vicinity of Niamey, where local runoff is responsible for the most extreme floods recorded in recent years. Several rainfall products are tested as forcing to the SURFEX-TRIP hydrological simulations. Differences in terms of rainfall amount, number of rainy days, spatial extension of the rainfall events and frequency distribution of the rain rates are found among the products. Their impacts on the simulated outflow is analyzed. The simulations based on the Real time estimates produce an excess in the discharge. For flood prediction, the problem can be overcome by a prior adjustment of the products - as done here with probability matching - or by analysing the simulated discharge in terms of percentile or anomaly. All tested products exhibit some

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing Atmospheric Compositions and their Application in Air Quality Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Bai, W. G.; Wang, W. H.; Huang, F. X.; Li, X. J.; Sun, L.; Wang, G.; Qi, J.; Qiu, H.; Zhang, Y.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements related to atmospheric compositions remote sensing from the bilateral cooperation under the framework of MOST-ESA Dragon Programme. The algorithms to retrieve Aerosol, ozone amount and profile, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO2, etc. have been developed since 2004. Such algorithms are used to process FY-3 series (Chinese second generation polar orbit satellites) observation and ground based FTIR observation. The results are validated with in-situ measurements. Aerosol, total ozone amount shows the very good consistent with the ground measurements. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the important atmospheric compositions, such as aerosol, O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO etc., have been analysed from satellite derived products. These works demonstrate the satellite’s capacity on atmospheric composition monitoring, as well as the possible application in the air quality monitoring and climate change research.

  14. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  15. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  16. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study...... is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements...

  17. Vital improvements to the retrieval of tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Folkert Boersma, K.; Williams, Jason E.; van Geffen, Jos; Vinken, Geert C. M.; Sneep, Maarten; Hendrick, Francois; van Roozendael, Michel; Pepijn Veefkind, J.

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, they catalyze the production of ozone (O3) and contribute to aerosol formation. NOx is linked to the oxidizing efficiency of the atmosphere since O3 plays an important role in the formation of OH. Satellite observations of NO2 are important for monitoring and studying concentrations of nitrogen oxides, but considerable uncertainties on the accuracy and robustness of the retrievals, and their fitness for model evaluation still persist. These uncertainties pertain to all aspects of the retrieval: (1) spectral fitting, (2) stratospheric background correction, and (3) air mass factor calculation. Here we present a number of relevant improvements to the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval algorithm from OMI (DOMINO v3). We revisit the 405-465 nm spectral fitting window for the OMI NO2 slant column retrievals, and suggest adaptations to this window to improve agreement with (stratospheric) columns obtained from SCIAMACHY and GOME-2, as validated with independent FTIR NO2 columns observed from the ground at Jungfraujoch. Furthermore, stronger nudging of the stratospheric O3:HNO3 ratios in the TM5 chemistry transport model (used to estimate the stratospheric background NO2) with those observed by the ODIN instrument, enables us to improve stratospheric NO2 simulations with substantial benefits for the assimilation and stratospheric NO2 corrections in the retrieval. A third important innovation is the coupling of the Dutch OMI NO2 retrieval to the TM5 model with a global resolution of 1°×1°. As suggested previously by Boersma et al. [2007] and demonstrated by Heckel et al. [2011], the better resolved a priori profile shapes lead to a much better understanding of pollution gradients observed from space. In addition to the increased resolution, updated chemistry and emissions (improved soil and ship NOx emissions) in TM5 make the OMI retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns

  18. Monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions using the GOME-2 instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelt, Pascal; Valks, Pieter; Loyola, Diego

    2014-05-01

    This contribution focusses on the GOME-2 SO2 column products from the METOP-A and B satellites. The GOME-2 SO2 column product has been developed in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). Satellite-based remote sensing measurements of volcanic SO2 provide critical information for reducing volcanic hazards. Volcanic eruptions may bring ash and gases (e.g. SO2) high up into the atmosphere, where a long-range transport can occur. SO2 is an important indicator for volcanic activity and an excellent tracer for volcanic eruption clouds, especially if ash detection techniques fail. SO2 can affect aviation safety: In the cabin it can cause disease and respiratory symptoms, whereas in its hydrogenated form H2SO4 it is highly corrosive and can cause damage to jet engines as well as pitting of windscreens. We will present results for volcanic events retrieved from GOME-2 solar backscattered measurements in the UV wavelength region around 320nm using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. SO2 columns are generated operationally by DLR with the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7 and are available in near-real-time, i.e. within two hours after sensing. Using data from both MetOp satellites allows for a daily global coverage. We will furthermore present current improvements to the GOME-2 SO2 column product.

  19. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  20. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  1. Monitoring of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the south of Portugal by ground-based and satellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Costa, Maria João; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2009-07-20

    The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 - 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of the CGE, in Evora, since April 2004. A brief description of the instrument is given, highlighting the technological innovations with respect to the previous version of similar equipment. The need for such measurements automatically taken on a routine basis in south-western European regions, specifically in Portugal, has encouraged the development and installation of the equipment and constitutes a major driving force for the present work. The main features and some improvements introduced in the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) algorithms are discussed. The results obtained applying DOAS methodology to the SPATRAM spectrometer measurements of diffused spectral sky radiation are presented in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)). NO(2) confirms the typical seasonal cycle reaching the maximum of (6.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunset values (PM), during the summer season, and the minimum of (1.55 +/- 0.07) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunrise values (AM) in winter. O(3) presents the maximum total column of (433 +/- 5) Dobson Unit (DU) in the spring season and the minimum of (284 +/- 3) DU during the fall period. The huge daily variations of the O(3) total column during the spring season are analyzed and discussed. The ground-based results obtained for NO(2) and O(3) column contents are compared with data from satellite-borne equipment (GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and it is shown that the two data

  2. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  3. Africa-Wide Monitoring of Small Surface Water Bodies Using Multisource Satellite Data: A Monitoring System for FEWS NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Continental Africa has the largest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers, yet it suffers with problems such as water availability and access. Furthermore, African countries are amongst the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards such as droughts and floods. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access is bound to increase. The U.S Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water bodies in Africa. Under this project, multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor these water bodies in Africa. First, small water bodies are mapped using satellite data such as Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat, and high resolution Google Earth imagery. Stream networks and watersheds for each water body are identified using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. Finally, a hydrologic modeling approach that uses satellite-derived precipitation estimates and evapotranspiration data calculated from global data assimilation system climate parameters is applied to model water levels. This approach has been implemented to monitor nearly 300 small water bodies located in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data in East Africa demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60% of the observed gauge variability with an average RMSE of 22%. Current and historic data (since 2001) on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration for each water body is made available in near real time. The water point monitoring network

  4. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30 years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and evaluate their applicability for agricultural drought evaluation when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in-situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite-based precipitation estimates. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite-based estimates. Nine statistics were used to evaluate the performance of satellite products to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to

  5. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  6. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  7. Volcview: A Web-Based Platform for Satellite Monitoring of Volcanic Activity and Eruption Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. J.; Randall, M.; Parker, T.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with University and State partners, operates five volcano observatories that employ specialized software packages and computer systems to process and display real-time data coming from in-situ geophysical sensors and from near-real-time satellite sources. However, access to these systems both inside and from outside the observatory offices are limited in some cases by factors such as software cost, network security, and bandwidth. Thus, a variety of Internet-based tools have been developed by the USGS Volcano Science Center to: 1) Improve accessibility to data sources for staff scientists across volcano monitoring disciplines; 2) Allow access for observatory partners and for after-hours, on-call duty scientists; 3) Provide situational awareness for emergency managers and the general public. Herein we describe VolcView (volcview.wr.usgs.gov), a freely available, web-based platform for display and analysis of near-real-time satellite data. Initial geographic coverage is of the volcanoes in Alaska, the Russian Far East, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Coverage of other volcanoes in the United States will be added in the future. Near-real-time satellite data from NOAA, NASA and JMA satellite systems are processed to create image products for detection of elevated surface temperatures and volcanic ash and SO2 clouds. VolcView uses HTML5 and the canvas element to provide image overlays (volcano location and alert status, annotation, and location information) and image products that can be queried to provide data values, location and measurement capabilities. Use over the past year during the eruptions of Pavlof, Veniaminof, and Cleveland volcanoes in Alaska by the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the National Weather Service, and the U.S. Air Force has reinforced the utility of shared situational awareness and has guided further development. These include overlay of volcanic cloud trajectory and

  8. Comparing Data from Telescopic X-Ray Instruments: Can We Trust All Satellites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Quianah T.; Fortenberry, Alexander; Gendre, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    In astronomy and astrophysics, X-ray emissions from cosmic entities aid in revealing what type of sources they emanate from. Swift, NASA’s latest X-ray satellite, has not been operating at its intended configurations. The satellite is experiencing difficulties maintaining a stable temperature in its charge capture device. This research intends to determine if this complication causes discrepancies in Swift’s collected data by using gamma-ray burst data. Gamma-ray bursts are excellent comparison candidates due to their brightness and fluctuations. We compared archived data of GRB 130427A and GRB 090423A from Swift and the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton observatory. Next, we reduced the data and produced the respective spectra. We then analyzed and compared the spectra to one another to find any discrepancies. We have determined, based on data analysis of the spectra, that Swift is working properly despite the cooling malfunction.

  9. Rainfall estimation for real time flood monitoring using geostationary meteorological satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakachen, Watcharee; Raksapatcharawong, Mongkol

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall estimation by geostationary meteorological satellite data provides good spatial and temporal resolutions. This is advantageous for real time flood monitoring and warning systems. However, a rainfall estimation algorithm developed in one region needs to be adjusted for another climatic region. This work proposes computationally-efficient rainfall estimation algorithms based on an Infrared Threshold Rainfall (ITR) method calibrated with regional ground truth. Hourly rain gauge data collected from 70 stations around the Chao-Phraya river basin were used for calibration and validation of the algorithms. The algorithm inputs were derived from FY-2E satellite observations consisting of infrared and water vapor imagery. The results were compared with the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) near real time product (GSMaP_NRT) using the probability of detection (POD), root mean square error (RMSE) and linear correlation coefficient (CC) as performance indices. Comparison with the GSMaP_NRT product for real time monitoring purpose shows that hourly rain estimates from the proposed algorithm with the error adjustment technique (ITR_EA) offers higher POD and approximately the same RMSE and CC with less data latency.

  10. Satellite-based climate information within the WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, A.; Nitsche, H.; Körber, M.; Kreis, A.; Bissolli, P.; Friedrich, K.; Rösner, S.

    2014-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) around the world to create science-based climate information on a regional scale within the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The paper introduces the satellite component of the WMO Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring (RCC-CM) for Europe and the Middle East. The RCC-CM product portfolio is based on essential climate variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), spanning the atmospheric (radiation, clouds, water vapour) and terrestrial domains (snow cover, soil moisture). In the first part, the input data sets are briefly described, which are provided by the EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facilities (SAF), in particular CM SAF, and by the ESA (European Space Agency) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In the second part, the derived RCC-CM products are presented, which are divided into two groups: (i) operational monitoring products (e.g. monthly means and anomalies) based on near-real-time environmental data records (EDRs) and (ii) climate information records (e.g. climatologies, time series, trend maps) based on long-term thematic climate data records (TCDRs) with adequate stability, accuracy and homogeneity. The products are provided as maps, statistical plots and gridded data, which are made available through the RCC-CM website (www.dwd.de/rcc-cm).

  11. An instrument system for monitoring and sampling suspended sediment in the benthic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R.W.; Johnson, R.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument system has been constructed that can monitor and sample suspended sediment distributions in the benthic boundary layer. It consists of miniature nephelometers and suspended sediment samplers placed within one meter of the seabed. The system is capable of continuously monitoring suspended sediment profiles at eight levels between 14 and 100 cm above the seabed and collecting suspended sediment samples at four levels (20, 50, 70 and 100 cm) at three times during a deployment period. The suspended sediment system is designed to fit onto the instrumented tripod GEOPROBE which contains four electromagnetic current meters, pressure sensor, bottom stereo camera, two temperature sensors, transmissometer, and a Savonius rotor current meter. Sensor operation, data recording, and sediment sampling events are synchronized. Thus detailed measurements of the near-bottom flow conditions are made concurrently with suspended sediment measurements. The combined system has been used in sediment transporting environments within San Francisco Bay, California, and Puget Sound, Washington. ?? 1986.

  12. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  13. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  14. Overview of the relativistic electron precipitations (REP) observed on LEO satellites and ISS by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan

    Relativistic electron precipitation (REP) are observed by the R3D B2/B3 and RD3-B3 instruments during the flights of the Foton M2/M3 and “BION-M” № 1 satellite in 2005, 2007 and 2013, and by the R3DE/R instruments at the EXPOSE-E facility of the European Columbus module and at the EXPOSE-R facility of the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the period from February 2008 till August 2010. The obtained dose rates strongly depend by the external and internal shielding of the detectors in the instruments. The highest dose rate reaching more than 20 mGy h (-1) was observed outside the ISS Zvezda module during the REP in April 2010 being the second largest in GOES history with a >2 MeV electron fluence event. REP doses behind relatively thick shielding are too small but may play considerable role during extra vehicular activity (EVA) when the cosmonauts/astronauts body is shielded only by the space suit.

  15. Representativeness of total column water vapour retrievals from instruments on polar orbiting satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Hannes; Wittchen, Falco; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The remote sensing of total column water vapour (TCWV) from polar orbiting, sun-synchronous satellite spectrometers such as the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on board of ENVISAT and the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board of Aqua and Terra enables observations on a high spatial resolution and a high accuracy over land surfaces. The observations serve studies about small-scale variations of water vapour as well as the detection of local and global trends. However, depending on the swath width of the sensor, the temporal sampling is low and the observations of TCWV are limited to cloud-free land scenes. This study quantifies the representativeness of a single TCWV observation at the time of the satellite overpass under cloud-free conditions by investigating the diurnal cycle of TCWV using 9 years of a 2-hourly TCWV data set from global GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations. It turns out that the TCWV observed at 10:30 local time (LT) is generally lower than the daily mean TCWV by 0.65 mm (4 %) on average for cloud-free cases. Averaging over all GNSS stations, the monthly mean TCWV at 10:30 LT, constrained to cases that are cloud-free, is 5 mm (25 %) lower than the monthly mean TCWV at 10:30 LT of all cases. Additionally, the diurnal variability of TCWV is assessed. For the majority of GNSS stations, the amplitude of the averaged diurnal cycle ranges between 1 and 5 % of the daily mean with a minimum between 06:00 and 10:00 LT and maximum between 16:00 and 20:00 LT. However, a high variability of TCWV on an individual day is detected. On average, the TCWV standard deviation is about 15 % regarding the daily mean.

  16. Developing a sustainable satellite-based environmental monitoring system In Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, J. O.; Adepoju, K. A.; Akinluyi, F. O.; Anifowose, A. Y. B.

    2015-10-01

    Increased anthropogenic activities over the year have remained a major factor of the Earth changing environment. This phenomenon has given rise to a number of environmental degraded sites that characterize the Nigeria's landscape. The human-induced elements include gully erosion, mangrove ecosystems degradation, desertification and deforestation, particularly in the south east, Niger Delta, north east and south west of Nigeria respectively, as well as river flooding/flood plain inundation and land degradation around Kainji lake area. Because of little or no effective management measures, the attendant environmental hazards have been extremely damaging to the infrastructures and socio-economic development of the affected area. Hence, a concerted effort, through integrated and space-based research, is being intensified to manage and monitor the environment in order to restore the stability, goods and services of the environment. This has justified Nigeria's investment in its space programme, especially the launch of NigeriaSat-1, an Earth observation micro-satellite in constellation with five (5) other similar satellites, Alsat-1, China DMC, Bilsat-1, DEMOS and UK DMC belonging to Algeria, China, Turkey, Spain and United Kingdom respectively. The use of data from these satellites, particularly NigeriaSat-1, in conjunction with associated technologies has proved to be very useful in understanding the influence of both natural and human activities on the Nigeria's ecosystems and environment. The results of some researches on specific applications of Nigerian satellites are presented in this paper. Appropriate sustainable land and water resources management in the affected areas, based on Nigeria's satellite data capture and integration, are also discussed.

  17. Global near-realtime monitoring of Tropical Cyclones Using Weather Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Hawkins, J.; Turk, F.; Miller, S.; Sampson, C.; Kuciauskas, A.; Richardson, K.; Kent, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory maintains a satellite web portal that monitors global tropical cyclones in every basin on a continuing basis. The portal is used routinely by agencies around the world in forecasting operations and the issuance of warnings. Products from this site are widely redistributed and published frequently in journal articles, seasonal storm summaries, and ongoing World Wide Web discussions. Traditionally, weather satellite reconnaissance of tropical cyclones has depended on the interpretation of visible and infrared imagery. But such methods have limitations. Visible images are not available during the nighttime, and both kinds of imagery often fail to detect important structure, including storm eyes, which are vital for determining the strength and location of tropical systems. Thus, the portal supplements visible and infrared coverage with products from satellite microwave sensors. These sensors penetrate higher clouds to reveal important detail about low-level cloud and precipitation features. The first part of the talk will discuss how these various products can be used together for improved analysis. The second part of talk will present information about tropical cyclone structure. Surface winds from aircraft will be compared to features seen in passive microwave images. We see that low brightness temperature features on 85 GHz images often corresponding to wind maxima near the sea surface. We shall make some inferences about how the observation of specific structures in satellite images can help characterize the wind field when no aircraft data are available. Special attention will be paid to multiple eye walls apparent on satellite images. These are associated with very intense storms which undergo an evolutionary process not observed in weaker systems.

  18. Satellite-based monitoring of particulate matter pollution at very high resolution: the HOTBAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin; Milton, Edward; Nield, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a major health risk, and is responsible for millions of premature deaths each year. Concentrations tend to be highest in urban areas - particularly in the mega-cities of rapidly industrialising countries, where there are limited ground monitoring networks. Satellite-based monitoring has been used for many years to assess regional-scale trends in air quality, but currently available satellite products produce data at 1-10km resolution: too coarse to discern the small-scale patterns of sources and sinks seen in urban areas. Higher-resolution satellite products are required to provide accurate assessments of particulate matter concentrations in these areas, and to allow analysis of localised air quality effects on health. The Haze Optimized Transform-based Aerosol Retrieval (HOTBAR) method is a novel method which provides estimates of PM2.5 concentrations from high-resolution (approximately 30m) satellite imagery. This method is designed to work over a wide range of land covers and performs well over the complex land-cover mosaic found in urban areas. It requires only standard visible and near-infrared data, making it applicable to a range of data from sensors such as Landsat, SPOT and Sentinel-2. The method is based upon an extension of the Haze Optimized Transform (HOT), which was originally designed for assessing areas of thick haze in satellite imagery. This was done by calculating a 'haziness' value for each pixel in an image as the distance from a 'Clear Line' in feature space, defined by the high correlation between visible bands. Here, we adapt the HOT method and use it to estimate Aerosol Optical Thickness (a measure of the column-integrated haziness of the atmosphere) instead, from which PM2.5 concentrations can then be estimated. Significant extensions to the original HOT method include Monte Carlo estimation of the 'Clear Line', object-based correction for land cover, and estimation of AOT from the haziness values

  19. Remote sensing models using Landsat satellite data to monitor algal blooms in Lake Champlain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trescott, A; Park, M-H

    2013-01-01

    Lake Champlain is significantly impaired by excess phosphorus loading, requiring frequent lake-wide monitoring for eutrophic conditions and algal blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides regular, synoptic coverage of algal production over large areas with better spatial and temporal resolution compared with in situ monitoring. This study developed two algal production models using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM(+)) satellite imagery: a single band model and a band ratio model. The models predicted chlorophyll a concentrations to estimate algal cell densities throughout Lake Champlain. Each model was calibrated with in situ data compiled from summer 2006 (July 24 to September 10), and then validated with data for individual days in August 2007 and 2008. Validation results for the final single band and band ratio models produced Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficients of 0.65 and 0.66, respectively, confirming satisfactory model performance for both models. Because these models have been validated over multiple days and years, they can be applied for continuous monitoring of the lake.

  20. Using Satellite Data to Build Climate Resilience: A Novel East Africa Drought Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    East Africa is affected by recurrent drought. The 2015-2016 El Niño triggered a severe drought across East Africa causing serious impacts to regional water security, health, and livelihoods. Ethiopia was the hardest hit, with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs calling the recent drought the worst in 50 years. Resources to monitor the severity and progression of droughts are a critical component to disaster risk reduction, but are challenging to implement in regions with sparse data collection networks such as East Africa. Satellite data is used by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information and Early Warning System, the USAID Famine Early Warning System, and the Africa Drought and Flood Monitor. These systems use remotely sensed vegetation, soil moisture, and meteorological data to develop drought indices. However, they do not directly monitor impacts to water resources, which is necessary to appropriately target drought mitigation efforts. The current study combines new radar data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 mission with satellite imagery to perform a retrospective analysis of the impact of the 2015-2016 drought in East Africa on regional surface water. Inland water body extents during the drought are compared to historical trends to identify the most severely impacted areas. The developed tool has the potential to support on-the-ground humanitarian relief efforts and to refine predictions of water scarcity and crop impacts from existing hydrologic models and famine early warning systems.

  1. An automated fog monitoring system for the Indo-Gangetic Plains based on satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dinesh; Chourey, Reema; Rizvi, Sarwar; Singh, Manoj; Gautam, Ritesh

    2016-05-01

    Fog is a meteorological phenomenon that causes reduction in regional visibility and affects air quality, thus leading to various societal and economic implications, especially disrupting air and rail transportation. The persistent and widespread winter fog impacts the entire the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), as frequently observed in satellite imagery. The IGP is a densely populated region in south Asia, inhabiting about 1/6th of the world's population, with a strong upward pollution trend. In this study, we have used multi-spectral radiances and aerosol/cloud retrievals from Terra/Aqua MODIS data for developing an automated web-based fog monitoring system over the IGP. Using our previous and existing methodologies, and ongoing algorithm development for the detection of fog and retrieval of associated microphysical properties (e.g. fog droplet effective radius), we characterize the widespread fog detection during both daytime and nighttime. Specifically, for the night time fog detection, the algorithm employs a satellite-based bi-spectral brightness temperature difference technique between two spectral channels: MODIS band-22 (3.9μm) and band-31 (10.75μm). Further, we are extending our algorithm development to geostationary satellites, for providing continuous monitoring of the spatial-temporal variation of fog. We anticipate that the ongoing and future development of a fog monitoring system would be of assistance to air, rail and vehicular transportation management, as well as for dissemination of fog information to government agencies and general public. The outputs of fog detection algorithm and related aerosol/cloud parameters are operationally disseminated via http://fogsouthasia.com/.

  2. The Role of Satellite Data for the National Forest Monitoring Systems in the Context of REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Inge

    2012-04-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. “REDD+” goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), FAO supports the countries to develop national forest monitoring systems (NFMS) based on satellite data that allow for credible MRV of REDD+ activities through time. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a multi-user basis, allows countries to adapt it to country needs. With the technical assistance of FAO, INPE and other stakeholders, the countries will set up an autonomous operational satellite forest monitoring systems. A beta version and the methodologies of the system for DRC and PNG are launched in Durban (SA) during COP 17, while Paraguay, Zambia and Viet Nam are in development in 2012.

  3. Validation of Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Satellite Products for Coral Bleaching Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Heron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite monitoring of thermal stress on coral reefs has become an essential component of reef management practice around the world. A recent development by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Watch (NOAA CRW program provides daily global monitoring at 5 km resolution—at or near the scale of most coral reefs. In this paper, we introduce two new monitoring products in the CRW Decision Support System for coral reef management: Regional Virtual Stations, a regional synthesis of thermal stress conditions, and Seven-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST Trend, describing recent changes in temperature at each location. We describe how these products provided information in support of management activities prior to, during and after the 2014 thermal stress event in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using in situ survey data from this event, we undertake the first quantitative comparison between 5 km satellite monitoring products and coral bleaching observations. Analysis of coral community characteristics, historical temperature conditions and thermal stress revealed a strong influence of coral biodiversity in the patterns of observed bleaching. This resulted in a model based on thermal stress and generic richness that explained 97% of the variance in observed bleaching. These findings illustrate the importance of using local benthic characteristics to interpret the level of impact from thermal stress exposure. In an era of continuing climate change, accurate monitoring of thermal stress and prediction of coral bleaching are essential for stakeholders to direct resources to the most effective management actions to conserve coral reefs.

  4. Use of a PKZh-902 instrument for monitoring solid phases in an organic coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrillin, A.I.; Gagarin, S.I.; Sokolov, V.E.; Zabelin, A.I.

    1986-11-01

    Preliminary tests have been performed with a PKZh-902 in checking feed and circulating coolant, and also in evaluating the performance of the cleaning devices. The test program involved determining the stability of the esnsor materials in ditolymethane, examining the effects of radioactive products and those of the optical characteristics of impurities in the first-loop coolant on the readings and errors of measurement, and checking the scope for using the instrument for continuous monitoring of particle concentrations. Results confirm that the PKZh-902 enables one to monitor the composition and concentration of the solid dispersed phase reliably and with adequate accuracy in the feed coolant. The use for monitoring the loop coolant requires additonal research.

  5. Borehole Seismic Monitoring at Otway Using the Naylor-1 Instrument String

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Dzunic, Aleksander; Urosevic, Milovan; Kepic, Anton; Sherlock, Don

    2009-06-01

    The Naylor-1 monitoring completion, a unique and innovative instrumentation package, was designed and fabricated in FY 2007 at Berkeley Laboratory. Tom Daley, Barry Freifeld and Duo Wang (all from Berkeley Lab) were on site at the Otway Project between September 26 and October 14, 2007, working with CO2CRC and their subcontractors, AGR Asia Pacific and Eastern Well Services to complete Naylor-1 and initiate baseline data collection. Figure 1 shows a schematic of Naylor-1's sensor layout. There are three U-tube geochemical samplers, with one located near the top of the residual CH{sub 4} gas cap and two located beneath the gas-water contact. The 21 geophones are used for performing three distinct seismic measurements, high resolution travel time (HRTT), walkaway vertical seismic profiling (WVSP), and microseismic monitoring. These activities are separated in to active source seismic and microseismic monitoring, and will be described separately.

  6. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) instrument on board TARANIS satellite: scientific objectives, design, characterization results and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, T.; Hébert, P.; Le Mer-Dachard, F.; Cansot, E.; Offroy, M.; Ravel, K.; Gaillac, S.; Sato, M.; Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNings and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched from late 2017 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose of this poster is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) scientific objectives and the sensor design, to show the performances of this instrument using the recent characterization, and at last to promote its products. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. The calibration results will be detailed. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. It is a key instrument because of its on-board detection of the TLEs which can trigger the whole payload. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The calibration results will also be detailed. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters will be tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. Automatic classification tools are now tested to produce for the Scientific Mission Center some lists of elves, sprites or lightning without TLE following the recent work of Offroy et al. [2015] using ISUAL spectrophotometer data.

  7. Combined use of optical and radar satellite data for the monitoring of irrigation and soil moisture of wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fieuzal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of radar signal over irrigated wheat fields and to assess the potentialities of radar observations for the monitoring of soil moisture. Emphasis is put on the use of high spatial and temporal resolution satellite data (Envisat/ASAR and Formosat-2. Time series of images were collected over the Yaqui irrigated area (Mexico throughout one agricultural season from December 2007 to May 2008, together with measurements of soil and vegetation characteristics and agricultural practices. The comprehensive analysis of these data indicates that the sensitivity of the radar signal to vegetation is masked by the variability of soil conditions. On-going irrigated areas can be detected all over the wheat growing season. The empirical algorithm developed for the retrieval of topsoil moisture from Envisat/ASAR images takes advantage of the Formosat-2 instrument capabilities to monitor the seasonality of wheat canopies. This monitoring is performed using dense time series of images acquired by Formosat-2 to set up the SAFY vegetation model. Topsoil moisture estimates are not reliable at the timing of plant emergence and during plant senescence. Estimates are accurate from tillering to grain filling stages with an absolute error about 9% (0.09 m3 m−3, 35% in relative value. This result is attractive since topsoil moisture is estimated at a high spatial resolution (i.e. over subfields of about 5 ha for a large range of biomass water content (from 5 and 65 t ha−1 independently from the viewing angle of ASAR acquisition (incidence angles IS1 to IS6.

  8. A novel instrumented retractor to monitor tissue-disruptive forces during lateral thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Gil; Buckner, Gregory D; Jardine, Nicholas J; Kiefer, Aaron J; Campbell, Nigel B; Kocherginsky, Masha; Raman, Jai; Jeevanandam, Valluvan

    2007-04-01

    Acute and chronic pain after thoracotomy, post-thoracotomy pain syndrome, is well documented. The mechanical retractors used for the thoracotomy exert significant forces on the skeletal cage. Our hypothesis was that instrumented retractors could be developed to enable real-time monitoring and control of retraction forces. This would provide equivalent exposure with significantly reduced forces and tissue damage and thus less post-thoracotomy pain. A novel instrumented retractor was designed and fabricated to enable real-time force monitoring during surgical retraction. Eight mature sheep underwent bilateral thoracotomy. One lateral thoracotomy was retracted at a standard clinical pace of 5.93 +/- 0.80 minutes to 7.5 cm without real-time monitoring of retraction forces. The other lateral thoracotomy was retracted to the same exposure with real-time visual force feedback and a consequently more deliberate pace of 9.87 +/- 1.89 minutes (P = .006). Retraction forces, blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored throughout the procedure. Full lateral retraction resulted in an average force of 102.88 +/- 50.36 N at the standard clinical pace, versus 77.88 +/- 38.85 N with force feedback (a 24.3% reduction, P = .006). Standard retraction produced peak forces of 450.01 +/- 129.58 N, whereas force feedback yielded peak forces of 323.99 +/- 127.79 N (a 28.0% reduction, P = .009). Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher during standard clinical retraction (P = .0097), and rib fracture occurrences were reduced from 5 to 1 with force feedback (P = .04). Use of the novel instrumented retractor resulted in significantly lower average and peak retraction forces during lateral thoracotomy. Moreover, these reduced retraction forces were correlated with reductions in animal stress and tissue damage, as documented by lower systolic blood pressures and fewer rib fractures.

  9. True Color Images of the Earth created with the Geostationary Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Maximilian

    2013-04-01

    One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With geostationary satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type images from geostationary satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) true colour composite images will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6μm), NIR008 (0.8μm) and NIR016 (1.6μm). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false colour composite images of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true colour images. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting images satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-coloured, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such images are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false colour composite images. The images can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.

  10. Monitoring the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) using High Spatial Resolution Satellite of THEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahreza, S.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. Our study uses an empirical model, based on actual water quality of total suspended solids (TSS) measurements from the Penang Island, Malaysia to predict TSS based on optical properties of Thailand Earth Observation Satellite (THEOS) digital imagery. The objective of this study is to examine the performance of the proposed algorithm for retrieving TSS concentration by using THEOS satellite image over Penang Island, Malaysia. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the airborne image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory. Water sample locations were determined by using a Global Positioning System (GPS). The collected water samples were combined for algorithm calibration. The algorithm used was based on the reflectance model, which is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, and these in turn can be related to the concentration of the pollutants. Digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth data collected simultaneously with the digital image acquisition were determined for later use in the algorithm calibration analysis. The accuracy of each algorithm was determined based on the values of the correlation coefficient (R) and Root-Mean-Square deviation (RMS). This algorithm was then used to map the TSS concentration over Penang, Malaysia. The TSS map was color-coded and geometrically corrected for visual interpretation. This study indicates that TSS mapping can be carried out using remote sensing technique of the satellite digital photography system over Penang, Malaysia.

  11. Object-Based Forest Cover Monitoring Using GAOFEN-2 High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. M.; Li, Z. Y.; Chen, E. X.; Liu, Q. W.

    2016-10-01

    Forest cover monitoring is an important part of forest management in local or regional area. The structure and tones of forest can be identified in high spatial remote sensing images. When forests cover change, the spectral characteristics of forests is also changed. In this paper a method on object-based forest cover monitoring with data transformation from time series of high resolution images is put forward. First the NDVI difference image and the composite of PC3,PC4, PC5 of the stacked 8 layers of time series of high resolution satellites are segmented into homogeneous objects. With development of the object-based ruleset classification system, the spatial extent of deforestation and afforestation can be identified over time across the landscape. Finally the change accuracy is achieved with reference data.

  12. Influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring of maritime oil pollution in German waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Peer; Baschek, Björn; Hunsänger, Thomas; Kranz, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    For detecting accidental and illegal pollution by mineral oil, the German exclusive economic zone and surrounding waters have been monitored by aircraft operationally for more than 25 years. Aircraft surveillance uses predominantly Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar for visualization of the effect of oil to smoothen capillary waves. A set of near range sensors complements the remote sensing data available for the human operator to classify the detected features as "mineral oil", "natural phenomenon", "other substance" or "unknown" pollution. Today, as an add-on to aerial surveillance, the German Central Command of Maritime Emergencies uses the operational satellite service "CleanSeaNet" provided by the European Maritime Safety Agency: Radar satellite data is analyzed in near real time and alerts of potential pollution are sent out. Shortly after receiving the results, aircraft surveillance flights are started by the 3rd Naval Air Wing and the locations of the satellite alerts are checked. Thus, a combined system of satellite and aerial surveillance is in place. The German Federal Institute of Hydrology, BfG, has access to the data of the pollution events detected during these flights and the corresponding meta-data of flights and satellite images. In this work, a period of two years of this data is analyzed. The probability to detect pollutions is evaluated for (A) flight missions associated with satellite scenes, and (B) additional flights performed independently from satellite scenes. Thus, the influence of satellite alerts on the efficiency of aircraft monitoring is investigated. Coverage and coordination of the monitoring by aircraft and satellite are assessed and implications for the operational monitoring are discussed.

  13. Space in environmental diplomacy: Exploring the role of earth observing satellites for monitoring international environmental agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Shaida Sahami

    This research determines under what conditions, and for what types of environmental treaties, Earth observation (EO) is useful for monitoring international environmental agreements. The research extracts specific monitoring requirements from nine multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and explores how satellite EO data can be used to support them. The technical characteristics of the sensor systems and science data products associated with current and planned EO satellites were analyzed and mapped to the MEA requirements, providing a significant step toward linking the EO community with the international treaty community implementing these environmental agreements. The research results include a listing and analysis of the positive and negative factors that influence whether EO data are useful for monitoring and verifying MEAs, analysis of existing international EO institutions, and a set of key findings describing the conditions under which EO data are most useful to the treaties. The use of EO data in various treaty phases is also analyzed, drawing the conclusion that EO data are most useful for monitoring and treaty refinement and not very useful for compliance verification or enforcement. MEAs manage compliance using governance structures that offer expertise and resources to assist states that are reported to be in non-compliance, rather than enforce compliance with sanctions or other punishments. In addition, the temporal and spatial resolution of the current and planned fleet of satellites does not provide the required detail needed for MEA verification. Identifying specific treaty implementation deficiencies requires additional information that cannot be gathered from EO data; on-site economic, social, and environmental conditions are critical elements in assessing compliance verification. But for environmental monitoring and assessments, MEA effectiveness reviews, and national reporting required for each MEA, EO data are very useful. They provide

  14. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  15. Title: Rice Crop Monitoring by Fusing Microwave and Optical Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Takeuchi, W.; LE Toan, T.; Sobue, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid population and economic growth, and the increase in extreme weather events, are destabilizing global food security. In Asia, rice is a staple cereal crop, and the continent accounts for about 90% of global rice production and consumption. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) was launched in 2011 to utilize remote sensing tools to enhance crop production projections in order to promote food security and foster sustainable economic growth. Asia---‒Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia---‒RiCE) is a component of GEOGLAM, and aims to use remote sensing tools to develop rice---‒related information such as maps of paddy fields, rice growing conditions, yield, and production. However, in some regions in Southeast Asia, rice is planted and harvested more than twice a year, and the crop calendar is quite complicated. In addition, rice is mainly cultivated in the rainy season, and the high density of cloud cover during that season limits the observations that can be made from space using only optical sensors. In contrast, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a robust tool because it penetrates cloud cover; however, the revisit frequency of a single SAR satellite is limited, making it difficult to capture the complicated rice crop calendar in Asia. In this research, time---‒series SAR data were fused with optical data to monitor rice crops in Southeast Asia with complicated crop calendars. In addition, a microwave radiometer that also penetrates clouds and has a high revisit frequency but a coarse spatial resolution (greater than several kilometers), was used. The integrated use of a large variety of satellite data enables us to periodically monitor surface conditions such as water inundation, transplanting, and rice crop growth and harvesting, which in turn enables us to examine rice planted areas, rice crop calendars, and rice growing conditions in order to estimate rice production.

  16. GLORI: a new airborne GNSS reflectometry instrument for land surface monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Erwan; Fanise, Pascal; Zribi, Mehrez

    2015-10-01

    From the beginning of the 1990s, the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflected signals have been identified as a as source of opportunity for remote sensing applications. In the last two decades, the potential of the technique have been demonstrated for ocean and continental surfaces studies, and several applications have been proposed in the context of high availability of GNSS signals. The GNSS-R technique is generally based on the use of a passive receiver simultaneously acquiring the direct and reflected signals from various GNSS satellites to estimate geophysical parameters from the scattering surface. In the last years, several ground-based [2], [3], airborne [4] and space-borne [5]-[8] experiments have been proposed. The most considered application foreseen for GNSS-R is ocean altimetry for a precise determination of sea-surface heights as well as roughness and wind direction. For continental surfaces, because of direct relationship between surface permittivity and reflected signal, different approaches [6], [9], [10] have been proposed to estimate surface parameters (soil moisture, vegetation biomass, snow). Different observables have been proposed to analyze GNSS signals: the Delay-Doppler Map, the direct and reflected complex waveforms bistatic signal, the ratio between the direct and reflected waveform's peak time series (Interferometric Complex Field). In this context, the airborne instrument GLORI is proposed to demonstrate contribution of GNSS-R to estimate soil moisture over agricultural soils and biomass of forests or annual cultures. A secondary goal is the feasibility of centimeter-precision altimetry above continental water bodies. The second section describes the characteristics of GLORI instrument. The third section presents airborne campaigns realized over the south West of France and fourth sections discusses the first results. Conclusions are gathered in section 5.

  17. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  18. Microchannel Plates for the UVCS and SUMER Instruments on the SOHO Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Sasseen, T.; Jelinsky, P.; Gaines, G. A.; Hull, J.; Stock, J. M.; Edgar, M.; Welsh, B.; Jelinsky, S.; Vallerga, J.

    1995-01-01

    The microchannel plates for the detectors in the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) and UVCS (Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer) instruments aboard the Solar Orbiting Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission to be launched in late 1995 are described. A low resistance Z stack of microchannel plates (MCP's) is employed in a detector format of 27 mm x 10 mm using a multilayer cross delay line anode (XDL) with 1024 x 360 digitized pixels. The MCP stacks provide gains of greater than 2 x 10(exp 7) with good pulse height distributions (as low as 25% FWHM) under uniform flood illumination. Background rates of approx. 0.6 event cm(exp -2) sec(exp -1) are obtained for this configuration. Local counting rates up to about 800 events/pixel/sec have been achieved with little drop of the MCP gain. MCP preconditioning results are discussed, showing that some MCP stacks fail to have gain decreases when subjected to a high flux UV scrub. Also, although the bare MCP quantum efficiencies are close to those expected (10%), we found that the long wavelength response of KBr photocathodes could be substantially enhanced by the MCP scrubbing process. Flat field images are characterized by a low level of MCP fixed pattern noise and are stable. Preliminary calibration results for the instruments are shown.

  19. Data compression on board the PLANCK Satellite Low Frequency Instrument optimal compression rate

    CERN Document Server

    Gaztañaga, E; Romeo, A; Fosalba, P; Elizalde, E

    1998-01-01

    Data on board the future PLANCK Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, consist of $N$ differential temperature measurements, expanding a range of values we shall call $R$. Preliminary studies and telemetry allocation indicate the need of compressing these data by a ratio of $c_r \\simgt 10$. Here we present a study of entropy for (correlated multi-Gaussian discrete) noise, showing how the optimal compression $c_{r,opt}$, for a linearly discretized data set with $N_{bits}=\\log_2{N_{max}}$ bits is given by: $c_r \\simeq {N_{bits}/\\log_2(\\sqrt{2\\pi e} ~\\sigma_e/\\Delta)}$, where $\\sigma_e\\equiv (det C)^{1/2N}$ is some effective noise rms given by the covariance matrix $C$ and to be as small as the instrumental white noise RMS: $\\Delta \\simeq \\sigma_T averaging). Within the currently proposed $N_{bits}=16$ representation, a linear analogue to digital converter (ADC) will allow the digital storage of a large dynamic range of differential temperature $R= N_{max} ...

  20. MONITORING OF THE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE EQUIPMENT AT THE ENTERPRISES OF AVIATION INSTRUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates the proposals to improve the systems for monitoring performance of the equipment at the enterprises of aviation instrument. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the aviation instrument-making industry of the Russian Federation can play a role as a key factor in enhancing the competitiveness of the national economy. Currently, the global aviation market is fairly saturated, it competition is not between individual companies and between the aviation powers. The role of an efficient industrial production is largely dependent on the amount, structure, technical condition and the level of utilization of fixed assets. Specificity of high-tech high-tech production presupposes the existence of a specific fleet of expensive and unique equipment; a high degree of novelty products, single or small-scale type of production that determines the high cost of production of a unit of production; high demands on the staff . The paper noted that the production capacity is an essential tool for production planning process, which allows to determine the optimal work shifts Park main technological equipment and production program to justify the enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument. On the basis of the modification of OEE method, a stochastic model is proposed, which allows to display the efficiency of the productive capacity of the high-tech enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument in the form of multi-dimensional size and much more accurately identify the relationship between its elements.

  1. Development of satellite-based drought monitoring and warning system in Asian Pacific countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, W.; Oyoshi, K.; Muraki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on a development of satellite-based drought monitoring warning system in Asian Pacific countries. Drought condition of cropland is evaluated by using Keeth-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) computed from rainfall measurements with GSMaP product, land surface temperature by MTSAT product and vegetation phenology by MODIS NDVI product at daily basis. The derived information is disseminated as a system for an application of space based technology (SBT) in the implementation of the Core Agriculture Support Program. The benefit of this system are to develop satellite-based drought monitoring and early warning system (DMEWS) for Asian Pacific counties using freely available data, and to develop capacity of policy makers in those countries to apply the developed system in policy making. A series of training program has been carried out in 2013 to officers and researchers of ministry of agriculture and relevant agencies in Greater Mekong Subregion countries including Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. This system is running as fully operational and can be accessed at http://webgms.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/DMEWS/.

  2. Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

  3. Monitoring the frozen duration of Qinshai Lake using satellite passive microwave remote sensing low frequency data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Tao; LI Xin; JIN Rui

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai Lake is the largest inland lake in China.The significant difference of dielectric properties between water and ice suggests that a simple method of monitoring the Qinghai lake freeze-up and break-up dates using satellite passive microwave remote sensing data could be used.The freeze-up and break-up dates from the Qinghai Lake hydrological station and the MODIS L1B reflectance data were used to validate the passive microwave remote sensing results.The validation shows that passive microwave remote sensing data can accurately monitor the lake ice.Some uncertainty comes mainly from the revisit frequency of satellite overpass.The data from 1978 to 2006 show that lake ice duration is reduced by about 14-15 days.The freeze-up dates are about 4 days later and break-up dates about 10 days earlier.The regression analyses show that,at the 0.05 significance level,the correlations are 0.83,0.66 and 0.89 between monthly mean air temperature (MMAT) and lake ice duration days,freeze-up dates,break-up dates,respectively.Therefore,inter-annual variations of the Qinghai Lake ice duration days can significantly reflect the regional climate variation.

  4. The evolution of satellite-monitored radio tags for large whales: One laboratory's experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Bruce; Mesecar, Roderick; Lagerquist, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Despite several centuries of whaling and directed research, there are only a few whale stocks whose year-round whereabouts are reasonably well known. For the vast majority of depleted populations, the link between seasonal feeding and breeding concentrations remains unknown. This lack of information on range, seasonal distribution, stock structure, and migration routes makes it difficult to design and implement effective conservation measures to promote recovery. The use of such information would have been valuable to develop stock-specific quotas for whaling, but now it may be even more important for recovery of depleted stocks and identifying anthropogenic threats throughout a depleted stock's range. Building upon the preliminary findings of Discovery tags and more recent photo identification studies, satellite-monitored radio tags are now providing range and seasonal distribution information for many stocks of depleted large whales. These parameters are important to better estimate population abundance, characterize habitats, identify threats to recovery, and design effective protection measures when needed. This paper traces one laboratory's experience with the development of satellite-monitored radio tag technology for large whales, including attachment mechanisms and delivery systems, in the hope that others will profit from our successes and our mistakes. Selected examples are used to demonstrate how such tags contribute to new insights about whales' habitats, migrations, behaviour, and management.

  5. A distributed-data acquisition and monitoring system for the beam instrumentation of LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baribaud, G.; Brahy, D.; Cojan, A.; Momal, F.; Rabany, M.; Saban, R.; Thys, A.; Wolles, J.C. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LEP-BI/CS)

    1990-08-01

    The beam instrumentation for LEP is comprised of a number of detectors such as current transformers, split-foil monitors, interaction and background monitors and electrostatic pickups. These instruments are interfaced using about 100 VME crates spread over 25 stations located around the 27 km circumference of LEP. The crates are connected to the control system using MIL/STD-1553, an Olivetti M380 running XENIX and an IBM token-ring. Each crate is equipped with a Themis TSVME106 CPU board which runs the Motorola RMS68K operating system kernel. A set of services (alarms, communications, I/O system, libraries, log book, timing, etc.) has been implemented and constitutes a comfortable environment for the application programs. Most of the programming is done in PASCAL, using a cross compiler developed and maintained at CERN. A set of utilities running in the Olivetti M380 and in the crates provides system monitoring, system and application reload, and surveillance of the behaviour of the system and of the application tasks. (orig.).

  6. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  7. A Study on the Potential Applications of Satellite Data in Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explore the potential applications of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) -like satellite sensors in air quality research for some Asian regions. The MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT), NCEP global reanalysis meteorological data, and daily surface PM(sub 10) concentrations over China and Thailand from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed using simple and multiple regression models. The AOT-PM(sub 10) correlation demonstrates substantial seasonal and regional difference, likely reflecting variations in aerosol composition and atmospheric conditions, Meteorological factors, particularly relative humidity, were found to influence the AOT-PM(sub 10) relationship. Their inclusion in regression models leads to more accurate assessment of PM(sub 10) from space borne observations. We further introduced a simple method for employing the satellite data to empirically forecast surface particulate pollution, In general, AOT from the previous day (day 0) is used as a predicator variable, along with the forecasted meteorology for the following day (day 1), to predict the PM(sub 10) level for day 1. The contribution of regional transport is represented by backward trajectories combined with AOT. This method was evaluated through PM(sub 10) hindcasts for 2008-2009, using ohservations from 2005 to 2007 as a training data set to obtain model coefficients. For five big Chinese cities, over 50% of the hindcasts have percentage error less than or equal to 30%. Similar performance was achieved for cities in northern Thailand. The MODIS AOT data are responsible for at least part of the demonstrated forecasting skill. This method can be easily adapted for other regions, but is probably most useful for those having sparse ground monitoring networks or no access to sophisticated deterministic models. We also highlight several existing issues, including some inherent to a regression-based approach as exemplified by a case study for Beijing, Further studies will be

  8. An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

  9. Fine Resolution Air Quality Monitoring from a Small Satellite: CHRIS/PROBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Current remote sensing techniques fail to address the task of air quality monitoring over complex regions where multiple pollution sources produce high spatial variability. This is due to a lack of suitable satellite-sensor combinations and appropriate aerosol optical thickness (AOT retrieval algorithms. The new generation of small satellites, with their lower costs and greater flexibility has the potential to address this problem, with customised platform-sensor combinations dedicated to monitoring single complex regions or mega-cities. This paper demonstrates the ability of the European Space Agency’s small satellite sensor CHRIS/PROBA to provide reliable AOT estimates at a spatially detailed level over Hong Kong, using a modified version of the dense dark vegetation (DDV algorithm devised for MODIS. Since CHRIS has no middle-IR band such as the MODIS 2,100 nm band which is transparent to fine aerosols, the longest waveband of CHRIS, the 1,019 nm band was used to approximate surface reflectance, by the subtraction of an offset derived from synchronous field reflectance spectra. Aerosol reflectance in the blue and red bands was then obtained from the strong empirical relationship observed between the CHRIS 1,019 nm, and the blue and red bands respectively. AOT retrievals for three different dates were shown to be reliable, when compared with AERONET and Microtops II sunphotometers, and a Lidar, as well as air quality data at ground stations. The AOT images exhibited considerable spatial variability over the 11 x 11km image area and were able to indicate both local and long distance sources.

  10. Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm for nadir-looking satellite instruments in the UV-VIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. A. van Peet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For the retrieval of the vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA has been further developed. The new version (1.26 of OPERA is capable of retrieving ozone profiles from UV-VIS observations of most nadir looking satellite instruments like GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The set-up of OPERA is described and results are presented for GOME and GOME-2 observations. The retrieved ozone profiles are globally compared to ozone sondes for the year 1997 and 2008. Relative differences between GOME/GOME-2 and ozone sondes are within the limits as specified by the user requirements from the Climate Change Initiative (CCI program of ESA. To demonstrate the performance of the algorithm under extreme circumstances the 2009 Antarctic ozone hole season was investigated in more detail using GOME-2 ozone profiles and lidar data, which showed an unusual persistence of the vortex over the Río Gallegos observing station (51° S, 69.3° W. By applying OPERA to multiple instruments a timeseries of ozone profiles from 1996 to 2013 from a single robust algorithm can be created.

  11. Detection of Transionospheric SuperDARN HF Waves by the Radio Receiver Instrument on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, R. G.; Yau, A. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Canadian small-satellite was launched in September 2013. Included in this suite of eight scientific instruments is the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI). The RRI has been used to measure VLF and HF radio waves from various ground and spontaneous ionospheric sources. The first dedicated ground transmission that was detected by RRI was from the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar on Nov. 7, 2013 at 14 MHz. Several other passes over the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar have been recorded since then. Ground transmissions have also been observed from other radars, such as the SPEAR, HAARP, and SURA ionospheric heaters. However, the focus of this study will be on the results obtained from the SuperDARN passes. An analysis of the signal recorded by the RRI provides estimates of signal power, Doppler shift, polarization, absolute time delay, differential mode delay, and angle of arrival. By comparing these parameters to similar parameters derived from ray tracing simulations, ionospheric electron density structures may be detected and measured. Further analysis of the results from the other ground transmitters and future SuperDARN passes will be used to refine these results.

  12. Intercomparison of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide columns retrieved from ground-based DOAS and FTIR and satellite DOAS instruments over the subtropical Izana station

    OpenAIRE

    Robles-Gonzalez, Cristina; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Garcia, Omaira; Blumenstock, Thomas; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A 13-year analysis (2000–2012) of the NO2 vertical column densities derived from ground-based (GB) instruments and satellites has been carried out over the Izaña NDACC (Network for the Detection of the Atmospheric Composition Change) subtropical site. Ground-based DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) instruments are intercompared to test mutual consistency and then used for validation of stratospheric NO2 fro...

  13. Software systems for operation, control, and monitoring of the EBEX instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Milligan, Michael; Aubin, François; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grainger, Will; Hanany, Shaul; Hillbrand, Seth; Hubmayr, Johannes; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Miller, Amber; Pascale, Enzo; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Sagiv, Ilan; Tran, Huan; Tucker, Gregory S; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle; Physics, University of Minnesota School of; Astronomy,; USA,; University, Cardiff; Kingdom, United; University, McGill; Montréal,; Canada,; Avanzati, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi; Trieste,; Italy,; Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National; USA,; University, Columbia; York, New; USA,; Standards, National Institute of; Technology,; CO, Boulder; USA,; College, Imperial; London,; Kingdom, United; California, University of; Berkeley,; USA,; University, Brown; Providence,; USA,; Science, Weizmann Institute of; Rehovot,; Israel,; Technology, California Institute of; Pasadena,; USA,; Spatiale, Institut d'Astrophysique; Paris-Sud, Universite; Orsay,; France,; Study, Institute for Advanced; Princeton,; USA,

    2010-01-01

    We present the hardware and software systems implementing autonomous operation, distributed real-time monitoring, and control for the EBEX instrument. EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne microwave polarimeter designed for a 14 day Antarctic flight that circumnavigates the pole. To meet its science goals the EBEX instrument autonomously executes several tasks in parallel: it collects attitude data and maintains pointing control in order to adhere to an observing schedule; tunes and operates up to 1920 TES bolometers and 120 SQUID amplifiers controlled by as many as 30 embedded computers; coordinates and dispatches jobs across an onboard computer network to manage this detector readout system; logs over 3~GiB/hour of science and housekeeping data to an onboard disk storage array; responds to a variety of commands and exogenous events; and downlinks multiple heterogeneous data streams representing a selected subset of the total logged data. Most of the systems implementing these functions have been tested during...

  14. GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument): A New Airborne GNSS-R receiver for land surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument) is a new receiver dedicated to the airborne measurement of surface parameters such as soil moisture and biomass above ground and sea state (wave height and direction) above oceans. The instrument is based on the PARIS concept [Martin-Neira, 1993] using both the direct and surface-reflected L-band signals from the GPS constellation as a multistatic radar source. The receiver is based on one up-looking and one down-looking dual polarization hemispherical active antennas feeding a low-cost 4-channel SDR direct down-conversion receiver tuned to the GPS L1 frequency. The raw measurements are sampled at 16.368MHz and stored as 2-bit, IQ binary files. In post-processing, GPS acquisition and tracking are performed on the direct up-looking signal while the down-looking signal is processed blindly using tracking parameters from the direct signal. The obtained direct and reflected code-correlation waveforms are the basic observables for geophysical parameters inversion. The instrument was designed to be installed aboard the ATR42 experimental aircraft from the French SAFIRE fleet as a permanent payload. The long term goal of the project is to provide real-time continuous surface information for every flight performed. The aircraft records attitude information through its Inertial Measurement Unit and a commercial GPS receiver records additional information such as estimated doppler and code phase, receiver location, satellites azimuth and elevation. A series of test flights were performed over both the Toulouse and Gulf of Lion (Mediterranean Sea) regions during the period 17-21 Nov 2014 together with the KuROS radar [Hauser et al., 2014]. Using processing methods from the literature [Egido et al., 2014], preliminary results demonstrate the instrument sensitivity to both ground and ocean surface parameters estimation. A dedicated scientific flight campaign is planned at the end of second quarter 2015 with

  15. Standardisation of a Vapour Generator for Calibration of Environmental Monitoring Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Rana

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Very low vapour pressure of 2,4,6 trinitrotoulene (TNT yields extremely low vapour concentrations at different flow rates in the air, yet considerable quantity of vapours and TNTdust during handling may be present at the workplace environment which is harmful to the health of the personnel working there. The explosive vapours, such as TNT,  2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT, etc., though harmful to the health of the personnel, are not covered either in the emission standards or in the ambient air quality standards. Presently, no instrument is available for air monitoring of TNT vapours. These vapours need to be collected on-site to estimate TNT concentration. Realising the need for real-time air monitoring of TNT, efforts have been made to understand and device an instrument for on-site determination of TNT vapours parts per billiion (ppb range. Low-level TNT vapours and TNT buried in the soil in military operations are required to be detected. The instruments for this require careful calibration to yield accurate and reliable results. Hence, an effort has been made to develop a trace-level ppb vapour generator. The vapour generator of a spiral glass column of length 170 cm and inner diameter 4 mm 2 0.5 mm has been used. An activated charcoal glass tube has been used for sampling TNT vapours. The adsorbed TNT vapours were desorbed and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography. Thesolid support used has been studied. These vapours generated at different flow rates have been evaluated. The calibrated instrument can be used for in situ and on-site analysis of samples of TNT and also for samples collected.

  16. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  17. Coupling of ground biosensor networks for water monitoring with satellite observations in assessing Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, A. N.; Rickerby, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis became recently a major public-health problem that is closely related with the environment (Nature review Oct 2009, Vol 7, pp 736-747). This disease originates from zoonotic pathogens associated with asymptomatic rodent carriers. Unfortunately, it effects human populations via various direct and indirect routes. This disease can claim many victims with large outbreaks during natural disasters or floods occurring during seasonal conditions. The severity of the illness ranges from subclinical infection to a fulminating fatal disease. Improved water quality monitoring techniques based on biosensor, optical, micro-fluidic and information technologies are leading to radical changes in our ability to perceive and monitor the aquatic environment. Biosensors are capable of providing specific, high spatial resolution information and allow unattended operation that will be particularly useful for water borne related diseases. Current research on biosensors is leading to solutions to problems for several contaminants that were previously irresolvable due to their high degree of complexity. Networking of the sensors enables sensitive monitoring systems allowing real-time monitoring of pollutants and facilitates data transmission between the measurement points and central control stations for continuous surveillance and to provide an early warning capability. The application of intelligent biosensor networks for water quality monitoring and detection of localized sources of pollution are discussed together with the setting up of a methodology that utilizes images from satellite coupled with in-situ sensors for anticipating the zones of potential evolution of this disease and assessing the population at risk. Environmental and climatic conditions that are associated the outbreaks are described and the rational of combining earth observations coupled with advanced in-situ biosensors is explained. The implementation of sensor networks for data collection and exposure

  18. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-Ⅵ and sub-Ⅵ source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article.

  19. Instrumentation and control systems for monitoring and data acquisition for thermal recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Hernandez, E.; Perozo, H. [PDVSA Intevep, S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Thermal recovery methods are often applied to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs, one of its challenges is to control the displacement of the thermal front. Methods are thus implemented to obtain data on the temperatures in the wells at any given time and to monitor other variables so that the behaviour of the thermal front can be predicted. The aim of this paper is to present a new control and instrumentation scheme to measure all of the variables. A software was created using Labview a graphs-based programming language software and PostgreSQL, a database management system. Using this software, sensors can be added or removed at any time; trends can be immediately visualized; and quality of the information is ensured since there is no human intervention in the data collection or processing. This paper presented a software which improves monitoring of all of the variables affecting the behaviour of the thermal front.

  20. Satellite data acquisition requirements for monitoring of permafrost in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Annett

    2015-04-01

    Requirements for space based monitoring of permafrost features had been already defined within the IGOS Cryosphere Theme Report at the start of the IPY in 2007 (IGOS, 2007). In 2012 the Polar Space Task Group (PSTG, http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/sat/pstg_en.php) has been established as the coordinating body of space agencies, in particular the Space Task Group (STG), for space -based observations of Polar Regions after the International Polar Year (IPY) and under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Executive Council Panel of Experts on Polar Observations Research and Services (EC-PORS). The PSTG identified the need to review the requirements for permafrost monitoring and to update these requirements as necessary in 2013. Relevant surveys with focus on satellite data are already available from the ESA DUE Permafrost User requirements survey (2009), the United States National Research Council (2014) and the ESA - CliC - IPA - GTN -P workshop in February 2014. These reports have been reviewed and specific needs discussed within the community. Acquisition requirements for monitoring of especially terrain changes (incl. rock glaciers and coastal erosion) and lakes (extent, ice properties etc.) with respect to current satellite missions have been specified. Of special interest for these applications are SAR missions. Current acquisition strategies for space borne SAR data only partially cover polar permafrost regions and some of the longterm in-situ measurement sites. Many stations are located in the proximity to coastal areas and glaciers which to some extent may allow joint usage by different cryosphere applications but requirements may deviate. The results of the discussion are presented in this paper.

  1. Frequency based detection and monitoring of small scale explosive activity by comparing satellite and ground based infrared observations at Stromboli Volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Anna; Dehn, Jonathan; Ripepe, Maurizio; Donne, Dario Delle

    2014-08-01

    Thermal activity is a common precursor to explosive volcanic activity. The ability to use these thermal precursors to monitor the volcano and obtain early warning about upcoming activity is beneficial for both human safety and infrastructure security. By using a very reliably active volcano, Stromboli Volcano in Italy, a method has been developed and tested to look at changes in the frequency of small scale explosive activity and how this activity changes prior to larger, ash producing explosive events. Thermal camera footage was used to designate parameters for typical explosions at Stromboli (size of spatter field, cooling rate, frequency of explosions) and this information was applied to characterize explosions in satellite imagery. Satellite data from The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and US/Japan designed Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for numerous periods in 2002 to 2009 were analyzed for thermal features which were used to calculate an estimate of the level of activity during the given time period. The results at Stromboli showed a high level of small scale explosions which stop completely prior to large paroxysmal eruptive episodes. This activity also corresponds well to seismic and infrasonic records at Stromboli, indicating that this thermal infrared monitoring method may be used in conjunction with other detection methods where available, and also indicates that it may be a useful method for volcano monitoring when other methods (e.g. seismic instrumentation, infrasound arrays, etc.) are not available.

  2. Monitoring of the orbital position of a geostationary satellite by the spatially separated reception of signals of digital satellite television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliuzny, M. P.; Bushuev, F. I.; Sibiriakova, Ye. S.; Shulga, O. V.; Shakun, L. S.; Bezrukovs, V.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Moskalenko, S. S.; Malynovsky, Ye. V.; Balagura, O. A.

    2017-02-01

    The results of the determination of the geostationary satellite "Eutelsat-13B" orbital position obtained during 2015-2016 years using European stations' network for reception of DVB-S signals from the satellite are presented. The network consists of five stations located in Ukraine and Latvia. The stations are equipped with a radio engineering complex developed by the RI "MAO". The measured parameter is a time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the DVB-S signals to the stations of the network. The errors of TDOA determination and satellite coordinates, obtained using a numerical model of satellite motion, are equal ±2.6 m and ±35 m respectively. Software implementation of the numerical model is taken from the free space dynamics library OREKIT.

  3. Development of a WebGIS-based monitoring and environmental protection and preservation system for the Black Sea: The ECO-Satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2013-04-01

    The ECO-Satellite project has been approved in the frame of the Joint Operational Program "Black Sea Basin 2007-2013" and it is co-financed by the European Union through the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance and National Funds. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the protection and preservation of the water system of the Black Sea, with its main emphasis given to river deltas and protected coastal regions at the seaside. More specifically, it focuses on the creation of an environmental monitoring system targeting the marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea, thus strengthening the development of common research among the involved partners and increasing the intraregional knowledge for the corresponding coastal zones. This integrated multi-level system is based on the technological assets provided by satellite Earth observation data and Geo-Informatics innovative tools and facilities, as well as on the development of a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. Furthermore, a Web-GIS system is under development aiming in principle to support environmental decision and policy making by monitoring the state of marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea and managing all the aforementioned data sources and derived research results. The system is designed in a way that is easily expandable and adaptable for environmental management in local, regional national and trans-national level and as such it will increase the capacity of decision makers who are related to Black Sea environmental policy. Therefore, it is expected that administrative authorities, scientifically related institutes and environmental protection bodies in all eligible areas will show interest in the results and applications of the information system, since the ECO-Satellite project could serve as a support tool for the

  4. Monitoring soil wetness variations by means of satellite passive microwave observations: the HYDROPTIMET study cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lacava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an important component of the hydrological cycle. In the framework of modern flood warning systems, the knowledge of soil moisture is crucial, due to the influence on the soil response in terms of infiltration-runoff. Precipitation-runoff processes, in fact, are related to catchment's hydrological conditions before the precipitation. Thus, an estimation of these conditions is of significant importance to improve the reliability of flood warning systems. Combining such information with other weather-related satellite products (i.e. rain rate estimation might represent a useful exercise in order to improve our capability to handle (and possibly mitigate or prevent hydro-geological hazards. Remote sensing, in the last few years, has supported several techniques for soil moisture/wetness monitoring. Most of the satellite-based techniques use microwave data, thanks to the all-weather and all-time capability of these data, as well as to their high sensitivity to water content in the soil. On the other hand, microwave data are unfortunately highly affected by the presence of surface roughness or vegetation coverage within the instantaneous satellite field of view (IFOV. Those problems, consequently, strongly limit the efficiency and the reliability of traditional satellite techniques. Recently, using data coming from AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, flying aboard NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites, a new methodology for soil wetness estimation has been proposed. The proposed index, called Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI, developed by a multi-temporal analysis of AMSU records, seems able to reduce the problems related to vegetation and/or roughness effects. Such an approach has been tested, with promising results, on the analysis of some flooding events which occurred in Europe in the past. In this study, results achieved for the HYDROPTIMET test cases will be analysed and discussed in detail

  5. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-05-21

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability.

  6. Satellite Monitoring of Long-Range Transport of Asian Dust Storms from Sources to Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, N.; Tsay, S.; Jeong, M.; King, M.; Holben, B.

    2007-05-01

    Among the many components that contribute to air pollution, airborne mineral dust plays an important role due to its biogeochemical impact on the ecosystem and its radiative-forcing effect on the climate system. In East Asia, dust storms frequently accompany the cold and dry air masses that occur as part of spring-time cold front systems. China's capital, Beijing, and other large cities are on the primary pathway of these dust storm plumes, and their passage over such popu-lation centers causes flight delays, pushes grit through windows and doors, and forces people indoors. Furthermore, during the spring these anthropogenic and natural air pollutants, once generated over the source regions, can be transported out of the boundary layer into the free troposphere and can travel thousands of kilometers across the Pacific into the United States and beyond. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Such retrievals have been dif-ficult to perform using previously available algorithms that use wavelengths from the mid-visible to the near IR because they have trouble separating the aerosol signal from the contribution due to the bright surface reflectance. The new algorithm, called Deep Blue, utilizes blue-wavelength measurements from instruments such as SeaWiFS and MODIS to infer the properties of aerosols, since the surface reflectance over land in the blue part of the spectrum is much lower than for longer wavelength channels. Deep Blue algorithm has recently been integrated into the MODIS processing stream and began to provide aerosol products over land as part of the opera-tional MYD04 products. In this talk, we will show the comparisons of the MODIS Deep Blue products with data from AERONET sunphotometers on a global ba-sis. The results indicate reasonable agreements between these two. These new

  7. Unattended instruments for ground-based hyperspectral measurements: development and application for plant photosynthesis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, S.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Barducci, A.; Julitta, T.; Colombo, R.

    2011-12-01

    and long-term hyperspectral data in different measurement conditions. As a demonstration of the potential of these instruments for monitoring plant photosynthesis, the collected time series (NDVI, PRI and F@760) were successfully used as inputs of Light Use Efficiency (LUE). However, HSI and MRI would be also useful to routinely collect at ground observations of other environmental compartments, for example for calibration/validation of RS data and products.

  8. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Gebre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimating the data from the sensors at the remote location before transmission. The decimation is adjusted to the available bandwidth of the communications network which is characterized in real-time. As a result, the system allows users at the remote command center to view high bandwidth data (at a lower resolution with user-aware and minimized latency. This technique is applied to an eight hydrophone data acquisition system that requires a 25.6 Mbps connection for the transmission of the full data set using a wireless connection with 1 – 3.5 Mbps variable bandwidth. This technique can be used for applications that require monitoring of high bandwidth data from remote sensors in research and education fields such as remote scientific instruments and visually driven control applications.

  9. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Gebre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimating the data from the sensors at the remote location before transmission. The decimation is adjusted to the available bandwidth of the communications network which is characterized in real-time. As a result, the system allows users at the remote command center to view high bandwidth data (at a lower resolution with user-aware and minimized latency. This technique is applied to an eight hydrophone data acquisition system that requires a 25.6 Mbps connection for the transmission of the full data set using a wireless connection with 1 – 3.5 Mbps variable bandwidth. This technique can be used for applications that require monitoring of high bandwidth data from remote sensors in research and education fields such as remote scientific instruments and visually driven control applications.

  10. Revising the slant column density retrieval of nitrogen dioxide observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, S.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Bucsela, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen dioxide retrievals from the Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used extensively over the past decade, particularly in the study of tropospheric air quality. Recent comparisons of OMI NO2 with independent data sets and models suggested that the OMI values of slant column density (SCD) and stratospheric vertical column density (VCD) in both the NASA OMNO2 and Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute DOMINO products are too large, by around 10-40%. We describe a substantially revised spectral fitting algorithm, optimized for the OMI visible light spectrometer channel. The most important changes comprise a flexible adjustment of the instrumental wavelength shifts combined with iterative removal of the ring spectral features; the multistep removal of instrumental noise; iterative, sequential estimates of SCDs of the trace gases in the 402-465 nm range. These changes reduce OMI SCD(NO2) by 10-35%, bringing them much closer to SCDs retrieved from independent measurements and models. The revised SCDs, submitted to the stratosphere-troposphere separation algorithm, give tropospheric VCDs ˜10-15% smaller in polluted regions, and up to ˜30% smaller in unpolluted areas. Although the revised algorithm has been optimized specifically for the OMI NO2 retrieval, our approach could be more broadly applicable.

  11. Monitoring atmospheric turbulence profiles with high vertical resolution using PML/PBL instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blary, F.; Ziad, A.; Borgnino, J.; Fantéï-Caujolle, Y.; Aristidi, Eric; Lantéri, H.

    2014-07-01

    Wide-Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) have been proposed for the next generation of telescopes. In order to be efficient, correction using WFAO require knowledge of atmospheric turbulence parameters. The structure constant of index-of-refraction fluctuations (C2 N ) being one of them. Indirect methods implemented in instruments as SCIDAR, MASS, SLODAR, CO-SLIDAR and MOSP have been proposed to measure C2 N (h) pro le through different layers of the atmosphere. A new monitor called the Profiler of Moon Limb (PML) is presented. In this instrument, C2 N (h) pro les are retrieved from the transverse covariance via minimization of a maximum likelihood criterion under positivity constraint using an iterative gradient method. An other approach using a regularization method (RM) is also studied. Instrument errors are mainly related to the detection of the Moon limb position and are mostly due to photon noise. Numerical simulations have been used to evaluate the error on the extracted pro le and its propagation from the detection to the inverse technique.

  12. Vegetation monitoring for Guatemala: a comparison between simulated VIIRS and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, Vijendra K.; Easson, Gregory L.; Rowland, James

    2010-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are being widely used for vegetation monitoring across the globe. However, sensors will discontinue collecting these data in the near future. National Aeronautics and Space Administration is planning to launch a new sensor, visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS), to continue to provide satellite data for vegetation monitoring. This article presents a case study of Guatemala and compares the simulated VIIRS-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with MODIS-NDVI for four different dates each in 2003 and 2005. The dissimilarity between VIIRS-NDVI and MODIS-NDVI was examined on the basis of the percent difference, the two-tailed student's t-test, and the coefficient of determination, R 2. The per cent difference was found to be within 3%, the p-value ranged between 0.52 and 0.99, and R 2 exceeded 0.88 for all major types of vegetation (basic grains, rubber, sugarcane, coffee and forests) found in Guatemala. It was therefore concluded that VIIRS will be almost equally capable of vegetation monitoring as MODIS.

  13. 11 years observing with OMC, the Optical Monitoring Camera on board the INTEGRAL satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Garzón, J.; Domingo, A.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) on board the INTEGRAL observatory provides photometry in the Johnson V band, complementing the high-energy instruments which take images and spectra in hard X-rays and soft gamma--rays. After 11 years of mission operations, it has been possible to compile optical photometric light curves for a very large number of objects, with observational time spans of more than a decade and with a stable and consistent photometric calibration. In this contribution, we present a summary of some of the most interesting scientific results reached with INTEGRAL/OMC data, including the compilation of a catalogue of optically variable sources, some results on the analysis of temporal correlations between different energy ranges and the OMC monitoring of the supernova SN 2014J.

  14. Monitoring powdery mildew of winter wheat by using moderate resolution multi-temporal satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B, green (G, red (R and near infrared (NIR bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a suburban area in Beijing, China, an extensive field campaign for disease intensity survey was conducted at key growth stages of winter wheat in 2010. Meanwhile, corresponding time series of HJ-CCD images were acquired over the study area. In this study, a number of single-stage and multi-stage spectral features, which were sensitive to powdery mildew, were selected by using an independent t-test. With the selected spectral features, four advanced methods: mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood classifier, partial least square regression and mixture tuned matched filtering were tested and evaluated for their performances in disease mapping. The experimental results showed that all four algorithms could generate disease maps with a generally correct distribution pattern of powdery mildew at the grain filling stage (Zadoks 72. However, by comparing these disease maps with ground survey data (validation samples, all of the four algorithms also produced a variable degree of error in estimating the disease occurrence and severity. Further, we found that the integration of MTMF and PLSR algorithms could result in a significant accuracy improvement of identifying and determining the disease intensity (overall accuracy of 72% increased to 78% and kappa coefficient of 0.49 increased to 0.59. The experimental results also demonstrated that the multi-temporal satellite images have a great potential in crop diseases mapping at a regional scale.

  15. Instrumental monitoring of lahars for warning purposes: new developments along the Colima Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Capra, Lucia; Vázquez, Rosario; Márquez, Víctor H.; Cruz, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for rapid flow-like landslides can be classified into two main types: advance- and event-systems. Advance EWSs predict the flow occurrence by monitoring the parameters that may lead to initiation conditions, typically rainfall. This kind of EWSs are prone to a high number of false alarms because they are strongly affected by uncertainties in both precipitation measurements and in the estimate of rainfall thresholds. Event EWSs are based on the instrumental detection of the flow when it is already in progress. Those systems can be particularly effective to protect vulnerable infrastructures such as communication routes that do not require an excessively long alert time. However, having a much smaller lead time than advance-systems, their effectiveness strictly depends on the possibility to perform accurate and rapid measurements and to automatically process, store and validate monitoring data, that is to integrate an effective warning algorithm. In mountainous regions, several instrumented catchments exist where debris flow monitoring is performed using stage sensors, video cameras, and ground vibration detectors (GVDs). For early warning purpose, the possibility to detect debris flows from a distance is an important advantage of GVDs. In addition, most monitoring devices need to be installed in the channel bed or very close to it, with consequent great danger to be destructed. Consequently, a growing number of monitoring systems of active basins integrate a linear array of GVDs distributed along the channel, in safe locations. A debris flow warning algorithm based on geophone data was recently developed and implemented in the Gadria testing field for EWSs, Northeastern Italian Alps. This algorithm uses the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as warning parameter instead of a classical intensity/duration threshold. The event detection algorithm adopts a non-simultaneous triggering condition requiring that at least two geophones trigger in order

  16. A mission-oriented orbit design method of remote sensing satellite for region monitoring mission based on evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Huang

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing satellites play an increasingly prominent role in environmental monitoring and disaster rescue. Taking advantage of almost the same sunshine condition to same place and global coverage, most of these satellites are operated on the sun-synchronous orbit. However, it brings some problems inevitably, the most significant one is that the temporal resolution of sun-synchronous orbit satellite can't satisfy the demand of specific region monitoring mission. To overcome the disadvantages, two methods are exploited: the first one is to build satellite constellation which contains multiple sunsynchronous satellites, just like the CHARTER mechanism has done; the second is to design non-predetermined orbit based on the concrete mission demand. An effective method for remote sensing satellite orbit design based on multiobjective evolution algorithm is presented in this paper. Orbit design problem is converted into a multi-objective optimization problem, and a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm is utilized to solve this problem. Firstly, the demand of the mission is transformed into multiple objective functions, and the six orbit elements of the satellite are taken as genes in design space, then a simulate evolution process is performed. An optimal resolution can be obtained after specified generation via evolution operation (selection, crossover, and mutation). To examine validity of the proposed method, a case study is introduced: Orbit design of an optical satellite for regional disaster monitoring, the mission demand include both minimizing the average revisit time internal of two objectives. The simulation result shows that the solution for this mission obtained by our method meet the demand the users' demand. We can draw a conclusion that the method presented in this paper is efficient for remote sensing orbit design.

  17. Monitoring and remote failure detection of grid-connected PV systems based on satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, A.; Lorenz, E.; Betcke, J.; Heinemann, D. [Oldenburg University, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9-11, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); de Keizer, A.C.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [University of Utrecht, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Beyer, H.G. [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal (FH), Institute of Electrical Engineering, Breitscheidstr. 2, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Heydenreich, W.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Stettler, S.; Toggweiler, P. [Enecolo AG, Lindhofstr. 52, 8617 Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Bofinger, S.; Schneider, M.; Heilscher, G. [Meteocontrol GmbH, Spicherer Strasse 48, 86157 Augsburg (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Small grid-connected photovoltaic systems up to 5 kW{sub p} are often not monitored because advanced surveillance systems are not economical. Hence, some system failures which lead to partial energy losses stay unnoticed for a long time. Even a failure that results in a larger energy deficit can be difficult to detect by PV laymen due to the fluctuating energy yields. Within the EU project PVSAT-2, a fully automated performance check has been developed to assure maximum energy yields and to optimize system maintenance for small grid-connected PV systems. The aim is the early detection of system malfunctions and changing operating conditions to prevent energy and subsequent financial losses for the operator. The developed procedure is based on satellite-derived solar irradiance information that replaces on-site measurements. In conjunction with a simulation model the expected energy yield of a PV system is calculated. In case of the occurrence of a defined difference between the simulated and actual energy yield, an automated failure detection routine searches for the most probable failure sources and notifies the operator. This paper describes the individual components of the developed procedure - the satellite-derived irradiance, the used PV simulation model, and the principles of the automated failure detection routine. Moreover, it presents results of an 8-months test phase with 100 PV systems in three European countries. (author)

  18. A Multi-Satellite Approach for Water Storage Monitoring in an Arid Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit T. Ghebreyesus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use satellite imagery to monitor the water budget of Al Ain region in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Inflows and outflows were estimated and the trend of water storage variation in the study area was examined from 2005 to 2014. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the simplified Penman-Monteith equation. Landsat images were used to determine the extent of agricultural and green areas. Time series of gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE observations over the study area were used to assess the inferred water storage variation from satellite data. The change of storage inferred from the Water Budget Equation showed a decreasing trend at an average rate of 2.57 Mm3 annually. Moreover, GRACE readings showed a decreasing trend at a rate of 0.35 cm of water depth annually. Mann-Kendal, a non-parametric trend test, proved the presence of significant negative trends in both time series at a 5% significance level. A two-month lag resulted in a better agreement (R2 = 0.55 between the change in water storage and GRACE anomalies within the study area. These results suggest that water storage in the study area is being depleted significantly. Moreover, the potential of remote sensing in water resource management, especially in remote and arid areas, was demonstrated.

  19. Long-term monitoring of ocean deep convection using multisensors altimetry and ocean color satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Marine; Auger, Pierre-Amael; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude

    2017-02-01

    Deep convection occurs in oceanic regions submitted to strong atmospheric buoyancy losses and results in the formation of deep water masses (DWF) of the ocean circulation. It shows a strong interannual variability, and could drastically weaken under the influence of climate change. In this study, a method is proposed to monitor quantitatively deep convection using multisensors altimetry and ocean color satellite data. It is applied and evaluated for the well-observed Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) case study. For that, a coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical numerical simulation is used to examine the signature of DWF on sea level anomaly (SLA) and surface chlorophyll concentration. Statistically significant correlations between DWF annual indicators and the areas of low surface chlorophyll concentration and low SLA in winter are obtained, and linear relationships between those indicators and areas are established. These relationships are applied to areas of low SLA and low chlorophyll concentration computed, respectively, from a 27 year altimetry data set and a 19 year ocean color data set. The first long time series (covering the last 2 decades) of DWF indicators obtained for the NWMS from satellite observations are produced. Model biases and smoothing effect induced by the low resolution of gridded altimetry data are partly taken into account by using corrective methods. Comparison with winter atmospheric heat flux and previous modeled and observed estimates of DWF indicators suggests that those DWF indicators time series capture realistically DWF interannual variability in the NWMS. The advantages as well as the weaknesses and uncertainties of the method are finally discussed.

  20. A radiation belt monitor for the High Energy Transient Experiment Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, D. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prigozhin, G. Y.; Doty, J.; Ricker, G.

    1993-01-01

    A Radiation Belt Monitor (RBM) sensitive to protons and electrons with energy approximately greater than 0.5 MeV has been designed for the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) satellite in order to: first, control the on-off configuration of the experiments (i.e. those susceptible to proton damage); and second, to indicate the presence of proton and/or electron events that could masquerade as legitimate high energy photon events. One of the two RBM channels has an enhanced sensitivity to electrons. Each channel of the RBM, based on a PIN silicon diode, requires a typical power of 6 milliwatts. Tests have been performed with protons with energies from approximately 0.1 to 2.5 MeV (generated by a Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator via the d(d,p)t reaction), and with electrons with energies up to 1 MeV (from a 1.0 microcurie Bi-207 source).

  1. Use of global navigation satellite systems for monitoring deformations of water-development works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaftan, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Center (Russian Federation); Ustinov, A. V. [JSC Institut Gidropreoekt (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The feasibility of using global radio-navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to improve functional safety of high-liability water-development works - dams at hydroelectric power plants, and, consequently, the safety of the population in the surrounding areas is examined on the basis of analysis of modern publications. Characteristics for determination of displacements and deformations with use of GNSS, and also in a complex with other types of measurements, are compared. It is demonstrated that combined monitoring of deformations of the ground surface of the region, and engineering and technical structures is required to ensure the functional safety of HPP, and reliable metrologic assurance of measurements is also required to obtain actual characteristics of the accuracy and effectiveness of GNSS observations.

  2. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard

    2008-09-30

    In the past 48 months of the project, we have accomplished all objectives outlined in the proposal. In the first year, we demonstrated the technology for remote sensing on a bench top scale. The core electronics are designed and fabricated. We achieved results that will safely deliver the specifications outlined in the proposal. In the 2nd year, 2 major technical tasks outlined in the Statement of Objectives, i.e. Build a field test ready prototype of a long-range CO2 monitor, and characterize its performance in the short term and demonstrate that the monitor characteristics meet the goals set in the initial proposal, have been accomplished. We also conducted simulation work that defines the different deployment strategies for our sensors at sequestration sites. In the 3rd year, Specifications and Testing protocols have been developed for the CO2 monitor. 1% accuracy had been demonstrated in short period tests ({approx}1 hour). Unattended system operation and stability over a period of a week has been demonstrated with and without EDFA (laser power amplifier). The sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 leaks has been demonstrated. In the 4th no-cost extension year, we further field tested the system and the experience we accumulated give us a clear picture of what else are needed for final field deployment. These results have shown all the objectives of the project have been fulfilled. In July 2008, along with our commercial partner we won the DOE STTR phase I award to commercialize the instrument developed in this project - a testimony to the achievement of this research.

  3. Satellite Monitoring for Early Warning and Triggering Disaster Risk Financing in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Owor, M.

    2016-12-01

    Natural disasters typically occur with little warning and can have grave and long-lasting negative consequences especially for populations fully dependent on rainfed agriculture. Disaster risk financing (DRF) aims to scale up alternative livelihoods such as Labour Intensive Public Works (LIPW) when a disaster hits to minimize the likely impacts on communities. In data-rich regions triggering DRF or crop insurances payouts can be easily implemented e.g in the case of agriculture, yield losses due to drought can be measured directly. This is constrained in Uganda, because seasonal/annual production data are scarce due to the subsistence and smallholder nature of agriculture in addition to low capacity for data collection and analysis in the country. Satellite remote sensing based indices, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), provides an objective and dependable solution to this challenge. Using MODIS satellite imagery provided through the GLAM East-Africa portal (Global Agricultural Monitoring system adapted for East-Africa) for obtaining NDVI time-series in near real-time, the Office of the Prime Minister of Uganda (OPM) is designing an operational crop conditions monitoring system in support of its recently initiated DRF Project, under the Third Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF 2). The basis for triggering the DRF mechanism under this project is the deviation from the long-term NDVI (NDVI Anomaly data) within the growing season beyond a defined threshold. The NDVI data that are preprocessed in the GLAM system offer spatially explicit information on vegetation and crop conditions forming an adequate base for assessing generalized growing season conditions and enabling the quick implementation of DRF using transparent and objective criteria. The system and criteria serve also as an early-warning mechanism as the NDVI anomaly approaches the triggering threshold allowing time for planning and implementing LIPW projects.

  4. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  5. Global near real-time disturbance monitoring using MODIS satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesselt, J.; Kalomenopoulos, M.; de Jong, R.; Zeileis, A.; Herold, M.

    2012-12-01

    Global disturbance monitoring in forested ecosystems is critical to retrieve information on carbon storage dynamics, biodiversity, and other socio-ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing provides a means for cost-effective monitoring at frequent time steps over large areas. However, for information about current change processes, it is required to analyse image time series in a fast and accurate manner and to detect abnormal change in near real time. An increasing number of change detection techniques have become available that are able to process historical satellite image time series data to detect changes in the past. However, methods that detect changes near real-time, i.e. analysing newly acquired data with respect to the historical series, are lacking. We propose a statistical technique for monitoring change in near-real time by comparing current data with a seasonal-trend model fitted onto the historical time series. As such, identification of consistent and abnormal change in near-real time becomes possible as soon as new image data is captured. The method is based on the "Break For Additive Seasonal Trend" (BFAST) concept (http://bfast.r-forge.r-project.org/). Disturbances are detected by analysing 16-daily MODIS combined vegetation and temperature indices. Validation is carried out by comparing the detected disturbances with available disturbance data sets (e.g. deforestation in Brazil and MODIS fire products). Preliminary results demonstrated that abrupt changes at the end of time series can be successfully detected while the method remains robust for strong seasonality and atmospheric noise. Cloud masking, however, was identified as a critical issue since periods of persistent cloudiness can be detected as abnormal change. The proposed method is an automatic and robust change detection approach that can be applied on different types of data (e.g. future sensors like the Sentinel constellation that provide higher spatial resolution at regular time

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

    2013-05-01

    Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates

  7. The Ancona Early Warning Centre, Instrumentation and Continuous Monitoring of the Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Grande frana di Ancona' is an deep-seated landslide reactivated in 1982 after a long period of precipitation. The landslide involves clay and silty clay layers (Pliocene-Pleistocene), fractured with different OCR parameter, alternated with thin sand levels. Overlapped sliding zones are active (maximum depth: 100-120 m, maximum depth 1982 event is 75 m bgl). All the investigations aimed at the consolidation preliminary design in 2000, but the plan concluded that a final consolidation was impossible. Ancona Administration decided then to 'live with the landslide' reducing nevertheless the risk for the people living there. In 2002 a regional law was specifically issued for the people living in the landslide, to give Ancona Administration the responsibility of creating an Early Warning System and an Emergency Plan for people. It's active a surface monitoring system based on 7 total stations and 33 geodetic GPS integrated by a subsurface in place geotechnical system based on 3 DMS multiparametric columns installed down to 95 m depth. Surface Monitoring system The combination of the different instruments: GPS, Automatic Robotic Stations and the clinometric sensors allows us to monitor in the 3D (3D, X, Y, Z) a great number of points previously identified, to keep them under supervision with different measuring technical and from different control positions. The adoption of the geodetic GPS at dual frequency assure an high quality of the GPS measures, and a greater versatility at all the system. The measuring cycle is set up on 30 minutes, but in emergency or after a long rainy period, the system can operate on every points of the dual frequency GPS net also in Real Time RTK, and with the 7 Automatic Robotic Stations. Geotechnical monitoring (DMS) The in place Geotechnical Monitoring System DMS (patents and trade mark CSG srl -Italy) was installed in February 2009. It is made by n°3 Modular Dynamic System columns positioned inside borehole 100 m depth. DMS columns

  8. Improving Flood Prediction By the Assimilation of Satellite Soil Moisture in Poorly Monitored Catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Garreton, C. D.; Ryu, D.; Western, A. W.; Crow, W. T.; Su, C. H.; Robertson, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Flood prediction in poorly monitored catchments is among the greatest challenges faced by hydrologists. To address this challenge, an increasing number of studies in the last decade have explored methods to integrate various existing observations from ground and satellites. One approach in particular, is the assimilation of satellite soil moisture (SM-DA) into rainfall-runoff models. The rationale is that satellite soil moisture (SSM) can be used to correct model soil water states, enabling more accurate prediction of catchment response to precipitation and thus better streamflow. However, there is still no consensus on the most effective SM-DA scheme and how this might depend on catchment scale, climate characteristics, runoff mechanisms, model and SSM products used, etc. In this work, an operational SM-DA scheme was set up in the poorly monitored, large (>40,000 km2), semi-arid Warrego catchment situated in eastern Australia. We assimilated passive and active SSM products into the probability distributed model (PDM) using an ensemble Kalman filter. We explored factors influencing the SM-DA framework, including relatively new techniques to remove model-observation bias, estimate observation errors and represent model errors. Furthermore, we explored the advantages of accounting for the spatial distribution of forcing and channel routing processes within the catchment by implementing and comparing lumped and semi-distributed model setups. Flood prediction is improved by SM-DA (Figure), with a 30% reduction of the average root-mean-squared difference of the ensemble prediction, a 20% reduction of the false alarm ratio and a 40% increase of the ensemble mean Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. SM-DA skill does not significantly change with different observation error assumptions, but the skill strongly depends on the observational bias correction technique used, and more importantly, on the performance of the open-loop model before assimilation. Our findings imply that proper

  9. Modeling vegetation reflectance from satellite and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Dida, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation can be distinguished using remote sensing data from most other (mainly inorganic) materials by virtue of its notable absorption in the red and blue segments of the visible spectrum, its higher green reflectance and, especially, its very strong reflectance in the near-IR. Different types of vegetation show often distinctive variability from one another owing to such parameters as leaf shape and size, overall plant shape, water content, and associated background (e.g., soil types and spacing of the plants (density of vegetative cover within the scene). Different three-dimensional numerical models explicitly represent the vegetation canopy and use numerical methods to calculate reflectance. These models are computationally intensive and are therefore not generally suited to the correction of satellite imagery containing millions of pixels. Physically based models do provide understanding and are potentially more robust in extrapolation. They consider the vegetation canopy to comprise thin layers of leaves, suspended in air like sediment particles in water forming a turbid medium. Monitoring of vegetation cover changes by remote sensing data is one of the most important applications of satellite imagery. Vegetation reflectance has variations with sun zenith angle, view zenith angle, and terrain slope angle. To provide corrections of these effects, for visible and near-infrared light, was used a three parameters model and developed a simple physical model of vegetation reflectance, by assuming homogeneous and closed vegetation canopy with randomly oriented leaves. Multiple scattering theory was used to extend the model to function for both near-infrared and visible light. This vegetation reflectance model may be used to correct satellite imagery for bidirectional and topographic effects. For two ASTER images over Cernica forested area, placed to the East of Bucharest town , Romania, acquired within minutes from one another ,a nadir and off-nadir for band 3

  10. New Passive Instruments Developed for Ocean Monitoring at the Remote Sensing Lab—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Marchán-Hernández, Juan F.; Rodríguez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Tarongi, Jose M.; Aguasca, Albert; Acevo, René

    2009-01-01

    Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS) as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required). Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R) was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC) for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (TB). At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1) ESA's SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2) NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an “effective” wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ0) will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (TB-σ0) present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU) project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI) to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1) provides an

  11. New passive instruments developed for ocean monitoring at the remote sensing lab-universitat politècnica de catalunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Marchán-Hernández, Juan F; Rodríguez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Tarongi, Jose M; Aguasca, Albert; Acevo, René

    2009-01-01

    Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS) as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required). Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R) was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC) for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (T(B)). At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1) ESA's SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2) NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an "effective" wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ(0)) will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (T(B)-σ(0)) present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU) project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI) to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1

  12. New Passive Instruments Developed for Ocean Monitoring at the Remote Sensing Lab—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Acevo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1 the use of satellite constellations, and (2 the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required. Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (TB. At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1 ESA’s SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2 NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an “effective” wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ0 will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (TB-σ0 present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1

  13. Comparison of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument with Aerosol Robotic Network Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; HONG Yu-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The single-scattering albedo (SSA), which quantifies radiative absorption capability, is an important optical property of aerosols. Ground-based methods have been extensively exploited to determine aerosol SSA but there were no satellite-based SSA measurements available until the advent of advanced remote sensing techniques, such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Although the overall accuracy of OMI SSA is estimated to approach 0.1, its regional availability is unclear. Four-year SSA daily measurements from three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites in China (Xianghe, Taihu, and Hong Kong) are chosen to determine the accuracy of OMI SSA in specific locations. The results show that on a global scale, the OMI SSA is systematically higher (with a mean relative bias of 3.5% and a RMS difference of ~0.06) and has poor correlation with the AERONET observations. In the Xianghe, Taihu, and Hong Kong sites, the correlation coefficients are 0.16, 0.47, and 0.44, respectively, suggesting that the distinct qualities of OMI SSA depend on geographic locations and/or dominant aerosol environments. The two types of SSA data yield the best agreement in Taihu and the worst in Hong Kong; the differing behavior is likely caused by varying levels of cloud contamination. The good consistency of the aerosol variation between the two SSA datasets on a seasonal scale is promising. These findings suggest that the current-version OMI SSA product can be applied to qualitatively characterize climatological variations of aerosol properties despite its limited accuracy as an instantaneous measurement.

  14. Monitoring and characterizing natural hazards with satellite InSAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Zhang, Jixian; Zhang, Yonghong; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides an all-weather imaging capability for measuring ground-surface deformation and inferring changes in land surface characteristics. InSAR enables scientists to monitor and characterize hazards posed by volcanic, seismic, and hydrogeologic processes, by landslides and wildfires, and by human activities such as mining and fluid extraction or injection. Measuring how a volcano’s surface deforms before, during, and after eruptions provides essential information about magma dynamics and a basis for mitigating volcanic hazards. Measuring spatial and temporal patterns of surface deformation in seismically active regions is extraordinarily useful for understanding rupture dynamics and estimating seismic risks. Measuring how landslides develop and activate is a prerequisite to minimizing associated hazards. Mapping surface subsidence or uplift related to extraction or injection of fluids during exploitation of groundwater aquifers or petroleum reservoirs provides fundamental data on aquifer or reservoir properties and improves our ability to mitigate undesired consequences. Monitoring dynamic water-level changes in wetlands improves hydrological modeling predictions and the assessment of future flood impacts. In addition, InSAR imagery can provide near-real-time estimates of fire scar extents and fire severity for wildfire management and control. All-weather satellite radar imagery is critical for studying various natural processes and is playing an increasingly important role in understanding and forecasting natural hazards.

  15. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  16. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  17. Satellite monitoring at high spatial resolution of water bodies used for irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Flanquart, S.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Fieuzal, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a changing climate context, with an increase of the need for food, it becomes increasingly important to improve our knowledge for monitoring agricultural surfaces by satellite for a better food management and to reduce the waste of natural resources (water storages and shortages, irrigation management, increase of soil and water salinity, soil erosion, threats on biodiversity). The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potentialities of multi-spectral and multi-resolution satellites for monitoring the temporal evolution of water bodies surfaces (mainly used for irrigation purposes). This analysis is based on the use of a series of images acquired between the years 2003 and 2011. The year 2010 is considered as a reference, with 110 acquisitions performed during the MCM'10 campaign (Multispectral Crop Monitoring 2010, http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/us/mcm.html). Those images are provided by 8 satellites (optical, thermal and RADAR) such as ALOS, TERRASAR-X, RADARSAT-2, FORMOSAT-2, SPOT-2, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, LANDSAT-5. The studied area is situated in the South-West of Toulouse in France; in a region governed by a temperate climate. The irrigated cultures represent almost 12% of the cultivated surface in 2009. The method consists in estimating the water bodies surfaces by using a generic approach suitable for all images, whatever the wavelength (optical, infrared, RADAR). The supervised parallelepiped classification allows discriminating four types of surfaces coverage: forests, water expanses, crops and bare soils. All RADAR images are filtered (Gamma) to reduce speckle effects and false detections of water bodies. In the context if the "South-West" project of the CESBIO laboratory, two spatial coverages are analyzed: SPOT 4 (4800km2) and FORMOSAT 2 (576km2). At these scales, 154 and 38 water bodies are identify. They respectively represent 4.85 km2 (0.10% of the image cover) and 2.06 km2 (0.36% of the image cover). Statistical analyses show that 8% of lakes

  18. Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a

  19. The added value of a visible channel to a geostationary thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; L. Coret; W. A. Lahoz; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; K. Chance; M. Höpfner; R. Spurr; V. Natraj

    2014-01-01

    Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a geostationary (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0–1 km column). We consider 1 week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to...

  20. Automatic Detection Method of Behavior Change in Dam Monitor Instruments Cause by Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mucio Bando

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A hydroelectric power plant consists of a project of great relevance for the social and economic development of a country. However, this kind of construction demands extensive attention because the occurrence of unusual behavior on its structure may result in undesirable consequences. Seismic waves are some of the phenomena which demand attention of one in charge of a dam safety because once it happens can directly affect the structure behavior. The target of this work is to present a methodology to automatically detect which monitoring instruments have gone under any change in pattern and their measurements after the seism. The detection method proposed is based on a neuro/fuzzy/bayesian formulation which is divided in three steps. Firstly, a clustering of points in a time series is developed from a self-organizing Kohonen map. Afterwards a fuzzy set is built to transform the initial time series, with arbitrary distribution, into a new series with beta distribution probability and thus enable the detection of changing points through a Monte Carlo simulation via Markov chains. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal the methodology has been applied in time series generated by Itaipu power plant building structures measurement instruments, which showed little behavior change after the earthquake in Chile in 2010.

  1. AIM - Agile Instrumented Monitoring for Improving User Experience of Participation in HealthIT Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Janne; Nieminen, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Participation of healthcare professionals in information technology development has emerged as an important challenge. As end-users, the professionals are willing to participate in the development activities, but their experiences on the current methods of participation remain mostly negative. There is lack of applicable methods for meeting the needs of agile development approach and scaling up to the largest implementation projects, while maintaining the interest of the professional users to participate in development activities and keeping up their ability to continue working in a productive manner. In this paper, we describe the Agile Instrumented Monitoring as a methodology, based on the methods of instrumented usability evaluation, for improving user experience in HealthIT development. The contribution of the proposed methodology is analyzed in relation to activities of whole iteration cycle and chosen usability evaluation methods, while the user experience of participation is addressed regarding healthcare professionals. Prospective weak and strong market tests for AIM are discussed in the conclusions for future work.

  2. Cosmic ray dose monitoring using RadFET sensors of the Rosetta instruments SESAME and COSIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Peter; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Thiel, Klaus; Fischer, Henning; Hilchenbach, Martin; Henkel, Hartmut; Koch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    On its more than 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta carried RadFET ionising dose monitors in the central electronics of the orbiter instrument COSIMA and the lander instrument SESAME. The readings of the dosimeters were corrected for the temperature of the devices during measurements. Because the sensitivity of RadFETs depends on the energy of impinging charged particles, a mean efficiency factor for the prevalent proton radiation was determined by applying nine efficiency models to proton energy spectra of Rosetta's radiation environment. The resulting dose profiles show linear increases of the accumulated dose with time, mainly caused by galactic cosmic radiation, and the arrival of two solar particle events in 2005. The accumulated dose (in Silicon) during 3909 days in space from 2004-03-02 to 2014-11-14 was 3.2 ± 0.6 Gy in case of COSIMA and 1.9 ± 0.4 Gy for SESAME. The deviation of the two measurements is mainly due to the solar particle event in September 2005, which had a 5.3 ± 1.0 times stronger impact on the COSIMA RadFET. Measured dose levels are one order of magnitude lower than those expected before launch for not being exceeded on the 90% confidence level, which is mainly due to the low solar activity during the mission so far.

  3. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

  4. Accuracy analysis of continuous deformation monitoring using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System at middle and high latitudes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Xi, Ruijie; Chen, Hua; Xiao, Yugang

    2017-02-01

    As BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been operational in the whole Asia-Pacific region, it means a new GNSS system with a different satellite orbit structure will become available for deformation monitoring in the future. Conversely, GNSS deformation monitoring data are always processed with a regular interval to form displacement time series for deformation analysis, where the interval can neither be too long from the time perspective nor too short from the precision of determined displacements angle. In this paper, two experimental platforms were designed, with one being at mid-latitude and another at higher latitude in China. BDS data processing software was also developed for investigating the accuracy of continuous deformation monitoring using current in-orbit BDS satellites. Data over 20 days at both platforms were obtained and were processed every 2, 4 and 6 h to generate 3 displacement time series for comparison. The results show that with the current in-orbit BDS satellites, in the mid-latitude area it is easy to achieve accuracy of 1 mm in horizontal component and 2-3 mm in vertical component; the accuracy could be further improved to approximately 1 mm in both horizontal and vertical directions when combined BDS/GPS measurements are employed. At higher latitude, however, the results are not as good as expected due to poor satellite geometry, even the 6 h solutions could only achieve accuracy of 4-6 and 6-10 mm in horizontal and vertical components, respectively, which implies that it may not be applicable to very high-precision deformation monitoring at high latitude using the current BDS. With the integration of BDS and GPS observations, however, in 4-h session, the accuracy can achieve 2 mm in horizontal component and 4 mm in vertical component, which would be an optimal choice for high-accuracy structural deformation monitoring at high latitude.

  5. Understanding the Value of Satellite Altimetry for Monitoring Water Level Dynamics of Large Rivers in Bangladesh Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, F.; Akbor, S.; Sustainability, Satellites, Water; Environment (Saswe) Research Group

    2010-12-01

    Although transboundary river flow accounts for more than 40% of global surface flow across 145 nations (many of them water-stressed and conflict-prone), most of this flow is difficult to monitor in developing nations at operational timescales. For Bangladesh, this situation is particularly acute because it comprises only 7% of the entire Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin and is located at the downstream end of the basin. Thus more than 90% of the water is generated in upstream nations and yet this information is hard to obtain in Bangladesh due to lack of transboundary instrumentation or international treaties. This work therefore investigates the value of satellite radar altimetry in detecting the water level changes for large rivers in the Bangladesh Delta. It is founded on the hypothesis that a satellite altimeter can detect water level to the same accuracy for both inside and outside of Bangladesh. First, the river hydraulic model called HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System) is set up and calibrated over Bangladesh using a comprehensive database on in-situ river bathymetry and observed water level records. Next, the calibrated HEC-RAS model is provided boundary flow conditions upstream and downstream of the model domain. At the upstream end where the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan enter Bangladesh, high resolution flow data modeled from a well calibrated hydrologic model called MIKE BASIN is provided as input. The observed tidal flow records of the Meghna estuary near the Bay of Bengal are used as the downstream boundary conditions. HEC-RAS is then used to simulate daily water level data for the period of 2003-2005 for major rivers of Bangladesh. These water level simulations are directly compared with altimeter estimates of water level from the ENVISAT mission. Accuracy of ENVISAT data is characterized as a function of season, flow regime and river type. The important question that this study aims to answer is, “To what extent can

  6. Using Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Major Lakes; Case Study Lake Hamun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Islam, R.; Bah, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes would provide invaluable information for policy-makers and local people. As part of a comprehensive study, we aim to monitor the land-cover/ land-use changes in the world's major lakes using satellite observations. As a case study, Hamun Lake which is a pluvial Lake, also known as shallow Lake, located on the south-east of Iran and adjacent to Afghanistan, and Pakistan borders is investigated. The Lake is the main source of resources (agriculture, fishing and hunting) for the people around it and politically important in the region since it is shared among three different countries. The purpose of the research is to find the Lake's area from 1972 to 2015 and to see if any drought or water resources management has affected the lake. Analyzing satellites imagery from Landsat shows that the area of the Lake changes seasonally and intra-annually. Significant seasonal effects are found in 1975,1977, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2009 and 2011, as well as, substantial amount of shallow water is found throughout the years. The precipitation records as well as drought historical records are studied for the lake's basin. Meteorological studies suggest that the drought, decrease of rainfalls in the province and the improper management of the Lake have caused environmental, economic and geographical consequences. The results reveal that lake has experienced at least two prolong dryings since 1972 which drought cannot solely be blamed as main forcing factor.Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes

  7. Monitoring of Conservation Tillage and Tillage Intensity by Ground and Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Rostami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local information about tillage intensity and ground residue coverage is useful for policies in agricultural extension, tillage implement design and upgrading management methods. The current methods for assessing crop residue coverage and tillage intensity such as residue weighing methods, line-transect and photo comparison methods are tedious and time-consuming. The present study was devoted to investigate accurate methods for monitoring residue management and tillage practices. The satellite imagery technique was used as a rapid and spatially explicit method for delineating crop residue coverage and as an estimator of conservation tillage adoption and intensity. The potential of multispectral high-spatial resolution WorldView-2 local data was evaluated using the total of eleven satellite spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis (LSUA. The total of ninety locations was selected for this study and for each location the residue coverage was measured by the image processing method and recorded as ground control. The output of indices and LSUA method were individually correlated to the control and the relevant R2 was calculated. Results indicated that crop residue cover was related to IPVI, RVI1, RVI2 and GNDVI spectral indices and satisfactory correlations were established (0.74 - 0.81. The crop residue coverage estimated from the LSUA approach was found to be correlated with the ground residue data (0.75. Two effective indices named as Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI with maximum R2 were considered for classification of tillage intensity. Results indicated that the classification accuracy with IPVI and RVI indices in different conditions varied from 78-100 percent and therefore in good agreement with ground measurement, observations and field records.

  8. Improvements on Near Real Time Detection of Volcanic Ash Emissions for Emergency Monitoring with Limited Satellite Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torge Steensen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying volcanic ash emissions syneruptively is an important task for the global aviation community. However, due to the near real time nature of volcano monitoring, many parameters important for accurate ash mass estimates cannot be obtained easily. Even when using the best possible estimates of those parameters, uncertainties associated with the ash masses remain high, especially if the satellite data is only available in the traditional 10.8 and 12.0 μm bands. To counteract this limitation, we developed a quantitative comparison between the ash extents in satellite and model data. The focus is the manual cloud edge definition based on the available satellite reverse absorption (RA data as well as other knowledge like pilot reports or ground-based observations followed by an application of the Volcanic Ash Retrieval on the defined subset with an RA threshold of 0 K. This manual aspect, although subjective to the experience of the observer, can show a significant improvement as it provides the ability to highlight ash that otherwise would be obscured by meteorological clouds or, by passing over different surfaces with unaccounted temperatures, might be lost entirely and thus remains undetectable for an automated satellite approach. We show comparisons to Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models and outline a quantitative match as well as percentages of overestimates based on satellite or dispersion model data which can be converted into a level of reliability for near real time volcano monitoring

  9. Next generation Space Environment Monitor (SEM) for FY-2 satellite series%风云二号03批卫星空间环境监测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦飞; 王世金; 梁金宝; 王月; 张申毅; 荆涛; 张焕新; 张斌全; 冷双

    2013-01-01

    风云二号卫星以自旋稳定方式工作于地球静止轨道,自1997年以来,01批与02批卫星空间环境监测器成功的业务运行获得了大量重要探测成果;在继承01批与02批产品研制技术的基础上,提高了03批空间环境监测器的探测性能指标和技术设计,更好地满足空间天气预警业务发展的新需求.本文对风云二号03批卫星空间环境监测器的新设计、关键技术研制和发射前的定标试验结果进行分析和讨论.%FY-2 satellites have been observing the terrestrial weather as well as monitoring many aspects of the space environment since 1997. In the past 14 years, the observations obtained by FY-2 satellites have provided plenty data to study space weather about how the solar X ray and energetic charged particles, both proton and electron, affect the earth and its atmospheric environment. For the next series of FY-2 satellites, named series 03 beginning with the first satellite given to the number 07 on the ground and converted to F after being successfully launched, the space environment monitor package will have new instrument design to the solar X-ray detector and energetic particle detectors, which are respectively named the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SXRS), High Energy Proton and Heavy Ion Detector (HEPHID) and High Energy Electron Detector (HEED). This paper presents the special technologies applied, such as silicon drift detector (SDD) for the Solar X-ray Spectrometer, and the first pre-flight calibration results for the new instruments.

  10. Solar energy assessment in the Alpine area: satellite data and ground instruments integration for studying the radiative forcing of aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, M.; Petitta, M.; Emili, E.

    2012-04-01

    The primary objective of this work is to purpose an approach for estimating the effect of aerosols on surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) in the Alpine region, which is based on the integration of different instruments: we develop a GIS model, whose output is corrected by monthly atmospheric coefficients, and then we progressively add details by daily updated atmospheric information. The assessment of solar energy availability at the earth's surface over a specific geographic area is crucial for planning photovoltaic panels installation. When modeling SIS with GIS instruments or retrieving it from satellites measurements, we have to account for terrain shadowing and atmospheric extinction, both of which are difficult to describe in the Alpine area, because of the topographic complexity and the local atmospheric circulation influence on the atmospheric composition. While advanced methods were developed to carefully describe the effect of topography, the atmospheric attenuation was considered so far only through monthly turbidity values, and the question remains whether it be possible to develop a time-effective routine to model the atmospheric effect on SIS at daily scale. As a first step we produced a WebGIS for the town of Bressanone, Italy, showing a classification of the roofs of the buildings according to the yearly amount of global irradiance. Furthermore we provide the annual electricity production based on the efficiency of the most common PV technologies. At this stage clear sky irradiance was computed with a GIS based model, and afterwards monthly correction coefficients were applied to add real sky conditions to the merely geometrical computations, which were obtained from 20 years of measurement collected by the pyranometer in the closest meteorological station. As a second step we investigate the influence of aerosol optical properties on SIS by running the radiative transfer model libRadtran by using as input the aerosol model defined for the

  11. The use of satellite data for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of fire: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    Remotely sensed (RS) data can fruitfully support both research activities and operative monitoring of fire at different temporal and spatial scales with a synoptic view and cost effective technologies. "The contribution of remote sensing (RS) to forest fires may be grouped in three categories, according to the three phases of fire management: (i) risk estimation (before fire), (ii) detection (during fire) and (iii) assessment (after fire)" Chuvieco (2006). Relating each phase, wide research activities have been conducted over the years. (i) Risk estimation (before fire) has been mainly based on the use of RS data for (i) monitoring vegetation stress and assessing variations in vegetation moisture content, (ii) fuel type mapping, at different temporal and spatial scales from global, regional down to a local scale (using AVHRR, MODIS, TM, ASTER, Quickbird images and airborne hyperspectral and LIDAR data). Danger estimation has been mainly based on the use of AVHRR (onborad NOAA), MODIS (onboard TERRA and AQUA), VEGETATION (onboard SPOT) due to the technical characteristics (i.e. spectral, spatial and temporal resolution). Nevertheless microwave data have been also used for vegetation monitoring. (ii) Detection: identification of active fires, estimation of fire radiative energy and fire emission. AVHRR was one of the first satellite sensors used for setting up fire detection algorithms. The availbility of MODIS allowed us to obtain global fire products free downloaded from NASA web site. Sensors onboard geostationary satellite platforms, such as GOES, SEVIRI, have been used for fire detection, to obtain a high temporal resolution (at around 15 minutes) monitoring of active fires. (iii) Post fire damage assessment includes: burnt area mapping, fire emission, fire severity, vegetation recovery, fire resilience estimation, and, more recently, fire regime characterization. Chuvieco E. L. Giglio, C. Justice, 2008 Global charactrerization of fire activity: toward defining

  12. Thinking on Standardization of Satellite Meteorology and Space Weather Monitoring Early Waming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Anlai; Zhang Jiashen; Le Guiming

    2011-01-01

    Introduction After 40 years of development,China's satellite meteorological service has made remarkable achievements.Fengyun satellites have realized the transformation from trial operation to full operational service and achieved a coordinated space-based earth cbservation system with polar and geostationary meteorological satellites.

  13. Winter fog monitoring over south asia by using multi satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Naila

    2016-07-01

    committing The South Asian region in general and the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in particular hold about 1/6th of the world's population and is considered as one of the major hotspots of increasing atmospheric pollution. Due to growing population and globalization, South Asia is experiencing high transformations in the urban and industrial sectors. Fog is one of the meteorological/environmental phenomena which can generate significant social and economic problems especially a major havoc to air and road traffic. Meteorological stations provide information about the fog episodes only on the basis of point observation. Continuous monitoring as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution can only be possible through the use of satellite imagery. Current study focus on winter fog episodes over South Asian region using Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Level 2 terra Product and MODIS Aerosol Product and OMI Absorbing Aerosol Index. The datasets used in this study includes MODIS Corrected Reflectance RGBs are used to analyse fog situation over study area. MOD04 level 2 Collection 6 data is used to study aerosol load and distribution which are characterised using aerosol type land. In order to study the variation of ground based observations from satellite data MODIS, CALIPSO, AERONET and high volume air Sampler were used. Objectives of the study was to map the spatial extent of fog as well as monitor its causes and similarly to analyze the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over South Asia with particular focus over Indo Gangetic Plans (IGP). Current studies show an increase in AOD from past few decades over South Asia and is contributing to poor air quality in the region due to growing population, urbanization, and industrialization. Smoke and absorbing aerosol are major constituent of fog over south Asia. Furthermore, winter 2014-15 extended span of Fog was also observed over South Asia. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD) and AERONET

  14. Near-Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Intense Pyroconvection from Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. A.; Fromm, M. D.; Hyer, E. J.; Surratt, M. L.; Solbrig, J. E.; Campbell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Intense fire-triggered thunderstorms, known as pyrocumulonimbus (or pyroCb), can alter fire behavior, influence smoke plume trajectories, and hinder fire suppression efforts. PyroCb are also known for injecting a significant quantity of aerosol mass into the upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere (UTLS). Near-real-time (NRT) detection and monitoring of pyroCb is highly desirable for a variety of forecasting and research applications. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) recently developed the first automated NRT pyroCb detection algorithm for geostationary satellite sensors. The algorithm uses multispectral infrared observations to isolate deep convective clouds with the distinct microphysical signal of pyroCb. Application of this algorithm to 88 intense wildfires observed during the 2013 fire season in western North America resulted in detection of individual intense events, pyroCb embedded within traditional convection, and multiple, short-lived pulses of activity. Comparisons with a community inventory indicate that this algorithm captures the majority of pyroCb. The primary limitation of the current system is that pyroCb anvils can be small relative to satellite pixel size, especially in in regions with large viewing angles. The algorithm is also sensitive to some false positives from traditional convection that either ingests smoke or exhibits extreme updraft velocities. This algorithm has been automated using the GeoIPS processing system developed at NRL, which produces a variety of imagery products and statistical output for rapid analysis of potential pyroCb events. NRT application of this algorithm has been extended to the majority of regions worldwide known to have a high frequency of pyroCb occurrence. This involves a constellation comprised of GOES-East, GOES-West, and Himawari-8. Imagery is posted immediately to an NRL-maintained web page. Alerts are generated by the system and disseminated via email. This detection system also has potential to serve

  15. Satellite Monitoring and Characterization of the 2010 Rockslide-Dammed Lake Gojal, North Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, G. J.; Kargel, J. S.; Crippen, R. E.; Evans, S. G.; Delaney, K. B.; Schneider, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    On January 4, 2010, a landslide blocked the Hunza River at Attabad, northern Pakistan (36.308°N, 74.820°E). The landslide destroyed the village of Attabad killing 19 people, and formed a dam approximately 1200m long, 350 meters wide, and 125 meters high. The flow of the Hunza river was blocked for 144 days, forming Lake Gojal. In addition to inundating several villages and submerging 22 km of the regionally critical Karakoram Highway, >25,000 people have been displaced or remain cut off from overland connection with the rest of the country. Lake overtopping began on May 29 via a 15m deep spillway excavated through the saddle of the dam. Remarkably, the slowly eroding natural structure remains largely intact and currently represents a new geologic feature, although a threat remains from possible catastrophic outburst flooding. We have monitored growth of the lake with multi-temporal satellite imagery collected from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer) and ALI (Advanced Land Imager) sensors. We applied NASA’s ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and SRTM-3 digital terrain data, along with field data obtained onsite by Schneider, and by Pakistan’s NDMA to derive volumes of the growing lake. Lake size peaked during mid-summer when it was ~22 km long, 12 km2, 119m deep, and contained 540 to 620 Mm3 water (SRTM-3 and GDEM +5m global correction estimates respectively). Our estimates indicated lake volumes three to four times higher than media quotes, and before spillover, were used to improve predictions of possible flood discharge and disaster management planning. Estimates of valley inflow based on a 31-year hydrographic history (Archer, D., 2003, Jour. Hydrology 274, 198-210) are consistent with our volume infilling estimates. As early as April 14 our volume assessments, coupled with hydrographic and seepage data were used to project a spillover date range of May 28-June 2, bracketing the actual overflow date. Additionally, we have

  16. Routine Ocean Monitoring With Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Obtained From the Alaska Satellite Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, W. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Li, X.; Friedman, K.; Monaldo, F.; Thompson, D.; Wackerman, C.; Scott, C.; Jackson, C.; Beal, R.; McGuire, J.; Nicoll, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has been processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for research and for near-real-time applications demonstrations since shortly after the launch of the European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite in 1991. The long coastline of Alaska, the vast extent of ocean adjacent to Alaska, a scarcity of in-situ observations, and the persistence of cloud cover all contribute to the need for all-weather ocean observations in the Alaska region. Extensive experience with SAR product processing algorithms and SAR data analysis techniques, and a growing sophistication on the part of SAR data and product users have amply demonstrated the value of SAR instruments in providing this all-weather ocean observation capability. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been conducting a near-real-time applications demonstration of SAR ocean and hydrologic products in Alaska since September 1999. This Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO) has shown the value of SAR-derived, high-resolution (sub kilometer) ocean surface winds to coastal weather forecasting and the understanding of coastal wind phenomena such as gap winds, barrier jets, vortex streets, and lee waves. Vessel positions and ice information derived from SAR imagery have been used for management of fisheries, protection of the fishing fleet, enforcement of fisheries regulations, and protection of endangered marine mammals. Other ocean measurements, with potentially valuable applications, include measurement of wave state (significant wave height, dominant wave direction and wavelength, and wave spectra), mapping of oil spills, and detection of shallow-water bathymetric features. In addition to the AKDEMO, ASF-processed SAR imagery is being used: (1) in the Gulf of Mexico for hurricane wind studies, and post-hurricane oil-spill and oil-platform analyses (the latter employing ship-detection algorithms for detection of changes in oil-platform locations); (2) in the North Pacific

  17. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  18. Satellite observations of fumarole activity at Aluto volcano, Ethiopia: Implications for geothermal monitoring and volcanic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Mathilde; Biggs, Juliet; Watson, Iain M.; Hutchison, William; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.

    2017-07-01

    Fumaroles are the surface manifestation of hydrothermal circulation and can be influenced by magmatic, hydrothermal, hydrological and tectonic processes. This study investigates the temporal changes in fumarole temperatures and spatial extent on Aluto, a restless volcano in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), in order to better understand the controls on fluid circulation and the interaction between the magmatic and hydrothermal systems. Thermal infrared (TIR) satellite images, acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) over the period of 2004 to 2016, are used to generate time series of the fumarole temperatures and areas. The thermal anomalies identified in the ASTER images coincide with known fumaroles with temperatures > 80 °C and are located on or close to fault structures, which provide a pathway for the rising fluids. Most of the fumaroles, including those along the major zone of hydrothermal upwelling, the Artu Jawe Fault Zone, have pixel-integrated temperature variations of only 2 ± 1.5 °C. The exception are the Bobesa fumaroles located on a hypothesised caldera ring fault which show pixel-integrated temperature changes of up to 9 °C consistent with a delayed response of the hydrothermal system to precipitation. We conclude that fumaroles along major faults are strongly coupled to the magmatic-hydrothermal system and are relatively stable with time, whereas those along shallower structures close to the rift flank are more strongly influenced by seasonal variations in groundwater flow. The use of remote sensing data to monitor the thermal activity of Aluto provides an important contribution towards understanding the behaviour of this actively deforming volcano. This method could be used at other volcanoes around the world for monitoring and geothermal exploration.

  19. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  20. A new, long-term daily satellite-based rainfall dataset for operational monitoring in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Ross I.; Grimes, David; Black, Emily; Tarnavsky, Elena; Young, Matthew; Greatrex, Helen; Allan, Richard P.; Stein, Thorwald; Nkonde, Edson; Senkunda, Samuel; Alcántara, Edgar Misael Uribe

    2017-05-01

    Rainfall information is essential for many applications in developing countries, and yet, continually updated information at fine temporal and spatial scales is lacking. In Africa, rainfall monitoring is particularly important given the close relationship between climate and livelihoods. To address this information gap, this paper describes two versions (v2.0 and v3.0) of the TAMSAT daily rainfall dataset based on high-resolution thermal-infrared observations, available from 1983 to the present. The datasets are based on the disaggregation of 10-day (v2.0) and 5-day (v3.0) total TAMSAT rainfall estimates to a daily time-step using daily cold cloud duration. This approach provides temporally consistent historic and near-real time daily rainfall information for all of Africa. The estimates have been evaluated using ground-based observations from five countries with contrasting rainfall climates (Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia) and compared to other satellite-based rainfall estimates. The results indicate that both versions of the TAMSAT daily estimates reliably detects rainy days, but have less skill in capturing rainfall amount—results that are comparable to the other datasets.

  1. Satellite Observations of Groundwater Storage Variations and Their Application for Water Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Li, B.; Kumar, S.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Fresh water demand is steadily increasing around the world due to population growth, economic development, and people's desire for a "western" lifestyle and diet. Where surface water availability is not sufficient or consistent, groundwater is often the resource of choice for agriculture, industry, and municipal and domestic uses. However, unlike lake levels, aquifer levels are unseen and are not easily measured. This can create the illusion of an infinite water source and impede efforts to monitor and conserve groundwater. Moreover, even where depth-to-water measurements do exist, they often are not digitized, centralized, and accessible. The GRACE satellites are a partial solution to this problem, enabling space-based estimates of groundwater variability at regional scales that are not limited by political boundaries. Here we discuss emerging trends in groundwater storage around the world based on GRACE observations and how they can be combined with other information in order attribute these apparent trends and support sub-regional scale analyses of changing groundwater availability.

  2. Monitoring carbon monoxide pollution over the largest ten cities in the US using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the several air pollutants that are largely produced by anthropogenic activities in urban areas as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. Long-term satellite data can monitor spatial and temporal changes in CO globally. Here we investigated spatial, vertical, and temporal changes in CO concentrations over the largest ten US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) using Version 6 MOPITT TIR-only CO retrievals. The 15-year average of MOPITT Surface CO concentrations over urban areas were highest (388 ppbv) over New York City and lowest (151 ppbv) over Miami. The influence of cities on elevated CO levels extends well beyond the immediate urban area. The CO seasonal profiles above the surface show distinct seasonality with peaks March-April and troughs September-October. However, larger cities show a lack of CO seasonality near the surface. We applied the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test to the CO time series. Results revealed significant decreasing trends in CO concentration, with stronger trends in the lower atmosphere (>700 hPa) than in the mid-troposphere (500-700 hPa). Our results demonstrate the strong influence of local urban emissions on (near-) surface CO concentrations. Decreasing urban CO over the past 15 years reflects improved urban metabolism through improved energy efficiency, and increasing use of alternative transportation and zero-emission vehicles.

  3. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. In this study, retracked Envisat altimetry data was extracted over the Zambezi River Basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 5.5 to 7.4 % terms of high flow estimation relative to in situ gauge measurements. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 8.2 and 25.8 % of the high flow estimates.

  4. Scale effects of leaf area index inversion based on environmental and disaster monitoring satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of sub-pixel components has an impact on retrieval accuracy,and should be accounted for when inverting a three-dimensional adiative transfer model to retrieve leaf area index(LAI).To investigate this effect,we constructed three realistic scenarios with the same LAI values and other properties,except that the simulated plants had different distributions.We implemented the radiosity method to subsequently produce synthetic bidirectional reflectance factor(BRF) datasets based upon these simulated scenes.The inversion was conducted using these data,which showed that spatial distribution affects retrieval accuracy.The inversion was also conducted for LAI based on charge-coupled device(CCD) data from the Environment and Disaster Monitor Satellite(HJ-1),which depicted both forest and drought-resistant crop land cover.This showed that heterogeneity in coarse-resolution remote sensing data is the main error source in LAI inversion.The spatial distribution of global fractal dimension index,which can be used to describe the area of sub-pixel components and their spatial distribution modes,shows good consistency with the coarse resolution LAI inversion error.

  5. Satellite cloud and precipitation property retrievals for climate monitoring and hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, E. L. A.

    2012-03-01

    This thesis presents the retrieval, evaluation, and application of cloud physical property datasets (cloud phase, cloud particle effective radius, and precipitation occurrence and intensity) obtained from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) reflectance measurements using the Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) retrieval algorithm. In Chapter 3 it is shown that the CPP cloud-phase retrieval algorithm has sufficient accuracy (West Africa. During the afternoon, precipitation occurrence frequency over dry soils becomes significantly higher than over wet soils, whereas for precipitation intensity no significant difference is discerned. The study demonstrates that the combination of satellite-based soil moisture and precipitation observations can be helpful in improving the understanding of the land surface-precipitation interaction over tropical areas. The thesis concludes with a number of recommendations on future algorithm improvements and potential research applications. For both cloud phase and precipitation properties, extension of the algorithm to include nighttime observations would be desirable to enable detailed studies on the full diurnal cycle. Further, the SEVIRI High-Resolution Visible (HRV) channel could be incorporated to correct retrieved cloud physical properties for broken and inhomogeneous cloud cases. Finally, the accurate cloud phase and precipitation datasets combined with the high SEVIRI spatial and temporal sampling resolution enables possibilities for detailed research on climate monitoring, nowcasting applications, evaluation of cloud schemes in climate models, studies on land surface-precipitation interactions (with a special focus on the diurnal cycle), and assimilation of the datasets in weather and climate models

  6. Monitoring the hydrologic and vegetation dynamics of arid land with satellite remote sensing and mathematic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiwu; Gao, Wei; Pan, Xiaoling; Ma, Yingjun

    2003-07-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems, in which carbon is retained in live biomass, play an important role in the global carbon cycling. Among these ecological systems, vegetation and soils in deserts and semi deserts control significant proportions in the total carbon stocks on the land surface and the carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere (IPCC special report: Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry, June 2000). Therefore, accurate assessment of the carbon stocks and fluxes of the desert and semi desert areas at regional scales is required in global carbon cycle studies. In addition, vegetative ecosystem in semi-arid and arid land is strongly dependent on the water resources. Monitoring the hydrologic processes of the land is thus also required. This work explores the methodology for the sequential continuous estimation of the carbon stocks, CO2 flux, evapotranspiration, and sensible heat fluxes over desert and semidesert area using data from the Jornada desert in New Mexico, USA. A CO2 and energy flux coupled model is used to estimate CO2, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes over the desert area. The model is driven by the observed meteorological data. Its input land surface parameters are derived from satellite images. Simulated energy fluxes are validated for specific sites with eddy covariance observations. Based on the output of spatially distributed CO2 fluxes, carbon accumulations over the desert area during a period of time is calculated and the contribution of the desert ecosystem to the atmospheric carbon pool is discussed.

  7. Analysis of the potential of one possible instrumental configuration of the next generation of IASI instruments to monitor lower tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the added value brought by the next generation of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer instruments to monitor lower tropospheric (LT ozone, we developed a pseudo-observation simulator, including a direct simulator of thermal infrared spectra and a full inversion scheme to retrieve ozone concentration profiles. We based our simulations on the instrumental configuration of IASI and of an IASI-like instrument, with a factor 2 improvement in terms of spectral resolution and radiometric noise. This scenario, that will be referred to as IASI/2, is one possible configuration of the IASI-NG (New Generation instrument (the configuration called IASI-NG/IRS2 currently designed by CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales. IASI-NG is expected to be launched in the 2020 timeframe as part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation, formerly post-EPS mission. We produced one month (August 2009 of tropospheric ozone pseudo-observations based on these two instrumental configurations. We compared the pseudo-observations and we found a clear improvement of LT ozone (up to 6 km altitude pseudo-observations quality for IASI/2. The estimated total error is expected to be more than 35% smaller at 5 km, and 20% smaller for the LT ozone column. The total error on the LT ozone column is, on average, lower than 10% for IASI/2. IASI/2 is expected to have a significantly better vertical sensitivity (monthly average degrees of freedom surface–6 km of 0.70 and to be sensitive at lower altitudes (more than 0.5 km lower than IASI, reaching nearly 3 km. Vertical ozone layers of 4 to 5 km thickness are expected to be resolved by IASI/2, while IASI has a vertical resolution of 6–8 km. According to our analyses, IASI/2 is expected to have the possibility of effectively separate lower from upper tropospheric ozone information even for low sensitivity scenarios. In addition, IASI/2 is expected to be able to better monitor LT ozone patterns at

  8. Validation of integrated water vapor from OMI satellite instrument against reference GPS data at the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Martínez, Javier; Antón, Manuel; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Cachorro, Victoria E; Wang, Huiqun; González Abad, Gonzalo; Román, Roberto; Costa, Maria João

    2017-02-15

    This paper shows the validation of integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), using as reference nine ground-based GPS stations in the Iberian Peninsula. The study period covers from 2007 to 2009. The influence of two factors, - solar zenith angle (SZA) and IWV -, on OMI-GPS differences was studied in detail, as well as the seasonal dependence. The pseudomedian of the relative differences is -1 ± 1% and the inter-quartile range (IQR) is 41%. Linear regressions calculated over each station show an acceptable agreement (R(2) up to 0.77). The OMI-GPS differences display a clear dependence on IWV values. Hence, OMI substantially overestimates the lower IWV data recorded by GPS (∼ 40%), while underestimates the higher IWV reference values (∼ 20%). In connection to this IWV dependence, the relative differences also show an evident SZA dependence when the whole range of IWV values are analyzed (OMI overestimates for high SZA values while underestimates for low values). Finally, the seasonal variation of the OMI-GPS differences is also associated with the strong IWV dependence found in this validation exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Scheduler for monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J; Riot, Vincent J; De Vries, Willem H; Bauman, Brian J; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R; Phillion, Donald W

    2015-04-28

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  10. [Monitoring the thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant using satellite remote sensing data: modeling, and validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhao, Li-Min; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Wu, Chuan-Qing; Li, Jia-Guo; Shi, Ji-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant is a small-scale human activity, mornitoring of which requires high-frequency and high-spatial remote sensing data. The infrared scanner (IRS), on board of HJ-1B, has an infrared channel IRS4 with 300 m and 4-days as its spatial and temporal resolution. Remote sensing data aquired using IRS4 is an available source for mornitoring thermal plume. Retrieval pattern for coastal sea surface temperature (SST) was built to monitor the thermal plume from nuclear power plant. The research area is located near Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), where synchronized validations were also implemented. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data was interpolated spatially and temporally. The interpolated data as well as surface weather conditions were subsequently employed into radiative transfer model for the atmospheric correction of IRS4 thermal image. A look-up-table (LUT) was built for the inversion between IRS4 channel radiance and radiometric temperature, and a fitted function was also built from the LUT data for the same purpose. The SST was finally retrieved based on those preprocessing procedures mentioned above. The bulk temperature (BT) of 84 samples distributed near GNPS was shipboard collected synchronically using salinity-temperature-deepness (CTD) instruments. The discrete sample data was surface interpolated and compared with the satellite retrieved SST. Results show that the average BT over the study area is 0.47 degrees C higher than the retrieved skin temperature (ST). For areas far away from outfall, the ST is higher than BT, with differences less than 1.0 degrees C. The main driving force for temperature variations in these regions is solar radiation. For areas near outfall, on the contrary, the retrieved ST is lower than BT, and greater differences between the two (meaning > 1.0 degrees C) happen when it gets closer to the outfall. Unlike the former case, the convective heat

  11. The Site of the ASTRI SST-2M Telescope Prototype: Atmospheric Monitoring and Auxiliary Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Leto, G; Bellassai, G; Bruno, P; Fiorini, M; Grillo, A; Martinetti, E; La Rosa, G; Segreto, A; Sottile, G; Stringhetti, L

    2014-01-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. The main objective of the ASTRI project is to develop a prototype of the Small Size class Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M). The ASTRI SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype that will be fully developed by the ASTRI Collaboration from the optics design and manufacturing to the focal plane camera, from the structure of the mount to all the needed software. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be placed at the INAF "M.G. Fracastoro" observing station in Serra La Nave on the Etna Mountain near Catania, Italy. The technological solutions adopted will be tested on field: observations of the Crab Nebula and of other sources will be essential part of the science verification phase, with the aim to assess the achievement of the scientific requirements. In the following we present the Serra La Nave site together with all the auxiliary instruments needed for atmospheric monitoring and c...

  12. Improved retrieval of SO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument: residual analysis and data noise correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI observation data and considering the shortage of current Band Residual Difference algorithm (BRD algorithm in data noise correction since late 2008, we make a detailed analysis of OMI SO2 main noise sources and determine the best residual adjustment area by analyzing the different residual correction effects. After such modification, the OMI SO2 PBL results noise which use BRD retrieval algorithm is largely reduced, the precision of the SO2 results is improved, and the optimization of the BRD algorithm for data noise is realized. We select China as our study area and compare the results between the optimized results and the OMI SO2 PBL products. Results show that they are consistent with each other in January 2008; however, our modified algorithm results have higher precision and more reliable SO2 spatial distribution in January 2009. Finally, other current retrieval error sources are discussed, and further research is needed on these areas.

  13. A study of polar ozone depletion based on sequential assimilation of satellite data from the ENVISAT/MIPAS and Odin/SMR instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Rösevall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to demonstrate how polar ozone depletion can be mapped and quantified by assimilating ozone data from satellites into the wind driven transport model DIAMOND, (Dynamical Isentropic Assimilation Model for OdiN Data. By assimilating a large set of satellite data into a transport model, ozone fields can be built up that are less noisy than the individual satellite ozone profiles. The transported fields can subsequently be compared to later sets of incoming satellite data so that the rates and geographical distribution of ozone depletion can be determined. By tracing the amounts of solar irradiation received by different air parcels in a transport model it is furthermore possible to study the photolytic reactions that destroy ozone. In this study, destruction of ozone that took place in the Antarctic winter of 2003 and in the Arctic winter of 2002/2003 have been examined by assimilating ozone data from the ENVISAT/MIPAS and Odin/SMR satellite-instruments. Large scale depletion of ozone was observed in the Antarctic polar vortex of 2003 when sunlight returned after the polar night. By mid October ENVISAT/MIPAS data indicate vortex ozone depletion in the ranges 80–100% and 70–90% on the 425 and 475 K potential temperature levels respectively while the Odin/SMR data indicates depletion in the ranges 70–90% and 50–70%. The discrepancy between the two instruments has been attributed to systematic errors in the Odin/SMR data. Assimilated fields of ENVISAT/MIPAS data indicate ozone depletion in the range 10–20% on the 475 K potential temperature level, (~19 km altitude, in the central regions of the 2002/2003 Arctic polar vortex. Assimilated fields of Odin/SMR data on the other hand indicate ozone depletion in the range 20–30%.

  14. Satellite air temperature estimation for monitoring the canopy layer heat island of Milan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichierri, Manuele; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    2007 and 2010 were processed. Analysis of the canopy layer heat island (CLHI) maps during summer months reveals an average heat island effect of 3–4K during nighttime (with some peaks around 5K) and a weak CLHI intensity during daytime. In addition, the satellite maps reveal a well defined island shape......In this work, satellite maps of the urban heat island of Milan are produced using satellite-based infrared sensor data. For this aim, we developed suitable algorithms employing satellite brightness temperatures for the direct air temperature estimation 2 m above the surface (canopy layer), showing...

  15. HJ-1A And HJ-1B Small Satellite Constellation For Environment And Disaster Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Zhaoguang

    2009-01-01

    @@ HJ-1A and HJ-1B small satellites were launched atop a LM-2C/SMA on September 6, 2008 from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. The satellites began to transmit back images from September 8 and the constellation formed on October 13. After 5 months of orbit testing and operationevaluation, China's first optical satelliteconstellation passed its performancereview and was delivered to the Ministryof Civil Affairs and the Ministry ofEnvironmental Protection by ChinaAerospace Science and Technology Corporation and China Satellite Launch6 Tracking Control General.

  16. CBERS-2B Brazilian remote sensing satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Gilberto Luis Sanches [TBG Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of CBERS-2B' Brazilian Remote Sensing Satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The CBERS-2B is the third satellite launched in 2007 by the CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) and the innovation was the HRC camera that produces high resolution images. It will be possible to obtain one complete coverage of the country every 130 days. In this study, 2 images from different parts of the Bolivia- Brazil Gas Pipeline were selected. Image processing involved the geometric registration of CBERS-2B satellite images with airborne images, contrast stretch transform and pseudo color. The analysis of satellite and airborne images in a GIS software to detect third party encroachment was effective to detect native vegetation removal, street construction, growth of urban areas, farming and residential/industrial land development. Very young, the CBERS-2B is a good promise to help to inspect the areas along the pipelines. (author)

  17. The application of the instantaneous states reduction to the orbital monitoring of pivotal arcs of the Chang’E-1 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the Chinese lunar exploration project,the Chang’E-1 (CE-1) satellite was jointly monitored by the United S-band range and Doppler and the VLBI technique. A real-time reduction of the tracking data is realized to deduce the time series of the instantaneous state vectors (ISV) (position and velocity vec-tors) of the CE-1 satellite,and is applied to the orbital monitoring of pivotal arcs. This paper introduces this real-time data reduction method and its application to the orbital monitoring of pivotal arcs of the CE-1 satellite in order to serve as a source of criticism and reference.

  18. The use of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data for monitoring and assessment of forest fires and floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Domenikiotis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of extreme natural phenomena, which are related to the climate variability and are mainly caused by anthropogenic factors, escalate the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Operational monitoring of natural hazards and assessment of the affected area impose quick and efficient methods based on large-scale data, readily available to the agencies. The growing number of satellite systems and their capabilities give rise to remote sensing applications to all types of natural disasters, including forest fires and floods. Remote sensing techniques can be used in all three aspects of disaster management viz: forecasting, monitoring and damage assessment. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of satellite remote sensing for monitoring and near-real time assessment of the affected by forest fires and floods areas. As a tool, two satellite indices are presented, namely the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Surface Temperature (ST, extracted by the meteorological satellite NOAA/AVHRR. In the first part of the paper, a review of utilized techniques using NDVI and ST is given. In the second part, the application of various methodologies to three case studies are presented: the forest fire of 21–24 July 1995 in Penteli Mountain near Athens and 16 September 1994 in Pelion Mountain in Thessaly region, central Greece, and finally the flood of 17–23 October 1994 in Thessaly region, central Greece. For all studies the NDVI has been utilized for hazard assessment. The method of ST has been applied to the flood event in Thessaly, for the estimation of the areal extent of the floods. As emerged from the studies, remote sensing data can be decisive for monitoring and damage assessment, caused by forest fires and floods.

  19. Long-term MAX-DOAS network observations of NO2 in Russia and Asia (MADRAS) during the period 2007-2012: instrumentation, elucidation of climatology, and comparisons with OMI satellite observations and global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.; Irie, H.; Takashima, H.; Iwabuchi, H.; Akimoto, H.; Sudo, K.; Gu, M.; Chong, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, H.; Li, A.; Si, F.; Xu, J.; Xie, P.-H.; Liu, W.-Q.; Dzhola, A.; Postylyakov, O.; Ivanov, V.; Grechko, E.; Terpugova, S.; Panchenko, M.

    2014-08-01

    We conducted long-term network observations using standardized Multi-Axis Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments in Russia and ASia (MADRAS) from 2007 onwards and made the first synthetic data analysis. At seven locations (Cape Hedo, Fukue and Yokosuka in Japan, Hefei in China, Gwangju in Korea, and Tomsk and Zvenigorod in Russia) with different levels of pollution, we obtained 80 927 retrievals of tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (TropoNO2VCD) and aerosol optical depth (AOD). In the technique, the optimal estimation of the TropoNO2VCD and its profile was performed using aerosol information derived from O4 absorbances simultaneously observed at 460-490 nm. This large data set was used to analyze NO2 climatology systematically, including temporal variations from the seasonal to the diurnal scale. The results were compared with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations and global model simulations. Two NO2 retrievals of OMI satellite data (NASA ver. 2.1 and Dutch OMI NO2 (DOMINO) ver. 2.0) generally showed close correlations with those derived from MAX-DOAS observations, but had low biases of up to ~50%. The bias was distinct when NO2 was abundantly present near the surface and when the AOD was high, suggesting a possibility of incomplete accounting of NO2 near the surface under relatively high aerosol conditions for the satellite observations. Except for constant biases, the satellite observations showed nearly perfect seasonal agreement with MAX-DOAS observations, suggesting that the analysis of seasonal features of the satellite data were robust. Weekend reduction in the TropoNO2VCD found at Yokosuka and Gwangju was absent at Hefei, implying that the major sources had different weekly variation patterns. While the TropoNO2VCD generally decreased during the midday hours, it increased exceptionally at urban/suburban locations (Yokosuka, Gwangju, and Hefei) during winter. A global chemical transport model, MIROC

  20. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  1. Geography with the environmental satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Gastellu Etchegorry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coarse spatial resolution, high temporal frequency data from the earth polar orbiting (NOAA. HACMM, Nimbus, etc. satellites and from the geostationary (GOES. Meteosat, and GMS satellites are presented to demonstrate their utility for monitoring terrestrial and atmospheric processes. The main characteristics of these ,satellites and of the instruments on board are reviewed. In order to be useful for environmental assessments. the remotely sensed data must be processed (atmospheric and geometric corrections, etc.. The NOAA Center provides a wide range of already processed data. such as meteorological. oceanic, hydrologic and vegetation products; o rough description of these preprocessed data is given in this article. Finally, some examples of applicotions in Southeast Asia and especially in Indonesia, are described, i.e.: agroecosystem, drought and oceanic monitoring. The paper concludes that coarse resolution, high temporal frequency ,satellite data are very valuable for environmental studies. the emphasis being laid on the improve. ment of the crop and drought assessment programmes.

  2. Satellite and in-situ monitoring of urban air pollution in relation with children's asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida, Mariana R.; Zoran, Maria A.

    2013-10-01

    Urban air pollution and especially aerosols have significant negative health effects on urban population, of which children are most exposed for the rapid increase of asthma disease. An allergic reaction to different allergens is a major contributor to asthma in urban children, but new research suggests that the allergies are just one part of a more complex story. Very early exposure to certain components of air pollution can increase the risk of developing of different allergies by age 7. The epidemiological research on the mutagenic effects of airborne particulate matter pointed their capability to reach deep lung regions, being vehicles of toxic substances. The current study presents a spatio-temporal analysis of the aerosol concentrations in relation with meteorological parameters in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) and possible health effects in Bucharest metropolitan area. Both in-situ monitoring data as well as MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series satellite data of particle matter PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations have been used to qualitatively assess distribution of aerosols in the greater metropolitan are of Bucharest comparative with some other little towns in Romania during 2010- 2011 period. It was found that PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols exhibit their highest concentration mostly in the central part of the towns, mainly due to road traffic as well as in the industrialized parts outside of city's centre. Pediatric asthma can be managed through medications prescribed by a healthcare provider, but the most important aspect is to avoid urban locations with high air pollution concentrations of air particles and allergens.

  3. Hierarchical Satellite-based Approach to Global Monitoring of Crop Condition and Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, N.; Zeng, H.; Zou, W.; Yan, N.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of global food security goes beyond the mere estimate of crop production: It needs to take into account the spatial and temporal patterns of food availability, as well as physical and economic access. Accurate and timely information is essential to both food producers and consumers. Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, such as FY-2/3A, HJ-1 CCD, CropWatch has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The new monitoring approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global (sixty-five Monitoring and Reporting Units, MRU), seven major production zones (MPZ), thirty-one key countries (including China) and "sub- countries." The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both global exports and production of four major crops (maize, rice, soybean and wheat). The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales, using the integrated information to assess global, regional, and national (as well as sub-national) crop environmental condition, crop condition, drought, production, and agricultural trends. The climatic indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as well as potential biomass are first analysed at global scale to describe overall crop growing conditions. At MPZ scale, the key indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation health index (VHI), Vegetation condition index (VCI), Cropped arable land fraction (CALF) as well as Cropping intensity (CI). Together, they characterise agricultural patterns, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses for thirty one individual countries at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cropped areas and crop condition are

  4. National Satellite Land Monitoring Systems for REDD+ : the UN-REDD support to countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G. C.

    2015-12-01

    of in-country policy and institutional change. The outcomes about the role of satellite remote sensing technologies as a tool for national monitoring under the REDD+ mechanism are here presented. Some specific country examples will be shown and the current use(fulness) of radar and high resolution data is discussed.

  5. Instrument evaluation no. 11. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, P H

    1978-01-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to he carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the a...

  6. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval at northern mid-latitudes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a neural network algorithm. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes for the years 2004–2008 has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  7. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  8. A simple low-cost microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert; Königer, Martina; Schjeide, Brit-Maren; Dikmak, George; Kohler, Susan; Harris, Gary C

    2006-03-01

    A new microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring blue light dependent changes in leaf transmission (chloroplast movement) was developed based on a modification of the double-beam technique developed by Walzcak and Gabrys [(1980) Photosynthetica 14: 65-72]. A blue and red bicolor light emitting diode (LED) provided both a variable intensity blue actinic light and a low intensity red measuring beam. A phototransistor detected the intensity of the transmitted measuring light. An inexpensive microcontroller independently and precisely controlled the light emission of the bicolor LED. A typical measurement event involved turning off the blue actinic light for 100 mus to create a narrow temporal window for turning on and measuring the transmittance of the red light. The microcontroller was programmed using LogoChip Logo (http://www.wellesley.edu/Physics/Rberg/logochip/) to record fluence rate response curves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was utilized to correlate the changes in leaf transmission with intercellular chloroplast position. In the dark, the chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll exhibited no evident asymmetries in their distribution, however, in the palisade layer the cell surface in contact with the overlying epidermis was devoid of chloroplasts. The low light dependent decrease in leaf transmittance in dark acclimated leaves was correlated with the movement of chloroplasts within the palisade layer into the regions previously devoid of chloroplasts. Changes in leaf transmittance were evident within one minute following the onset of illumination. Minimal leaf transmittance was correlated with chloroplasts having retreated from cell surfaces perpendicular to the incident light (avoidance reaction) in both spongy and palisade layers.

  9. Synergy use of satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data for air pollution impacts on urban climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastru, Dan M.; Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.

    2016-10-01

    The increase of urban atmospheric pollution due to particulate matters (PM) in different fraction sizes affects seriously not only human health and environment, but also city climate directly and indirectly. In the last decades, with the economic development and the increased emissions from industrial, traffic and domestic pollutants, the urban atmospheric pollution with remarkable high PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) concentration levels became serious in the metropolitan area of Bucharest in Romania. Both active as well as satellite remote sensing are key applications in global change science and urban climatology. The aerosol parameters can be measured directly in situ or derived from satellite remote sensing observations. All these methods are important and complementary. The current study presents a spatiotemporal analysis of the aerosol concentrations in relation with climate parameters in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) in Bucharest metropolitan area. Daily average particle matters concentrations PM10 and PM2.5 for Bucharest metropolitan area have been provided by 8 monitoring stations belonging to air pollution network of Environmental Protection Agency. The C005 (version 5.1) Level 2 and Level 3 Terra and Aqua MODIS AOD550 time-series satellite data for period 01/01/2011- 31/12/2012 have been also used. Meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea level atmospheric pressure) have been provided by in-situ measurements. Both in-situ monitoring data as well as MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series satellite data for 2011-2012 period provided useful tools for particle matter PM2.5 and PM10 monitoring.

  10. Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan

    2012-06-01

    Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

  11. Monitoring and tracking the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols using multi-satellite aerosol optical depth retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Naeger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this study was to generate a near-real time (NRT aerosol optical depth (AOD product capable of providing a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol spatial distribution over the Pacific Ocean in order to better monitor and track the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols. Therefore, we developed a NRT product that takes advantage of observations from both low-earth orbiting and geostationary satellites. In particular, we utilize AOD products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS satellites. Then, we combine these AOD products with our own retrieval algorithms developed for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-15 and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2 to generate a NRT daily AOD composite product. We present examples of the daily AOD composite product for a case study of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution and dust aerosols in mid-March 2014. Overall, the new product successfully tracks this aerosol plume during its trans-Pacific transport to the west coast of North America. However, we identify several areas across the domain of interest from Asia to North America where the new product can encounter significant uncertainties due to the inclusion of the geostationary AOD retrievals. The uncertainties associated with geostationary AOD retrievals are expected to be minimized after the successful launch of the next-generation advanced NOAA GOES-R and recently launched JMA Himawari satellites. Observations from these advanced satellites will ultimately provide an enhanced understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols over the Pacific.

  12. The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) Instrument, the Satellite-Based Element of an Investigation to Benefit Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Maps of airborne particulate matter (PM) derived from satellite instruments, including MISR and MODIS, have provided key contributions to many health-related investigations. Although it is well established that PM exposure increases the risks of cardiovascular and respiratory disease, adverse birth outcomes, and premature deaths, our understanding of the relative toxicity of specific PM types—mixtures having different size distributions and compositions—is relatively poor. To address this, the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) investigation was proposed to NASA's third Earth Venture Instrument (EVI-3) solicitation. MAIA was selected for funding in March 2016. The satellite-based MAIA instrument is one element of the scientific investigation, which will combine WRF-Chem transport model estimates of the abundances of different aerosol types with the data acquired from Earth orbit. Geostatistical models derived from collocated surface and MAIA retrievals will be used to relate retrieved fractional column aerosol optical depths to near-surface concentrations of major PM constituents. Epidemiological analyses of geocoded birth, death, and hospital records will be used to associate exposure to PM types with adverse health outcomes. The MAIA instrument obtains its sensitivity to particle type by building upon the legacies of many satellite sensors; observing in the UV, visible, near-IR, and shortwave-IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; acquiring images at multiple angles of view; determining the degree to which the scattered light is polarized; and integrating these capabilities at moderately high spatial resolution. The instrument concept is based on the first and second generation Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imagers, AirMSPI and AirMSPI-2. MAIA incorporates a pair of pushbroom cameras on a two-axis gimbal to provide regional multiangle observations of selected, globally distributed target areas. A set of Primary Target Areas (PTAs) on five

  13. Monitoring small reservoirs in semi-arid region by satellite SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolina Papa, Maria; Mitidieri, Francesco; Amitrano, Donato; Ruello, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Gerardo; Iodice, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The work presents a novel tool for the monitoring of small reservoirs in semi-arid regions. The pilot project was developed in the Yatenga region, a Sahelian area in northern Burkina Faso. In semi-arid regions, small reservoirs are widely employed for facing seasonal variability in water availability due to the alternation of a rainy (3 months) and a dry (9 months) season. Beside their crucial importance, the small reservoirs are not appropriately monitored, they are often built for the initiative of small local communities and even basic data as their location and capacity are not available. Another major problem is linked to soil erosion due to water and consequent reservoirs' sedimentation that reduces the amount of available water and the life span of reservoirs. This lack of data prevents the implementation of strategies for the optimization of water resources management. It is therefore necessary to improve the data availability through the development of cost-effective monitoring techniques and to adapt the hydrological modeling to the limited available data. In this context the use if satellite data can highly contribute to the achievement of crucial information at low costs, high resolution in time and wide areas. In the present work, we used COSMO-SkyMed Stripmap (3m resolution) and Spotligth (1m resolution) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired under the aegis of the 2007 Italian Space Agency Announcement of Opportunity and of the HydroCIDOT project. The shorelines of the reservoirs were extracted from the series of SAR images by employing an innovative change-detection framework. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area was obtained via standard interferometry processing of images acquired at the end of the dry season, when small reservoirs are completely empty, and information about the surface usually covered by water can be retrieved. The obtained DEM and shorelines were used for bathymetry extraction of reservoirs. For the

  14. The Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment (DARE): scientific requirements for a dedicated satellite instrument to measure atmospheric aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decae, R.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Leeuw, G. de

    2004-01-01

    DARE (Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment) is a study to design an instrument for accurate remote sensing of aerosol properties from space. DARE combines useful properties of several existing instruments like TOMS, GOME, ATSR and POLDER. It has a large wavelength range, 330 to 1000 nm, to discrim

  15. Development of monitoring method of coffee leaf rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) infected area using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhama, N.; Ikeda, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Marpaung, F.; Yoshii, T.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, coffee leaf rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) has expanded its infection in Latin America, and early trimming and burning infected trees have been only effective countermeasures to prevent spreading infection. Although some researchers reported a case about the monitoring of coffee leaf rust using satellite remote sensing in 1970s, the spatial resolution was unsatisfied, and therefore, further technological development has been required. The purpose of this research is to develop effective method of discovering coffee leaf rust infected areas using satellite remote sensing. Annual changes of vegetation indices, i.e. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (MSIPI), around Cuchumatanes Mountains, Republic of Guatemala, were analyzed by Landsat 7 images. Study fields in the research were limited by the coffee farm areas based on a previous paper about on site surveys in different damage areas. As the result of the analysis, the annual change of NDVI at the coffee farm areas with damages tended to be lower than those without damages. Moreover, the decline of NDVI appear from 2008 before the damage was reported. On the other hand, the change of MSIPI had no significant difference. NDVI and MSIPI are mainly related to the amount of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the leaves respectively. This means that the infected coffee leaves turned yellow without defoliation. This situation well matches the symptom of coffee leaf rust. The research concluded that the property of infected leaves turning yellow is effective to monitoring of infection areas by satellite remote sensing.

  16. Geometric Aspects of Ground Augmentation of Satellite Networks for the Needs of Deformation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protaziuk, Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    Satellite measurements become competitive in many tasks of engineering surveys, however, in many requiring applications possibilities to apply such solutions are still limited. The possibility to widely apply satellite technologies for displacements measurements is related with new challenges; the most important of them relate to increasing requirements concerning the accuracy, reliability and continuity of results of position determination. One of the solutions is a ground augmentation of satellite network, which intention is to improve precision of positioning, ensure comparable accuracy of coordinates and reduce precision fluctuations over time. The need for augmentation of GNSS is particularly significant in situations: where the visibility of satellites is poor because of terrain obstacles, when the determined position is not precise enough or a satellites constellation does not allow for reliable positioning. Ground based source/sources of satellite signal placed at a ground, called pseudosatellites, or pseudolites were intensively investigated during the last two decades and finally were developed into groundbased, time-synchronized transceivers, that can transmit and receive a proprietary positioning signal. The paper presents geometric aspects of the ground based augmentation of the satellite networks using various quality measures of positioning geometry, which depends on access to the constellation of satellites and the conditions of the observation environment. The issue of minimizing these measures is the key problem that allows to obtain the position with high accuracy. For this purpose, the use of an error ellipsoid is proposed and compared with an error ellipse. The paper also describes the results of preliminary accuracy analysis obtained at test area and a comparison of various measures of the quality of positioning geometry.

  17. Near-real time Monitoring of the widespread winter Fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D. L.; Gautam, R.; Rizvi, S.; Singh, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The persistent and widespread winter fog impacts the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) on an annual basis, disrupting day-to-day lives of millions of people in parts of northern India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. The IGP is a densely-populated region located south of the Himalaya, in the northern parts of south Asia. During the past three decades or so, associated with growing population and energy demands, the IGP has witnessed strong upward trends in air pollution, particularly leading to poor air quality in the winter months. Co-occurring with the dense haze over the IGP, severe fog episodes persist throughout the months of December and January. Building on our recent work on satellite-based detection of fog, we have further extended the detection capability towards the development of a near-real time (NRT) fog monitoring system using satellite radiances and products. Here, we use multi-spectral radiances and aerosol/cloud retrievals from Terra/Aqua MODIS data for NRT fog monitoring over the IGP for both daytime as well as nighttime. Specifically, the nighttime fog detection algorithm employs a bi-spectral brightness temperature difference technique between two spectral channels: 3.9 μm and 11 μm. Our ongoing efforts also include extending fog detection capability in NRT to geostationary satellites, for providing continuous monitoring of the onset, evolution and spatial-temporal variation of fog, as well as the geospatial integration of surface meteorological observations of visibility, relative humidity, temperature. We anticipate that the ongoing and future development of a fog monitoring system may be of particular assistance to air and rail transportation management, as well as of general interest to the public. The outputs of fog detection algorithm and related aerosol/cloud parameters are operationally disseminated via http://fogsouthasia.com/.

  18. Monitoring volcanic activity with satellite remote sensing to reduce aviation hazard and mitigate the risk: application to the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic activity across the North Pacific (NOPAC) occurs on a daily basis and as such monitoring needs to occur on a 24 hour, 365 days a year basis. The risk to the local population and aviation traffic is too high for this not to happen. Given the size and remoteness of the NOPAC region, satellite remote sensing has become an invaluable tool to monitor the ground activity from the regions volcanoes as well as observe, detect and analyze the volcanic ash clouds that transverse across the Pacific. Here, we describe the satellite data collection, data analysis, real-time alert/alarm systems, observational database and nearly 20-year archive of both automated and manual observations of volcanic activity. We provide examples of where satellite remote sensing has detected precursory activity at volcanoes, prior to the volcanic eruption, as well as different types of eruptive behavior that can be inferred from the time series data. Additionally, we illustrate how the remote sensing data be used to detect volcanic ash in the atmosphere, with some of the pro's and con's to the method as applied to the NOPAC, and how the data can be used with other volcano monitoring techniques, such as seismic monitoring and infrasound, to provide a more complete understanding of a volcanoes behavior. We focus on several large volcanic events across the region, since our archive started in 1993, and show how the system can detect both these large scale events as well as the smaller in size but higher in frequency type events. It's all about how to reduce the risk, improve scenario planning and situational awareness and at the same time providing the best and most reliable hazard assessment from any volcanic activity.

  19. Satellite images and geodetic measurements applied to the monitoring of the Horcones Inferior Glacier, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Lenzano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the monitoring of the covered and regenerated Horcones Inferior Glacier (HIG since the implementation of a semi-permanent GNSS station (HISS on its surface during the summer seasons of 2009 and 2010. The glacier is located at 32° 41's and 69° 57'w, at the foot of the south wall of Mt. Aconcagua, Aconcagua Provincial Park, Mendoza, Argentina. The average velocities obtained from the HISS station were of 1.3 cm/d and 3.5 cm/d during the 2009 and 2010 seasons respectively. The data procured using satellite images during the last surges (1984 and 2003 gave average velocities for the HIG front of 8.7 m/d for the first event and 11.5 m/d for the second one. These results allowed getting accurate and reliable movement tendency at the terminal part of the HIG during the 1984-2010 period.El presente trabajo realiza el monitoreo del glaciar Horcones Inferior, cubierto y regenerado a partir de la implementación de una estación GNSS semi-permanente (HISS, instalada sobre su superficie durante las temporadas de verano de 2009 y 2010 respectivamente. El glaciar se encuentra ubicado a los 32° 41's y 69° 57'w, al pie de la pared sur del C° Aconcagua, en el Parque Provincial Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina. La estación HISS registró valores de velocidades medias de 1.3 cm/d y 3.5 cm/d durante las temporadas de 2009 y 2010. Se utilizaron imágenes satelitales para el seguimiento del frente del glaciar durante los últimos surges (1984 y 2003, cuyas velocidades medias fueron de 8.7 m/d para el primero y de 11.5 m/d para el segundo evento. Estos resultados permitieron obtener de manera precisa y confiable la tendencia de movimiento de la parte terminal del GHI durante el periodo 1984-2010.

  20. Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues

  1. The 2005 and 2012 major drought events in Iberia: monitoring vegetation dynamics and crop yields using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is recurrently affected by drought episodes and therefore by the adverse effects associated that range from severe water shortages to economic losses and related social impacts. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, Iberia was hit by two of the worst drought episodes ever recording in this semi-arid region (Garcia-Herrera at al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). These two drought episodes were extreme in both its magnitude and spatial extent. A tendency towards a drier Mediterranean for the period 1970-2010 in comparison with 1901-70 has been identified (Hoerling et al., 2012), reinforcing the need for a continuous monitoring of vegetation stress and reliable estimates of the drought impacts. The strong effect of water scarcity on vegetation dynamics is well documented in Mediterranean and other semi-arid regions. Despite the usual link established between the decrease of vegetation greenness and the lack of precipitation during a considerably long period, the impact on vegetation activity may be amplified by other climatic anomalies, such as high temperature, high wind, and low relative humidity. The recent availability of consistent satellite imagery covering large regions over long periods of time has progressively reinforced the role of remote sensing in environmental studies, in particular in those related to drought episodes (e.g. Gouveia et al., 2009). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation over Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2013. The entire 15-yr long period was analysed, but particular attention was devoted to the two extreme drought episodes of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. During the hydrological years of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI were observed over

  2. New methods for the retrieval of chlorophyll red fluorescence from hyperspectral satellite instruments: simulations and application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-08-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736 nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683 nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths > 712 nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric and/or solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) γ band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 γ band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps to estimate red SIF emission. Our approach is then an extension of previous approaches applied to satellite data that utilized only the filling-in of SFLs by red SIF. We conducted retrievals of red SIF using an extensive database of simulated radiances covering a wide range of conditions. Our new algorithm produces good agreement between the simulated truth and retrievals and shows the potential of the O2 bands for noise reduction in red SIF retrievals as compared with approaches that rely solely on SFL filling. Biases seen with existing satellite data, most likely

  3. All-Sky Monitoring of Variable Sources with Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Jenke, Pater; Rodi, James C.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels; Meegan, Charles A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the monitoring of variable sources with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). It reviews the use of the Earth Occultation technique, the observations of the Crab Nebula with the GBM, and the comparison with other satellite's observations. The instruments on board the four satellites indicate a decline in the Crab from 2008-2010.

  4. Long-term MAX-DOAS network observations of NO2 in Russia and Asia (MADRAS during 2007–2012: instrumentation, elucidation of climatology, and comparisons with OMI satellite observations and global model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted long-term network observations using standardized Multi-Axis Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS instruments in Russia and ASia (MADRAS from 2007 onwards. At seven locations (Cape Hedo, Fukue, and Yokosuka in Japan, Hefei in China, Gwangju in Korea, and Tomsk and Zvenigorod in Russia with different levels of pollution, we obtained 80 927 retrievals of tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (TropoNO2VCD and aerosol optical depth (AOD. In the technique, the optimal estimation of the TropoNO2VCD and its profile was performed using aerosol information derived from O4 absorbances simultaneously observed at 460–490 nm. This large data set was used to analyze NO2 climatology systematically, including temporal variations from the seasonal to the diurnal scale. The results were compared with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI satellite observations and global model simulations. Two NO2 retrievals of OMI satellite data (NASA ver. 2.1 and Dutch OMI NO2 (DOMINO ver. 2.0 generally showed close correlations with those derived from MAX-DOAS observations, but had low biases of ~50%. The bias was distinct when NO2 was abundantly present near the surface and when the AOD was high, suggesting that the aerosol shielding effect could be important, especially for clean sites where the difference could not be attributed to the spatial inhomogeneity. Except for constant biases, the satellite observations showed nearly perfect seasonal agreement with MAX-DOAS observations, suggesting that the analysis of seasonal features of the satellite data were robust. The prevailing seasonal patterns with a wintertime maximum implied the dominance of anthropogenic emissions around our sites. The presence of weekend reductions at Yokosuka and Gwangju suggested the dominance of emissions from diesel vehicles, with significant weekly cycles, whereas the absence of such a reduction at Hefei suggested the importance of other sources. A global chemical

  5. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  6. Further Evaluation of a Satellite-based Real-time Global Flood Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Adler, R. F.; Tian, Y.; Hong, Y.; Policelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    A real-time global flood monitoring system (GFMS) driven by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) rainfall was further developed with a relatively more physically based hydrological model. The performance in flood detection of this new version of the GFMS was evaluated against available flood event archives (Wu et al, 2011). This new GFMS is quantitatively evaluated in terms of flood event detection during the TRMM era (1998-2010) using a global retrospective simulation (3-hourly and 1/8 degree spatial resolution) with the TMPA 3B42V6 rainfall. Four methods were explored to define flood events from the model results, including three percentile-based statistic methods and a Log Pearson-III flood frequency curve method. The evaluation showed the GFMS detection performance improves with longer flood durations and larger affected areas. The impact of dams was detected in the validation statistics. The presence of dams tends to result in more false alarms and false alarm duration. The GFMS statistics for flood durations > 3 days and for areas without dams vary across the four identification methods, but center around a POD of ~ 0.70 and a FAR of ~ 0.65. When both flood events-based categorical verification metrics and flood duration metrics are considered, a method using the 95th percentile runoff depth plus two parameters related to variability and basin size (method 3) may be more suitable for application to our routine, real-time flood calculations. The evaluation showed the GFMS detection performance improves with longer flood durations and larger affected areas. The new GFMS (operationally available at http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/) improved not only the flood detection performance, but also in the presentation of flood evolution (start, development and recession) in the drainage network. The new GFMS is further evaluated with more quantitative flood properties including flood peak timing, peak stage, peak volumes

  7. Monitoring and tracking the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols using multi-satellite aerosol optical depth composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeger, Aaron R.; Gupta, Pawan; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to generate a near-real time (NRT) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product capable of providing a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol spatial distribution over the Pacific Ocean, in order to better monitor and track the trans-Pacific transport of aerosols. Therefore, we developed a NRT product that takes advantage of observations from both low-earth orbiting and geostationary satellites. In particular, we utilize AOD products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellites. Then, we combine these AOD products with our own retrieval algorithms developed for the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-15) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2) to generate a NRT daily AOD composite product. We present examples of the daily AOD composite product for a case study of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution and dust aerosols in mid-March 2014. Overall, the new product successfully tracks this aerosol plume during its trans-Pacific transport to the west coast of North America as the frequent geostationary observations lead to a greater coverage of cloud-free AOD retrievals equatorward of about 35° N, while the polar-orbiting satellites provide a greater coverage of AOD poleward of 35° N. However, we note several areas across the domain of interest from Asia to North America where the GOES-15 and MTSAT-2 retrieval algorithms can introduce significant uncertainties into the new product.

  8. Satellite-based forest monitoring: spatial and temporal forecast of growing index and short-wave infrared band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayr, Caroline; Gallaun, Heinz; Kleb, Ulrike; Kornberger, Birgit; Steinegger, Martin; Winter, Martin

    2016-04-18

    For detecting anomalies or interventions in the field of forest monitoring we propose an approach based on the spatial and temporal forecast of satellite time series data. For each pixel of the satellite image three different types of forecasts are provided, namely spatial, temporal and combined spatio-temporal forecast. Spatial forecast means that a clustering algorithm is used to group the time series data based on the features normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the short-wave infrared band (SWIR). For estimation of the typical temporal trajectory of the NDVI and SWIR during the vegetation period of each spatial cluster, we apply several methods of functional data analysis including functional principal component analysis, and a novel form of random regression forests with online learning (streaming) capability. The temporal forecast is carried out by means of functional time series analysis and an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The combination of the temporal forecasts, which is based on the past of the considered pixel, and spatial forecasts, which is based on highly correlated pixels within one cluster and their past, is performed by functional data analysis, and a variant of random regression forests adapted to online learning capabilities. For evaluation of the methods, the approaches are applied to a study area in Germany for monitoring forest damages caused by wind-storm, and to a study area in Spain for monitoring forest fires.

  9. Satellite Monitoring of the Surface Water and Energy Budget in the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kun; Toshio KOIKE

    2008-01-01

    The water and energy cycle in the Tibetan Plateau is an important component of Monsoon Asia and the global energy and water cycle. Using data at a CEOP (Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period)-Tibet site, this study presents a first-order evaluation on the skill of weather forecasting from GCMs and satellites in producing precipitation and radiation estimates. The satellite data, together with the satellite leaf area index, are then integrated into a land data assimilation system (LDAS-UT) to estimate the soil moisture and surface energy budget on the Plateau. The system directly assimilates the satellite microwave brightness temperature, which is strongly affected by soil moisture but not by cloud layers, into a simple biosphere model. A major feature of this system is a dual-pass assimilation technique, which can auto-calibrate model parameters in one pass and estimate the soil moisture and energy budget in the other pass. The system outputs, including soil moisture, surface temperature, surface energy partition, and the Bowen ratio, are compared with observations, land surface models, the Global Land Data Assimilation System, and four general circulation models. The results show that this satellite data-based system has a high potential for a reliable estimation of the regional surface energy budget on the Plateau.

  10. Operational challenges for astronomical instrumentation in Antarctica: results from five years of environmental monitoring of AMICA at Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Mauro; Valentini, Angelo; Tavagnacco, Daniele; Di Cianno, Amico; Straniero, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    The Antarctic Plateau is one of the best observing sites on Earth, especially for infrared astronomy. The extremely low temperatures (down to -80°C), the low pressure (around 650 mbar) and the very dry atmosphere (PWV less than 1 mm) allow for a very clear and dark sky, as well as for a very low instrumental background. These unique properties, however, make it also very difficult to install and operate astronomical instrumentation. AMICA (Antarctic Multiband Infrared CAmera) is an instrument especially designed for Antarctic operation, whose installation at Dome C has been completed in 2013. Since then it has been continuously working over the last five years, monitoring and controlling in particular the environmental and operating conditions through a dedicated application, its Environmental Control System (ECS). The recorded behavior of AMICA highlighted a set of peculiar aspects of the site that are hard to consider a priori. Although mechanical and electronic COTS components can reliably work in thermally insulated and controlled boxes, simple insulation causes their overheating because of the air dryness and rarefaction which make the heat transfer extremely inefficient. Heat removal is also a real problem when managing heavy-duty devices like cryocoolers, whose excess power removal needs to be fast and efficient. Finally, the lack of an electrical ground generates a wide variety of transient electrical and electromagnetic phenomena which often make electronic instrumentation very unstable. A list of new recommendations is therefore presented, as a guideline for future astronomical instruments operating in Antarctica.

  11. Applications of TRMM-based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation for Global Runoff Simulation: Prototyping a Global Flood Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.

  12. Implementation of Diagnostic Model for Integrated System Health Monitoring of a Habitat Instrumentation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The approach to developing this tool are the following: to use SysML to model the instrumentation system, to develop a method to seamlessly transfer data from SysML...

  13. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  14. NOAA Satellite Based Real Time Forest Fire Monitoring System for Russia and North Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpoma,Kazi A. / Kawano,Koichi / Kudoh,Jun-ichi; / カワノ,コウイチ / クドウ,ジュンイチ

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires cause severe damages to natural resources and human lives all over the world. Though a lot of forest fires occur in Russia and North Asia every year, there is no system available that monitors forest fire in real time processing. However the MODIS Land Rapid Response System provides near-real time fire observations globally, currently forest fire monitoring techniques are not efficient enough to optimally monitor this disaster. For a real-time forest fire monitor system an effici...

  15. Diurnal variation of stratospheric and lower mesospheric HOCl, ClO and HO2 at the equator: comparison of 1-D model calculations with measurements by satellite instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of HOCl and the related species ClO, HO2 and HCl measured by satellites has been compared with the results of a one-dimensional photochemical model. The study compares the data from various limb-viewing instruments with model simulations from the middle stratosphere to the lower mesosphere. Data from three sub-millimetre instruments and two infrared spectrometers are used, namely from the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR on board Odin, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on board Aura, the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES on the International Space Station, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on board ENVISAT, and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS on board SCISAT. Inter-comparison of the measurements from instruments on sun-synchronous satellites (SMR, MLS, MIPAS and measurements from solar occultation instruments (ACE-FTS is challenging since the measurements correspond to different solar zenith angles (or local times. However, using a model which covers all solar zenith angles and data from the SMILES instrument which measured at all local times over a period of several months provides the possibility to verify the model and to indirectly compare the diurnally variable species. The satellite data were averaged for latitudes of 20° S to 20° N for the SMILES observation period from November 2009 to April 2010 and were compared at three altitudes: 35, 45 and 55 km. Besides presenting the SMILES data, the study also shows a first comparison of the latest MLS data (version 3.3 of HOCl, ClO, and HO2 with other satellite observations, as well as a first evaluation of HO2 observations made by Odin/SMR. The MISU-1D model has been carefully initialised and run for conditions and locations of the observations. The diurnal cycle features for the species investigated here are generally well reproduced by the model. The satellite

  16. A method to develop mission critical data processing systems for satellite based instruments. The spinning mode case

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzarotto, Francesco; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Pacciani, Luigi; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Modern satellite based experiments are often very complex real-time systems, composed by flight and ground segments, that have challenging resource related constraints, in terms of size, weight, power, requirements for real-time response, fault tolerance, and specialized input/output hardware-software, and they must be certified to high levels of assurance. Hardware-software data processing systems have to be responsive to system degradation and to changes in the data acquisition modes, and actions have to be taken to change the organization of the mission operations. A big research & develop effort in a team composed by scientists and technologists can lead to produce software systems able to optimize the hardware to reach very high levels of performance or to pull degraded hardware to maintain satisfactory features. We'll show real-life examples describing a system, processing the data of a X-Ray detector on satellite-based mission in spinning mode.

  17. Modelling Angular Dependencies in Land Surface Temperatures From the SEVIRI Instrument onboard the Geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Pinheiro, AC; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    Satellite-based estimates of land surface temperature (LST) are widely applied as an input to models. A model output is often very sensitive to error in the input data, and high-quality inputs are therefore essential. One of the main sources of errors in LST estimates is the dependence on vegetat......Satellite-based estimates of land surface temperature (LST) are widely applied as an input to models. A model output is often very sensitive to error in the input data, and high-quality inputs are therefore essential. One of the main sources of errors in LST estimates is the dependence...... on vegetation structure and viewing and illumination geometry. Despite this, these effects are not considered in current operational LST products from neither polar-orbiting nor geostationary satellites. In this paper, we simulate the angular dependence that can be expected when estimating LST with the viewing...... by different land covers. The results show that the sun-target-sensor geometry plays a significant role in the estimated temperature, with variations strictly due to the angular configuration of more than ±3°C in some cases. On the continental scale, the average error is small except in hot-spot conditions...

  18. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring syatem for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    The variations in the local climate, environment and altitude as well as fast snow cover build up and rapid changes in snow characteristics with passage of winter are major contributing factors to make snow avalanches as one of the threatening problems in the North West Himalaya. For sustainable development of these mountainous areas, a number of multi-purpose projects are being planned. In recent times, the danger of natural and man-made hazards is increasing and the availability of water is fluctuating; and thus, making the project implementation difficult. To overcome these difficulties to a great extent, an integrated monitoring system is required for short term as well as long term assessment of snowcover variation and avalanche hazard. In order to monitor the spatial extent of snow cover, satellite data can be employed on an operational basis. Spectral settings as well as the temporal and spatial resolution make time series NOAA-AVHHR and MODIS sensor data well suited for operational snow cover monitoring at regional or continental scale; Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS, WiFS and AWiFS sensor data suitable for studies at larger scale; and microwave data for extraction of snow wetness information.. In the present paper, an attempt is made to study the trends of changes in snow characteristics and related avalanche phenomenon using time series multi-temporal, multi-resolution satellite data with respect to different ranges in Western Himalaya, namely Pir Panjal range, Great Himalaya range, Zanskar range, Ladakh range and Great Karakoram range. The operational processing of these data included geocoding, calibration, terrain normalization, classification, statistical post classification and derivation of snow cover statistics. The calibration and normalization of imageries allowed the application of physically based classification thresholds possible for albedo, brightness temperature and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) parameters

  19. Integrated snow and avalanche monitoring system for Indian Himalaya using multi-temporal satellite imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Mani, Sneh; Mathur, P.

    The variations in the local climate, environment and altitude as well as fast snow cover build up and rapid changes in snow characteristics with passage of winter are major contributing factors to make snow avalanches as one of the threatening problems in the North West Himalaya. For sustainable development of these mountainous areas, a number of multi-purpose projects are being planned. In recent times, the danger of natural and man-made hazards is increasing and the availability of water is fluctuating; and thus, making the project implementation difficult. To overcome these difficulties to a great extent, an integrated monitoring system is required for short term as well as long term assessment of snowcover variation and avalanche hazard. In order to monitor the spatial extent of snow cover, satellite data can be employed on an operational basis. Spectral settings as well as the temporal and spatial resolution make time series NOAA-AVHHR and MODIS sensor data well suited for operational snow cover monitoring at regional or continental scale; Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) LISS, WiFS and AWiFS sensor data suitable for studies at larger scale; and microwave data for extraction of snow wetness information.. In the present paper, an attempt is made to study the trends of changes in snow characteristics and related avalanche phenomenon using time series multi-temporal, multi-resolution satellite data with respect to different ranges in Western Himalaya, namely Pir Panjal range, Great Himalaya range, Zanskar range, Ladakh range and Great Karakoram range. The operational processing of these data included geocoding, calibration, terrain normalization, classification, statistical post classification and derivation of snow cover statistics. The calibration and normalization of imageries allowed the application of physically based classification thresholds possible for albedo, brightness temperature and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) parameters

  20. Analysing the advantages of high temporal resolution geostationary MSG SEVIRI data compared to Polar operational environmental satellite data for land surface monitoring in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Anyamba, Assaf; Huber Gharib, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth’s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which oft...

  1. HYDROGRAV - Hydrological model calibration and terrestrial water storage monitoring from GRACE gravimetry and satellite altimetry, First results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O.B.; Krogh, P.E.; Michailovsky, C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration and terre......Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration...... and terrestrial water storage monitoring. Merging remote sensing data from GRACE with other remote sensing data like satellite altimetry and also ground based observations are important to hydrological model calibration and water balance monitoring of large regions and can serve as either supplement or as vital...... change from 2002 to 2008 along with in-situ gravity time-lapse observations and radar altimetry monitoring of surface water for the southern Africa river basins will be presented....

  2. Monitoring Western Siberian Wetlands from satellite observations and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, E. A.; Kouraev, A. V.; Kolmakova, M. V.; Bazanov, V. A.; Skugarev, A. A.; Berezin, A. E.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Zemtsov, V. A.; Mognard, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    Western Siberia is a large region with mostly flat relief. Most of its territory comprises the watershed of the Ob' river, and much smaller part in the north - watersheds of Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers. Flat relief significantly affects the hydrographical network, creating a multitude of interconnected natural objects - large and small rivers streams, large floodplains, lakes, bogs etc. The region is also abundant with lakes, mainly small ones with surface area less than 1 km2 and depths of 2-5 m. Flooded areas and bogs also act as a buffer zone, providing a dampening "sponge" effect on the water redistribution within the river system. Large area covered by rivers and wetlands results in high rate of evaporation compared to any other large boreal watershed. Contrasting processes are occurring in the Southern and Northern parts of the Western Siberian Plain. In the south, bogs are expanding in the taiga zone and there is progressive swamping which leads to forest death. These bogs act as a carbon sink due to carbon sequestration in their peat layers. Among the bogs of this part of Western Siberia there is the Great Vasiugan Bog - world's largest peatland with a total area of 6.78 million hectares. Bogs of Vasyugan have appeared about 10 000 years ago and since then are constantly growing. 75% of the actual surface of the Great Vasyugan Bog have appeared during the last 500 years. The situation in the northern part (affected by permafrost) is different. The bogs there are reducing their surface and the forest-tundra regions are being subjected to thermokarst activity and colonisation of bogs by trees. Two contrast processes are observed here - a) increase of lake surface due to melting of lakes' coasts, and b) decrease of surface area or disappearance of lakes due to water drain downstream the hydrological network. We combine in situ observations with satellite remote sensing to monitor hydrological regime of the Western Siberian wetlands. Radar altimetry (TOPEX

  3. Monitoring global climate change using SLR data from LARES and other geodetic satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, Antonio; Paris, Claudio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Sindoni, Giampiero; Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), i.e. the spin axis of the Earth, is influenced by the mass redistribution inside and on the surface of the Earth. On the Earth surface, global ice melting, sea level change and atmospheric circulation are the prime contributors. Recent studies have unraveled the majority of the mysteries behind the Chandler wobble, the annual motion and the secular motion of the pole. The differences from the motion of a pole for a rigid Earth is indeed due to the mass redistribution and transfer of angular momentum among the atmosphere, the oceans and solid Earth. The technique of laser ranging and the use of laser ranged satellites such as LARES along with other techniques such Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) allow to measure the EOP with accuracies at the level of ~200 μas which correspond to few millimeters at the Earth's surface, while the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data can reach an accuracy even below 100 μas. At these unprecedented high levels of accuracy, even tiny anomalous behavior in EOP can be observed and thus correlated to global environmental changes such as ice melting on Greenland and the polar caps, and extreme events that involve strong ocean-atmosphere coupling interactions such as the El Niño. The contribution of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data such as from the LARES mission and similar satellites to this area is outlined in this paper.

  4. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data. PMID:27025192

  5. Miniature and low cost fiber bragg grating interrogator for structural monitoring in nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, P.M.; Hagen, R.A.J.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Lugtenburg, J.; Maniscalco, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed Fiber Optic measurement system, consisting of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and an FBG interrogator. The development of the measuring system is part of the PiezoElectric Assisted Smart Satellite Structure (PEASSS) project, which was initiated at the beg

  6. Can modelled harbour porpoise distribution based on satellite tracking be validated from static acoustic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lonnie; Riget, Frank Farsø; Sveegaard, Signe

    Species distribution models are increasingly being used to model habitat suitability from positioning records. Here we use satellite locations from 15 tagged harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the western Baltic Sea to model suitable habitats using the species distribution model MaxEnt (Max...

  7. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-03-30

    The Earth's surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data.

  8. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tote, C.; Patricio, D.; Boogaard, H.L.; Wijngaart, van der R.; Tarnavsky, E.; Funk, C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and

  9. Coastal flood inundation monitoring with Satellite C-band and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm- and tidal-related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band SAR (PALSAR) (L-band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C-band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006-2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR- and ASAR-based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference-scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR-based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR-based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).

  10. A cyber-physical management system for delivering and monitoring surgical instruments in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Ting; Jacob, Mithun; Akingba, George; Wachs, Juan P

    2013-08-01

    The standard practice in the operating room (OR) is having a surgical technician deliver surgical instruments to the surgeon quickly and inexpensively, as required. This human "in the loop" system may result in mistakes (eg, missing information, ambiguity of instructions, and delays). Errors can be reduced or eliminated by integrating information technology (IT) and cybernetics into the OR. Gesture and voice automatic acquisition, processing, and interpretation allow interaction with these new systems without disturbing the normal flow of surgery. This article describes the development of a cyber-physical management system (CPS), including a robotic scrub nurse, to support surgeons by passing surgical instruments during surgery as required and recording counts of surgical instruments into a personal health record (PHR). The robot used responds to hand signals and voice messages detected through sophisticated computer vision and data mining techniques. The CPS was tested during a mock surgery in the OR. The in situ experiment showed that the robot recognized hand gestures reliably (with an accuracy of 97%), it can retrieve instruments as close as 25 mm, and the total delivery time was less than 3 s on average. This online health tool allows the exchange of clinical and surgical information to electronic medical record-based and PHR-based applications among different hospitals, regardless of the style viewer. The CPS has the potential to be adopted in the OR to handle surgical instruments and track them in a safe and accurate manner, releasing the human scrub tech from these tasks.

  11. Monitoring Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Western Pacific Using Satellite Remote Sensing Integrated with Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, C. M.; Phinn, S. R.; Lyons, M. B.; Kovacs, E.; Saunders, M. I.; Leon, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) are typically found in highly dynamic environments where the magnitude and types of physical and biological processes controlling their distribution, diversity and function changes dramatically. Recent advances in the types of satellite image data and the length of their archives that are available globally, coupled with new techniques for extracting environmental information from these data sets has enabled significant advances to be made in our ability to map and monitor coral and SAV environments. Object Based Image Analysis techniques are one of the most significant advances in information extraction techniques for processing images to deliver environmental information at multiple spatial scales. This poster demonstrates OBIA applied to high spatial resolution satellite image data to map and monitor coral and SAV communities across a variety of environments in the Western Pacific that vary in their extent, biological composition, forcing physical factors and location. High spatial resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird, Ikonos and Worldview2) were acquired coincident with field surveys on each reef to collect georeferenced benthic photo transects, over various areas in the Western Pacific. Base line maps were created, from Roviana Lagoon Solomon island (600 km2), Bikini Atoll Marshall Island (800 Km2), Lizard Island, Australia (30 km2) and time series maps for geomorphic and benthic communities were collected for Heron Reef, Australia (24 km2) and Eastern Banks area of Moreton Bay, Australia (200 km2). The satellite image data were corrected for radiometric and atmospheric distortions to at-surface reflectance. Georeferenced benthic photos were acquired by divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, analysed for benthic cover composition, and used for calibration and validation purposes. Hierarchical mapping from: reef/non-reef (1000's - 10000's m); reef type (100's - 1000's m); 'geomorphic zone' (10's - 100's m); to

  12. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  13. Timely monitoring of Asian Migratory locust habitats in the Amudarya delta, Uzbekistan using time series of satellite remote sensing vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Waldner, François; Latchininsky, Alexandre; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Bolkart, Maximilian; Colditz, René R

    2016-12-01

    The Asian Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratoria L.) is a pest that continuously threatens crops in the Amudarya River delta near the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Its development coincides with the growing period of its main food plant, a tall reed grass (Phragmites australis), which represents the predominant vegetation in the delta and which cover vast areas of the former Aral Sea, which is desiccating since the 1960s. Current locust survey methods and control practices would tremendously benefit from accurate and timely spatially explicit information on the potential locust habitat distribution. To that aim, satellite observation from the MODIS Terra/Aqua satellites and in-situ observations were combined to monitor potential locust habitats according to their corresponding risk of infestations along the growing season. A Random Forest (RF) algorithm was applied for classifying time series of MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from 2003 to 2014 at an 8-day interval. Based on an independent ground truth data set, classification accuracies of reeds posing a medium or high risk of locust infestation exceeded 89% on average. For the 12-year period covered in this study, an average of 7504 km(2) (28% of the observed area) was flagged as potential locust habitat and 5% represents a permanent high risk of locust infestation. Results are instrumental for predicting potential locust outbreaks and developing well-targeted management plans. The method offers positive perspectives for locust management and treatment of infested sites because it is able to deliver risk maps in near real time, with an accuracy of 80% in April-May which coincides with both locust hatching and the first control surveys. Such maps could help in rapid decision-making regarding control interventions against the initial locust congregations, and thus the efficiency of survey teams and the chemical treatments could be increased, thus potentially reducing environmental pollution

  14. Monitoring the Health and Safety of the ACIS Instrument On-Board the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Virani, S N; De Pasquale, J M; Plucinsky, P P; Virani, Shanil N.; Ford, Peter G.; Pasquale, Joseph M. De; Plucinsky, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), NASA's latest ``Great Observatory'', was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km x 10,000 km, and has a period of approximately 63.5 hours (~2.65 days). Communication with the CXO nominally consists of 1-hour contacts spaced 8-hours apart. Thus, once a communication link has been established, it is very important that the health and safety status of the scientific instruments as well as the Observatory itself be determined as quickly as possible. In this paper, we focus exclusively on the automated health and safety monitoring scripts developed for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) to use during those 1-hour contacts. ACIS is one of the two focal plane instruments on-board the CXO. We present an overview of the real-time ACIS Engineering Data Web Page and the alert schemes developed for monitoring the instrument status during each communication contact. A suite of ...

  15. Long term changes of tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during the time period of October 2004 to December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Rabbia; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Urban air pollution is causing huge number of diseases and deaths annually. Nitrogen dioxide is an important component of urban air pollution and a precursor to particulate matter, ground level ozone, and acid rain. The satellite based measurements of nitrogen dioxide from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) can help in analyzing spatio temporal variability in ground level concentrations within a large urban area. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) over Pakistan are presented from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that the winter season is having high nitrogen dioxide levels as compared to summers. The increase can be attributed to the anthropogenic activities especially thermal power generation and traffic count. Punjab is one of the major provinces with high nitrogen dioxide levels followed by Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Six hotspots have been examined in the present study such as Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi, Faisalabad, Okara and Multan. Emissions of nitrogen compounds from thermal power plants and transportation sector represent a significant fraction of the total nitrogen dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS: an online service for near real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brenot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases in the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, http://sacs.aeronomie.be, which is a free online service initiated by ESA for the near real-time (NRT satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from two UV-visible (OMI, GOME-2 and two infrared (AIRS, IASI spectrometers. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic plumes, running since April 2012, is based on the detection of SO2 and is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. The system shows successful results with 95% of our notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity.

  17. Analysis of multi-temporal landsat satellite images for monitoring land surface temperature of municipal solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Mahendrarajah, Prathees; Shaker, Ahmed; Faisal, Kamil; Luong, Robin; Al-Ahmad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This studypresents a remote sensing application of using time series Landsat satellite images for monitoring the Trail Road and Nepean municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Currently, the Trail Road landfill is in operation; however, during the 1960s and 1980s, the city relied heavily on the Nepean landfill. More than 400 Landsat satellite images were acquired from the US Geological Survey (USGS) data archive between 1984 and 2011. Atmospheric correction was conducted on the Landsat images in order to derive the landfill sites' land surface temperature (LST). The findings unveil that the average LST of the landfill was always higher than the immediate surrounding vegetation and air temperature by 4 to 10 °C and 5 to 11.5 °C, respectively. During the summer, higher differences of LST between the landfill and its immediate surrounding vegetation were apparent, while minima were mostly found in fall. Furthermore, there was no significant temperature difference between the Nepean landfill (closed) and the Trail Road landfill (active) from 1984 to 2007. Nevertheless, the LST of the Trail Road landfill was much higher than the Nepean by 15 to 20 °C after 2007. This is mainly due to the construction and dumping activities (which were found to be active within the past few years) associated with the expansion of the Trail Road landfill. The study demonstrates that the use of the Landsat data archive can provide additional and viable information for the aid of MSW disposal site monitoring.

  18. Satellite Monitoring of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Water Bodies of the Dnieper and Don River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. J.; Berdnikov, S.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    We present and discuss here the results of our work using satellite data to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration in reservoirs of the Dnieper River and the Sea of Azov, which are typical Case II waters, i.e., turbid and productive. Our objective was two-folded - (i) to test the potential of remote sensing as a tool for near-real-time monitoring of these water bodies, and (ii) to feed the results of our work into a larger project that involved the use of satellite technology to investigate and understand the effects on the bio-optical characteristics of these water bodies due to changes in the land use and land cover in the surrounding regions. MODIS and MERIS images were used. We tested the performance of a three-band model and a two- band model that use the reflectance at the red and NIR spectral bands for the retrieval of chlorophyll-a concentration. The higher spatial resolution and the availability of a spectral band at around 708 nm with the MERIS data offered great promise for the three-band model. We tested the applicability of two standard MODIS and MERIS algorithms for Case II waters. We compared results from several different atmospheric correction procedures available for MODIS and MERIS data. No one particular procedure was consistently and systematically better than the rest. Nevertheless, even in the absence of a perfect atmospheric correction procedure, both the three-band and the two-band models showed promising results when compared to in-situ chlorophyll-a measurements. The challenges and limitations involved in satellite remote monitoring of turbid productive waters are discussed.